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Encyclopedia > Secret War
Laotian Civil War
Part of the Second Indochina War

Cuban poster: "Forgotten war" showing clash of traditional Laotian weapons with U.S. bombers
Date 1962-1975
Location Kingdom of Laos
Result Communist victory and the establishment of the Lao People's Democratic Republic.
Combatants
Kingdom of Laos,
United States,
Thailand,
Republic of Vietnam
Pathet Lao
Democratic Republic of Vietnam

The Secret War (1962-1975) also known as the Laotian Civil War was a term used to describe the Laotian front of the Vietnam War. The Vietnam War was a war fought between 1957 and 1975 on the ground in South Vietnam and bordering areas of Cambodia and Laos (See Secret War) and in bombing runs (Rolling Thunder) over North Vietnam. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar). ... 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday. ... The Lao Peoples Democratic Republic is a landlocked country in southeast Asia, bordered by Myanmar (commonly known in the west as Burma) and the Peoples Republic of China to the northwest, Vietnam to the east, Cambodia to the south, and Thailand to the west. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Lao Peoples Democratic Republic is a landlocked country in southeast Asia, bordered by Myanmar (commonly known in the west as Burma) and the Peoples Republic of China to the northwest, Vietnam to the east, Cambodia to the south, and Thailand to the west. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_States. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Thailand. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Vietnam. ... National motto: ??? Official language Vietnamese Capital Saigon Last President Duong Van Minh Last Prime Minister Vu Van Mau Area  - Total  - % water 173,809km² N/A population  - Total  - Density 19,370,000 (1973 est. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Laos. ... Pathet Lao (Laotian, Land of Laos) was a communist, nationalist political movement and organization in Laos, formed in the mid 20th century. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_North_Vietnam. ... The Democratic Republic of Vietnam (Vietnamese Việt Nam Dân Chủ Cộng Hòa), also known as North Vietnam, was founded by Ho Chi Minh and was recognized by China and the USSR in 1950. ... 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar). ... 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday. ... Motto: Peace, Independence, Democracy, Unity and Prosperity Anthem: Pheng Xat Lao Capital Vientiane Largest city Vientiane Official languages Lao Government Socialist Republic  - President Choummaly Sayasone  - Prime Minister Bouasone Bouphavanh Independence from France   - Date 19 July 1949  Area  - Total 236,800 km² (83rd) 91,429 sq mi   - Water (%) 2 Population  - 2005... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000...


The Secret War is generally considered one of the most important and complex components of that war, with the United States and North Vietnam fighting directly and through proxies for strategic military and political influence in a region of Laos that was considered critical to the Vietnam War's outcome and the future of Southeast Asia. The Democratic Republic of Vietnam (Vietnamese Việt Nam Dân Chủ Cộng Hòa), also known as North Vietnam, was founded by Ho Chi Minh and was recognized by China and the USSR in 1950. ...

Contents

Overview

Main articles: History of Laos since 1945, First Indochina War, Vietnam War, and Ho Chi Minh Trail

After the Geneva Conference established Laotian neutrality, North Vietnamese forces continued to operate in southeastern Laos. North Vietnam established the Ho Chi Minh trail on Laotian territory and supported an indigenous communuist rebellion the Pathet Lao to help secure it. The Ho Chi Minh trail was designed for North Vietnamese troops to infiltrate the Republic of Vietnam and to aid the National Liberation Front. Good-luck charms of Prince Phetxarāt, who many Lao believe possessed magical powers, are widely sold in Laos today Continued from History of Laos to 1945 Note: this article follows the system for transliterating Lao names used in Martin Stuart-Foxs History of Laos // The Kingdom of Laos... Combatants France Việt Minh Strength 500,000 at least 63,000, but estimates 100,000-950,000 Casualties 94,581 dead 78,127 wounded 40,000 captured 300,000+ dead 500,000+ wounded 100,000 captured The First Indochina War, also known as the French Indochina War, the French... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... The Ho Chi Minh trail was a logistical system that ran from the Democratic Republic of (North) Vietnam (DRV) to South Vietnam through the neighboring countries of Laos and Cambodia. ... The Geneva Conference (April 26 - July 21, 1954) was a conference between many countries that agreed to end hostilities and restore peace in French Indochina and Korea. ... The Ho Chi Minh trail was a logistical system that ran from the Democratic Republic of (North) Vietnam (DRV) to South Vietnam through the neighboring countries of Laos and Cambodia. ... Pathet Lao (Laotian, Land of Laos) was a communist, nationalist political movement and organization in Laos, formed in the mid 20th century. ... National motto: ??? Official language Vietnamese Capital Saigon Last President Duong Van Minh Last Prime Minister Vu Van Mau Area  - Total  - % water 173,809km² N/A population  - Total  - Density 19,370,000 (1973 est. ... National Liberation Front is a common name for guerrilla organisations fighting to free their country from foreign rule, or at least claiming to be such an organisation. ...


