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Encyclopedia > Sedative

A sedative is a substance that depresses the central nervous system (CNS), resulting in calmness, relaxation, reduction of anxiety, sleepiness, and slowed breathing, as well as slurred speech, staggering gait, poor judgment, and slow, uncertain reflexes. Sedatives may be referred to as tranquilizers, depressants, anxiolytics, soporifics, sleeping pills, downers, or sedative-hypnotics. Sedatives can be abused to produce an overly-calming effect (alcohol being the classic and most common sedating drug). At high doses or when they are abused, many of these drugs can cause unconsciousness (see hypnotic) and even death. A diagram showing the CNS: 1. ... Anxiety is a physiological state characterized by cognitive, somatic, emotional, and behavioral components (Seligman, Walker & Rosenhan, 2001). ... For other uses, see Sleep (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Reflexive (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Unconsciousness is the absence of consciousness. ... Hypnotic drugs are a class of drugs that induce sleep, used in the treatment of severe insomnia. ... For other uses, see Death (disambiguation), Dead (disambiguation), or Death (band). ...

Contents

Types of sedatives

Prozac, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, Venlafaxine An antidepressant, is a psychiatric medication or other substance (nutrient or herb) used for alleviating depression or dysthymia (milder depression). ... Mirtazapine is an antidepressant introduced by Organon International in 1996 used for the treatment of mild to severe depression. ... Trazodone (trade names Desyrel, Molipaxin, Trittico, Thombran, Trialodine) is a psychoactive compound with sedative, anxiolytic, and antidepressant properties. ... Barbituric acid, the basic structure of all barbiturates Barbiturates are drugs that act as central nervous system depressants, and by virtue of this they produce a wide spectrum of effects, from mild sedation to anesthesia. ... Amobarbital (formerly known as amylobarbitone) is a drug that is a barbiturate derivative. ... Pentobarbital is a short acting barbiturate that is available as both a free acid and a sodium salt, the former of which is only slightly soluble in water and ethanol. ... Secobarbital (marketed by Eli Lilly and Company under the brand names Seconal® and Tuinal) is a barbiturate derivative drug. ... Alprazolam 2 mg tablets The benzodiazepines (pronounced , or benzos for short) are a class of psychoactive drugs considered minor tranquilizers with varying hypnotic, sedative, anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, muscle relaxant and amnesic properties, which are mediated by slowing down the central nervous system. ... Alprazolam, also known under the trade names Xanax and Niravam, is a short-acting drug in the benzodiazepine class used to treat severe anxiety disorders and as an adjunctive treatment for anxiety associated with clinical depression. ... Bromazepam (marketed under brand names Calmepam, Compendium, Creosedin, Durazanil, Lectopam, Lexaurin, Lexilium, Lexomil, Lexotan, Lexotanil, Normoc, Somalium)[1] is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative. ... Clonazepam (marketed by Roche under the trade-names Klonopin in the United States and Rivotril in Europe, South America, Canada, India, and Australia) is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative. ... Diazepam (IPA: ), first marketed as Valium by Hoffmann-La Roche) is a benzodiazepine derivative drug. ... Estazolam (ProSom®) is a benzodiazepine commonly prescribed for short-term treatment of insomnia. ... Flunitrazepam (IPA: ; is marketed by Roche under the trade name Rohypnol. ... Lorazepam is a benzodiazepine tranquilizer with short to medium duration of action. ... Nitrazepam (marketed under the trade names Mogadon®, Nitredon®, Nilandron®) is a powerful hypnotic drug, which is a benzodiazepine derivative. ... Oxazepam (marketed under brand names Alepam, Murelax, Oxascand, Serax, Serepax, Seresta, Sobril) is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative. ... Triazolam (Halcion®, Novodorm®, Songar®) belongs to benzodiazepine group of drugs. ... Temazepam (marketed under brand names Restoril®, Normison®, Planum®, Tenox® and Temaze®) is a benzodiazepine derivative with powerful hypnotic properties. ... Typical antipsychotics (sometimes referred to as conventional antipsychotics or conventional neuroleptics) are a class of antipsychotic drugs first developed in the 1950s and used to treat psychosis (in particular, schizophrenia), and are generally being replaced by atypical antipsychotic drugs. ... Chlorpromazine was the first antipsychotic drug, used during the 1950s and 1960s. ... Fluphenazineis a typical antipsychoticdrug. ... Haloperidol (sold under the tradenames Aloperidin, Bioperidolo, Brotopon, Dozic, Duraperidol (Germany), Einalon S, Eukystol, Haldol, Halosten, Keselan, Linton, Peluces, Serenace, Serenase, Sigaperidol) is a conventional, or typical, butyrophenone antipsychotic drug. ... Loxapine (sold as Loxapac®, Loxitane®) is a typical antipsychotic medication, used primarily in the treatment of schizophrenia. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Prochlorperazine is a highly potent neuroleptic, which is 10 to 20-times more potent than chlorpromazine. ... Thiothixene is an antipsychotic drug of the conventional or typical antipsychotics class. ... Trifluoperazine (sold as Eskazinyl, Eskazine, Jatroneural, Modalina, Stelazine, Terfluzine, Trifluoperaz) is a typical antipsychotic drug of the phenothiazine group. ... The atypical antipsychotics (also known as second generation antipsychotics) are a class of prescription medications used to treat psychiatric conditions. ... Clozapine (sold as Clozaril®, Leponex®, Fazaclo®) was the first of the atypical antipsychotics to be developed. ... Olanzapine (oh-LAN-za-peen, sold as Zyprexa®, Zyprexa Zydis®, or in combination with fluoxetine, as Symbyax®) was the third atypical antipsychotic to gain approval by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and has become one of the most commonly used atypical antipsychotics. ... Quetiapine (IPA: , kwe-TYE-a-peen), marketed by AstraZeneca with the brand name Seroquel, belongs to a series of neuroleptics known as atypical antipsychotics, which have, over the last two decades, become increasingly popular alternatives to typical antipsychotics, such as haloperidol. ... Risperdal tablets Risperidone (pronounced Ris-PER-ǐ-dōn and sold under the trade name Risperdal in the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, Portugal and several other countries, Risperdal or Ridal in New Zealand, Rispolept in Eastern Europe, and Belivon, or Rispen elsewhere) is an atypical antipsychotic medication developed by... Ziprasidone (marketed as Geodon, Zeldox) was the fifth atypical antipsychotic to gain FDA approval (February 2001). ... An antihistamine is a drug which serves to reduce or eliminate effects mediated by histamine, an endogenous chemical mediator released during allergic reactions, through action at the histamine receptor. ... Clemastine is an over-the-counter antihistamine sold in the United States under the name Tavist. ... This article or section may be confusing or unclear for some readers, and should be edited to rectify this. ... Diphenhydramine hydrochloride (trade name Benadryl, as produced by J&J, or Dimedrol outside the U.S. & Canada. ... Niaprazine (Nopron) is a piperazine derivative drug which acts as a sedating antihistamine. ... Tripellenamine (Pyribenzamine) is a first generation antihistamine. ... Binomial name L. Synonyms Physalis somnifera Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera), also known as Indian ginseng, Winter cherry, Ajagandha, Kanaje Hindi and Samm Al Ferakh, is a plant in Solanaceae or nightshade family. ... Species See text. ... Binomial name G.Forst. ... Mandrake root redirects here. ... Cannabis, also known as marijuana[1] or ganja (Hindi: गांजा),[2] is a psychoactive product of the plant Cannabis sativa L. subsp. ... Binomial name L. & Maillefer Valerian (Valeriana officinalis, Valerianaceae) is a hardy perennial flowering plant, with heads of sweetly scented pink or white flowers. ... For other uses, see Solvent (disambiguation). ... Chloral hydrate, also known as trichloroacetaldehyde monohydrate, 2,2,2-trichloro-1,1-ethanediol, and under the tradenames Aquachloral, Novo-Chlorhydrate, Somnos, Noctec, and Somnote, is a sedative and hypnotic drug as well as a chemical reagent and precursor. ... This article is about the chemical compound. ... Ethyl alcohol, also known as ethanol or grain alcohol, is a flammable, colorless chemical compound, one of the alcohols that is most often found in alcoholic beverages. ... Alcoholic beverages An alcoholic beverage is a drink containing ethanol, commonly known as alcohol, although in chemistry the definition of alcohol includes many other compounds. ... GHB redirects here. ... For the song Chloroform by Spoon, see A Series of Sneaks Chloroform, also known as trichloromethane and methyl trichloride, is a chemical compound with formula CHCl3. ... Hypnotic drugs are a class of drugs that induce sleep, used in the treatment of severe insomnia. ... Eszopiclone, marketed by Sepracorand marco under the brand-name Lunesta®, is a nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic agent (viz. ... Zaleplon (marketed under the brand names Sonata and Starnoc) is a sedative/hypnotic, mainly used for insomnia. ... Zolpidem is a prescription short-acting nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic that potentiates gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), an inhibitory neurotransmitter, by binding to gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors. ... Zopiclone (trade names: Imovaneâ„¢ and Zimovaneâ„¢) is a novel hypnotic agent used in the treatment of insomnia. ... Cyclobenzaprine is a skeletal muscle relaxant and a central nervous system (CNS) depressant. ... Ethchlorvynol is a sedative and hypnotic drug. ... Glutethimide is a hypnotic sedative that was introduced in 1954 as a safe alternative to barbiturates to treat insomnia. ... Ketamine is a dissociative anesthetic for use in human and veterinary medicine developed by Parke-Davis (1962). ... Methaqualone tablets and capsules. ... Methyprylon is a sedative of the piperidinedione derivative family. ... Ramelteon, marketed as Rozerem by Takeda Pharmaceuticals North America, is the first in a new class of sleep agents that selectively binds to the MT1 and MT2 receptors in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), versus binding to GABA-A receptors, such as with drugs like Ambien CR, Lunesta, and Sonata. ...

