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Encyclopedia > Secularism in Turkey
Turkey

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Secularism in Turkey was introduced with the Turkish Constitution of 1924 and later the Atatürk's Reforms set the administrative and political requirements to create a modern, democratic, secular state aligned with the Kemalist ideology. After thirteen years of its introduction, the laïcité (February 5 1937) was explicitly stated in the second article of the Turkish constitution. The current Turkish constitution neither recognizes an official religion nor promotes any. This includes Islam, which at least nominally more than 99% of citizens subscribe to. Turkey's "laïcité" does not call for a strict separation of church and state, but describes the state's stance as one of "active neutrality." Turkey's actions related with religion is carefully analyzed and evaluated through the Diyanet İşleri Başkanlığı (English: Presidency of Religious Affairs). The duties of the Presidency of Religious Affairs are "to execute the works concerning the beliefs, worship, and ethics of Islam, enlighten the public about their religion, and administer the sacred worshipping places".[1] Politics of Turkey takes place in a framework of a secular parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Prime Minister of Turkey is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ... Presidential flag of Turkey. ... There have been ten Presidents of the Republic of Turkey since its inception. ... Abdullah Gül (born October 29, 1950) is the 11th President of the Republic of Turkey, serving in that office since 28 August 2007. ... This is a chronological list of every government formed by the Prime Ministers of the Republic of Turkey. ... ErdoÄŸan redirects here. ... The cabinet (Council of Ministers) of Turkey comprises the heads of the major ministries. ... is the 241st day of the year (242nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... The Grand National Assembly (Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi in Turkish) is the unicameral parliament of Turkey which carries out legislative functions. ... Köksal Toptan (1943, Rize) is a Turkish politician and served as government minister in three cabinets. ... Political parties in Turkey lists political parties in Turkey. ... Elections in Turkey gives information on election and election results in Turkey. ... The 2000 Turkish presidential election consisted of a first round election on 27 April 2000 followed by a second round vote on 1 May and a third on 5 May. ... The 2007 Turkish presidential election refers to two attempts to elect the countrys 11th president, to succeed Ahmet Necdet Sezer. ... Turkeys 8th general election was held on October 14, 1973 to select 450 MPs for the new term of TBMM. This election marked the comeback of CHP, long years after they lost the power to right wing liberal conservatism. ... Turkeys 9th general election was held on June 5, 1977. ... Turkeys 10th general election was held on November 6, 1983. ... Turkeys 11th general election was held on October 29, 1987. ... Turkeys 12th general election was held on Sunday 20 October 1991. ... Turkeys 13th general election was held on Sunday 24 December 1995, triggered after the newly-reformed Republican Peoples Party (CHP) withdrew from a coalition with the True Path Party (DYP). ... Turkeys 14th general election was held on Sunday 18 April 1999, and was the first election in Turkish history to combine local, council and parliamentary elections on the same day. ... Turkeys 15th general election was held two years early on Sunday 3 November 2002, following the collapse of the DSP-MHP-ANAP coalition led by Bülent Ecevit. ... A woman casting her vote Votes were cast in ballot boxes such as this one Votes are cast in schools such as this one Turkeys 16th general election was held on July 22, 2007,[1] and resulted in a resounding victory for the incumbent Justice and Development Party. ... Foreign relations of the Republic of Turkey are primarily with the Western world and its neigboring countries. ... One of a number of posters created to promote the Marshall Plan in Europe, featuring Turkey Turkeys formal application to join the European Community—the organization that has since developed into the European Union—was made on April 14th, 1987. ... The National Security Council (Milli Güvenlik Kurulu (MGK) in Turkish) is a powerful body that unites the top civilian and military leaders, and issues ‘recommendations’ to the government upon all matters vaguely defined as touching on the security of the state of the Turkish Republic. ... The basics of the legal system in the Republic of Turkey are laid out in Articles 138 to 160 of the 1982 Constitution. ... It has been suggested that Human rights of Kurdish people in Turkey be merged into this article or section. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Provinces of Turkey are called iller in Turkish (singular is il, see Turkish alphabet for capitalization of i). ... The provinces of Turkey are divided into 923 districts (ilçeler; sing. ... Below each region you will find associated Cities with the region. ... Information on politics by country is available for every country, including both de jure and de facto independent states, inhabited dependent territories, as well as areas of special sovereignty. ... Turkish Constitution of 1924 (Ottoman Turkish: TeÅŸkilât-ı Esasiye Kanunu; Turkish: 1924 Türk Anayasası) was the second constitution to be ratified by the Grand National Assembly of Turkey (Turkish: Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi (TBMM)) and the first one to be adopted after the proclamation of... Atatürks Revolutions (Turkish: Atatürk Devrimleri or Atatürk Ä°nkılapları) were a series of significant political, legal, cultural, social and economic revolutions that were implemented to transform the young Republic of Turkey into a modern, democratic and secular nation-state. ... Look up modern in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Democracy (disambiguation) and Democratic Party. ... It has been suggested that Laïcité be merged into this article or section. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Motto of the French republic on the tympanum of a church, in Aups (Var département) which was installed after the 1905 law on the Separation of the State and the Church. ... is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Constitution of the Republic of Turkey The Constitution of Turkey was enacted in 1982 during military dictatorship, replacing the previous Turkish constitution enacted in 1961. ... A state religion (also called an established church or state church) is a religious body or creed officially endorsed by the state. ... Constantines Conversion, depicting the conversion of Emperor Constantine the Great to Christianity, by Peter Paul Rubens. ... The Diyanet Ä°ÅŸleri Bakanlığı (en: Presidency of Religious Affairs) is the highest, islamic, religious authority in Turkey. ...

