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Encyclopedia > Secular Games

Secular games (Lodi Sæculares, originally Terentini). These were celebrated at Rome for three days and nights to mark the commencement of a new saeculum or generation. City motto: Senatus Populusque Romanus – SPQR (The Senate and the People of Rome) Founded 21 April 753 BC mythical, 1st millennium BC Region Latium Mayor Walter Veltroni (Democratici di Sinistra) Area  - City Proper  1290 km² Population  - City (2004)  - Metropolitan  - Density (city proper) 2,546,807 almost 4,000,000 1...


It is important to note that there was a saeculum civile, the length of which was definitely fixed at Too years, and a saeculum naturale, which, under Greek and Etruscan influence, came to be accepted by the quindecimviri as 110 years. According to tradition, the secular games had their origin in certain sacrificial rites of the gens Valeria, which were performed at the Terentum, a volcanic cleft in the Campus Martius. See: Etruscan civilization Etruscan language Etruscan alphabet Etruscan mythology This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Campus Martius, or Field of Mars, was a publicly owned area of ancient Rome about 2 km² (600 acres) in extent. ...


According to the Roman antiquarians themselves, they were derived from the Etruscans, who, at the end of a mean period of too years (as representing the longest human life in a generation), presented to the chthonian deities an expiatory offering on behalf of the coming generation. The first definitely attested celebration of the games took place in 249 BC, on which occasion a vow was made that they should be repeated every hundredth year (their name being also changed to Sæculares), a regulation which seems to have been immediately disregarded, for they were next held in 146 (not 149, although the authorities are not unanimous); in 49 the civil wars prevented any celebration. Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC - 240s BC - 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC Years: 254 BC 253 BC 252 BC 251 BC 250 BC - 249 BC - 248 BC 247 BC... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC - 140s BC - 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC Years: 151 BC 150 BC 149 BC 148 BC 147 BC - 146 BC - 145 BC 144 BC... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC - 140s BC - 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC Years: 154 BC 153 BC 152 BC 151 BC 150 BC - 149 BC - 148 BC 147 BC... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC - 40s BC - 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC 0s Years: 54 BC 53 BC 52 BC 51 BC 50 BC 49 BC 48 BC 47 BC 46 BC...


They would probably have fallen entirely into oblivion, had not Augustus revived them in 17 BC, for which occasion the Carmen Saeculare was composed by Horace. In explanation of the selection of this year it is supposed that the quindecimviri invented celebrations for the years 456, 346, 236, 126, the saeculum being taken as lasting 110 years. Augustus Caesar Caesar Augustus (Latin: IMP·CAESAR·DIVI·F·AVGVSTVS)¹ (23 September 63 BC – 19 August AD 14), known earlier in his life as Gaius Octavius or Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus, was the first Roman Emperor and is traditionally considered the greatest. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC - 10s BC - 0s 10s 20s 30s 40s Years: 22 BC 21 BC 20 BC 19 BC 18 BC 17 BC 16 BC 15 BC 14 BC 13 BC 12 BC... Quintus Horatius Flaccus, (December 8, 65 BC - November 27, 8 BC), known in the English world as Horace, was the leading lyric poet in Latin. ...


In later times various modes of reckoning were adopted. The dates were: AD 47 (under Claudius), celebrating the 800th year of the foundation of the city; 88 (under Domitian), an interval of only 105 instead of no years; 147 (under Antoninus Pius), the 900th year of the city; 204 (under Septimius Severus), exactly two saecula (220 years) after the Augustan celebration; 248 (under Philip the Arabian), the l000th year of the city; 262 (under Gallienus), probably a special ceremony in time of calamity; in 304 (which should have been 314) Maximian intended to hold a celebration, but does not appear to have done so. From this time nothing more is heard of the secular games, until they were revived in the year 1300 as the popish jubilees instituted by Boniface VIII. Centuries: 1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 0s BC 0s 10s 20s 30s - 40s - 50s 60s 70s 80s 90s Years: 42 43 44 45 46 - 47 - 48 49 50 51 52 Events Romans build a fortification that will later grow out to be the city of Utrecht. ... Emperor Claudius Tiberius Claudius Nero Caesar Drusus (August 1, 10 BC - October 13, 54), originally known as Tiberius Claudius Drusus Nero Germanicus, was the fourth Roman Emperor of the Julio-Claudian dynasty, ruling from January 24th 41 to his death in 54. ... For other uses, see number 88. ... Titus Flavius Domitianus (24 October 51 – 18 September 96), commonly known as Domitian, was a Roman emperor of the gens Flavia. ... Events First year of Jianhe of the Chinese Han Dynasty Births Deaths Categories: 147 ... Emperor Antoninus Pius Titus Aurelius Fulvius Boionius Arrius Antoninus Pius (September 19, 86 - March 7, 161) was Roman emperor from 138 to 161. ... Events Births Philip the Arab, Roman Emperor (approximate date) Deaths Categories: 204 ... Emperor Septimius Severus Lucius Septimius Severus, (April 11, 146 - February 4, 211) was Roman emperor from April 9, 193 to 211. ... Emperor Philip the Arab Marcus Julius Philippus (about 204 - 249), known in English as Philip the Arab, was Roman emperor from 244 to 249. ... Gallienus depicted on a lead seal. ... Events Major Wu Hu (barbarian) uprising in China; the Hun Liu Yuan establish the Han kingdom, beginning the Sixteen Kingdoms era in China. ... Events August 30 - Council of Arles, which confirmed the pronouncement of Donatism as a schism, and passed other canons. ... Maximian on a coin (295–296 AD) Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus (c. ... Boniface VIII, né Benedict Gaetano ( 1235 - October 11, 1303) was Pope of the Roman Catholic Church from 1294 to 1303. ...