Therapeutic use

Doctors and nurses often administer sedatives to patients in order to dull the patient's anxiety related to painful or anxiety-provoking procedures. Although sedatives do not relieve pain in themselves, they can be a useful adjunct to analgesics in preparing patients for surgery, and are commonly given to patients before they are anaesthetized, or before other highly uncomfortable and invasive procedures like cardiac catheterization , colonoscopy or MRI. They increase tractability and compliance of children or troublesome or demanding patients. This article is about the occupation. ... An analgesic (colloquially known as a painkiller) is any member of the diverse group of drugs used to relieve pain (achieve analgesia). ... “Surgeon” redirects here. ... Anesthesia (AE), also anaesthesia (BE), is the process of blocking the perception of pain and other sensations. ... Catheter disassembled In medicine, a catheter is a tube that a health professional may insert into part of the body. ... Colonoscopy is the minimally invasive endoscopic examination of the large colon and the distal part of the small bowel with a CCD camera or a fiber optic camera on a flexible tube passed through the anus. ... The mri are a fictional alien species in the Faded Sun Trilogy of C.J. Cherryh. ...


Patients in intensive care units are almost always sedated (unless they are unconscious from their condition anyway). Intensive care medicine or critical care medicine is concerned with providing greater than ordinary medical care and observation to people in a critical or unstable condition. ...


Sedative dependence

All sedatives can cause physiological and psychological dependence when taken regularly over a period of time, even at therapeutic doses. Dependent users may get symptoms ranging from restlessness, insomnia to convulsions and death. When users become psychologically dependent, they feel as if they need the drug to function, although there is no physical dependence. In both types of dependences, finding and using the sedative becomes the focus in life. Both physical and psychological dependence can be treated with therapy. (see Sedative Dependence). This article is about the sleeping disorder. ...