Contents

History

The history of secularism in Turkey extends to Tanzimat reforms of Ottoman Empire. The second peak in secularism occurred during the Second constitutional era. The current from is achieved by Atatürk's Reforms. The Tanzimat (Ottoman Turkish: تنظيمات), meaning reorganization of the Ottoman Empire, was a period of reformation that began in 1839 and ended with the First Constitutional Era in 1876. ... Public Demonstration The Second Constitutional Era in the Ottoman Empire began with the 1908 Young Turk Revolution, shortly after which Sultan Abdul Hamid II restored the 1876 Constitution suspended since 1878. ... Atatürks Revolutions (Turkish: Atatürk Devrimleri or Atatürk Ä°nkılapları) were a series of significant political, legal, cultural, social and economic revolutions that were implemented to transform the young Republic of Turkey into a modern, democratic and secular nation-state. ...


Ottoman Empire

See also: Ottoman Caliphate and State and Religion (Ottoman Empire)

The establishing structure (Ruling institution of the Ottoman Empire) of the Ottoman empire (13th century) was an Islamic State in which the head of the Ottoman state was the Sultan. The social system was organized around millet. Millet structure allowed a great degree of religious, cultural and ethnic continuity to non-Muslim populations across the subdivisions of the Ottoman Empire and at the same time it permitted their incorporation into the Ottoman administrative, economic and political system.[2] The Ottoman-appointed governor collected taxes and provided security, while the local religious or cultural matters were left to the regional communities to decide. On the other hand, the sultans were Muslims and the laws that bound them were based on the Sharia, the body of Islamic law, as well as various cultural customs. The Sultan, beginning in 1516, was also a Caliph, the leader of all the Sunni Muslims in the world. By the turn of the 19th century the Ottoman ruling elite recognized the need to restructure the legislative, military and judiciary systems to cope with their new political rivals in Europe. When the millet system started to lose its efficiency due to the rise of nationalism within its borders, the Ottoman Empire explored new ways of governing its territory composed of diverse populations. The Ottoman Empire, at its height, covered a significant portion of the Mediterranean World, including portions of three continents. ... Mehmed II and his agreement (ﻋﻬﺪنامه ahdnâme) to protect Bosnian Christians During the first centuries of control over Balkans by the Ottoman Empire, the Christian population, and especially the Orthodox Christians (who were not under the protection of a Great Power of that time, as were the Catholics,[1][2... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Ottoman Empire, 1481-1683 The Ottoman Empire existed from 1299 to 1922 and, at the height of its power in the 16th century, it included nearly 20 million km² in Anatolia (Asia Minor), the Middle East, parts of North Africa, and much of south-eastern Europe, and the Caucasus. ... Sharia (Arabic: transliteration: ) is the body of Islamic religious law. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... For main article see: Caliphate The Caliph (pronounced khaleef in Arabic) is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Sharia. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ... With the rise of national states and their histories, it is very hard to find reliable sources on the Ottoman concept of a nation. ...


