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Encyclopedia > Second world war
Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. August 9, 1945

World War II was a global conflict that started on 7 July 1937 in Asia and 1 September 1939 in Europe and lasted until 1945, involving the majority of the world's countries and every inhabited continent. Virtually all countries that participated in World War I were involved in World War II. It was the most extensive and costly armed conflict in the history of the World. Download high resolution version (800x1094, 114 KB)Picture taken of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki on August 9, 1945. ... Download high resolution version (800x1094, 114 KB)Picture taken of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki on August 9, 1945. ... Categories: Military stubs | Nuclear weapons ... A nuclear explosion (nuclear detonation) has occurred: twice using a nuclear weapon during war (during World War II, the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki) many times testing a nuclear weapon a series of tests of nuclear explosives for construction purposes; see Operation Plowshare Potential other applications (not yet applied... Megane-bashi, the Eyeglasses Bridge Nagasaki (長崎市; -shi) is the capital and the largest city of Nagasaki Prefecture located at the south-western coast of Kyushu, Japan. ... August 9 is the 221st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (222nd in leap years), with 144 days remaining. ... 1945 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... A world war is a military conflict affecting the majority of the worlds countries. ... July 7 is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 177 days remaining. ... 1937 was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... World map showing location of Asia A satellite composite image of Asia Asia is the central and eastern part of the continent of Eurasia, defined by subtracting the European peninsula from Eurasia. ... September 1 is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years). ... 1939 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... World map showing location of Europe A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is geologically and geographically a peninsula, forming the westernmost part of Eurasia. ... 1945 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... This article describes a type of political entity. ... Dymaxion map by Buckminster Fuller shows land mass with minimal distortion as only one continuous continent A continent (Latin continere, to hold together) is a large continuous mass of land on the planet Earth. ... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... For other uses of War, see War (disambiguation). ... For the Mel Brooks movie of similar name see History of the World, Part I. For the Avalon Hill board game, see History of the World (board game). ...


Attributed in varying degrees to the Treaty of Versailles, the Great Depression, nationalism, and militarism, the causes of the war are a matter of debate. On which date the war began is also debated, cited as either the German invasion of Poland on 1 September 1939, the Japanese invasion of China on 7 July 1937 (the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War), or earlier yet the 1931 Japanese invasion of Manchuria. Still others argue that the two world wars are one conflict separated only by a "ceasefire". Woodrow Wilson with the American Peace Commissioners The Treaty of Versailles of 1919 is the peace treaty created as a result of the six-month-long Paris Peace Conference of 1919 which put an official end to World War I. The ceremonial signing of the treaty with Germany occurred June... The Great Depression was a global economic slump that began in 1929 and bottomed in 1933. ... Nationalism is an ideology that creates and sustains a nation as a concept of a common identity for groups of humans. ... Militarism is the ideology that military strength is the source of all security. ... Main Article: World War II World War II may be the single most complicated conflict in all of history and it is therefore difficult to explain its origin. ... Polish Defence War of 1939 Conflict World War II Date 1 September - 6 October 1939 Place Poland Result Decisive German and Soviet victory The Polish September Campaign (alternatively refered to as the German plan Fall Weiss) refers to the conquest of Poland by the armies of Nazi Germany and the... September 1 is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years). ... 1939 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Great Wall of China, stretching over 6,700 km, was erected beginning in the 3rd century BC to guard the north from raids by men on horses. ... July 7 is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 177 days remaining. ... 1937 was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Second Sino-Japanese War was a major invasion of eastern China by Japan preceding and during World War II. It ended with the surrender of Japan in 1945. ... 1931 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... Approximate extent Northeast China (Simplified Chinese: 东北; Traditional Chinese: 東北; pinyin: Dōngběi; literally east-north), historically known as Manchuria, is the name of a region (ca. ... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... A ceasefire is a temporary stoppage of a war, for any of various reasons. ...


Fighting occurred across the Atlantic Ocean, in Western and Eastern Europe, in the Mediterranean Sea, Africa, the Middle East, in the Pacific and South East Asia, and it continued in China. In Europe, the war ended with the surrender of Germany on 8 May 1945 (V-E and Victory Days), but continued in Asia until Japan surrendered on 15 August 1945 (V-J Day). The Second Battle of the Atlantic was the longest continuous military campaign of World War II, running from 1939 right through to the defeat of Nazi Germany in 1945, and was at its height from mid-1940 through to about the end of 1943. ... German Führer Adolf Hitler Preceding events (See also Events preceding World War II in Europe and Causes of World War II.) br Germany was in debt after World War I, due to the Great Depression and the forced payments to the victors of World War I. Germans wanted a leader... Battle of Mediterranean Conflict World War II Date Place Mediterranean Sea Result Allied victory The Naval Battle of the Mediterranean was waged during World War II, to attack and keep open the respective supply lines of Allied and Axis armies, and to destroy the opposing sides ability to wage... The name African Theatres of World War II encompasses actions which took place in World War II between Allied forces and Axis forces, between 1940 and 1943 both on the African mainland and in nearby waters and islands. ... The Middle East Theatre of World War II Command Structure main article Middle East Command The British Middle East Command was based in Cairo with responsibility not just for British Empire and Dominions ( British Commonwealth) operations in the Middle East and North Africa, but also East Africa, Persia, and the... The Pacific War (1937–1945) is not to be confused with the War of the Pacific (1879–1884) in South America. ... May 8 is the 128th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (129th in leap years). ... 1945 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Victory in Europe Day (V-E Day) was May 8, 1945, the date when the Allies during the Second World War formally celebrated the defeat of Nazi Germany and the end of Adolf Hitlers Reich. ... May 9, Soviet poster based on the famous photo of the Soviet flag being raised over the Reichstag in 1945. ... Representatives of Japan stand aboard the USS Missouri prior to signing of the Instrument of Surrender The Instrument of Surrender of Japan was the armistice ending World War II. It was signed by representatives of the Empire of Japan, the United States, the Republic of China, the United Kingdom, the... August 15 is the 227th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (228th in leap years), with 138 days remaining. ... 1945 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... 15 August 1945 marked Victory over Japan or VJ Day, taking a name similar to Victory in Europe Day, which was generally known as VE Day. ...


Approximately 57 million people died as a result of the war, including acts of genocide such as the Holocaust. As a case of total war, it involved the "home front" and bombing of civilians to a new degree. Nuclear weapons, jet aircraft, and RADAR are only a few of many war-time inventions. World War II military casualties Allied soldiers killed Australia: 23,400 Brazil: 493 Canada: 37,500 China: 2,500,000 (CCP and KMT forces) Czechoslovakia: 46,000 France and Free French Forces: 210,000 Greece: 88,300 India: 36,000 Netherlands: 7,900 New Zealand: 11,625 Norway: 2,000... For other uses of War, see War (disambiguation). ... Genocide has been defined as the deliberate killing of people based on their ethnicity, nationality, race, religion, or (sometimes) politics, as well as other deliberate actions leading to the physical elimination of any of the above categories. ... Concentration camp inmates during the Holocaust The Holocaust refers to Nazi Germanys systematic genocide ( ethnic cleansing) of various ethnic, religious, national, and secular groups during World War II starting in 1941 and continuing through 1945. ... Total war describes an international war in which countries or nations use all of their resources to destroy another organized countrys or nations ability to engage in war. ... Home front is the term commonly used to describe the civilian populace of the nation at war as an active support system of the fighting effort. ... Strategic bombing is a military strategem used in a total war style campaign that attempts to destroy the economic ability of a nation-state to wage war. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ... Jet aircraft are aircraft with jet engines. ... M*A*S*H, see Corporal Walter (Radar) OReilly. ... German Enigma encryption machine Technology during World War II played a crucial role in determining the outcome of the war. ...