To disrupt these operations without direct military involvement, the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) responded by training a force of some thirty thousand Laotians, mostly local Hmong tribesmen along with the Mien and Khmer, led by General Vang Pao, a Hmong military leader. This army, supported by the CIA contract airline Air America, Thailand and the Royal Lao Air Force, fought PAVN, the NLF, and their Pathet Lao allies to a standstill, greatly aiding U.S. interests in the war in Vietnam. There were repeated attempts from 1954 onward to get the North Vietnamese out of Laos, but regardless of any agreements or concessions, Hanoi had no intention of abandoning the country or its allies. Beyond immediate military necessity, the DRV viewed Laos as a younger brother needing guidance. In 1968, North Vietnam launched a multi-division attack on the Royal Lao Army. The heavy weapons and scale of the PAVN attack could not be matched by the national army and it was effectively sidelined for several years. The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA, colloquially known as The Company or simply, The Agency) is an intelligence agency of the United States Government. ... Languages Hmong/Mong Religions Shamanism, Buddhism, Christianity, others The terms Hmong (IPA:) and Mong () both refer to an Asian ethnic group whose homeland is in the mountainous regions of southern China. ... General Vang Pao was an American-allied Hmong military leader in the Second Indochina War. ... Air America pilot cap Air America was an American airline secretly controlled by the CIA that supplied and supported covert operations in Southeast Asia during the Vietnam War. ... The Royal Lao Air Force was the air force of the Royal Lao Government of the Kingdom of Laos. ...


Although the existence of the conflict in Laos was sometimes reported in the U.S., details were largely unavailable due to official government denials that the war even existed. The denials were seen as necessary considering that the U.S. had signed agreements specifying the neutrality of Laos. U.S. involvement was considered necessary because the DRV had effectively conquered a large part of the country and was equally obfuscating its role in Laos. Despite these denials, however, the Civil War was actually the largest U.S. covert operation prior to the Afghan-Soviet War, with areas of Laos controlled by North Vietnam subjected to years of intense American aerial bombardment, representing the heaviest U.S. bombing campaign since World War II. A covert operation is a military or political activity performed in secrecy that would break specific laws or compromise policy in another country. ... The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan was a 10-year war which wreaked incredible havoc and destruction on Afghanistan. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Chronology of the war in Laos

The Military Assistance Command, Vietnam Studies and Observations Group (MACV-SOG) was a highly classified, multi-service U.S. Special Operations Forces unit which conducted covert unconventional warfare operations prior to and during the Vietnam Conflict. ...

1964

Barrell Roll operational area, 1964
Barrell Roll operational area, 1964

In May 1964, the 99U.S. Air Force began flying reconnaissance missions over the Laotian panhandle to obtain target information on men and materiel being moved into South Vietnam over the Ho Chi Minh Trail. By this time, the footpaths on the trail had been enlarged to truck roads, with smaller paths for bicycles and walking. The Trail had become the major artery for use by North Vietnam to infiltrate South Vietnam. Combatants United States (U.S.) Republic of Vietnam (RVN) Kingdom of Laos Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV) Pathet Lao (PL) Casualties Unknown Unknown Operation Barrel Roll was a covert U.S. Air Force 2nd Air Division (later the Seventh Air Force) and U.S. Navy, interdiction and close air support... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (711x1149, 392 KB) from Jacob Van Staaveren, Interdiction in Southern Laos, 1960-1968. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (711x1149, 392 KB) from Jacob Van Staaveren, Interdiction in Southern Laos, 1960-1968. ...