Sultan Selim III founded the first secular military schools by establishing the new military unit, Nizam-ı Cedid, as early as 1792. However the last century (19th century) of the Ottoman Empire had many far reaching reforms. These reforms peaked with the tanzimat which was the initial reform era of the Ottoman empire. After the tanzimat, rules, such as those relating to the equalized status of non-Muslim citizens, the establishment of a parliament, as well as the codification of the constitution of the empire and the rights of ottoman subjects were established. The First World War brought about the fall of the Ottoman Empire and the subsequent partitioning of the Ottoman Empire by the victorious Allies. Therefore, the Republic of Turkey was actually a nation-state built as a result of an empire lost. Sultan Selim III Selim III (December 24, 1761 – July 28/29, 1808) was a sultan of the Ottoman Empire (1789–1807). ... The Nizam-ı Cedid (from Arabic Niẓām jadÄ«d via Persian Nizām-e jadÄ«d - New Order) was a series of reforms carried out by the Ottoman Empire sultan Selim III during the late eighteenth century in a drive to catch up militarily and politically with the Western Powers. ... The Tanzimat (Ottoman Turkish: تنظيمات), meaning reorganization of the Ottoman Empire, was a period of reformation that began in 1839 and ended with the First Constitutional Era in 1876. ... This article is about dhimmi in the context of Islamic law. ... The period of the Ottoman Empires final dissolution, the Second Constitutional Era (ايکنجى مشروطيت دورى Ä°kinci MeÅŸrûtiyyet Devri), began with the 1908 Young Turk Revolution, shortly after which Sultan Abdülhamid II restored the constitutional monarchy, with reduced powers for the imperial dynasty, and a series of elections resulted in... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... Fall of the Ottoman Empire summarizes why the empire could not avert the events that lead to its dissolution. ... Partitioning of the Ottoman Empire is direct consequence of the World War I with the Ottomans involvement in the Middle Eastern theatre. ... The Republic of Turkey is a country located in Southwest Asia with a small part of its territory (3%) in southeastern Europe. ...


Reforms of Republic

Main article: Atatürk's Reforms

During the establishment of Republic, there were two sections of the elite group at the helm of the discussions for the future; which they had the firsthand experience of Ottoman Reforms which were implemented beginning from the last quarter of the 19th century. These were the Islamist reformists and Westerners.[2] They shared a similar goal, the modernization of the new state. There were many basic goals which were common to both the groups. The founder of the modern Turkish Republic Mustafa Kemal Atatürk's achievement was to amplify this common ground and put the country on a fast track of reforms which is now known as Atatürk's Reforms. Atatürks Revolutions (Turkish: Atatürk Devrimleri or Atatürk Ä°nkılapları) were a series of significant political, legal, cultural, social and economic revolutions that were implemented to transform the young Republic of Turkey into a modern, democratic and secular nation-state. ... “Mustafa Kemal” redirects here. ... Atatürks Revolutions (Turkish: Atatürk Devrimleri or Atatürk Ä°nkılapları) were a series of significant political, legal, cultural, social and economic revolutions that were implemented to transform the young Republic of Turkey into a modern, democratic and secular nation-state. ...


The first act was to give by will to the Turkish nation the right to exercise popular sovereignty via representative democracy. Prior to declaring the new Republic, the Turkish Grand National Assembly abolished the constitutional monarchy on November 1, 1922. The Turkish Grand National Assembly then moved to replace the extant Islamic law structure with the laws it had passed during the Turkish War of Independence, beginning in 1919. The modernization of the Law had already begun at the point that the project was undertaken in earnest. A milestone in this process was the passage of the Turkish Constitution of 1921. Upon the establishment of the Republic on October 29, 1923, the institution of the Caliphate remained, but the passage of a new constitution in 1924 effectively abolished this title held by the Ottoman Sultanate since 1517. With the negation of the Caliphate the final vestiges of Islamic Law are regarded as having disappeared from the Turkish landscape.[3] The Caliphate's powers within Turkey were transferred to the National Assembly and the title has since been inactive. While very unlikely, the Turkish Republic does in theory still retain the right to reinstate the Caliphate, should it ever elect to do so. Popular sovereignty or the sovereignty of the people is the belief that the legitimacy of the state is created by the will or consent of its people, who are the source of all political power. ... Representative democracy is a form of government founded on the principles of popular sovereignty by the peoples representatives. ... The Grand National Assembly (Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi in Turkish) is the unicameral parliament of Turkey which carries out legislative functions. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A constitutional monarchy or limited monarchy is a form of government established under a constitutional system which acknowledges an elected or hereditary monarch as head of state, as opposed to an absolute monarchy, where the monarch is not... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Grand National Assembly (Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi in Turkish) is the unicameral parliament of Turkey which carries out legislative functions. ... Combatants   Turkish Revolutionaries United Kingdom Greece France Italy Armenia Ottoman Empire Georgia Commanders Mustafa Kemal Ä°smet Ä°nönü Kazım Karabekir Ali Fuat Cebesoy Fevzi Çakmak George Milne Henri Gouraud Papoulas Georgios Hatzianestis Drastamat Kanayan Movses Silikyan Süleyman Åžefik Pasha The Turkish War of Independence (Turkish: KurtuluÅŸ Savaşı or... The first Grand National Assembly of Turkey, Ankara, 1920 Turkish Constitution of 1921 (Ottoman Turkish: TeÅŸkilât-ı Esasiye Kanunu; Turkish: 1921 Türk Anayasası) was the first Constitution to be ratified by the Grand National Assembly of Turkey (Turkish: Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi (TBMM)). It was... A caliphate (from the Arabic خلافة or khilāfah), is the Islamic form of government representing the political unity and leadership of the Muslim world. ... Turkish Constitution of 1924 (Ottoman Turkish: TeÅŸkilât-ı Esasiye Kanunu; Turkish: 1924 Türk Anayasası) was the second constitution to be ratified by the Grand National Assembly of Turkey (Turkish: Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi (TBMM)) and the first one to be adopted after the proclamation of...