Post-war Europe was partitioned into Western and Soviet spheres of influence, the former undergoing economic reconstruction under the Marshall Plan and the latter becoming satellite states of the Soviet Union. Western Europe largely aligned as NATO, and Eastern Europe largely as the Warsaw pact, alliances which were fundamental to the ensuing Cold War. In Asia, the United States' military occupation of Japan led to its Westernization, and China came to split into the Communist People's Republic of China and the Nationalist Republic of China. World map showing location of Europe A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is geologically and geographically a peninsula, forming the westernmost part of Eurasia. ... In general, a partition is a splitting into parts. ... For alternative meanings for The West in the United States, see the U.S. West and American West. ... Soviet Union - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... A sphere of influence is a metaphorical region of political influences surrounding a country or a region of economic influence around an urban area. ... U.S. postage stamp issued 1997 honoring the 50th anniversary of the Marshall Plan. ... The term satellite state, by analogy to stellar objects orbiting a larger object, such as planets revolving around the sun, refers to a country that is formally sovereign but that is in fact dominated by a larger hegemonic power. ... Soviet Union - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... For the National Association of Theatre Owners, please see National Association of Theatre Owners. ... Map of Warsaw Pact member countries. ... The Cold War ( 1947- 1991) was the open yet restricted rivalry that developed after World War II between groups of nations practicing different ideologies and political systems. ... World map showing location of Asia A satellite composite image of Asia Asia is the central and eastern part of the continent of Eurasia, defined by subtracting the European peninsula from Eurasia. ... Belligerent military occupation, occurs when one nations military garrisons occupy all or part of a foreign nation during an invasion (during or after a war). ... Official language Japanese Capital Tokyo Largest City Tokyo Emperor Akihito Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 60th 377,835 km² 0. ... Westernisation is a process whereby traditional, long-established societies come under the influence of Western (European or American) culture in such matters as industry, technology, economics, lifestyle, food and moral and cultural values. ... The Great Wall of China, stretching over 6,700 km, was erected beginning in the 3rd century BC to guard the north from raids by men on horses. ... Communism - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... The Peoples Republic of China (PRC) comprises most of the cultural, historic, and geographic area known as China. ... Nationalism is an ideology that creates and sustains a nation as a concept of a common identity for groups of humans. ... The Republic of China ( Traditional Chinese: 中華民國; Simplified Chinese: 中华民国; Wade-Giles: Chung-hua Min-kuo, Tongyong Pinyin: JhongHuá MínGuó, Hanyu Pinyin: Zhōnghuá Mínguó) is a multiparty democratic state that is composed of the island groups of Taiwan, the Pescadores, Quemoy, and the Matsu. ...

Contents

Participants

The belligerents of the Second World War are usually considered to belong to either of the two blocks: the Axis and the Allies. A number of smaller countries participated in the war, more or less voluntarily, on the side of the power that in their neighborhood was the most influential. The Axis Powers is a term for those participants in World War II opposed to the Allies. ... In general, allies are people or groups that have joined an alliance and are working together to achieve some common purpose. ...


The Axis Powers consisted primarily of Germany, Italy, and Japan, which split the Earth into three spheres of influence under the Tripartite Pact of 1940, and vowed to defend one another against aggression. This replaced the German-Japanese Anti-Comintern Pact of 1936 that Italy had joined in 1937. A number of smaller countries were counted to the Axis powers, but these countries did not have a profound impact on the war, nor did they supply the Axis powers with any great abundance of troops or supplies. The Federal Republic of Germany (German: Bundesrepublik Deutschland) is one of the worlds leading industrialised countries, located in the heart of Europe. ... The Italian Republic or Italy (Italian: Repubblica Italiana or Italia) is a country in southern Europe. ... Official language Japanese Capital Tokyo Largest City Tokyo Emperor Akihito Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 60th 377,835 km² 0. ... A sphere of influence is a metaphorical region of political influences surrounding a country or a region of economic influence around an urban area. ... The Tripartite Pact, also called the Three-Power Pact, was signed in Berlin on September 27, 1940 by representatives of Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy and Japan. ... 1940 was a leap year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Anti-Comintern Pact was concluded between Nazi Germany and Japan on November 25th, 1936. ... 1936 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1937 was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Until attacked in June 1941, the Soviet Union was effectively allied with Nazi Germany through the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, invading and occupying parts or the whole of Poland, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Romania. 1941 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Soviet Union - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Molotov (left), Ribbentrop (in black) and Stalin (far right) The Molotov-Ribbentrop pact, also known as the Hitler-Stalin pact or Nazi-Soviet pact and formally known as the Treaty of Nonaggression between Germany and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, was a non-aggression treaty between Germany and Russia... The Republic of Poland, a democratic country with a population of 38,626,349 and area of 312,685 km², is located in Central Europe, between Germany to the west, the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south, Ukraine and Belarus to the east, and the Baltic Sea, Lithuania and... The Republic of Finland (Finnish: Suomen tasavalta, Swedish: Republiken Finland) is a Nordic country in northeastern Europe, bordered by the Baltic Sea to the southwest, the Gulf of Finland to the southeast and the Gulf of Bothnia to the west. ... The Republic of Estonia is a country in Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea to the west and the Gulf of Finland to the north. ... The Republic of Latvia (Latvian: Latvijas Republika), or Latvia (Latvian: Latvija), is a country in Northern Europe. ... The Republic of Lithuania (in Lithuanian, Lietuva) is a republic in Northeastern Europe. ... Romania (formerly spelled Rumania or Roumania; Romanian: România) is a country in southeastern Europe. ...


Among the Allied powers, the "Big Three" were the United Kingdom, from September 1939, the Soviet Union, from June 1941, and the United States, from December 1941. China had been fighting Japan since 1937. France, the independent dominions of the British Commonwealth, Poland, the Netherlands, Belgium, Norway and Denmark were also counted among the Allies. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the G8, the European Union, and NATO. Usually known simply as the United Kingdom, the UK, or (inaccurately) as Great Britain or Britain, the UK has four constituent... Soviet Union - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... The Great Wall of China, stretching over 6,700 km, was erected beginning in the 3rd century BC to guard the north from raids by men on horses. ... The French Republic or France (French: République française or France) is a country whose metropolitan territory is located in western Europe, and which is further made up of a collection of overseas islands and territories located in other continents. ... This is a page about Dominions of the British Empire/Commonwealth. ... Flag of the Commonwealth of Nations The Commonwealth of Nations is a voluntary association of independent sovereign states, most of which were once governed by the United Kingdom and are its former colonies. ... The Republic of Poland, a democratic country with a population of 38,626,349 and area of 312,685 km², is located in Central Europe, between Germany to the west, the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south, Ukraine and Belarus to the east, and the Baltic Sea, Lithuania and... The Netherlands (Dutch: Nederland) is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands (Dutch: Koninkrijk der Nederlanden). ... The Kingdom of Belgium (Dutch: Koninkrijk België, French: Royaume de Belgique, German: Königreich Belgien) is a country in Western Europe, bordered by the Netherlands, Germany, Luxembourg, France, and the North Sea. ... Norway - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... The Kingdom of Denmark is geographically the smallest Nordic country and is part of the European Union. ...


Countries that attempted to remain neutral in the conflict were often viewed with suspicion by the participants, and often pressured to make contributions to the most influential power in their neighborhood. Neutral countries were also hotbeds of espionage. A neutral country takes no side in a war between other parties, and in return hopes to avoid being attacked by either of them. ... Spy and secret agent redirect here; for alternate use, see Spy (disambiguation) and Secret agent (disambiguation). ...


Origins of war

Main articles: Causes of World War II, Events preceding World War II in Europe, Events preceding World War II in Asia Main Article: World War II World War II may be the single most complicated conflict in all of history and it is therefore difficult to explain its origin. ... This article chronicles the events preceding those of the European Theatre of World War II. In Europe, the origins of the war are closely tied to the rise of fascism, especially in Nazi Germany. ... Events preceding World War II in Asia primarily includes political and military developments in China and Japan. ...


The Second World War had a variety of causes. Some of the most commonly mentioned include the aggressive rise of totalitarian ideologies, and, from a narrower perspective, the severity of the war reparations demanded of Weimar Germany after World War I, coupled with the effects of the Great Depression and the lack of raw materials in Japan. The concept of Totalitarianism is a typology or ideal-type used by some political scientists to encapsulate the characteristics of a number of twentieth century regimes that mobilized entire populations in support of the state or an ideology. ... An ideology is a collection of ideas. ... War reparations refer to the monetary compensation provided to a triumphant nation or coalition from a defeated nation or coalition. ... The period of German history from 1919 to 1933 is known as the Weimar Republic (in German Weimarer Republik). It is named after the city of Weimar, where a national assembly convened to produce a new constitution after the German monarchy was abolished following the nations defeat in World... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... The Great Depression was a global economic slump that began in 1929 and bottomed in 1933. ...

In 1922 Benito Mussolini and the Fascist party had risen to power in Italy. Mussolini's Italian fascists shared some ideological aspirations with the German Nazis and, although Mussolini distrusted Hitler, the two countries formed an agreement that became known as the "Rome-Berlin Axis" in 1936. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Benito Mussolini created a fascist state through the use of propaganda, total control of the media and disassembly of the working democratic government. ... Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945), a German politician who was the founder of the Third Reich (1933-1945), is widely regarded as one of the most significant and reviled leaders in world history. ... 1922 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Benito Mussolini created a fascist state through the use of propaganda, total control of the media and disassembly of the working democratic government. ... Benito Mussolini and Adolf Hitler Fascism (in Italian, fascismo), capitalized, refers to the right-wing authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ... The Nazi party used a right-facing swastika as their symbol and the red and black colors were said to represent Blut und Boden (blood and soil). ... 1936 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ...