At the beginning of the harvest, heralds went round and summoned the people to the festival. The quindecimviri distributed to all free citizens on the Capitol and in the temple of Apollo on the Palatine various means of expiation--torches, sulphur and bitumen. Here and in the temple of Diana on the Aventine, wheat, barley, and beans were distributed, to serve as an offering of first fruits. Capitol can refer to: A building that houses the administration of certain governments. ... Worship Apollo is considered to have dominion over the plague, light, healing, colonists, medicine, archery, poetry, prophecy, dance, reason, intellectualism and as the patron defender of herds and flocks. ... The Palatine Hill (Latin Palatium) is the centermost of the seven hills of Rome and is one of the most ancient parts of the city of Rome in Italy. ... For the chemical element see: sulfur. ... Bitumen Bitumen is a category of organic liquids which are highly viscous, black, sticky and wholly soluble in carbon disulfide. ... Diana was the equivalent in Roman mythology of the Greek Artemis (see Roman/Greek equivalency in mythology for more details). ...


The festival then began, at which offerings were made to various deities. On the first night the emperor sacrificed three rams to the Parcae at an underground altar on the banks of the Tiber, while the people lighted torches and sang a special hymn. On the same or following nights a black hog and a black pig were sacrificed to Tellus, and dark victims to Dis (Pluto) and Proserpine. On the first day white bulls and a white cow were offered to Jupiter and Juno on the Capitol, after which scenic games were held in honour of Apollo. On the second day noble matrons sang supplicatory hymns to Juno on the Capitol; on the third, white oxen were sacrificed to Apollo and twenty-seven boys and maidens sang the "secular hymn" in Greek and Latin. In Greek mythology, the white-robed Moirae or Moerae (Greek Μοίραι – the Apportioners, often called the Fates) were the personifications of destiny (Roman equivalent: Parcae, sparing ones, or Fatae; also equivalent to the Germanic Norns). ... Tiber River in Rome The River Tiber (Italian Tevere), the third longest river in Italy (disputed — see talk page) at 406 km (252 miles) after the Po and the Adige, flows through the Campagna and Rome in its course from Mount Fumaiolo to the Tyrrhenian Sea, which it reaches in... Terra or Tellus was a primeval Roman goddess, mother of Fama. ... Pluto was the god of the underworld in Roman mythology. ... There is also an asteroid 26 Proserpina and a character in Larry Nivens Known Space universe called Proserpina. ... Jupiter In Roman mythology, Jupiter (sometimes shortened to Jove) held the same role as Zeus in the Greek pantheon. ... Juno was the equivalent of the Greeks Hera, queen of the gods. ...


The above particulars are from Zosimus (ii. 5, and 6, which contain the Sibylline oracle), who, with Censorinus (De Die Natali, 17), Valerius Maximus, ii. 4, and Horace (Carmen Saeculare) is the chief ancient authority on the subject;, see also Mommsen, Römische Chronologie (1858); CL Roth, "Über die römischen Sacularspiele" in the Rheinisches Museum, viii. (1853); and Marquardt, Römische Staatsverwaitung, iii. (1885), p. 386. For the pope of this name see Pope Zosimus Zosimus, Greek historical writer, nourished at Constantinople during the second half of the 5th century A.D. According to Photius, he was a count, and held the office of advocate of the imperial treasury. ... Censorinus, Roman grammarian and miscellaneous writer, flourished during the 3rd century AD. He was the author of a lost work De Accentibus and of an extant treatise De Die Natali, written in 238, and dedicated to his patron Quintus Caerellius as a birthday gift. ... Valerius Maximus was a Latin writer and author of a collection of historical anecdotes. ... Christian Matthias Theodor Mommsen (30 November 1817 - 1 November 1903) was a German classical scholar and historian, generally regarded as the greatest classicist of the 19th century. ... Joachim Marquardt (April 19, 1812 - November 30, 1882), German historian and writer on Roman antiquities, was born at Danzig. ...


The inscription commemorating the ludi of 17 inc. was discovered in 1890 and is printed in the Ephemeris epigraphica, vol. viii. The best account of the whole subject is in H Diel's, Sibyllinische Blätter (1890), p. 109 foil. 1890 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...


This article incorporates text from the public domain 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica. The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... The Eleventh Edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica (1911) in many ways represents the sum of knowledge at the beginning of the 20th century. ...


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Embassy of France in the U.S. - The Secular Principle (3473 words)
Secularity is intrinsic to those values, and France has ratified the European Convention on Human Rights, article 9 of which repeats and expands on article 18 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
Secular neutrality, the principle of official non-recognition of any religion, means that no stipend or direct subsidy may be paid to any church.
So secularity cannot be reduced to a legal system, it is also a culture, an ethos, an emancipation from all "clericalism" understood as control of the mind by an established discourse rejecting all debate.
Secular Games - LoveToKnow 1911 (528 words)
According to tradition, the secular games had their origin in certain sacrificial rites of the gens Valeria, which were performed at the Terentum, a volcanic cleft in the Campus Martius.
According to the Roman antiquarians themselves, they were derived from the Etruscans, who, at the end of a mean period of ioo years (as representing the longest human life in a generation), presented to the chthonian deities an expiatory offering on behalf of the coming generation.
From this time nothing more is heard of the secular games, until they were re ived in the year 1300 as the popish jubilees instituted by Boniface VIII.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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