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Encyclopedia > Secretin

Secretin is a peptide hormone produced in the S cells of the duodenum. It is secreted in response to low duodenal pH, and stimulates the secretion of bicarbonate from the liver, pancreas, and duodenal Brunner's glands. It also reduces acid secretion from the stomach by inhibiting gastrin release from G cells. This helps neutralize the pH of the digestive products entering the duodenum from the stomach, as enzymes from the pancreas (eg, pancreatic amylase and pancreatic lipase) function optimally at neutral pH. Peptide hormones are a class of peptides that are secreted into the blood stream and have endocrine functions in living animals. ... S cells are cells which release secretin, found in the jejunum and duodenum. ... In anatomy of the digestive system, the duodenum is a hollow jointed tube connecting the stomach to the jejunum. ... In inorganic chemistry, a bicarbonate (IUPAC-recommended nomenclature: hydrogencarbonate) is an intermediate form in the deprotonation of carbonic acid. ... The liver is the largest internal organ in the human body. ... The pancreas is an organ that serves two functions: exocrine - it produces pancreatic juice containing digestive enzymes. ... Brunners glands are submucosal glands located throughout the duodenum. ... In anatomy, the stomach (in ancient Greek στόμαχος) is an organ in the gastrointestinal tract used to digest food. ... In humans, gastrin is a hormone that stimulates secretion of gastric acid by the stomach. ... In medicine, the G cell is a type of cell in the stomach that secrets gastrin. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM. TIM is catalytically perfect, meaning its conversion rate is limited, or nearly limited to its substrate diffusion rate. ... α-Amylase Amylase (EC 3. ... Pancreatic lipase is an enzyme (more specifically, a lipase) secreted from the pancreas that uses hydrolysis to break apart fat molecules. ...


Structure

Secretin is a 27-amino acid peptide hormone homologous to glucagon. In chemistry, an amino acid is any molecule that contains both amino and carboxylic acid functional groups. ... Glucagon ball and stick model Glucagon is a 29-amino acid polypeptide acting as an important hormone in carbohydrate metabolism. ...


History

Secretin was the first substance which was identified to cause a physiological effect in the body after being transported via the blood. The term hormone was coined by Bayliss and Starling to categorise such chemical messengers. A hormone (from Greek horman - to set in motion) is a chemical messenger from one cell (or group of cells) to another. ... William Maddock Bayliss(May 2, 1860-August 27, 1924) was an English physician. ... Categories: Stub | 1866 births | 1927 deaths ...

Hormones and endocrine glands -

Hypothalamus: GnRH - TRH - CRH - GHRH - somatostatin - dopamine | Posterior pituitary: vasopressin - oxytocin | Anterior pituitary: GH - ACTH - TSH - LH - FSH - prolactin - MSH - endorphins - lipotropin A hormone (from Greek horman - to set in motion) is a chemical messenger from one cell (or group of cells) to another. ... An endocrine gland is one of a set of internal organs involved in the secretion of hormones into the blood. ... In the anatomy of mammals, the hypothalamus is a region of the brain located below the thalamus, forming the major portion of the ventral region of the diencephalon and functioning to regulate certain metabolic processes and other autonomic activities. ... Gonadotropin-releasing hormone 1 (GNRH1 also called LHRH) is a peptide hormone responsible for the release of FSH and LH from the anterior pituitary. ... Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) is a tripeptide hormone that stimulates the release of TSH and prolactin by the anterior pituitary. ... Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), also called corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) or corticoliberin, is a polypeptide hormone involved in the stress response. ... Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH), also known as growth hormone-releasing factor (GRF or GHRF), is a 44-amino acid peptide hormone produced in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. ... Somatostatin is a hormone. ... Dopamine is a chemical naturally produced in the body. ... The posterior pituitary (also called the neurohypophysis) comprises the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland and is part of the endocrine system. ... Arginine vasopressin (AVP), also known as argipressin or antidiuretic hormone (ADH), is a human hormone that is mainly released when the body is low on water; it causes the kidneys to conserve water by concentrating the urine and reducing urine volume. ... Oxytocin is a hormone, found in mammals, which in humans is released mainly after stimulation of the nipples or distention of the vagina and which facilitates birth and breastfeeding. ... The anterior pituitary (also called the adenohypophysis) comprises the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland and is part of the endocrine system. ... Growth hormone Growth hormone is a polypeptide hormone synthesised and secreted by the anterior pituitary gland which stimulates growth and cell reproduction in humans and other vertebrate animals. ... Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH or corticotropin) is a polypeptide hormone synthesised (from POMC, pre-opiomelanocortin) and secreted from corticotropes in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland in response to the hormone corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) released by the hypothalamus. ... Thyroid-stimulating hormone (also known as TSH or thyrotropin) is a hormone synthesised and secreted by thyrotrope cells in the anterior pituitary gland which regulates the endocrine function of the thyroid gland. ... Luteinizing hormone (LH) is a hormone synthesised and secreted by gonadotropes in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland. ... Follicle stimulating hormone Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) is a hormone synthesised and secreted by gonadotropes in the anterior pituitary gland. ... Prolactin is a peptide hormone synthesised and secreted by lactotrope cells in the adenohypophysis (anterior pituitary gland). ... Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) is a peptide hormone produced by cells in the intermediate lobe of the pituitary gland. ... Endorphins are endogenous opioid biochemical compounds. ...