Following quickly upon these developments, many social reforms were undertaken. Many of these reforms affected every aspect of Turkish life, moving to erase the legacy of dominance long held by religion and tradition. The Unification of education, installation of a secular education system, and the closure of many religious orders was happened on March 3, 1924. this extended to closure of religious convents and dervish lodges on November 30, 1925. These reforms included the extension to women of voting rights in 1931 and the right to elected office in December 5, 1934. The inclusion of reference to laïcité into the constitution was achieved by an amendment on February 5, 1937, is seen as the final act in the project of instituting complete separation between governmental and religious affairs in Turkey. is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 339th day of the year (340th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Motto of the French republic on the tympanum of a church, in Aups (Var département) which was installed after the 1905 law on the Separation of the State and the Church. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Constitution of the Republic of Turkey The Constitution of Turkey was enacted in 1982 during military dictatorship, replacing the previous Turkish constitution enacted in 1961. ... is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Constitutional principles

See also: Constitution of Turkey

The Constitution asserts that Turkey is a secular and democratic republic, deriving its sovereignty from the people. The sovereignty rests with the Turkish Nation, who delegates its exercise to an elected unicameral parliament, the Turkish Grand National Assembly. Moreover, Article 4: declares the immovability the founding principles of the Republic defined in the first three Articles: Wikisource has original text related to this article: Constitution of the Republic of Turkey The current Constitution of Turkey, ratified in 1982, establishes the organization of the government of the Republic of Turkey and sets out the principles and rules of the states conduct along with its responsibilities towards... This article concerns secularity, that is, being secular, in various senses. ... For other uses, see Democracy (disambiguation) and Democratic Party. ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Sovereignty is the exclusive right to have control over an area of governance, people, or oneself. ... The Grand National Assembly (Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi in Turkish) is the unicameral parliament of Turkey which carries out legislative functions. ...

  1. "laïcité, social equality, equality before law"
  2. "the Republican form of government"
  3. "the indivisibility of the Republic and of the Turkish Nation",

Constitution bans any proposals for the modification of these articles. Each of these concepts which were distributed in the three articles of the constitution can not be achieved without the other two concepts. The constitution requires a central administration which would lose its meaning (effectiveness, coverage, etc) if the system is not based on laïcité, social equality, and equality before law. Vice versa, if the Republic differentiate itself based on social, religious differences, administration can not be equal to the population when the administration is central. The system which tried to be established in the constitution sets out to found a unitary nation-state based on the principles of secular democracy. Motto of the French republic on the tympanum of a church, in Aups (Var département) which was installed after the 1905 law on the Separation of the State and the Church. ... Equal Rights redirects here. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Central Administration is the leading or preseding body or group of people, and the highest administrative department who oversee all lower departments of an organization. ...


Secularism in everyday life

Critics argue that the Turkish state's support for and regulation of Sunni religious institutions--including mandatory religious education for children deemed by the state to be Muslims--amount to de facto violations of secularism. (This cooperation arose during the 1960s, as the result of an anti-leftist alliance between secular and religious conservatives.) Conversely, it is also argue that Turkish secularism unduly restrict individual religious freedom. Debate arises over the issue of to what degree religious observance ought to be restricted to the private sphere--most famously in connection with the issues of head-scarves and religious-based political parties (cf. Welfare Party, AKP). The issue of independent religious seminary is also a matter of controversy in regard to Turkey's assession to European Union. Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... The private sphere is the complement or opposite of the public sphere. ... Islamic dress, notably that worn by women, has become a prominent symbol of the presence of Islam in western Europe. ... A clock displaying the emblem of the Welfare Party. ... The Justice and Development Party (Turkish: Adalet ve Kalkinma Partisi or AKP) is a Turkish political party. ...


Turkey today is now seeing an increase in religious identity by the people. Women are now choosing to wear the headscarves to show their beliefs and identity of their religion. The headscarf is banned in government, public, universities and schools, however the current government of the AKP party has now amended the constitution, to allow the headscarf to be worn. However, this has not been successful since the court has upheld the ban by its own governance without confirmation with the government. All of this controversial surrounding of the headscarf debate, shows the impact of the people living in Turkey. More than 60% of women wear the headscarf, and more than 60% of people in Turkey believe religion is very important. But the secular establishment of Turkey blocks access to religious freedom of speech for the majority of the Turkish people, because of the secular elite which includes the Turkish Army - who they believe they are the defenders of the secular state of Turkey, provoke controversy among the people, which resulted a win for the Islamic-rooted AKP party during the past elections. The Turkish Army (Turkish: Türk Kara Kuvvetleri) is a branch of the Turkish Armed Forces. ... The Justice and Development Party (Turkish: or AK Parti, or AKP[1]) is a Turkish political party that describes itself as centre-right and Islamist. ...