In the spring of 1964, Pathet Lao and PAVN troops drove Laotian forces from the Plain of Jars in northern Laos. On 9 June, President Lyndon B. Johnson ordered an F-100 strike against the enemy in retaliation for the shoot down of another U.S. aircraft. The Plain of Jars activities expanded by December 1964, were named Operation Barrell Roll and were under the control of the U.S. ambassador to Laos who approved all targets before they were attacked. Plain of Jars: Site 1 The Plain of Jars is a large group of historic cultural sites in Laos containing thousands of stone jars, which lie scattered throughout the Xieng Khouang plain in the Laotian Highlands at the northern end of the Annamese Cordillera, the principal mountain range of Indochina. ... June 9 is the 160th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (161st in leap years), with 205 days remaining. ... “LBJ” redirects here. ... F-100A Super Sabre The North American F-100 Super Sabre was a jet fighter aircraft that served with the USAF from 1954 to 1971 and with the ANG until 1979. ...


1965

The U.S. began Operation Steel Tiger over the Laotian panhandle and the Vietnamese Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) on 3 April 1965 to locate and destroy enemy forces and materiel being moved southward at night into South Vietnam. However, since circumstances made it a highly complex matter in regard to the neutrality of Laos, target approval had to come from Washington. Additionally, the U.S. ambassadors in South Vietnam, Laos, and Thailand were involved in controlling these U.S. air operations Operation Steel Tiger was a covert US Air Force aerial interdiction effort targeted against North Vietnamese infiltration through southeastern Laos during the Vietnam Conflict. ... Barrell Roll/Steel Tiger/Tiger Hound Areas of Operations, 1965. ... In military terms, a demilitarized zone (DMZ) is an area, usually the frontier or boundary between two or more military powers (or alliances), where military activity is not permitted, usually by peace treaty, armistice or other bilateral or multilateral agreement. ... April 3 is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 272 days remaining. ... 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1965 calendar). ...

Barrell Roll/Steel Tiger operational area, 1965
Barrell Roll/Steel Tiger operational area, 1965

Late in 1965 the communists greatly increased their infiltration along the Ho Chi Minh Trail. It was decided to concentrate airpower upon a small segment of the Trail closest to South Vietnam and used most extensively by the enemy. As a result, Operation Tiger Hound was initiated in December 1965, utilizing aircraft from the Air Force, the U.S. Navy, and U.S. Marines, the Vietnamese Air Force, and the Royal Laotian Air Force. On 11 December, B-52 heavy bombers were called in to this tactical operation, in their first use over Laos. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 381 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (729 × 1146 pixel, file size: 345 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) from Jacob Van Staaveren, Interdiction in Southern Laos, 1960-1968. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 381 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (729 × 1146 pixel, file size: 345 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) from Jacob Van Staaveren, Interdiction in Southern Laos, 1960-1968. ... Barrell Roll/Steel Tiger/Tiger Hound Areas of Operations, 1965. ... The United States Navy (USN) is the branch of the United States armed forces responsible for naval operations. ... United States Marine Corps Emblem The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is the second smallest of the five branches of the United States armed forces, with 170,000 active and 40,000 reserve Marines as of 2002. ... December 11 is the 345th day (346th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... B-52 can refer to the following: The Boeing B-52 Stratofortress strategic bomber aircraft A hairstyle popular in the 1950s and 1960s, named after the aircraft A rock band, The B-52s, named after the hairstyle A cocktail This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which...


1966

Steel Tiger operations continued down the length of the panhandle in 1966, with special emphasis upon the Tiger Hound area. Since most of the communist truck traffic was at night, the Air Force developed and began using special equipment to detect the nighttime traffic.


July - RLG forces seize Nam Bac. Three Infanrty Regiments, one independent infantry battalion, and one artillery battalion. took Nam Bac and established a defensive line north of Luang Prabang.[1]


On the Plain of Jars, the Pathet Lao advance gradually slowed due to the destruction of its supplies by airpower, and Laotian troops then counter-attacked. By August 1966, they had advanced to within 45 miles of the DRV border. North Vietnam then sent thousands of its regular troops into the battle and once again the Laotians were forced to retreat.

