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Encyclopedia > Secretary of State

In several countries, Secretary of State is a senior government position. The role varies between countries, and in some cases there are multiple Secretaries of State in the government.

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Canada

The Canadian Cabinet used to have a Secretary of State for External Affairs who acted as the country's Foreign Minister, but this position was abolished in 1993 and a new position of Minister of Foreign Affairs was created. From 1867 to 1993 there was also a Secretary of State for Canada who was a Cabinet minister whose duties varied over time but who was responsible for the Department of Secretary of State until the position was abolished. From 1993 to 2003, junior ministers were styled Secretary of State, were assigned specific policy areas, and assisted Cabinet ministers. However, these junior ministers were not themselves members of Cabinet. In the current Cabinet these positions are styled Minister of State. The Cabinet of Canada plays an important role in the Canadian government in accordance with the Westminster System. ... A minister for foreign affairs, or foreign minister, is a cabinet minister who helps form the governmental foreign policy of a sovereign nation. ... 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... In the Cabinet of Canada, the Minister of Foreign Affairs is responsible for overseeing the federal governments international relations department, Foreign Affairs Canada. ... 1867 (MDCCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... This article discusses the position in the Cabinet of Canada in existence from 1867 to 1996. ... Fron 1993 to 2003, the title of Secretary of State was given to officials in the Government of Canada. ... In the Canadian Cabinet a minister of state is a junior cabinet minister, usually given specific responsibilities to assist a senior cabinet minister in a specific area. ...


France

In France, a Secretary of State is a junior minister, responsible to a minister or the Prime Minister.


Belgium

As in France, a Secretary of State in Belgium is a junior minister who is responsible to a minister or the Prime Minister. For example, Vincent Van Quickenborne is a Secretary of State charged with the simplification of the administration, and in this role he is accountable to the Prime Minister, Guy Verhofstadt. Vincent Van Quickenborne (born August 1, 1973 in Ghent, Belgium) is a Belgian politician, as a member of the Belgian Liberal party, called the VLD. He has been Senator from 1999-2003, and is now Secretary of State (2003-) responsible for the simplification of the administration. ... Guy Verhofstadt Guy Verhofstadt  Pronunciation (born April 11, 1953) is the current Prime Minister of Belgium. ...


Germany

In Germany, a Secretary of State (Staatssekretär) in most of the federal and state ministries is a junior minister. There also exists the office of Parliamentary Secretary of State (Parlamentarischer Staatssekretär): this is a member of parliament serving as a political aide to a federal minister. In the Foreign Office they are known, for diplomatic reasons, as Ministers of State. The German Foreign Office (in German, Auswärtiges Amt, or AA) is the foreign ministry of the Federal Republic of Germany, and is responsible for both its foreign politics and its relationship to the European Union. ... Minister of State is a title borne by officials in certain countries governed under the parliamentary system. ...


Holy See

The Cardinal Secretary of State presides over the Secretariat of State, which is the most important dicastery of the Roman Curia, as it organizes, makes appointments to, and directs the activities of the other dicasteries. During a sede vacante, the former Secretary of State (the appointment expires when the pope dies or resigns) assumes some of the functions of the head of state as a part of a temporary commission. The Cardinal Secretary of State presides over the Vatican Secretariat of State, which is the oldest and most important dicastery of the Roman Curia. ... The Secretariat of State is the oldest dicastery in the Roman Curia, the government of the Roman Catholic Church. ... Dicasteries (from Greek: δικαστ, judge/juror) are the central offices of the Roman Curia in which the stewardship of the Roman Catholic Church is entrusted. ... The Roman Curia (sometimes, if inaccurately, called the Vatican) is the administrative apparatus of the Holy See, coordinating and providing the necessary organisation for the correct functioning of the Catholic Church and the achievement of its goals. ... Sede vacante in the canon law of the Roman Catholic Church is the vacancy of the episcopal see of a particular church. ... The Pope (from Greek: pappas, father; from Latin: papa, Papa, father) is the head of the Roman Catholic Church. ... Queen Elizabeth II, is the Head of State of 16 countries including: the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, Jamaica, New Zealand and the Bahamas, as well as crown colonies and overseas territories of the United Kingdom. ...