Impact on Education

Main article: Education in Turkey

The Turkish Education System mandates 8 years of primary education between the ages of 6 and 14, and in 2001 the enrollment of children in this age range was nearly 100%. Three or more years of secondary education are available in public, open, and vocational high schools. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

Impact on politics

See also: Politics of Turkey
Abdullah Gül is the first president of Turkey whose wife wears a headscarf as part of hijab.

The Turkish Constitution recognizes freedom of religion for individuals whereas the religious communities are placed under the protection of state, but the constitution explicitly states that they cannot become involved in the political process (by forming a religious party for instance) and no party can claim that it represents a form of religious belief. Nevertheless, religious sensibilities are generally represented through conservative parties. Politics of Turkey takes place in a framework of a secular parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Prime Minister of Turkey is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (568x872, 62 KB) Summary Abdullah Gül (*1950), foreign minister of Turkey, in Brasília on January 19th, 2006. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (568x872, 62 KB) Summary Abdullah Gül (*1950), foreign minister of Turkey, in Brasília on January 19th, 2006. ... Abdullah Gül (born October 29, 1950) is the 11th President of the Republic of Turkey, serving in that office since 28 August 2007. ... “Higab” redirects here. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Constitution of the Republic of Turkey The Constitution of Turkey was enacted in 1982 during military dictatorship, replacing the previous Turkish constitution enacted in 1961. ... The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen guarantees freedom of religion, as long as religious activities do not infringe on public order in ways detrimental to society. ...


In recent history, two parties have been ordered to close (Welfare Party (Turkish: Refah Partisi) in 1998 and Virtue Party (Turkish: Fazilet Partisi) in 2001) by the Constitutional Court for Islamist activities and attempts to "redefine the secular nature of the republic". The first party to be closed for suspected fundamentalist activities was the Progressive Republican Party on June 3, 1925. A clock displaying the emblem of the Welfare Party. ... Fazilet Partisi Virtue Party (Turkish: Fazilet Partisi) was a political party in Turkey. ... // Overview Part Four, Section Two of the Turkish Constitution has established the Constitutional Court of Turkey that statutes on the conformity of laws and decrees to the Constitution, and it can be seized by the President of the Republic, the government, the members of Parliament or any judge before whom... (Turkish: Terakkiperver Cumhuriyet Fırkası) Progressive Republican Party (Turkish: Terakkiperver Cumhuriyet Fırkası) is a non-existing Islamic Turkish political party banned by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk. ...


The actual governing party in Turkey, the conservative Justice and Development Party (Turkish: Adalet ve Kalkınma Partisi or AKP) has often been accused of following an Islamist agenda. The Justice and Development Party (Turkish: or AK Parti, or AKP[1]) is a Turkish political party that describes itself as centre-right and Islamist. ...


Issues relating to Turkey's secularism were discussed in the lead up to the 2007 presidential elections, in which the ruling party chose a candidate with Islamic connections, Abdullah Gül, for the first time in its secular republic. While some in Turkey have expressed concern that the nomination could represent a move away from Turkey's secularist traditions, including particularly Turkey's priority on equality between the sexes, others have suggested that the conservative party has effectively promoted modernization while reaching out to more traditional and religious elements in Turkish society.[4][5] On July 22, 2007 it was reported that the more religiously conservative ruling party won a larger than expected electoral victory in the parliamentary elections.[6] The 2007 Turkish presidential election refers to two attempts to elect the countrys 11th president, to succeed Ahmet Necdet Sezer. ... Abdullah Gül (born October 29, 1950) is the 11th President of the Republic of Turkey, serving in that office since 28 August 2007. ...


Impact on individuals

The constitutional rule that prohibits discrimination on religious grounds is taken very seriously. Turkey, as a secular country, prohibits by law the wearing of religious headcover and theo-political symbolic garments for both genders in government buildings, schools, and universities;[7] a law upheld by the Grand Chamber of the European Court of Human Rights as "legitimate" on November 10, 2005 in Leyla Şahin v. Turkey.[8] European Court of Human Rights building in Strasbourg The European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR), often referred to informally as the Strasbourg Court, was created to systematise the hearing of human rights complaints against States Parties to the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, adopted by...