As a result of the Treaty of Versailles, which followed First World War, Germany lost its colonies to the Allies and had much of its territory transferred to France and Poland. The treaty also required Germany to pay heavy war reparations and restricted its military to a small defensive force. The economic difficulties Germany suffered following the war, due in large part to the heavy reparations it was forced to pay, are commonly believed to have been key in bringing the nationalistic and militaristic Nazi Party to power in Germany. Adolf Hitler, its leader, was elected as Chancellor of Germany on 30 January 1933, and became de facto dictator on 2 August 1934 with the death of President Paul von Hindenburg. Defying treaty conditions, Hitler created a large, rearmed military capable of offense (Wehrmacht) in 1935. The United Kingdom and Germany signed the Anglo-German Naval Agreement on 18 June 1935, allowing Germany to expand its Kriegsmarine to one-third the tonnage of the Royal Navy. Italy began the Second Italo-Abyssinian War on 3 October by invading Ethiopia, which it desired as an empire territory. Woodrow Wilson with the American Peace Commissioners The Treaty of Versailles of 1919 is the peace treaty created as a result of the six-month-long Paris Peace Conference of 1919 which put an official end to World War I. The ceremonial signing of the treaty with Germany occurred June... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... War reparations refer to the monetary compensation provided to a triumphant nation or coalition from a defeated nation or coalition. ... The Reichswehr (literally National Defence or National Militia) formed the military organization of Germany from 1918 until 1935, when the government rebranded it as the Wehrmacht (Defence Power). ... Nationalism is an ideology that creates and sustains a nation as a concept of a common identity for groups of humans. ... Militarism is the ideology that military strength is the source of all security. ... The Nazi swastika symbol The National Socialist German Workers Party ( German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei), better known as the NSDAP or the Nazi Party was a political party that was led to power in Germany by Adolf Hitler in 1933. ... Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945), a German politician who was the founder of the Third Reich (1933-1945), is widely regarded as one of the most significant and reviled leaders in world history. ... The head of government in Germany has traditionally been called Kanzler ( Chancellor). ... January 30 is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1933 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Dictator was the title of a magistrate in ancient Rome appointed by the Senate to rule the state in times of emergency. ... August 2 is the 214th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (215th in leap years), with 151 days remaining. ... 1934 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Reichspräsident (Reich President) was the German head of state during the period of the 1919- 1933 Weimar Republic and the title was later briefly revived in 1945. ... Paul von Hindenburg President of Germany Paul von Hindenburg (full name Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg) ( October 2, 1847– August 2, 1934) was a German Field Marshal and statesman. ... The Wehrmacht (literally defence force or means/power of resistance) was the name of the armed forces of Germany from 1935 to 1945. ... 1935 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Anglo-German Naval Agreement (AGNA), was signed between England and Germany in of June 18, 1935. ... June 18 is the 169th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (170th in leap years), with 196 days remaining. ... 1935 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Kriegsmarine or War Navy was the name of the German Navy between 1935 and 1945, during the Nazi reign. ... Royal Navy Ensign The Royal Navy is the navy of the United Kingdom. ... Italian troops fortify a position in Abyssinia Lasting seven months from 1935-1936, the Second Italo-Abyssinian War is often seen as a precursor to World War II and a demonstration of the inefficiency of the League of Nations. ... 3rd October Organization is also the name of a Marxist terrorist group . ... The Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (Ityopiya, Amharic ኢትዮጵያ) is a country situated in the Horn of Africa. ...

Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain holds the text of the Munich Agreement in September 1938.

Germany reoccupied the demilitarized Rhineland region bordering France on 7 March 1936. Poland sought the activation of Franco-Polish agreements from the Locarno Treaties, but action was dismissed. France and the United Kingdom pursued a strategy of appeasement, attempting to maintain peace with Germany through diplomatic concessions. Germany annexed the nation of Austria in the Anschluss of 1938. British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain then met Adolf Hitler to reach a guarantee on the extent of Germany's territorial ambitions, and came away declaring "peace for our time" with the Munich Agreement of 1938. This gave Germany the United Kingdom's assent to annex the ethnically German Sudetenland of Czechoslovakia, itself not represented, and nothing further; the USSR opposed this arrangement in the League of Nations and offered Czechoslovakia military assistance. In 1939 Chamberlain resisted an April 16 offer by the USSR to form a three way defensive alliance with France against Nazi aggression. This alliance, entertained for months but not seriously negotiated (Russians claimed Britain offered to deploy only 4 divisions compared to the French 100 and the Soviet 300), may well have delayed Hitler. Its failure led to the USSR signing the Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact on 23 August 1939, which secured one front for Hitler and triggered one week later the German invasion of Poland and the formal commencement of World War 2. Chamberlain on his return from Munich, waves the infamous piece of paper containing the resolution to committ to peaceful methods signed by both Hitler and himself. ... Chamberlain on his return from Munich, waves the infamous piece of paper containing the resolution to committ to peaceful methods signed by both Hitler and himself. ... Arthur Neville Chamberlain (18 March 1869 - 9 November 1940) was a British politician and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1937 - 1940. ... The Munich Agreement was an agreement regarding the Munich Crisis between the major powers of Europe after a conference held in Munich in Germany in 1938 and concluded on September 29. ... Military meaning see: Korean Demilitarized Zone DMZ computer term The TLA is short for demilitarized zone, which is a subnetwork that sits between the trusted internal network or local area network and the outside world or public Internet. ... The Rhineland (Rheinland in German) is the general name for the land on both sides of the river Rhine in the west of Germany. ... March 7 is the 66th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (67th in Leap years). ... 1936 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Locarno Treaties were seven agreements negotiated at Locarno, Switzerland on 5–16 October 1925 and formally signed in London on December 1, in which the World War I western European Allied powers and the new states of central and eastern Europe sought to secure the post-war territorial settlement... Appeasement is a strategic maneuver, based on either pragmatism, fear of war, or moral conviction, that leads to acceptance of imposed conditions in lieu of armed resistance. ... This page is about negotiations; for the board game, see Diplomacy (game). ... The Republic of Austria (German: Republik Österreich) is a landlocked country in Central Europe. ... The general German term Anschluss is part of the specific political incident Anschluss Österreichs referring to the inclusion of Austria in a Greater Germany in 1938. ... 1938 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... In the United Kingdom, the Prime Minister is the head of government, exercising many of the executive functions nominally vested in the Sovereign, who is head of state. ... Arthur Neville Chamberlain (18 March 1869 - 9 November 1940) was a British politician and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1937 - 1940. ... The Munich Agreement was an agreement regarding the Munich Crisis between the major powers of Europe after a conference held in Munich in Germany in 1938 and concluded on September 29. ... 1938 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Sudetenland (Sudety in Czech) was the name used before 1918 and in 1938–45 for the region inhabited mostly by Sudeten Germans (German: Sudetendeutsche, Czech: Sudetští Němci) in the various places of Bohemia. ... Czechoslovakia (Czech: Československo, Slovak: Česko-Slovensko/before 1990 Československo) was a country in Central Europe that existed from 1918 until 1992 (except for the World War II period). ... The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) (Russian: Союз Советских Социалистических Республик (СССР)  listen; tr. ... The League of Nations was an international organisation founded after the First World War with its constitution being approved by the Paris Peace Conference in 1919. ... The French Republic or France (French: République française or France) is a country whose metropolitan territory is located in western Europe, and which is further made up of a collection of overseas islands and territories located in other continents. ... The Nazi party used a right-facing swastika as their symbol and the red and black colors were said to represent Blut und Boden (blood and soil). ... Molotov (left), Ribbentrop (in black) and Stalin (far right) The Molotov-Ribbentrop pact, also known as the Hitler-Stalin pact or Nazi-Soviet pact and formally known as the Treaty of Nonaggression between Germany and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, was a non-aggression treaty between Germany and Russia... August 23 is the 235th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (236th in leap years), with 130 days remaining. ...


Japan had, as early as the late nineteenth century, begun to expand across Asia. The expansion was brought about by conflict between traditional Japanese practices and changing social conditions associated with rapid industrialization and modernization. In 1905 Japan won an astounding victory over Russia, and in 1910 it occupied Korea and made it a colony. Official language Japanese Capital Tokyo Largest City Tokyo Emperor Akihito Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 60th 377,835 km² 0. ... Industrialisation (or industrialization) or an industrial revolution (in general, with lowercase letters) is a process of social and economic change whereby a human society is transformed from a pre-industrial to an industrial state . ... Modernization is the process of changing the conditions of a society, an organisation or another group of people in ways that change the privileges of that group according to modern technology or modern knowledge. ... 1905 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... The Russian Federation (Russian: Росси́йская Федера́ция, transliteration: Rossiyskaya Federatsiya or Rossijskaja Federacija), or Russia (Russian: Росси́я, transliteration: Rossiya or Rossija), is a country that stretches over a vast expanse of eastern Europe and northern Asia. ... 1910 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Korea is a formerly unified country, situated on the Korean Peninsula in northern East Asia, bordering on China to the west and Russia to the north. ...


