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Encyclopedia > Secretary

A secretary is either an administrative assistant in business office administration, or a certain type of mid- or high-level governmental position, such as a Secretary of State. Look up secretary in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Look up Administration (business) in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In several countries, Secretary of State is a senior government position. ...


The office title refers to a person who performs administrative or personal tasks for a superior. The executive secretary (sometimes called administrative associate) is responsible for a myriad of responsibilities. Originally when there were only typewriters the secretary spent much of the time typing handwritten documents into typed form and xeroxing. Today with computers the amount of time doing word processing has been significantly reduced.


As a result the executive secretary or assistant today has a myriad of administrative duties. Often times this might include managing budgets and doing bookkeeping. They might manage all the administrative details of running a high level conference. They need to have skills to update and maintain web sites. Oftentimes executives will ask their assistant to write original documents for review and also to collaborate with others. They manage simple to highly complex travel arrangements. They may also do personnel paperwork which used to be thought of as a Human Relations function; this might also include understanding the complex rules regarding Visa and Immigration. To be an executive secretary today a good understanding of the computer is important. A large part of the day may be in writing and responding to email communications. There is also phone communications. The executive assistant also arranges for catering for a diverse workplace. To be successful today the executive assistant must have a broad level of skills and be creative in managing new situations. As such a 4 year degree (Bachelors of Arts) is often preferred and a 2 year degree is a requirement.


The current salary curve for this position http://www.payscale.com/research/US/Job=Executive_Assistant/Salary


The governmental title usually refers to a department-head type of position, though positions such as that of the United Nations Secretary-General may also describe the leader of an organisation. The Secretary-General of the United Nations is the head of the Secretariat, one of the principal organs of the United Nations. ...

Contents

Etymology

The term is derived from the [Latin] word secernere, "to distinguish" or "to set apart," the passive participle (secretum) meaning "having been set apart," with the eventual connotation of something private or confidential. A secretarius was a person, therefore, overseeing business confidentially, usually for a powerful individual (a king, pope, etc).


Office secretary

Origins

Since the Renaissance until the late 19th century, men involved in the daily correspondence and the activities of the mighty had assumed the title of secretary (or in other cases, "clerk"). This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... The word clerk, derived from the Latin clericus meaning cleric, i. ...


With time, like many titles, the term was applied to more and varied functions, leading to compound titles to specify various secretarial work better, like general secretary, financial secretary or Secretary of state. Just "secretary" remained in use either as an abbreviation when clear in the context or for relatively modest positions such as administrative assistant of the officer(s) in charge, either individually or as member of a secretariat. As such less influential posts became more feminine and common with the multiplication of bureaucracies in the public and private sectors, new words were also coined to describe them, such as personal assistant. The term General Secretary (alternatively First Secretary) denotes a leader of various unions, parties or associations. ... Financial secretary is an administrative and executive position within the governance of a corporation, private or public organization, small group or other body with financial assets. ... In several countries, Secretary of State is a senior government position. ... Secretariat may refer to: A racehorse who won the Triple Crown in 1973, see Secretariat (horse) In a Communist Party, a Secretariat is a key body that controls the central administration of the party, and if it is a ruling party, the country. ... A personal assistant, personal aide, or PA for short, is someone who assists in daily personal tasks. ...


Modern developments

In the 1880s, with the invention of the typewriter, more women began to enter the field, and since World War I, the role of secretary has been primarily associated with women. By the 1930s, fewer men were entering the field of secretaries. // Development and commercial production of electric lighting Development and commercial production of gasoline-powered automobile by Karl Benz, Gottlieb Daimler and Maybach First commercial production and sales of phonographs and phonograph recordings. ... Mechanical desktop typewriters, such as this Underwood Five, were long time standards of government agencies, newsrooms, and sales offices. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... The 1930s (years from 1930–1939) were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles, as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression, also known as the World Depression. ...