Thyroid: T3 and T4 - calcitonin | Parathyroid: PTH | Adrenal medulla: epinephrine - norepinephrine | Adrenal cortex: aldosterone - cortisol - DHEA | Pancreas: insulin - glucagon - somatostatin | Ovary: estradiol - progesterone - inhibin - activin | Testis: testosterone - AMH - inhibin | Pineal gland: melatonin | Kidney: renin - EPO - calcitriol - prostaglandin | Heart atrium: ANP The thyroid hormones, thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), are tyrosine-based hormones produced by the thyroid gland. ... Calcitonin is a a 32 amino acid polypeptide hormone that is produced in humans primarily by the C cells of the thyroid, and in many other animals in the ultimobranchial body. ... Categories: Anatomy stubs | Endocrine system ... Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is secreted by the parathyroid glands as a polypeptide containing 84 amino acids. ... Grays Fig. ... For the Deftones album; see Adrenaline (album). ... Norepinephrine or noradrenaline is a catecholamine and a phenethylamine with chemical formula C8H11NO3. ... Grays Fig. ... Aldosterone is a steroid hormone synthesized from cholesterol by the enzyme aldosterone synthase. ... Cortisol is a corticosteroid hormone that is involved in the response to stress; it increases blood pressure and blood sugar levels and suppresses the immune system. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Prasterone. ... The pancreas is an organ that serves two functions: exocrine - it produces pancreatic juice containing digestive enzymes. ... The structure of insulin. ... Glucagon ball and stick model Glucagon is a 29-amino acid polypeptide acting as an important hormone in carbohydrate metabolism. ... Somatostatin is a hormone. ... Human female internal reproductive anatomy Ovaries are egg-producing reproductive organs found in female organisms. ... Estradiol (17-beta estradiol) (also oestradiol) is a sex hormone. ... Progesterone is a C-21 steroid hormone involved in the female menstrual cycle, pregnancy (supports gestation) and embryogenesis of humans and other species. ... Inhibin is a peptide that is an inhibitor of FSH synthesis and secretion and participates in the regulation of the menstrual cycle. ... Activin is a peptide that enhances FSH synthesis and secretion and participates in the regulation of the menstrual cycle. ... Human male anatomy The testicles, known medically as testes (singular testis), are the male generative glands in animals. ... Testosterone is a steroid hormone from the androgen group. ... Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is a dimeric glycoprotein that inhibits the development of the Müllerian ducts in a male embryo. ... Inhibin is a peptide that is an inhibitor of FSH synthesis and secretion and participates in the regulation of the menstrual cycle. ... Diagram of pituitary and pineal glands. ... Structuring urgently requested // Definition Melatonin, 5-methoxy-N-acetyltryptamine, is a hormone found in all living creatures that have been studied from algae [1] to humans, at levels that vary in a diurnal cycle. ... Human kidneys viewed from behind with spine removed The kidneys are bean-shaped excretory organs in vertebrates. ... Renin, also known as angiotensinogenase, is a circulating enzyme (EC 3. ... Erythropoietin Erythropoietin (or EPO) is a glycoprotein hormone that is a growth factor for erythrocyte (red blood cell) precursors in the bone marrow. ... Vitamin D is a fat soluble vitamin that contributes to the maintenance of normal levels of calcium and phosphorus in the bloodstream. ... Chemical structure of prostaglandin E1 (PGE1). ... In anatomy, the atrium (plural: atria) is the blood collection chamber of a heart. ... Atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) or atriopeptin, is a polypeptide hormone involved in the homeostatic control of body water and sodium. ...