Mexico

In Mexico a Secretary of State is a member of the Mexican Executive Cabinet who responds to the President of the Republic The Mexican Executive Cabinet is a part of the executive branch of the Mexican government consisting of eighteen Secretaries of State, the head of the federal executive legal office and the Attorney General. ... The President of the United Mexican States is the head of state of Mexico. ...


The Netherlands

In the Netherlands, a staatssecretaris is a government official directly accountable to a minister. The position of secretary of state has existed since 1948 and is described article 46 of the constitution of the Netherlands. According to the constitution, secretaries of state may be instated and fired by Royal Order (which means by the minister), but in practice these positions are usually created and held for the duration of the cabinet and they can even be used as bargaining chips in coalition negotiations. Again according to the constitution, the secretary of state may act as minister in those cases where the minister deems this necessary, taking the minister's directions into account. In practice this usually means that the secretary is responsible for a subfield of the minister's field of work and reports to parliament on issues concerning his field. Secretaries of state may attend the meetings of the council of ministers when they concern their own field, but may not vote in these meetings. 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1948 calendar). ... The constitution of the Netherlands dates back to 1815, however, the first constitution of the Netherlands (then called the Batavian Republic) was drafted in 1798. ... A cabinet is a body of high-ranking members of government, typically representing the executive branch. ... A coalition government, or coalition cabinet, is a cabinet in parliamentary government in which several parties cooperate. ... The Estates-General (Staten-Generaal) is the parliament of the Netherlands. ...


Norway

A statssekretær in Norway plays more or less the same role as the French equivalent. Secretaries of State are connected to specific ministry, and serve as a de facto vice minister.


Switzerland

In the Swiss federal administration, secretaries of state are the most senior career officials. The title is conferred by the Swiss Federal Council on heads of federal offices whose duties entail independent interaction with senior foreign authorities (cf. article 46 of the Government and Administration Organisation Act). In practice, the function of a secretary of state is the same as in France. The Swiss Federal Council (in German, Schweizerische Bundesrat; in French, Conseil fédéral suisse; in Italian, Consiglio federale svizzero; in Romansh, Cussegl federal svizzer) is the seven-member executive council which constitutes the government of Switzerland, as well as assuming functions corresponding to those of the head of state...


United Kingdom

Main article: Secretary of State (United Kingdom) In the United Kingdom, a Secretary of State is a Cabinet Minister in charge of a Government Department (though not all departments are headed by a Secretary of State, e. ...


In the United Kingdom, a Secretary of State is a Cabinet Minister in charge of one of a number of government departments. Not all government departments have Secretaries of State, e.g. HM Treasury is headed by the Chancellor of the Exchequer. Secretary of State positions can be created without primary legislation; and legislation refers to "Secretary of State", which is a notional position split between all the Secretaries of State depending upon the functions. Alternate meanings in cabinet (disambiguation) A Cabinet is a body of high-ranking members of government, typically representing the executive branch. ... A minister or a secretary is a politician who heads a government ministry or department (e. ... The Government of the United Kingdom contains a number of Ministries, known in the United Kingdom as Government Departments. ... The new eastern entrance to HM Treasury HM Treasury (Her/His Majestys Treasury) is the United Kingdom government department responsible for and putting into effect the UK Governments financial and economic policy. ... The Rt. ...


The ancient English monarchs always had in attendance a learned ecclesiastic, known at first as their clerk, and afterwards as "Secretary", who conducted the royal correspondence; but it was not until the end of the reign of Queen Elizabeth I (reigned 15581603) that these functionaries gained the title "Secretaries of State". Upon the direction of public affairs passing from the Privy Council to the Cabinet after 1688 the Secretaries of State began to assume those high duties which now render their office one of the most influential of an administration. Elizabeth I (7 September 1533–24 March 1603) was Queen of England, Queen of France (in name only), and Queen of Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death. ... Events January 7 - French troops led by Francis, Duke of Guise take Calais, the last continental possession of England July 13 - Battle of Gravelines: In France, Spanish forces led by Count Lamoral of Egmont defeat the French forces of Marshal Paul des Thermes at Gravelines. ... King James I of England/VII of Scotland, the first monarch to rule the Kingdoms of England and Scotland at the same time Events March - Samuel de Champlain, French explorer, sails to Canada March 24 - Elizabeth I of England dies and is succeeded by her cousin King James I of... Her Majestys Most Honourable Privy Council is a body of advisors to the British Sovereign. ... Alternate meanings in cabinet (disambiguation) A Cabinet is a body of high-ranking members of government, typically representing the executive branch. ... // Events A high-powered conspiracy of notables, the Immortal Seven, invite William and Mary to depose James II of England. ...