In an effort to promote professionalism amongst United States secretaries, the National Secretaries Association was created in 1942. Today, this organization is known as the International Association of Administrative Professionals (IAAP) The organization developed the first standardized test for office workers called the Certified Professional Secretaries Examination (CPS). It was first administered in 1951. The International Association of Administrative Professionals (IAAP) was formed in Kansas City, Missouri in 1942. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The International Association of Administrative Professionals (IAAP) was formed in Kansas City, Missouri in 1942. ... A standardized test is a test administered and scored in a standard manner. ... White-collar workers perform tasks which are less laborious yet often more highly paid than blue-collar workers, who do manual work. ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In 1952, Mary Barrett, president of the National Secretaries Association, C. King Woodbridge, president of Dictaphone Corporation, and American businessman Harry F. Klemfuss created a special Secretary's Day holiday, to recognize the hard work of the staff in the office. The holiday caught on, and during the fourth week of April is now celebrated in offices all over the world. It has been renamed "Administrative Professional's Week" to highlight the increased responsibility of today's secretary and other administrative workers, and to avoid embarrassment to those who out of political correctness believe that "secretary" refers only to women or to unskilled workers. Year 1952 (MCMLII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Administrative Professionals Day. ... Administrative Professionals Day (previously known as Secretarys Day) is an unofficial secular holiday observed on the last Wednesday of April (April 26 in 2006 April 25 in 2007), to recognize the work of clerical employees such as administrative assistants, receptionists, paralegals, etc. ... Political correctness is the alteration of language to redress real or alleged injustices and discrimination or to avoid offense. ...


Contemporary employment

In a business many job descriptions overlap. However, while administrative assistant is a generic term, not necessarily implying directly working for a superior, a secretary is usually a personal assistant to a manager or executive. Other titles describing jobs similar to or overlapping those of the traditional secretary are office coordinator, executive assistant, office manager and administrative professional.

  • At the most basic level a secretary may need only a good command of the prevailing office language and the ability to type, and may spend a large part of his or her time filing and fetching papers (or the equivalent regarding electronic files and database information) or answering telephones.
  • A more skilled executive assistant may be required to type at high speeds using technical or foreign languages, organise diaries, itineraries and meetings and carry out administrative duties which may include accountancy. An executive secretary / assistant may also control access to a manager, thus becoming an influential and trusted aide. Executive assistants are available for contact during off hours by new electronic communication methods for consultations.
  • The largest difference between a generalized secretary and skilled executive assistants is that the executive assistant is required to be able to interact extensively with the general public, vendors, customers, and any other person or group that the executive is responsible to interact with. As the level that the executive interacts with increases so does the level of skill required in the executive assistant that works with the executive. Those executive assistants that work with corporate officers must be capable of emulating the style, corporate philosophy, and corporate persona of the executive for which they work. In the modern workplace the advancement of the executives assistant is codependant on the success of the executive and the ability of both to make the job performance of the team seamless whereas the job place evaluation is reflective of each others performance.
  • Executive assistants are normally required to maintain job skills at the current state of the art. It is a normal requirement of the executive assistant to be required to complete continuing job education on their own time, with reimbursement for tuition and class supplies.

Mechanical desktop typewriters, such as this Underwood Five, were long time standards of government agencies, newsrooms, and sales offices. ... Accountancy (profession) or accounting (methodology) is the measurement, statement or provision of assurance about financial information primarily used by managers, investors, tax authorities and other decision makers to make resource allocation decisions within companies, organizations, and public agencies. ...

Governmental secretary

In the USA, many high-level government positions leading their section of the executive branch are called 'Secretaries', such as the Secretary of State, the Secretary of the Interior or the Secretary of Defense. In political science and constitutional law, the executive is the branch of government responsible for the day-to-day management of the state. ... In several countries, Secretary of State is a senior government position. ... The United States Secretary of the Interior is the head of the United States Department of the Interior, concerned with such matters as national parks and The Secretary is a member of the Presidents Cabinet. ... The United States Secretary of Defense is the head of the United States Department of Defense, concerned with the armed services and The Secretary is a member of the Presidents Cabinet. ...


In the United Kingdom government, a Parliamentary Private Secretary is the chief assistant of a Secretary of State or Minister of the Crown. Senior civil servants may also have a Private Secretary. Depending upon the seniority of their principal, a Private Secretary may him or herself be regarded as an important official in their own right. A Parliamentary Private Secretary (PPS) is a junior role given to a United Kingdom Member of Parliament (MP). ... In several countries, Secretary of State is a senior government position. ... A minister or a secretary is a politician who heads a government ministry or department (e. ...