The strict application of secularism in Turkey has been credited for enabling women to have access to greater opportunities, compared to countries with a greater influence of religion in public affairs, in matters of education, employment, wealth as well as political, social and cultural freedoms.[9]


Also paradoxical with the Turkish secularism is the fact that Identity document cards of Turkish citizens include the specification of the card holder's religion.[10] This declaration was perceived for some as representing a form of the state's surveillance over its citizens' religious choices. However, in the application there is no case brought forward involving the identity document being a part in any discussions. An identity document, or also called a piece of identification (ID), is a document designed to verify aspects of a persons identity. ...


Impact on groups

The mainstream Hanafite school of Sunni Islam is largely organized by the state, through the Diyanet İşleri Başkanlığı (Religious Affairs Directorate), which supervises all mosques and imams who work in them. Groups which have expressed dissatisfaction with this situation include a variety of extra-governmental Sunni / Hanafi groups (such as the Nurci movement), whose interpretation of Islam tends to be more activist; and the non-Sunni Alevilik, whose members tend to resent supporting the Sunni establishment with their tax monies (the Turkish state does not subsidize Alevi religious activities). Map showing some Core areas of maliki, Shafi, Hanbalis and Hanafi Muslims in Africa, Asia and Europe. ... Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam. ... The Diyanet Ä°ÅŸleri Bakanlığı (en: Presidency of Religious Affairs) is the highest, islamic, religious authority in Turkey. ... The Masjid al-Haram in Mecca as it exists today A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ... Said Nursî (1878[1], village of Nurs, Bitlis Province - March 23, 1960, Urfa) was an Islamic thinker from Turkey of Kurdish origin and the author of the Risale-i Nur Collection[2], a Quranic commentary exceeding five thousand pages. ... Alevis (Turkish: Aleviler Kurdish: ) are a religious, sub-ethnic and cultural community in Turkey, numbering in the millions. ...


Opposition to Secularism

Turkey's preservation and maintenance of its secular identity has been a profound issue and source of tension. Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan has spoken out in favor of limited Islamism and against the active restrictions, instituted by Kemal Atatürk on wearing the Islamic-style head scarves in government offices and schools. The Republic Protests (Turkish: Cumhuriyet Mitingleri) were a series of peaceful mass rallies that took place in Turkey in the spring of 2007 in support of the Kemalist ideals of state secularism.[11] ErdoÄŸan redirects here. ... Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (1881–10 November 1938), until 1934 Gazi Mustafa Kemal Pasha, Turkish army officer and revolutionist statesman, was the founder and the first President of the Republic of Turkey. ... “Higab” redirects here. ... The April 14, 2007 protest in Ankara crowding the Ceremonial Plaza of Anıtkabir, the mausoleum of the founder of modern Turkey, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk Wikinews has news related to: Pro-secular Turks rally against Erdogans possible presidential candidacy Turkeys governing party names Abdullah Gül as... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... It has been suggested that Laïcité be merged into this article or section. ...


See also

The Sultan Ahmed Mosque, Istanbul, built in 1616 The Suleiman Mosque (Süleymaniye Camii) in Istanbul was built on the order of sultan Suleiman the Magnificent by the great Ottoman architect Sinan in 1557 The region comprising modern Turkey has a long and rich Islamic tradition stretching back to the...

Notes

  1. ^ : T.C. Diyanet İşleri Başkanliği :
  2. ^ a b “Secularism: The Turkish Experience" http://www.secularisminturkey.net/docs/Secular-Transcript.pdf
  3. ^ Ottoman_Caliphate#Abolishment
  4. ^ In Turkey, a Sign of a Rising Islamic Middle Class Sabrina Tavernise. New York Times, April 25, 2007.
  5. ^ "Turkey 'must have secular leader'", BBC News, April 24, 2007.
  6. ^ Ruling Party in Turkey Wins Broad Victory Sabrina Tavernise. New York Times, July 23, 2007.
  7. ^ British Broadcasting Corporation (2006-11-17). The Islamic veil across Europe. BBC News. Retrieved on 2006-12-13.
  8. ^ European Court of Human Rights (2005-11-10). Leyla Şahin v. Turkey. ECHR. Retrieved on 2006-11-30.
  9. ^ Çarkoǧlu, Ali (2004). Religion and Politics in Turkey. Routledge (UK). ISBN 0-4153-4831-5. 
  10. ^ See the official website of the Turkish Interior Ministry, General Directorate of Population and Citizenship Matters website on State ID cards
  11. ^ Secular rally targets Turkish PM. BBC. Retrieved on 2007-04-15.