Stomach: gastrin | Duodenum: CCK - GIP - secretin - motilin - VIP | Ileum: enteroglucagon | Liver: IGF-1 In anatomy, the stomach (in ancient Greek στόμαχος) is an organ in the gastrointestinal tract used to digest food. ... In humans, gastrin is a hormone that stimulates secretion of gastric acid by the stomach. ... In anatomy of the digestive system, the duodenum is a hollow jointed tube connecting the stomach to the jejunum. ... Cholecystokinin (from Greek chole, bile; cysto, sac; kinin, move; hence, move the bile-sac (gall bladder)) is a peptide hormone of the gastrointestinal system responsible for stimulating the digestion of fat and protein. ... Gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP) is a gastrointestinal hormone secreted by the duodenum. ... Motilin is a polypeptide hormone secreted by the small intestine that increases gastrointestinal motility and stimulates the production of pepsin. ... VIP is a peptide hormone containing 28 amino acid residues. ... Grays Fig. ... An editor has expressed a concern that the topic of this article may be unencyclopedic. ... The liver is the largest internal organ in the human body. ... The insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) are polypeptides with high sequence similarity to insulin. ...


Placenta: hCG - HPL - estrogen - progesterone The placenta is an ephemeral (temporary) organ present only in female placental mammals during gestation (pregnancy). ... Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a peptide hormone produced in pregnancy, that is made by the embryo soon after conception and later by the trophoblast (part of the placenta). ... Human placental lactogen (HPL), also called human chorionic somatomammotropin, is a polypeptide placental hormone. ... Estrogens (also oestrogens) are a group of steroid compounds, named for their importance in the oestrus cycle, functioning as the primary female sex hormone. ... Progesterone is a C-21 steroid hormone involved in the female menstrual cycle, pregnancy (supports gestation) and embryogenesis of humans and other species. ...


Adipose tissue: leptin Adipose tissue is an anatomical term for loose connective tissue composed of adipocytes. ... Leptin is a 16 kDa protein hormone that plays a key role in regulating energy intake and energy expenditure (appetite and metabolism). ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Secretin (3144 words)
Secretin is a polypeptide hormone involved in the regulation of gastric function.
Within 5 weeks of the secretin infusion, a significant amelioration of the children's gastrointestinal symptoms was observed, as was a dramatic improvement in their behavior, manifested by improved eye contact, alertness, and expansion of expressive language.
It is concluded that secretin at approximately physiologic plasma concentrations retards gastric emptying of solid food in humans.
Secretin (291 words)
Secretin functions as a type of fireman: it is released in response to acid in the small intestine, and stimulates the pancreas and bile ducts to release a flood of bicarbonate base, which neutralizes the acid.
Secretin is synthesized as a preprohormone, then proteolytically processed to yield a single 27-amino acid peptide by removal of the signal peptide plus amino and carboxy-terminal extensions.
The sequence of the mature peptide is related to that of glucagon, vasoactive intestinal peptide and gastric inhibitory peptide.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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