During the 1920s democracy seemed to be taking root in Japan, but by the 1930s, the Great Depression brought to the fore many talented military leaders who took control of Japan, often ruling in the name of Emperor Hirohito, and playing on the traditional respect the Japanese people held for their emperors. In 1931, Japan invaded and occupied Inner Manchuria, setting up the puppet state of Manchukuo, and by 1937 launched a second invasion that occupied the rest of the region. For this reason, some scholars date the actual start of World War II to 1936/37. Centuries: 19th century - 20th century - 21st century Decades: 1870s 1880s 1890s 1900s 1910s - 1920s - 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s Years: 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 Referred to as the Roaring 20s. ... Events and trends Technology Jet engine invented Science Nuclear fission discovered by Otto Hahn, Lise Meitner and Fritz Strassmann Pluto, the ninth planet from the Sun, is discovered by Clyde Tombaugh British biologist Arthur Tansley coins term ecosystem War, peace and politics Socialists proclaim The death of Capitalism Rise to... The Great Depression was a global economic slump that began in 1929 and bottomed in 1933. ... Hirohito (裕仁), the Shōwa Emperor (昭和天皇), (April 29, 1901 - January 7, 1989) reigned over Japan from 1926 to 1989. ... 1931 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... Approximate extent Manchuria and Northeast China are names for a region (ca. ... Manchukuo was a nominally independent puppet state set up by the Empire of Japan in Manchuria (Northeastern China) which existed from 1931 to 1945. ... 1937 was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Second Sino-Japanese War was a major invasion of eastern China by Japan preceding and during World War II. It ended with the surrender of Japan in 1945. ... 1936 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1937 was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Europe, 1939-45

Main articles: European Theatre of World War II, End of World War II in Europe German Führer Adolf Hitler Preceding events (See also Events preceding World War II in Europe and Causes of World War II.) br Germany was in debt after World War I, due to the Great Depression and the forced payments to the victors of World War I. Germans wanted a leader... This article chronicles the end of the European Theatre of World War II. On April 25, 1945 United States and Soviet troops linked-up, cutting Germany in two (see Elbe Day). ...


1939: Poland, Phony War, Tripartite Pact, Winter War

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German soldiers destroying Polish border checkpoint on 1 September 1939. Second World War begins.

War began in Europe on 1 September 1939 with the German invasion of Poland. France and the United Kingdom honored their defensive alliance of March 1939 by declaring war two days later on 3 September.1 Only partly mobilized, Poland fared poorly against the Wehrmacht's superior numbers and strategy of "blitzkrieg". In accordance with the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, the Soviet Red Army invaded Poland from the east on 17 September. Hours later, the Polish government escaped to Romania. The last Polish Army unit was defeated on 6 October. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... September 1 is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years). ... 1939 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... World map showing location of Europe A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is geologically and geographically a peninsula, forming the westernmost part of Eurasia. ... September 1 is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years). ... 1939 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Polish Defence War of 1939 Conflict World War II Date 1 September - 6 October 1939 Place Poland Result Decisive German and Soviet victory The Polish September Campaign (alternatively refered to as the German plan Fall Weiss) refers to the conquest of Poland by the armies of Nazi Germany and the... The French Republic or France (French: République française or France) is a country whose metropolitan territory is located in western Europe, and which is further made up of a collection of overseas islands and territories located in other continents. ... The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the G8, the European Union, and NATO. Usually known simply as the United Kingdom, the UK, or (inaccurately) as Great Britain or Britain, the UK has four constituent... For alternative meanings, see March (disambiguation). ... 1939 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... September 3 is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years). ... The Wehrmacht (literally defence force or means/power of resistance) was the name of the armed forces of Germany from 1935 to 1945. ... Blitzkrieg relied on close cooperation between infantry and panzers (tanks). ... Molotov (left), Ribbentrop (in black) and Stalin (far right) The Molotov-Ribbentrop pact, also known as the Hitler-Stalin pact or Nazi-Soviet pact and formally known as the Treaty of Nonaggression between Germany and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, was a non-aggression treaty between Germany and Russia... Soviet Union - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... Red Army flag The short forms Red Army and RKKA refer to the Workers and Peasants Red Army, (Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия - Raboche-Krestyanskaya Krasnaya Armiya in Russian), the armed forces organised by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918. ... The Republic of Poland, a democratic country with a population of 38,626,349 and area of 312,685 km², is located in Central Europe, between Germany to the west, the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south, Ukraine and Belarus to the east, and the Baltic Sea, Lithuania and... September 17 is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years). ... The Government of the Polish Republic in exile maintained a continuous existence in exile from the time of the German occupation of Poland in September 1939 until the end of the Communist rule in Poland in 1990. ... The Romanian Bridgehead (Polish Przedmoście rumuńskie) was an area in South-Eastern Poland, nowadays located in Ukraine. ... October 6 is the 279th day of the year (280th in Leap years). ...


As Poland fell, the British and French remained largely inactive in what would be termed "the Phony War," lasting until May 1940. There were isolated engagements during this period, including the sinking of the HMS Royal Oak in the British port of Scapa Flow and bombings of the naval bases at Rosyth and Scapa Flow by the Luftwaffe. The Kriegsmarine pocket battleship "Admiral Graf Spee" was sunk in South America after the battle of the River Plate. The Phony War, or in Winston Churchills words the Twilight War, was the phase of World War II marked by no military operations in Continental Europe, that followed the collapse of Poland. ... 1940 was a leap year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Seven (or eleven, depending on how one counts) vessels of the British Royal Navy have been named HMS Royal Oak. ... Scapa Flow is a body of water in the Orkney Islands, Scotland, United Kingdom. ... Rosyth (pronounced Ross-sythe) is located in Scotland, United Kingdom on the Firth of Forth, a mile (1. ... The Luftwaffe (literally, air weapon, pronounced looft-vaaf-feh) is the air force of Germany. ... The Kriegsmarine or War Navy was the name of the German Navy between 1935 and 1945, during the Nazi reign. ... Pocket battleship is the British Royal Navy description for a class of warships built by German Reichsmarine in accordance with restrictions imposed by the Treaty of Versailles. ... Admiral Graf Spee was a pocket battleship (Panzerschiff, later changed to heavy cruiser) launched by Germany in 1934 and named after the World War I Admiral Graf Maximilian von Spee. ... The Battle of the River Plate (13 December 1939) was the first major naval battle of World War II. The German pocket battleship (heavy cruiser) Admiral Graf Spee which had sunk several merchant ships was engaged by three Royal Navy cruisers, ultimately leading to the Graf Spee entering neutral Montevideo...


The Tripartite Pact was signed between Germany, Italy, and Japan on 27 September 1940, formalizing their alignment as the "Axis Powers." The Tripartite Pact, also called the Three-Power Pact, was signed in Berlin on September 27, 1940 by representatives of Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy and Japan. ... September 27 is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 95 days remaining. ... 1940 was a leap year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Axis Powers is a term for those participants in World War II opposed to the Allies. ...


Finland was invaded by the Soviet Union on 30 November 1939, beginning the Winter War, which lasted until March of 1940 with Finland ceding territory to the Soviet Union. The Republic of Finland (Finnish: Suomen tasavalta, Swedish: Republiken Finland) is a Nordic country in northeastern Europe, bordered by the Baltic Sea to the southwest, the Gulf of Finland to the southeast and the Gulf of Bothnia to the west. ... November 30 is the 334th day (335th on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1939 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Winter War (also known as the Russo-Finnish War) broke out when the Soviet Union attacked Finland on November 30, 1939, three months after the start of World War II. As a consequence, the Soviet Union was expelled from the League of Nations on December 14th. ... For alternative meanings, see March (disambiguation). ... 1940 was a leap year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ...


1940: Denmark and Norway, France and Low Countries, Baltic Republics, Britain and Atlantic, Greece

Germany invaded Denmark and Norway on 9 April 1940 in Operation Weserübung, ostensibly to counter the threat of an Allied invasion from the region. Heavy fighting ensued on land and at sea in Norway. British, French and Polish forces landed to support the Norwegians, at Namsos, Åndalsnes and Narvik, with more success at the latter. By early June all Allied forces were evacuated and the Norwegian Army surrendered. The Kingdom of Denmark is geographically the smallest Nordic country and is part of the European Union. ... Norway - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... April 9 is the 99th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (100th in leap years). ... 1940 was a leap year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Operation Weserübung was the German codename for Nazi Germanys assault on Scandinavia during World War II. The name translates as Weser Exercise, the Weser being a German river. ... In April and early May, 1940 Namsos was the scene of heavy fighting in World War Two between Anglo-French naval and military forces and German military and air forces. ... Narvik is a town in the county of Nordland, Norway. ... In general, allies are people or groups that have joined an alliance and are working together to achieve some common purpose. ...


