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Encyclopedia > Secondary antibody
The primary antibody (in purple) binds to an antigen (in red). A labeled secondary antibody (in green), then binds to the primary antibody. The label is then used to indirectly detect the antigen.

A secondary antibody is an antibody that binds to primary antibodies or antibody fragments. They are typically labeled with probes that make them useful for detection, purification or cell sorting applications. Image File history File links Primary-Secondaryantibody. ... Image File history File links Primary-Secondaryantibody. ... Each antibody binds to a specific antigen; an interaction similar to a lock and key. ... Primary antibodies are antibodies raised against an antigenic target of interest (a protein, peptide, carbohydrate, or other small molecule) and are typically unconjugated (unlabelled). ... Categories: Move to Wiktionary | Stub | Chemistry ... Analysis of a marine sample of photosynthetic picoplankton by flow cytometry showing three different populations (Prochlorococcus, Synechococcus and picoeukaryotes) Flow cytometry is a technique for counting, examining and sorting microscopic particles suspended in a stream of fluid. ...


Secondary antibodies may be polyclonal or monoclonal, and are available with specificity for whole Ig molecules or antibody fragments such as the Fc or Fab regions. Polyclonal antibodies are antibodies that are derived from different B-cell lines. ... Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) are antibodies that are identical because they were produced by one type of immune cell, all clones of a single parent cell. ... An antibody digested by papain yields two fragments, two Fab fragments and one Fc fragment The fragment crystallizable region (Fc region) is a region of an antibody composed of two heavy chains that each contribute two to three constant domains, depending on the class of the antibody. ... An antibody digested by papain yields two fragments, two Fab fragments and one Fc fragment The fragment antigen binding (Fab fragment) is a region on an antibody which binds to antigens. ...


Specific secondary antibodies are usually chosen to work in specific laboratory applications. Frequently, any one of several secondary antibodies perform adequately in a particular application. They are selected according to the source of the primary antibody, the class of the primary antibody (e.g., IgG or IgM), and the kind of label which is preferred. Identifying the optimal secondary antibody is normally done through trial and error.


Applications

Secondary antibodies are used in many biochemical assays including:

Elisa (born Elisa Toffoli on 19 December 1977) is an Italian singer and solo artist, writing and performing within several genres, notably rock, blues, soul and ambient. ... Randal Tobias, U.S. Global AIDS Coordinator, being publicly tested for HIV/AIDS in Ethiopia in an effort to reduce the stigma of being tested. ... A Western blot. ... Immunostaining is a general term in biochemistry that applies to any use of an antibody-based method to detect a specific protein in a sample. ... Immunohistochemistry or IHC refers to the process of localizing proteins in cells of a tissue section exploiting the principle of antibodies binding specifically to antigens in biological tissues. ... Immunocytochemistry relates to chemicals interacting with immune responses of cells within the host. ...

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