In Australia, the appointed senior civil service administrator of each Department of State is titled Secretary, normally with various levels of Deputy Secretary and Assistant Secretary beneath them. Judicial High Court Lower Courts Constitution State and territory governments Executive Governors and Administrators Premiers and Chief Ministers Legislative Parliaments and Assemblies State electoral systems ACT - NSW - NT - Qld. ...


The Private Secretary to the Sovereign and the Private Secretary to the Prime Minister are the most important. A Private Secretary can be assisted by one or more Assistant - and or Deputy Secretaries, or even head a whole office in which those may be section chiefs. The Private Secretary to the Sovereign is the senior operational member of the Royal Household of the Sovereign of the United Kingdom, as distinct from the Great Officers of the Household. ... Prime Minister Tony Blair and U.S. Vice President Dick Cheney stand in front of the famous main door to Number 10. ... In the United Kingdom, the Prime Minister is the head of government, exercising many of the executive functions nominally vested in the Sovereign, who is head of state. ...


In several continental European states, similar positions (to a head of state or executive minister) are given names meaning chief of the 'cabinet' (e.g. Kabinetschef in Dutch, Chef de cabinet in French) in the sense of personal advisory and administrative staff, indeed like a Chief of Staff heading a bureau that may in fact include one or more functions styled Secretary, e.g. Press Secretary, Social Secretary. The same function may exist under another name without the word 'Private', and to a gubernotorial dignitary, e.g. Secretary to the Governor General as in Canada. For the comedy film of the same name, see Head of State (film). ... A minister or a secretary is a politician who holds significant public office in a national or regional government. ...


Other cultural traditions have one or more specific terms for a similar position, e.g. in the former kingdom of Afghanistan, Shaghasi-i-Huzuri (from Shaghasi Chamberlain & Huzur Presence) meant 'Private Secretary to the King'.[citation needed]


In the People's Republic of China, a Party Committee Secretary, colloquially termed a party chief (党委书记), is the most prominent regional Communist Party leadership office, usually the number-one figure in their respective regions. For example, Yu Zhengsheng, the Communist Party Shanghai Committee Secretary, is the city's highest ranked leader, higher than the mayor. In the Politics of the Peoples Republic of China, a party chief (Chinese: 党委书记), variously called a party boss, and officially termed the Communist Party Committee Secretary for a certain region, is the leader of the local Communist Party of China division, and in most cases, the de facto first... Yu Zhengsheng (traditional Chinese: ; simplified Chinese: born 1945) is the current CPC party chief in Shanghai, China, a post which makes him first-in-charge of Chinas largest city. ...


Medical secretary

A medical secretary provides secretarial support in clinics. Duties are e.g. to inform patients of costs and further information resources for care offered. Other duties are to answer telephones, relay messages and greet visitors. Duties depend on instructions and pre-established guidelines from medical staff. [1]


The job requires a high school diploma or its equivalent in addition to 0-2 years of related experience.[1]


The average salary is $31,620 in the United States.[1]


See also

The word clerk, derived from the Latin clericus meaning cleric, i. ... The term General Secretary (alternatively First Secretary) denotes a leader of various unions, parties or associations. ... In the British Civil Service the Principal Private Secretary is the Civil Servant who runs a ministers private office. ... The Private Secretary to the Sovereign is the senior operational member of the Royal Household of the Sovereign of the United Kingdom, as distinct from the Great Officers of the Household. ... A personal assistant, personal aide, or PA for short, is someone who assists in daily personal tasks. ...

External links

  • Canada- OSGG

  Results from FactBites:
 
United States Secretary of Defense - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (352 words)
The United States Secretary of Defense is the head of the United States Department of Defense, concerned with the armed services and military matters.
The Secretary is appointed by the President with the approval of the Senate, and is a member of the Cabinet.
In the same massive reorganization, the Secretary of War was replaced by the Secretary of the Army and, along with the Secretary of the Navy and the new Secretary of the Air Force, became a non-Cabinet position placed under the Secretary of Defense.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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