France and the Low Countries were invaded on 10 May, ending the Phony War and beginning the Battle of France. In the first phase of the invasion, Operation Yellow, the Wehrmacht's Panzergruppe von Kleist bypassed the Maginot Line and split the Allies in two by driving to the English channel. Belgium, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands fell quickly against the attack of Army Group B and the British Expeditionary Force, trapped in the north, was evacuated at Dunkirk in Operation Dynamo. German forces then invaded France itself, in Operation Red, advancing behind the Maginot Line and near the coast. Defeated, an armistice was declared on 22 June and the Vichy France puppet government created. The French Republic or France (French: République française or France) is a country whose metropolitan territory is located in western Europe, and which is further made up of a collection of overseas islands and territories located in other continents. ... The Low Countries are the countries on low-lying land around the delta of the Rhine and Meuse rivers— usually used in modern context to mean the Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg (an alternate modern term, more often used today, is Benelux). ... May 10 is the 130th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (131st in leap years). ... In World War II, Battle of France or Case Yellow (Fall Gelb in German) was the France and the Low Countries, executed 10 May 1940 which ended the Phony War. ... Maginot Line fortification, 2002 The Maginot Line was a line of concrete fortifications, tank obstacles, machine gun posts and other defenses which France constructed along her borders with Germany and with Italy in the wake of World War I. Generally the term describes either the entire system or just the... The English Channel ( French:La Manche) is the part of the Atlantic Ocean that separates the island of Great Britain from northern France, and joins the North Sea to the Atlantic Ocean. ... The Kingdom of Belgium (Dutch: Koninkrijk België, French: Royaume de Belgique, German: Königreich Belgien) is a country in Western Europe, bordered by the Netherlands, Germany, Luxembourg, France, and the North Sea. ... The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg is a small landlocked state in the north-west of the continental European Union, bordered by France, Germany and Belgium. ... The British Expeditionary Force (BEF) was the British army sent to Belgium in World War I and British Forces in Europe from 1939 - 1940 during World War II. The BEF was established by Secretary of State for War Richard Haldane following the Boer War in case Britain ever needed to... Dunkirk is the English name for the city of Dunkerque in northern France: see Dunkirk, France. ... During World War II, Operation Dynamo was the name given to the evacuation from Dunkirk conducted from 27 May to 4 June 1940. ... An armistice is the effective end of a war, when the warring parties agree to stop fighting. ... June 22 is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 192 days remaining. ... Vichy France (French: now called Régime de Vichy or Vichy; called itself at the time État Français, or French State) was the French state of 1940-1944 which was a puppet government under Nazi influence, as opposed to the Free French Forces, based first in London and later in Algiers. ... A puppet state is a state whose government, though notionally of the same culture as the governed people - owes its existence (or other major debt) to being installed, supported or controlled by a more powerful entity, typically a foreign power. ...


In June of 1940 the Soviet Union occupied Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia, and annexed Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina from Romania. June is the sixth month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of four with the length of 30 days. ... 1940 was a leap year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Republic of Latvia (Latvian: Latvijas Republika), or Latvia (Latvian: Latvija), is a country in Northern Europe. ... The Republic of Lithuania (in Lithuanian, Lietuva) is a republic in Northeastern Europe. ... The Republic of Estonia is a country in Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea to the west and the Gulf of Finland to the north. ... Old map of Bessarabia Bessarabia or Bessarabiya (Basarabia in Turkish) was the name used by Russia to designate the eastern part of the territory known as Moldova (Moldavia in English), which was occupied by Russia in 1812. ... Bukovina - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... Romania (formerly spelled Rumania or Roumania; Romanian: România) is a country in southeastern Europe. ...


Not having secured a rapid peace with the United Kingdom, Germany began preparations to invade with the Battle of Britain. Fighter aircraft fought overhead for months as the Luftwaffe and Royal Air Force fought for control of Britain's skies. The Luftwaffe initially targeted RAF Fighter Command, but turned to terror bombing London. Germany was defeated and Operation Sealion, the proposed invasion of the British Isles, was abandoned. Similar efforts were made, though at sea, in the Battle of the Atlantic. In a long-running campaign, German U-Boats attempted to deprive the British Isles of necessary Lend Lease cargo from the United States. Shipments were reduced considerably by the U-Boats, however it was not sufficient to cause the United Kingdom to seek peace. Battle of Britain - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... The Luftwaffe (literally, air weapon, pronounced looft-vaaf-feh) is the air force of Germany. ... The Royal Air Force (often abbreviated to RAF) is the air force of the United Kingdom. ... It needs informaion on Post World War II treaties World War I The first ever aerial bombardment of civilians was on January 19, 1915, in which two German Zeppelins dropped twenty four 50 kg high explosive bombs and ineffective 3 kg incendiaries on Greath Yarmouth, Sheringham, Kings Lynn and the... London — containing the City of London — is the capital of the United Kingdom and of England and a major world city. With over seven million inhabitants (Londoners) in Greater London area, it is amongst the most densely populated areas in Western Europe. ... Operation Sealion (Unternehmen Seelöwe in German) was a World War II German plan to invade Britain. ... The Second Battle of the Atlantic was the longest continuous military campaign of World War II, running from 1939 right through to the defeat of Nazi Germany in 1945, and was at its height from mid-1940 through to about the end of 1943. ... U-boat is also a nickname for some diesel locomotives built by GE; see List of GE locomotives October 1939. ... The Lend-lease Act of March 11, 1941 permitted the President of the United States to sell, transfer title to, exchange, lease, lend, or otherwise dispose of, to any such government [whose defense the President deems vital to the defense of the United States] any defense article. It thus extended...


Italy invaded Greece on 28 October 1940 from bases in Albania. Although outnumbered, Greek forces successfully repelled the Italian attacks and invaded parts of South Albania. The Italian Republic or Italy (Italian: Repubblica Italiana or Italia) is a country in southern Europe. ... Greece, officaly called the Hellenic Republic (Greek: Ελληνική Δημοκρατία), is a country in the southeast of Europe on the southern tip of the Balkan peninsula. ... October 28 is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 64 days remaining. ... 1940 was a leap year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ...


1941: Greece, Yugoslavia, Soviet Union, Continuation War, United States enters

Yugoslavia's government succumbed to the pressure of Italy and Germany and signed the Tripartite Treaty on March 25, 1941. This was followed by anti-axis demonstrations in the country and a coup which overthrew the government and replaced it with a pro-allied one on March 27, 1941. Hitler's forces then invaded Greece and Yugoslavia on April 6, 1941. Hitler reluctantly sent forces to assist Mussolini's bogged-down forces in Greece, principally to prevent a British buildup on Germany's strategic southern flank. The Kingdom of Yugoslavia was a Balkan state which existed from December 1, 1918 to mid-April 1941. ... March 25 is the 84th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (85th in leap years). ... 1941 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... A coup détat, or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. ... March 27 is the 86th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (87th in Leap years). ... Greece, officaly called the Hellenic Republic (Greek: Ελληνική Δημοκρατία), is a country in the southeast of Europe on the southern tip of the Balkan peninsula. ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in all south Slavic languages) is a term used for three separate but successive political entities that existed during most of the 20th century on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe. ... Benito Mussolini created a fascist state through the use of propaganda, total control of the media and disassembly of the working democratic government. ...


Yugoslavia was occupied within eleven days of the invasion. Thousands of Yugoslavs, however, continued to fight an effective guerilla war. The struggle lasted somewhat longer in Greece. The main mass of the Greek army was already engaged against Italian forces in Albania. Seeing the bleakness of the situation, about 58,000 British soldiers were sent to the aid of the Greeks. The German invasion developed along the Greek-Bulgarian border where they met stiff resistance from the fortifications of the Metaxas Line. The rapid downfall of Yugoslavia, however, allowed German forces to pour into Greece with little resistance and were able to surround the Greek positions. German soldiers entered Athens on April 27, 1941 symbolizing the end of organized Greek resistance. The British managed to evacuate about 43,000 of their men. Albania is a Mediterranean country in southeastern Europe. ... The Acropolis in central Athens, one of the most important landmarks in world history. ...


The Greek army collapsed in the face of the overwhelming skill and force of the German Blitzkrieg. This German "lighting attack" had destroyed the once powerful Greek military in just 3 weeks time. A month later on May 20, 1941 tens of thousands of elite German paratroops and some 1,300 airplanes launched a massive airborne invasion of the Greek island of Crete. German troops faced fierce resistance from the British, Australian, and New Zealand troops. The German paratroops suffered about a 50% casualty figure in their successful conquest of Crete. However, Hitler felt the casualties were too high, and concluded that airborne paratroop operations were not a good use of resources in any potential future Crete-style scenarios. On retrospect, British paratroop casualties in the battle for Normandy were 65%, and American paratroops had about a 50% casualty rate. These western Allied airborne operations were deemed successful, though. Later, in Operation Market Garden, whole Allied paratroop divisions were destroyed by the Germans. This shows that the German paratroop casaulty rate in the Battle for Crete was typical of successful airborne operations on both sides through out the war. Crete, sometimes spelled Krete (Greek Κρήτη / Kriti) is the largest of the Greek islands and the fifth largest in the Mediterranean Sea. ... Operation Market Garden was an Allied military operation in World War II, which took place in September 1944. ...