Abuse and overdoses

All sedatives can be abused, but barbiturates and benzodiazepines are responsible for most of the problems with sedative abuse due to their widespread "recreational" or non-medical use. People who have difficulty dealing with stress, anxiety or sleeplessness may overuse or become dependent on sedatives. Heroin users take them either to supplement their drug or to substitute for it. Stimulant users frequently take sedatives to calm excessive jitteriness. Others take sedatives recreationally to relax and forget their worries. Barbiturate overdose is a factor in nearly one-third of all reported drug-related deaths. These include suicides and accidental drug poisonings. Accidental deaths sometimes occur when a drowsy, confused user repeats doses, or when sedatives are taken with alcohol. In the U.S., in 1998, a total of 70,982 sedative exposures were reported to U.S. poison control centers, of which 2310 (3.2%) resulted in major toxicity and 89 (0.1%) resulted in death. About half of all the people admitted to emergency rooms in the U.S. as a result of nonmedical use of sedatives have a legitimate prescription for the drug, but have taken an excessive dose or combined it with alcohol or other drugs. For other uses, see Heroin (disambiguation). ... Stimulants are drugs that temporarily increase alertness and wakefulness. ... For other uses, see Suicide (disambiguation). ... Alcoholic beverages are drinks containing ethanol, popularly called alcohol. ... For other uses, see Poison (disambiguation). ... // Toxic and Intoxicated redirect here – toxic has other uses, which can be found at Toxicity (disambiguation); for the state of being intoxicated by alcohol see Drunkenness. ...


See also Other non-therapeutical use. Barbituric acid, the basic structure of all barbiturates Barbiturates are drugs that act as central nervous system depressants, and by virtue of this they produce a wide spectrum of effects, from mild sedation to anesthesia. ...


Sedatives and alcohol

Sedatives and alcohol are sometimes combined recreationally or carelessly. Since alcohol is a strong depressant that slows brain function and depresses respiration, the two substances compound each other's actions synergistically and this combination can prove fatal. The human brain In animals, the brain (enkephale) (Greek for in the skull), is the control center of the central nervous system, responsible for behavior. ...


Lookalikes

Lookalikes, or pills made to mimic the appearance and the effects of authentic sedatives, are sold on the street. Lookalikes may contain over-the-counter drugs, such as antihistamines, that cause drowsiness. Like any other drug that is illicitly manufactured and sold, their composition and effects cannot be predicted.


Sedatives and amnesia

Sedation can sometimes leave the patient with long-term or short-term amnesia. Lorazepam is one such pharmacological agent that can cause anterograde amnesia. Intensive care unit patients who receive higher doses over longer periods of time, typically via IV drip, are more likely to experience such side effects. For other uses, see Amnesia (disambiguation). ... Lorazepam is a benzodiazepine tranquilizer with short to medium duration of action. ... Anterograde amnesia is a form of amnesia, or memory loss, in which new events are not transferred from short-term memory to long-term memory. ... ICU room An Intensive Care Unit (ICU) or Critical Care Unit (CCU) is a specialised department in a hospital that provides intensive care medicine. ... Intravenous therapy or IV therapy is the giving of liquid substances directly into a vein. ...


Sedative drugs and crime

The sedatives GHB, Flunitrazepam (Rohypnol®), and to a lesser extent, temazepam (Restoril®), and midazolam (Versed®)[1] are known for their use as date rape drugs (also called a Mickey), administered to unsuspecting patrons in bars or guests at parties to reduce the intended victims' defenses. GHB redirects here. ... Flunitrazepam (IPA: ; is marketed by Roche under the trade name Rohypnol. ... Temazepam (marketed under brand names Restoril®, Normison®, Planum®, Tenox® and Temaze®) is a benzodiazepine derivative with powerful hypnotic properties. ... Midazolam (marketed under brand names Versed®, Hypnovel®, Dormicum® and Dormonid®, pronounced ) is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative. ... The title Date Rape is a very general term which has come to represent some very different situations. ... A Mickey Finn (or simply Mickey) is a slang term for a drink laced with a drug (especially chloral hydrate) given to someone without their knowledge in order to incapacitate them. ...


These drugs are also used for robbing people, indeed statistical overviews suggest that the use of sedative-spiked drinks for robbing people is actually much more common than their use for rape. 1 For the 1967 film, see Robbery (film). ...


Cases of criminals taking rohypnol themselves before they commit crimes have also been reported, as the loss of inhibitions from the drug may increase their confidence to commit the offence, and the amnesia produced by the drug makes it difficult for police to interrogate them if they are caught. For other uses, see Amnesia (disambiguation). ...


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