Until the time of Henry VIII (reigned 15091547), monarchs generally had only one Secretary of State, but at the end of his reign a second Principal Secretary appeared. The number of Secretaries gradually increased over the years. There are currently thirteen people heading fifteen ministries as Secretaries of State. Since devolution the Secretaries of State for the three devolved nations have combined their office with another. As of June 2005 the Wales and the Northern Ireland offices were linked, as was the Scotland Office and the Department for Transport. This linking can change as the Prime Minister desires. In addition the Deputy Prime Minister currently holds the title "First Secretary of State". Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England and Lord of Ireland (later King of Ireland) from 22 April 1509 until his death. ... 1509 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 16 - Grand Duke Ivan IV of Muscovy becomes the first Tsar of Russia. ... First Secretary of State is a title within the British government, principally regarded as purely honorific, currently held by the Deputy Prime Minister, John Prescott. ...


Current positions

The Secretary of State for Communities and Local Government, formerly Minister of State for Communities and Local Government, is a Cabinet position currently within the UKs Office of the Deputy Prime Minister, formerly headed by John Prescott. ... The Secretary of State for Constitutional Affairs is a United Kingdom cabinet position. ... The Secretary of State for Culture, Media and Sport is a UK cabinet position with responsibility for the Department for Culture, Media and Sport. ... The Secretary of State for Defence is the senior United Kingdom government minister in charge of the Ministry of Defence. ... The Secretary of State for Education and Skills is the chief minister of the Department for Education and Skills in the United Kingdom government. ... The Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs is a UK cabinet-level position in charge of the Department for the Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, and the successor to the positions of Minister of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food and Secretary of State for the Environment. ... The Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs (commonly referred to as Foreign Secretary) is a member of the British Government responsible for relations with foreign countries, heading the Foreign and Commonwealth Office (often called simply the Foreign Office). ... Minister of Health redirects here. ... The Secretary of State for the Home Department (the Home Secretary) is the chief United Kingdom government minister responsible for law and order in England and Wales; his or her remit includes policing, the criminal justice system, the prison service, internal security, and matters of citizenship and immigration. ... In the United Kingdom, the Secretary of State for International Development is a Cabinet minister responsible for promoting development overseas, particularly in the third world. ... The Secretary of State for Northern Ireland is the British cabinet minister who has responsibility for the government of Northern Ireland. ... The Secretary of State for Scotland (Rùnaire Stàite na h-Alba in Scottish Gaelic) is the chief minister in the government of the United Kingdom with responsibilites for Scotland, at the head of the Scotland Office (formerly The Scottish Office). ... The Secretary of State for Trade and Industry is a cabinet position in the United Kingdom government. ... The Secretary of State for Transport is the member of the cabinet responsible for the British Department for Transport. ... The post of Secretary of State for Wales came into existence in October of 1964, the first incumbent being Jim Griffiths, MP for Llanelli. ... The Secretary of State for Work and Pensions is a position in the UK cabinet, responsible for the Department for Work and Pensions. ...

United States

Main article: United States Secretary of State

In the United States federal government, the main role of the Secretary of State is to supervise and conduct foreign policy. He or she is head of the United States Department of State. The current U.S. Secretary of State is Condoleezza Rice. Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice. ... A foreign policy is a set of political goals that seeks to outline how a particular country will interact with the other countries of the world. ... The United States Department of State, often referred to as the State Department, is the Cabinet-level foreign affairs agency of the United States government, equivalent to foreign ministries in other countries. ... Condoleezza Rice (born November 14, 1954) is the 66th and current United States Secretary of State, and the second in the administration of President George W. Bush. ...