German plan for Operation Barbarossa

Operation Barbarossa, the German invasion of the Soviet Union, commenced on 22 June 1941. The "Great Patriotic War" (Russian: Великая Отечественная Война, Velikaya Otechestvennaya Voyna) had begun with surprise attacks by German panzer armies, which encircled and destroyed much of the Soviet's western military, capturing or killing hundreds of thousands of men. Soviet forces came to fight a war of scorched earth, withdrawing into the steppe of Russia to acquire time and stretch the German army. Industries were dismantled and withdrawn to the Ural mountains for reassembly. German armies pursued a three-pronged advance against Leningrad, Moscow, and the Caucasus. Having pushed to occupy Moscow before winter, German forces were delayed into the Soviet Winter. Soviet counterattacks defeated them within sight of Moscow's spires, and a rout was only narrowly avoided. Some historians identify this as the "turning point" in the Allies' war against Germany; others identify the capitulation of the German Sixth Army outside Stalingrad in 1943. Source: http://carlisle-www. ... Source: http://carlisle-www. ... Original German plan Operation Barbarossa (Unternehmen Barbarossa) was the German codename for Nazi Germanys invasion of the Soviet Union during World War II, which commenced on June 22, 1941. ... June 22 is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 192 days remaining. ... 1941 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Eastern Front1 was the theatre of combat between Nazi Germany and its allies against the Soviet Union during World War II. It was somewhat separate from the other theatres of the war, not only geographically, but also for its scale and ferocity. ... Russian (русский язык  listen?) is the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages. ... This article is about the military strategy. ... The steppe of Western Kazakhstan in early spring In physical geography, steppe (from Slavic step) is a plain without trees (apart from those near rivers and lakes); it is similar to a prairie, although a prairie is generally reckoned as being dominated by tall grasses, while short grasses are said... The Ural Mountains, (Russian: Ура́льские го́ры = Ура́л) also known simply as the Urals, are a mountain range that run roughly north and south through western Russia. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the Gulf of Finland of the Baltic Sea. ... Saint Basils Cathedral Moscow  listen? ( Russian/Cyrillic: Москва́, pronunciation: Moskva), capital of Russia, located on the river Moskva, and encompassing 1097. ... The Caucasus is a region in West Asia between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea which includes the Caucasus mountains and surrounding lowlands. ... Rodina Mat (Motherland), statue on the Mamayev Kurgan, Volgograd Volgograd (Волгогра́д) (population: 1,012,000), formerly called Tsaritsyn (Цари́цын) (1598 - 1925) and Stalingrad (Сталингра́д) (1925 - 1961) is a city on the west bank of Volga river in southwestern Volgograd Oblast (province), Northern Caucasus district, Russia. ... 1943 is a common year starting on Friday. ...


The Continuation War between Finland and the Soviet Union began with Soviet air attacks shortly after the beginning of Operation Barbarossa, on 25 June, and ended with an armistice in 1944. The Soviet Union was joined in the war by the United Kingdom but not by the United States. The Continuation War was fought between Finland and the Soviet Union during World War II; from the Soviet bombing attacks on June 25, 1941, to cease-fire September 4, 1944 (on the Finnish side) and September 5 (on the Soviet side). ... June 25 is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 189 days remaining. ... 1944 was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Germany declared war on the United States on 11 December 1941, following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. It was not obligated to do so under the Tripartite Pact of 1940. Hitler made the declaration in the hopes that Japan would support him by attacking the Soviet Union. Japan did not oblige him and this diplomatic move proved a catastrophic blunder which gave President Franklin D. Roosevelt the pretext he needed for the USA to join the fight in Europe with full commitment with no meaningful opposition in Congress. Some historians mark this moment as another major turning point of the war with Hitler provoking a grand alliance of powerful nations who could wage powerful attacks on both East and West simultaneously. December 11 is the 345th day (346th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1941 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Official language Japanese Capital Tokyo Largest City Tokyo Emperor Akihito Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 60th 377,835 km² 0. ... Attack on Pearl Harbor Conflict World War II, Pacific War Date December 7, 1941 Place Pearl Harbor, Hawaii Result Japanese victory On the morning of December 7, 1941, planes and midget submarines of the Imperial Japanese Navy commanded by Vice Admiral Chuichi Nagumo, caught the United States off guard with... The Tripartite Pact, also called the Three-Power Pact, was signed in Berlin on September 27, 1940 by representatives of Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy and Japan. ... This is the most common use of FDR. For other uses, see FDR (disambiguation). ... An alliance can be: an agreement between two parties, particularly: a military alliance formed between states a business alliance formed between organisations a New Zealand political party, the Alliance a Canadian political party, the Canadian Alliance a Northern_Ireland political party, Alliance the former name of the Malaysian political coalition currently...


1942: Turning of the war in Russia and North Africa

1942: Caucasus offensive, Stalingrad

German soldiers at the Battle of Stalingrad

In 1942, an aborted German offensive was launched towards the Caucasus to secure oil fields and German armies reached Stalingrad. The siege of Stalingrad lasted into February of 1943, resulting in the destruction of the city, millions of casualties, and the surrender of Germany's Sixth Army. Nazi Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels responded with his Sportpalast speech to the German people. Some historians cite this as the European war's "turning point." German soldiers at Stalingrad from http://www-cgsc. ... German soldiers at Stalingrad from http://www-cgsc. ... Battle of Stalingrad Conflict World War II Date June 28, 1942 - February 2, 1943 Place Stalingrad, USSR Result Soviet victory The Battle of Stalingrad was a major turning point in World War II, and is considered the bloodiest battle in human history and arguably one of the greatest come-backs... 1942 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Caucasus is a region in West Asia between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea which includes the Caucasus mountains and surrounding lowlands. ... Rodina Mat (Motherland), statue on the Mamayev Kurgan, Volgograd Volgograd (Волгогра́д) (population: 1,012,000), formerly called Tsaritsyn (Цари́цын) (1598 - 1925) and Stalingrad (Сталингра́д) (1925 - 1961) is a city on the west bank of Volga river in southwestern Volgograd Oblast (province), Northern Caucasus district, Russia. ... Battle of Stalingrad Conflict World War II Date June 28, 1942 - February 2, 1943 Place Stalingrad, USSR Result Soviet victory The Battle of Stalingrad was a major turning point in World War II, and is considered the bloodiest battle in human history and arguably one of the greatest come-backs... 1943 is a common year starting on Friday. ... The German Sixth Army (German: ) was a World War II field army and the protagonist of the tragic Battle of Stalingrad in 1942. ... The Propagandaministerium (Reichsministerium für Volksaufklärung und Propaganda) was the ministry for propaganda in Nazi Germany. ... Joseph Goebbels Dr. Paul Joseph Goebbels (October 29, 1897 – May 1, 1945) was Adolf Hitlers Propaganda Minister (see Propagandaministerium) in Nazi Germany. ... The Sportspalast speech, or Total War speech, was a prominent speech delivered by Joseph Goebbels on February 18, 1943, as the tide of World War II was turning against Germany. ...


1942: Operation Torch, French North Africa

Main article: Operation Torch Operation Torch (from November 8, 1942) was the Anglo-American invasion of French North Africa in World War II during the North African Campaign. ...

During 1942, Roosevelt and Churchill planned an invasion of French North Africa to create a new front against the Axis to relieve the pressure on the Russians. The invasion was named Operation Torch, and was scheduled for November 1942. It would help demonstrate the capacities of the United States naval industry and Allied ability to organize long distance large naval convoys. 1942 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... In various forms, France had colonial possessions since the beginning of the 17th century until the 1960s. ... Operation Torch (from November 8, 1942) was the Anglo-American invasion of French North Africa in World War II during the North African Campaign. ... November is the eleventh month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of four Gregorian months with the length of 30 days. ...


The operation nearly failed due to misinformation received from Admiral William Leahy and Consul Robert Murphy, who said that the French vichyist generals ready to welcome an Allied landing. The forces of Vichy delivered a violent resistance against the Anglo-American ships and troops in Oran and Morocco, and held them off for three days. William Leahy, circa 1945 William Daniel Leahy (May 6, 1875 - July 20, 1959) was an American naval officer and the first such officer ever to hold the rank of Fleet Admiral and the first ever to hold five-star rank in the U.S. armed forces. ... Robert Daniel Murphy (1894 - 1978) was a U.S. diplomat. ... Vichy France (French: now called Régime de Vichy or Vichy; called itself at the time État Français, or French State) was the French state of 1940-1944 which was a puppet government under Nazi influence, as opposed to the Free French Forces, based first in London and later in Algiers. ... This article is about the city in Algeria. ... The Kingdom of Morocco is a country in northwest Africa. ...