The Ottoman Empire, at its height, covered a significant portion of the Mediterranean World, including portions of three continents. ... This article is an overview article about the Crown chartered British Broadcasting Corporation formed in 1927. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... European Court of Human Rights building in Strasbourg The European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR), often referred to informally as the Strasbourg Court, was created to systematise the hearing of human rights complaints against States Parties to the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, adopted by... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Çarkoǧlu, Ali (2004). Religion and Politics in Turkey. Routledge (UK). ISBN 0-4153-4831-5. 
Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkey. ... This is a list of Turkey-related articles. ... // Güllü Agop Tarık Akan - Actor Azra Akın - Model, Miss World 2002 Barış Akarsu Filiz Akın – Actress Fatih Akın, film director Bülent Akinci, actor Metin Akpınar – Actor Derya Alabora‎ – Actress Mazhar Alanson Sadri Alışık Emre AltuÄŸ Müjde Ar – Actress Thomas Arslan, film... This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ... For other uses of Turkish, see Turkish (disambiguation). ... Mustafa Kemal Atatürk Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (1881–November 10, 1938), Turkish army officer, revolutionary, and anti-imperialist statesman, was the founder and first President of the Republic of Turkey. ... For other uses, see Ä°nönü. Mustafa Ä°smet Ä°nönü (September 24, 1884–December 25, 1973) was a Turkish soldier, statesman and the second President of Turkey. ... Mustafa Bülent Ecevit (May 28, 1925–November 5, 2006; pronounced ), was a Turkish politician, poet, writer and journalist. ... Turkey is a successor state of the Ottoman Empire, a multi-ethnic empire consolidated by gradual conquest during medieval and early modern times (1300-1700). ... A graphical timeline is available here: History of the Republic of Turkey This is a timeline of Turkish history. ... Sultanate controlling virtually all of Anatolia Capital Ä°znik Konya Political structure Empire Sultans  - 1060-1077 Kutalmish  - 1303-1308 Mesud II History  - Division from the Great Seljuk Empire 1077  - Internal struggles 1307 The Seljuk Sultanate of Rum was the Seljuk Turkish sultanate that ruled in direct lineage from 1077 to 1307... Anatolian beyliks (also Turkmen beyliks, Tevâif-i mülûk (in Ottoman Turkish) were small Turkish emirates or muslim principalities (beylik) governed by tribal beys, which were founded in several locations of Anatolia as of the end of the 13th century. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... In the late 13th century the Seljuq empire had collapsed and Anatolia was divided into many small states. ... This article is in need of attention. ... The Battle of Vienna of 1683 was the real point at which the Empire began its decline. ... Graphical timeline Decline of the Ottoman Empire covers the military and political events between 1828 to 1908. ... This article describes the process of dissolution of the Ottoman Empire, in particular its final years in the early part of the 20th century. ... History of Turkey redirects here. ... Combatants   Turkish Revolutionaries United Kingdom Greece France Italy Armenia Ottoman Empire Georgia Commanders Mustafa Kemal Ä°smet Ä°nönü Kazım Karabekir Ali Fuat Cebesoy Fevzi Çakmak George Milne Henri Gouraud Papoulas Georgios Hatzianestis Drastamat Kanayan Movses Silikyan Süleyman Åžefik Pasha The Turkish War of Independence (Turkish: KurtuluÅŸ Savaşı or... Atatürk, modern Turkeys founder and first President The history of modern Turkey begins with the foundation of the republic on October 29, 1923 (the Republic was declared on January 20, 1921), with Mustafa Kemal (Atatürk) as its first president. ... // Over the centuries, Turkey has had many constitutions and can be caracterized by the steady establishment of a nation-state, democratization and internationalisation. ... At the time of the collapse of the Ottoman Empire (see Economy of the Ottoman Empire) during World War I, the Turkish economy was underdeveloped: agriculture depended on outmoded techniques and poor-quality livestock, and the few factories producing basic products such as sugar and flour were under foreign control. ... Politics of Turkey takes place in a framework of a secular parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Prime Minister of Turkey is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ... Presidential flag of Turkey. ... This is a chronological list of every government formed by the Prime Ministers of the Republic of Turkey. ... The Grand National Assembly (Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi in Turkish) is the unicameral parliament of Turkey which carries out legislative functions. ... The cabinet (Council of Ministers) of Turkey comprises the heads of the major ministries. ... Political parties in Turkey lists political parties in Turkey. ... Elections in Turkey gives information on election and election results in Turkey. ... Foreign relations of the Republic of Turkey refers to the policies pursued by the Turkish government in its external relations with the international community. ... // Overview Part Four, Section Two of the Turkish Constitution has established the Constitutional Court of Turkey that statutes on the conformity of laws and decrees to the Constitution, and it can be seized by the President of the Republic, the government, the members of Parliament or any judge before whom... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... — Other Turkish Topics Culture - Education Geography - History - Politics Turkey Portal Tourism in Turkey is focused largely on a variety of archaeological and historical sites, and on seaside resorts along its Aegean and Mediterranean coasts. ... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ... Below each region you will find associated Cities with the region. ... Provinces of Turkey are called iller in Turkish (singular is il, see Turkish alphabet for capitalization of i). ... The provinces of Turkey are divided into 923 districts (ilçeler; sing. ... This is a list of cities in Turkey by population (according to the 2000 census). ... The main Environmental issues in Turkey water pollution from the dumping of chemicals and detergents; air pollution, particularly in urban areas; deforestation; and the corperation {| class=wikitable |- Insert non-formatted text here |} the potential for spills from the 5,000 oil- and gas-carrying ships that pass through the Bosporus... Map showing the Turkish Riviera The Turkish Riviera (also known as The Turquoise Coast) is a popular term used to define an area of southwest Turkey encompassing Antalya, MuÄŸla and to a lesser extent Aydın and Ä°zmir provinces. ... // The TCDD - Türkiye Devlet Demir Yolları (Turkish Republic Railways) possess 8,607 km of 1435 mm gauge, of which 1,524 km are electrified (1999). ... Other Turkish Topics Culture - Education Geography - History - Politics Turkey Portal This is a list of companies from Turkey. ... As of September 2006, the size of the banking industry is 88. ... On 31 December 1995 the customs union between Turkey and the European Union came into effect. ... Other Turkish Topics Culture - Education Geography - History - Politics Turkey Portal The Southeastern Anatolia Project (Turkish: GüneydoÄŸu Anadolu Projesi, GAP) is a multi-sector integrated regional development project based on the concept of sustainable development for the 9 million people[1] living in a region. ... TRY banknotes and coins The Turkish new lira is the current currency of Turkey and of the de facto state Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus. ... As of 2005, the population of Turkey stood at 72. ... Turkish ( IPA ) is a language spoken by 65–73 million people worldwide, making it the most commonly spoken of the Turkic languages. ... The term Turkish diaspora refers to the estimated population of Turkish people in the world living outside of Turkey. ... It has been suggested that Human rights of Kurdish people in Turkey be merged into this article or section. ... Traditional Turkish coffee The culture of Turkey is a diverse one, derived from various elements of the Ottoman Empire, European, and the Islamic traditions. ... Turkey has a vibrant free press with a large selection of media with different viewpoints. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Turkish art is a term referring to the visual arts and plastic arts (often including architecture, woodwork, textiles and ceramics) originating from the geographical area of what is present day Turkey. ... Turkish cuisine inherited its Ottoman heritage which could be described as a fusion and refinement of Turkic, Arabic, Greek, Armenian and Persian cuisines. ... Turkish dances include Halay, Zeybek, Horon, and Karsilama. ... More than 100 festivals are held in Turkey every year. ... Ahi Evren Ahriyan Al Basti Alaturbi Ancomah Bardi Cazi Germakoçi Karakoncolos Karakura Kolot Tavara // Breaking vine In Trabzon region folklore (ÇarşıbaÅŸi town) For testing whether the new bride is propitious, when she comes to the house, she is asked to break a vine from three points and... The official holidays in Turkey are established by the Act 2429 of March 19, 1981 that replaced the Act 2739 of May 27, 1935. ... A page from the Dîvân-ı Fuzûlî, the collected poems of the 16th-century Ottoman poet Fuzûlî Turkish literature (Turkish: Türk edebiyatı or Türk yazını) is the collection of written and oral texts composed in the Turkish language, either in its Ottoman form or... Genres: Alternative - Classical - Dance - Folk - Hip hop - Jazz - Military - Ottoman - Opera - Pop - Religious - Rock Awards Kral MV, MÃœ-YAP, MGD Charts Billboard Charts Music Festivals Istanbul International Music Festival, Istanbul International Jazz Festival, Izmir European Jazz Festival, Aspendos International Opera and Ballet Festival Media Rolling Stone (Türkiye), MTV (T... Turkish theatre can be observed under two main titles: Traditional Turkish theatre and Westernized Turkish theatre. ... This is a list of radio stations in Turkey. ... List of television stations in Turkey // Actionmax (Digiturk) Akdeniz TV Alo Arkadas (Chat) Animal Planet Turkey Aquavision ART (Avrasya Radyo Televizyonu) ASTV [1] ATV (owned by Turgay Ciner, who also owns the newspaper, Sabah) ATV Avrupa BJK TV[2] (Channel of BeÅŸiktaÅŸ J.K. sports club) Çay TV (Regional... Logo used by several Turkish institutions Coat of Arms of Turkey designed in 1925, never approved The Republic of Turkey is one of the states that do not have an official coat of arms. ... The flag of Turkey consists of a white crescent moon and a star on a red background. ... The Ä°stiklâl Marşı (i. ...

 
 

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