Barrell Roll/Steel Tiger/Tiger Hound operational areas
Barrell Roll/Steel Tiger/Tiger Hound operational areas

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (726x1131, 315 KB) from Jacob Van Staaveren, Interdiction in Southern Laos, 1960-1968. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (726x1131, 315 KB) from Jacob Van Staaveren, Interdiction in Southern Laos, 1960-1968. ...

1967

The Communists continued their slow advance across the Plain of Jars in 1967. Laotian victories were few and far between, and by the end of the year, the situation had become critical even with the air support which had been provided by the Royal Laotian Air Force, small as it was.


December - PL and PAVN launched an offensive. The 316th Infantry Division was dispatched to Laos to cooperate with the PL.[2]

Ho Chi Minh Trail, 1967
Ho Chi Minh Trail, 1967

U.S., Royal Laotian, and VNAF aircraft continued their attacks on traffic along the Ho Chi Minh Trail. During 1967, B-52s flew 1,718 sorties in this area, almost triple their 1966 record. The major targets were trucks which had to be hunted down and destroyed one-by-one. This seemed to be irrational thinking to many Americans flying these combat missions for these trucks could have been destroyed en masse before, during, or after their unloading from the freighters that had hauled them to North Vietnam if bombing of Haiphong had been permitted. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (723x1158, 308 KB)[edit] Summary from Jacob Van Staaveren, Interdiction in Southern Laos, 1960-1968, Washington DC: Center for Military History, 1993. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (723x1158, 308 KB)[edit] Summary from Jacob Van Staaveren, Interdiction in Southern Laos, 1960-1968, Washington DC: Center for Military History, 1993. ... Haiphong (Vietnamese: Hải Phòng, Chinese 海防, Hǎifáng) is the third most populous city in Vietnam. ...


1968

On 12 January the PL PAVN offensive was kicked off. The Nam Bac region, home of 10,000 people, was liberated.[3] Combatants United States, Republic of Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam Operation Commando Hunt was a covert Seventh/Thirteenth United States Air Force offensive initiative that took place during the Vietnam Conflict. ...

Communist Base Areas, southern Laos
Communist Base Areas, southern Laos

Throughout 1968, the communists slowly advanced across the northern part of Laos, defeating Laotian forces time and time again, and eventually the U.S base Lima Site 85 was overrun. This success was achieved despite U.S. military advice and assistance. In November, the U.S. launched an air campaign against the Ho Chi Minh Trail because North Vietnam was sending more troops and supplies than ever along this route to South Vietnam. This new operation, named Operation Commando Hunt, continued until 1972. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1038x1296, 359 KB) From Brig. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1038x1296, 359 KB) From Brig. ... Combatants United States Thailand Hmong guerillas North Vietnam Pathet Lao Commanders Vang Pao Vo Nguyen Giap Strength 1,300+ 3,000+ Casualties 8 Americans dead 42 Thai and Hmong Unknown The Battle of Lima Site 85 was a battle of the Vietnam War. ...


1969

On 23 March 1969, the Laotian Army launched a large attack (Cu Kiet Campaign) against the communists in the Plain of Jars/Xieng Khoang areas, supported by its own air units and the U.S. Air Force. In June, the enemy launched an attack of its own and gained ground, but by August, Laotian forces attacked again and regained what had been lost. In all these operations, the U.S. Air Force flew hundreds of Barrell Roll missions, however, many were canceled because of poor weather. March 23 is the 82nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (83rd in leap years). ... For the Stargate SG-1 episode, see 1969 (Stargate SG-1). ...


Pathet Lao forces supported by PAVN's 174th Vietnamese Volunteer Regiment, By September, the 174th had to fall back to regroup. In mid-September they launched a counterattack, recovered the Plain of Jars. Forces participating in the campaign included the 316th and 312th Infantry Divisions, the 866th Infantry Regiment, the 16th Artillery Regiment, one tank company, six sapper and engineer battalions, one Nghe Anh Province local force battalion, and ten PL battalions.