U.S. States

In the individual states of the United States, the Secretary of State is an administrative officer responsible for a variety of governmental functions, depending on the constitution and laws of the particular state. In three states (Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, and Virginia), the position is called Secretary of the Commonwealth. For more detail see Secretary of State (U.S. state government). Secretary of State is an official in the state governments of 47 of the 50 states of the United States. ... Secretary of State is an official in the state governments of 47 of the 50 states of the United States. ...

This is an incomplete list of Secretaries of State for each state in the United States. ...

Scotland

Main article: Secretary of State, Scotland

After 1709 see Secretary of State for Scotland The Secretary of State was a senior post in the pre-Union government of Scotland. ... The Secretary of State for Scotland (Rùnaire Stàite na h-Alba in Scottish Gaelic) is the chief minister in the government of the United Kingdom with responsibilites for Scotland, at the head of the Scotland Office (formerly The Scottish Office). ...


Russia

In Russia, part of the function of Secretary of State is carried on by the Foreign Minister of Russia. The situation is confused by the break-up of the USSR and the fact that each member of the old USSR had a secretary (or head) for each republic. This page lists foreign ministers of Russian Empire, Soviet Union, and Russian Federation: // Heads of Posolsky Prikaz, 1549-1699 Ivan Viskovatyi 1549-70 Brothers Vasily and Andrey Shchelkalov 1570-1601 Ivan Gramotin 1605-06, 1610-12, 1618-26, 1634-35 Pyotr Tretyakov 1608-10, 1613-18 Almaz Ivanov 1635-67...


List of people who were Secretary of State

  • Count Karl Nesselrode, State Secretary in 1814, Foreign Minister in 1816
  • Count Giovanni Antonio Capo d'lstria in 1816
  • M. de Freigang sometime in the 1820-1828 time period
  • Sergei Witte 1903-1905
  • Andrei Gromyko in 1979
  • Gennady Burbulis in 1993
  • Igor Ivanov until 2003
  • Pavel Borodin in 2003

Count Karl Robert Nesselrode (December 14, 1780 - March 23, 1862) was a Russian diplomat and a leading European conservative statesman of the Holy Alliance. ... Sergei Witte Count Sergei Yulyevich Witte (Серге́й Ю́льевич Ви́тте) (June 29, 1849 – March 13, 1915), also known as Sergius Witte, was a highly influential policy-maker who presided over extensive industrialization within the Russian Empire. ... Andrei Gromyko Andrei Andreyevich Gromyko (Андре́й Андре́евич Громы́ко) (July 18 (July 5, Old Style), 1909 – July 2, 1989) was Minister for Foreign Affairs and Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union. ... Igor Sergeyevich Ivanov (Russian, Игорь Сергеевич Иванов) became Russias Minister of Foreign Affairs in 1998, succeeding Yevgeny Primakov. ...

See also

A minister or a secretary is a politician who heads a government ministry or department (e. ...

San Marino

In the Republic of San Marino a Secretary of State is a senior Cabinet Minister in charge of a State Department. The Secretary of State is a member of the Council of Ministers (Congresso di Stato).


  Results from FactBites:
 
Secretary of State - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1110 words)
During a sede vacante, the former Secretary of State (the appointment expires when the pope dies or resigns) assumes some of the functions of the head of state as a part of a temporary commission.
In the United States federal government, the main role of the Secretary of State is to supervise and conduct foreign policy.
In the individual states of the United States, the Secretary of State is an administrative officer responsible for a variety of governmental functions, depending on the constitution and laws of the particular state.
United States Secretary of State - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (675 words)
The United States Secretary of State is the head of the United States Department of State, concerned with foreign affairs.
The position of "Secretary of State of the United States" was thus intended to be the most general and important office in the U.S. government, after the Presidency.
As the highest-ranking Cabinet member, the Secretary of State is fourth in line to succeed the Presidency, after the Vice President, Speaker of the House of Representatives, and President pro tempore of the Senate.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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