On October 23, 1942, four hundred badly-armed French civilian resistors neutralized the coastal artillery of Sidi-Ferruch alone, and the XIX Army Corps of Algiers for about fifteen hours. The civilians, in the early morning of November 8, held a majority of the strategic points and arrested most of the vichyist military and civil rulers. One of their groups, made up by senior college pupils commanded by a young aspirant, succeeded in arresting General Alphonse Juin, Chief Commandant in North Africa, as well as Admiral François Darlan. The Allied forces were able to land and capture the port with little resistance because the Algiers garrison was prevented from being mobilized. Juin and Darlan were turned over to the armies of the United States and Great Britain, who, while refusing for several days, ordered the vichyst forces to cease their attacks on November 10. October 23 is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 69 days remaining. ... November 8 is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 53 days remaining. ... Alphonse Juin (1888—1967) was a Marshal of France. ... François Darlan, French admiral and politician of Vichy France Admiral of the Fleet François Darlan ( August 7, 1881 – December 24, 1942) was a French naval officer and senior figure of the Vichy France regime. ... November 10 is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 51 days remaining. ...


If the civilian resistance had not been successful, the combined landing might have been compromised, and the Germans might have taken Morocco and occupied all of North Africa.


1943: Kursk, Yugoslav resistance, Italy

Red Army offensives along the Don basin near Stalingrad were repulsed by German forces in January 1943. In July, the Wehrmacht launched a much-delayed offensive against the Soviet Union at Kursk. Their intentions were known by the Soviets, and the Battle of Kursk ended in a Soviet counteroffensive that threw the German Army back. Red Army flag The short forms Red Army and RKKA refer to the Workers and Peasants Red Army, (Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия - Raboche-Krestyanskaya Krasnaya Armiya in Russian), the armed forces organised by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918. ... This article is about the river in Western Russia. ... January is the first month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. ... 1943 is a common year starting on Friday. ... For other uses, see Kursk (disambiguation). ... Battle of Kursk Conflict World War II Date July 4, 1943 – July 22, 1943 Place Kursk, USSR Result Indecisive; generally considered a strategic German loss The Battle of Kursk was a significant battle on the Eastern Front of World War II. It remains the largest armored engagement of all time...


Mid-1943 brought the fifth and final Sutjeska offensive of the Germans against the Yugoslav Partisans before the invasion and subsequent capitulation of Italy, the other major occupying force in Yugoslavia. 1943 is a common year starting on Friday. ... The Sutjeska offensive (May-June 1943) was a failed attempt by the Axis forces to destroy the anti-occupation Yugoslav partisan force, marking a turning point for Yugoslavia during World War II. This action--codenamed Operation Schwarz (Black) by the Germans--took place near the Sutjeska river, in Italian-occupied... The Yugoslav partisans were the main anti-fascist resistance movement which fought against the occupation of Yugoslavia by Axis forces during World War II. The uniting force of the anti-fascist partisans on the territory was Peoples Liberation Army and Partisan detachments of Yugoslavia (NOV i POJ; Narodnooslobodilačka vojska...


1944: France invaded, Soviet-Finland armistice, surrender of minor Axis, Ardennes offensive

On "D-Day", 6 June 1944, the western Allies invaded German-held Normandy, opening the "second front" against Germany.2 Hedgerows aided the defender, and for months the Allies measured progress in hundreds of yards. An Allied breakout was effected at St.-Lô, and the most powerful German force in France, the Seventh Army was destroyed in the Falaise pocket while counterattacking. The French Riviera was invaded by Allied forces stationed in Italy on 15 August, and linked up with forces from Normandy. The Allies captured Paris on 25 August. June 6 is the 157th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (158th in leap years), with 208 days remaining. ... 1944 was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Battle of Normandy Conflict World War II, Western Front Date June 6, 1944 – August 25, 1944 Place Normandy, France Result Allied victory The Battle of Normandy was fought in 1944 between the German forces occupying Western Europe and the invading American, British, and Canadian forces. ... Mont Saint Michel is a historic pilgrimage site and a symbol of Normandy Normandy is a former country (a Duchy) situated in northern France occupying the lower Seine area (upper or Haute-Normandie) and the region to the west (lower or Basse-Normandie) as far as the Cotentin Peninsula. ... For other meanings, see hedge. ... Breakout is a Pong-like video game and arcade game published by Atari in 1976. ... During World War II, the Falaise pocket (also known as the Chambois pocket, Chambois-Montcormel pocket, Falaise-Chambois pocket) was the area between the four cities of Trun-Argentan-Vimoutiers-Chambois near Falaise, France, in which United States 12th Army Group encircled and destroyed the German Seventh Army. ... The Riviera is the coast shared between France and Italy, on the Tyrrhenian Sea, or the Italian Adriatic coast (Riviera Adriatica), on the Adriatic Sea. ... During World War 2, Operation Dragoon (Allies, 1944) was the invasion of southern France between Toulon and Cannes executed on 15 August 1944. ... The Italian Republic or Italy (Italian: Repubblica Italiana or Italia) is a country in southern Europe. ... August 15 is the 227th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (228th in leap years), with 138 days remaining. ... The Eiffel Tower has become the symbol of Paris throughout the world. ... August 25 is the 237th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (238th in leap years), with 128 days remaining. ...


By early 1944, the Red Army had reached the border of Poland and lifted the Siege of Leningrad. Shortly after Allied landings at Normandy, on 9 June, the Soviet Union began an offensive on the Karelian Isthmus, that after three months would force Nazi Germany's co-belligerent Finland to an armistice. Operation Bagration, a Soviet offensive involving 2.5 million men and 6,000 tanks, was launched on 22 June, destroying the German Army Group Center and taking 350,000 prisoners. Finland's defense had been dependent on active, or in periods passive, support from the German Wehrmacht that also provided defense for the northern chiefly uninhabited half of Finland. After the Wehrmacht retreated from the southern shores of the Gulf of Finland, Finland's defense was untenable. The Allies' armistice conditions included further territorial losses and the internment or expulsion of German troops on Finnish soil executed in the Lapland War, now as co-belligerents of the Allies, who also demanded the political leadership to be prosecuted in "war-responsibility trials" that by the Finnish public were perceived as a mockery of rule of law. 1944 was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Siege of Leningrad Conflict World War II Date September 8, 1941 - January 18, 1944 Place Leningrad, USSR Result Soviet victory The Siege of Leningrad (today Saint Petersburg), during World War II, lasted from September 8, 1941, to January 18, 1944. ... June 9 is the 160th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (161st in leap years), with 205 days remaining. ... See Karelia (disambiguation) for other meanings of the name Karelia. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Co-belligerence is a term for waging of war together - against a common enemy. ... Operation Bagration Conflict World War II Date June 22, 1944 - August 19, 1944 Place Belorussia, USSR Result Soviet victory During World War II, Operation Bagration was the general attack by Soviet forces to clear the Nazis from Belarus which resulted in the destruction of the German Army Group Centre, possibly... June 22 is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 192 days remaining. ... Army Group Centre (Heeresgruppe Mitte in German) was one of three German army formations assigned to the invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941, code-named Operation Barbarossa. ... The Baltic Sea The Gulf of Finland is an arm of the Baltic Sea that extends between Finland (to the north) and Estonia (to the south) all the way to the city of Saint Petersburg in Russia, where the river Neva drains into it. ... History -- Military history -- War -- History of Germany -- History of Finland -- World War II The Lapland War is a name used for the hostilities between Finland and Germany between September 1944 and April 1945. ... The rule of law implies that government authority may only be exercised in accordance with written laws, which were adopted through an established procedure. ...


Romania surrendered in August of 1944 and Bulgaria in September. British forces attempted a fast advance into Germany with Operation Market Garden in September, but were repulsed. The Warsaw Uprising was fought between 1 August and 2 October. Germany withdrew from the Balkans and held Hungary until February 1945. 1944 was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Operation Market Garden was an Allied military operation in World War II, which took place in September 1944. ... The Warsaw Uprising (Powstanie Warszawskie) was an armed struggle during the Second World War by the Polish Home Army (Armia Krajowa) to liberate Warsaw from German occupation and Nazi rule. ... August 1st is the 213th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (214th in leap years), with 152 days remaining. ... October 2nd is the 275th day (276th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 90 days remaining. ... The Balkans is the historic and geographic name used to describe southeastern Europe (see the Definitions and boundaries section below). ... February is the second month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1945 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ...


In December of 1944, the German Army made its last major offensive in the West, attempting to capture the vital port of Antwerp and cripple the Allies in the Battle of the Bulge. The offensive was defeated. By now, the Soviets had reached the eastern borders of pre-war Germany. December is the twelfth and last month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. ... 1944 was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... For other uses, see Antwerp (disambiguation). ... The German Ardennes Offensive1, popularly known as the Battle of the Bulge, started in late December 1944 and was the last major German offensive on the Western Front during World War II. The German army had intended to split the Allied line in half, capturing Antwerp and then proceeding to...