On 11 February, the offensive (Campaign 139) opened. By the 20th, control of the Plain of Jars was secure. RLG forces withdrew to Muong Xui. On 25 February the RLG abandoned Xieng Khoang city and Xam Thong fell on 18 March and Long Thieng was threatened. On 25 April the campaign ended. After the end of the campaign, the "316th Division, the 866th Regiment, and a number of specialty brtanch units were ordered yo stay behind to work with our Lao friends."[4]


1970

At the beginning of 1970, fresh troops from North Vietnam advanced through northern Laos. The Air Force called in B-52s and, on 17 February, they were used to bomb targets in northern Laos. The enemy advance was halted by Laotian reinforcements, and for the remainder of the year it was a "seesaw" military campaign. February 17 is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

PAVN trucks on the Trail
PAVN trucks on the Trail

1 May - elements of SVN PAVN units (28th and 24A regiments join with "volunteers" and pathet Lao to seize Attopeu.[5] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 510 pixel Image in higher resolution (1149 × 732 pixel, file size: 419 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) US Army Photograph File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 510 pixel Image in higher resolution (1149 × 732 pixel, file size: 419 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) US Army Photograph File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...


Although communist movements down the Ho Chi Minh Trail grew during the year, the U.S. war effort was reduced because authorities in Washington, believing the U.S. objectives in SEA were being achieved, imposed budget limits. This reduced the number of combat missions the USAF could fly.


1971

Main article: Operation Lam Son 719

Because of significant logistical stockpiling by PAVN in the Laotian Panhandle, South Vietnam launched Operation Lam Son 719, a military thrust on 8 February 1971. Its goals were to cross into Laos and cut the Ho Chi Minh Trail to thwart a planned North Vietnamese offensive. Aerial support by the U.S., was massive since no American ground units could participate in the operation. On 25 February, PAVN launched a counterattack, and in the face of heavy opposition, the South Vietnamese force withdrew from Laos after losing approximately half of its men. Combatants United States South Vietnam North Vietnam Commanders Lt. ... February 8 is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday. ... February 25 is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ...

Operation Lam Son 719
Operation Lam Son 719

Combined offensive to take Plain of jars. On 18 December, PAVN and Pathet Lao forces launch counteroffensive (Campaign Z) to recover the Plain. Volunteer forces included the 312th and 316th Divisions, the 335th and 866th Infantry Regiments, and six artillery and tank battalions. Xam Thong falls and pushes toward Long Thieng.[6] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 542 pixel Image in higher resolution (1155 × 783 pixel, file size: 394 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) US Army Map File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 542 pixel Image in higher resolution (1155 × 783 pixel, file size: 394 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) US Army Map File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... In the Gregorian Calendar, December 18 is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years), at which point there will be 13 days remaining to the end of the year. ...


Lower Laos - the 968th Infantry Regiment and Pathet Lao forces reclaimed the Tha Teng and Lao Nam areas, and liberated the Bolovens Plateau.[7]


1972

During the dry season 1971-72, PL/PAVN forces dug into defensive positions and fought for permanent control of the Plain of Jars. Units participating included the 316th Infantry Division, the 866th, 335th, and 88th Regiments, and nine specialty branch battalions under the command of Senior Colonel Le Linh. Seven PL battalions also participated.


Onm 21 may RLG forces attempted to seize the Plain. The battle lasted 170 days (until 15 November, 1972). The communists claimed to have killed 1,200 troops and captured 80.[8]


When PAVN launched the Nguyen Hue Offensive(known in the West as the Easter Offensive) into South Vietnam on 30 March, Massive U.S. air support was required inside South Vietnam and its air strikes in Laos dropped to their lowest point since 1965. The Eastertide Offensive was a military campaign in the Vietnam War. ... March 30 is the 89th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (90th in a leap year). ...


In northern Laos, the communists made additional gains during the year but failed to overwhelm government forces. In November, the Pathet Lao agreed to meet with Laotian Government representatives to discuss a cease-fire.


1973

Main article: Paris Peace Accord

The US pulled out of Laos in 1973 as stipulated by the Paris Peace Accord. North Vietnam was not required to remove its forces under the terms of the treaty. The Paris Peace Accords were signed in 1973 by the governments of North Vietnam, South Vietnam, and the United States with the intent to establish peace in Vietnam. ...


The national government was forced to accept the Pathet Lao into the government. In 1975, Vietnamese and Pathet Lao forces began attacking government strongholds. A deal was eventually brokered that gave power to the Pathet Lao to save the government from total destruction.


Once in power, the Pathet Lao economically cut its ties to all its neighbors (including China) with the exception of the DRV and signed a treaty of friendship with Hanoi. The treaty allowed the Vietnamese to station soldiers within Laos and to place advisors throughout the government and economy. For many years after, Laos was effectively ruled by Vietnam.


Aftermath

After the American withdrawal from Vietnam (1975) the war was openly considered a geopolitical disaster. The botched operation in Laos was barely mentioned, as people attempted to keep Vietnam in the past. With the citizens' help, the American troops were able to come home from "Nam". The 30,000-plus Hmong who assisted the Americans were not so lucky. Considered a group of "traitors" by their government as well as the Communist Viet Cong, the former Hmong soldiers and their descendants began being exterminated. They fled into the mountains as many of them were hunted down and killed. Reports of the Hmong people being mutilated, raped, and tortured continue as recently as February 2007. Dozens of first-hand accounts were documented in a video based on refugees who fled the conflict areas as recent as 2006.("video-clips-Hunted Like Animals": [1]). The international community has done little to nothing to assist the families of those who helped the Americans during the Vietnam War. The EU published on January 31 2007 a Declaration [2]after 153 Hmong refugees held detained in Thailand’s had been targeted for forced deportation back to Laos. The Hmong population (estimated 5000 and 10,000) still hiding in the mountains of Laos are mostly women and children. A Viet Cong soldier, heavily guarded, awaits interrogation following capture in the attacks on Saigon during the festive Tet holiday period of 1968. ...


Notes

  1. ^ Victory in Vietnam, p. 213.
  2. ^ Victory in Vietnam, p. 213.
  3. ^ Victory in Vietnam, p. 214.
  4. ^ Victory in Vietnam, p. 255.
  5. ^ Victory in Vietnam, p. 257.
  6. ^ Victory in Vietnam, p. 288.
  7. ^ Victory in Vietnam, p. 288.
  8. ^ Victory in Vietnam, p. 302.

References

Published Government Documents

  • Military History Institute of Vietnam, Victory in Vietnam: The Official History of the People's Army of Vietnam, 1954-1975. Trans. by Merle Pribbenow. Lawrence KS: University of Kansas Press, 2002.
  • Nalty, Bernard C. War Against Trucks: Aerial Interdiction in Southern Laos, 1968-1973. Washington DC: Air Force Museums and History Program, 2005.
  • Van Staaveren, Jacob, Interdiction in Southern Laos, 1960-1968. Washington DC: Center of Air Force History, 1993.
  • Vongsavanh, Brig. Gen. Soutchay, RLG Military Operations and Activities in the Laotian Panhandle. Washington DC: U.S. Army Center of Military History, 1980.

Secondary Sources

  • Adams, Nina S. and Alfred W. McCoy, eds. Laos: War and Revolution. New York: Harper & Row, 1970.
  • Blaufarb, Douglas, The Counterinsurgency Era.
  • Champassak, Sisouk Na, Storm Over Laos. New York: Praeger, 1961.
  • Conboy, Kenneth with James Morrison, Shadow War: The CIA's Secret War in Laos. Boulder CO: Paladin Press, 1995.
  • Issacs, Arnold, Gordon Hardy, MacAlister Brown, et al, Pawns of War: Cambodia and Laos. Boston: Boston Publishing Company, 1987.
  • Karnow, Stanley, Vietnam: A History. New York: Viking, 1983.
  • McGehee, Ralph W. Deadly Deceits: My 25 Years in the CIA. New York: Sheridan Square, 1983.
  • Robbins, Christopher, Air America. New York: Avon, 1985.
  • Robbins, Christopher, The Ravens: Pilots of the Secret War in Laos. Bangkok: Asia Books, 2000.
  • Warner, Roger, Shooting at the Moon: The Story of America's Clandestine War in Laos. South Royalton VE: Steerforth Press, 1996.

External links

  • Supporting the "Secret War": CIA Air Operations in Laos, 1955-1974
  • 'Secret War' Still Killing Thousands, Andre Vltchek, Worldpress.org correspondent, November 14, 2006
  • Laos: Still a Secret War, World Picture News/WorldPress.Org,Roger Arnold, January 19, 2007

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