1945: Yalta Conference, push into Germany, Berlin falls, occupation

Berlin fell to the Red Army on 2 May. Here, the Hammer and Sickle is flown over the Reichstag.

Arrangements for post-war Europe were made between Churchill, Stalin, and Franklin D. Roosevelt at the Yalta Conference in February 1945. It resulted in an April meeting to form the United Nations, nation-states were created in Eastern Europe, it was agreed Poland would have free elections (in fact elections were heavily rigged by Soviets), Soviet nationals were to be repatriated, and the Soviet Union was to attack Japan within three months of Germany's surrender. A picture (photographer: Yevgeny Khaldei) of the rising of the hammer and sickle flag over the Reichstag. ... A picture (photographer: Yevgeny Khaldei) of the rising of the hammer and sickle flag over the Reichstag. ... May is the fifth month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. ... Hammer and sickle on the Soviet flag, together with the Red Star The hammer and sickle is a symbol used to represent Communism and Communist political parties. ... The Reichstag is both an institutional assembly and a specific building. ... Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვილი; see Other names section) (December 21, 1879[1] – March 5, 1953) was a Bolshevik revolutionary and leader of the Soviet Union. ... This is the most common use of FDR. For other uses, see FDR (disambiguation). ... The Yalta Conference, sometimes called the Crimea conference and codenamed the Argonaut Conference, was the wartime meeting from February 4 to 11, 1945 between the heads of government of the United States, the United Kingdom and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. ... The United Nations, or UN, is an international organization made up of 191 states established in 1945. ... Repatriation (from late Latin repatriare - to restore someone to his homeland) is a term frequently used to describe the process of return of refugees to their homes, most notably after a war. ...


The Red Army (including 78,556 soldiers of the 1st Polish Army) began its final assault on Berlin on 16 April. Hitler and his staff moved into a bunker beneath the Chancellery, where on 30 April 1945 he committed suicide. The Soviets took a massive toll of 100,000 men killed. Admiral Karl Dönitz had been appointed President of Germany by Hitler, and unconditionally surrendered on 8 May, marking the end of the European war. "V-E Day" was celebrated by the Western Allies on 8 May and "Victory Day" by the Soviet Union on 9 May. However for countries like Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia and the rest of Eastern Europe the Soviet occupation did not end until 1990s. 3 Gen. ... Battle of Berlin Conflict World War II Date April 16, 1945 - May 8, 1945 Place Berlin, Germany Result Soviet victory The Battle of Berlin was one of the final battles(1) of the European Theatre of World War II. A massive Soviet army attacked Berlin from the east. ... April 16 is the 106th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (107th in leap years). ... April 30 is the 120th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (121st in leap years). ... 1945 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Grand Admiral Karl Dönitz. ... The Federal President (German: Bundespräsident) is Germanys head of state. ... May 8 is the 128th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (129th in leap years). ... Victory in Europe Day (V-E Day) was May 8, 1945, the date when the Allies during the Second World War formally celebrated the defeat of Nazi Germany and the end of Adolf Hitlers Reich. ... May 9, Soviet poster based on the famous photo of the Soviet flag being raised over the Reichstag in 1945. ... May 9 is the 129th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (130th in leap years). ... The Republic of Lithuania (in Lithuanian, Lietuva) is a republic in Northeastern Europe. ... The Republic of Latvia (Latvian: Latvijas Republika), or Latvia (Latvian: Latvija), is a country in Northern Europe. ... The Republic of Estonia is a country in Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea to the west and the Gulf of Finland to the north. ... Eastern Europe is, by convention, that part of Europe from the Ural and Caucasus mountains in the East to an arbitrarily chosen boundary in the West. ... Soviet redirects here. ...


Pacific and East Asia, 1937-45

US landing in the Pacific, August 1942-August 1945

Main article: Pacific War Download high resolution version (2000x1363, 414 KB)Allied landings - August 1942 to August 1945 Source: Scanned from Reports of General MacArthur (1994 facsimile printing), Vol 1. ... Download high resolution version (2000x1363, 414 KB)Allied landings - August 1942 to August 1945 Source: Scanned from Reports of General MacArthur (1994 facsimile printing), Vol 1. ... The Pacific War (1937–1945) is not to be confused with the War of the Pacific (1879–1884) in South America. ...


1937: Sino-Japanese War

Main article: Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945) The Second Sino-Japanese War was a major invasion of eastern China by Japan preceding and during World War II. It ended with the surrender of Japan in 1945. ...


War conflict began in Asia years before fighting started in Europe. Japan had already invaded China in 1931, long before World War II started in Europe. On March 1st, the Japanese appointed Henry Pu Yi king in Manchukuo, the puppet state in Manchuria. By 1937, war had broken out, as the Japanese sought control of China. The Second Sino-Japanese War was a major invasion of eastern China by Japan preceding and during World War II. It ended with the surrender of Japan in 1945. ... 1931 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... March 1 is the 60th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (61st in leap years). ... Aisin-Gioro Puyi¹ (February 7, 1906 - October 17, 1967) was the Xuantong Emperor (宣統皇帝) of China between 1908 and 1924 (ruling emperor between 1908 and 1912, and non-ruling emperor between 1912 and 1924), the tenth (and last) emperor of the Manchu Qing Dynasty to rule over China. ... Manchukuo was a nominally independent puppet state set up by the Empire of Japan in Manchuria (Northeastern China) which existed from 1931 to 1945. ... Approximate extent Northeast China (Simplified Chinese: 东北; Traditional Chinese: 東北; pinyin: Dōngběi; literally east-north), historically known as Manchuria, is the name of a region (ca. ... 1937 was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Great Wall of China, stretching over 6,700 km, was erected beginning in the 3rd century BC to guard the north from raids by men on horses. ...


Roosevelt signed an unpublished (secret) executive order in May of 1940 allowing U.S. military personnel to resign from the service so that they could participate in a covert operation in China: the All Volunteer Group, also known as Chennault's Flying Tigers. Over a seven-month period, Chennault's Flying Tigers destroyed an estimated 600 Japanese aircraft, sunk numerous Japanese ships, and stalled the Japanese invasion of Burma. With the United States and other countries cutting exports to Japan, Japan planned a strike on Pearl Harbor on 7 December 1941 without warning or declaration of war, dealing severe damage to the American Pacific Fleet. The next day, Japanese forces arrived in Hong Kong, which later led to the surrender of the British colony on Christmas Day later that month. May is the fifth month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. ... 1940 was a leap year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... For the airline, see Flying Tiger Line. ... For the airline, see Flying Tiger Line. ... Attack on Pearl Harbor Conflict World War II, Pacific War Date December 7, 1941 Place Pearl Harbor, Hawaii Result Japanese victory On the morning of December 7, 1941, planes and midget submarines of the Imperial Japanese Navy commanded by Vice Admiral Chuichi Nagumo, caught the United States off guard with... December 7 is the 341st day (342nd on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1941 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... This article is about the Pacific Fleet of the US Navy. ... Hong Kong (香港; Cantonese IPA: ; Jyutping: hoeng1 gong2; Yale: heūng góng; pinyin: Xiānggǎng; Wade-Giles: Hsiang-kang) is one of the two Special Administrative Regions of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Battle of Hong Kong took place during World War II. It began on December 8, 1941 and ended on Christmas Day with the then British colony of Japan. ...


1940: Vichy France colonies

In 1940, Japan occupied French Indochina (Vietnam) upon agreement with the Vichy Government despite local Free French, and joined the Axis powers Germany and Italy. These actions intensified Japan's conflict with the United States and the United Kingdom which reacted with an oil boycott. 1940 was a leap year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Vichy France (French: now called Régime de Vichy or Vichy; called itself at the time État Français, or French State) was the French state of 1940-1944 which was a puppet government under Nazi influence, as opposed to the Free French Forces, based first in London and later in Algiers. ...


1941: Pearl Harbor, the U.S.A. enters the war, Japanese invasions in SE Asia

Main article: Attack on Pearl Harbor Attack on Pearl Harbor Conflict World War II, Pacific War Date December 7, 1941 Place Pearl Harbor, Hawaii Result Japanese victory On the morning of December 7, 1941, planes and midget submarines of the Imperial Japanese Navy commanded by Vice Admiral Chuichi Nagumo, caught the United States off guard with...


On December 7, 1941, Japanese warplanes commanded by Vice Admiral Chuichi Nagumo carried out a surprise air raid on Pearl Harbor, the largest U.S. naval base in the Pacific. The Japanese forces met little resistance and devastated the Harbor. The US immediately declared war on Japan. December 7 is the 341st day (342nd on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1941 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Categories: People stubs | 1887 births | 1944 deaths | Japanese military leaders | Japanese World War II people | Imperial Japanese Navy admirals ... Satellite image of Pearl Harbor. ...


Simultaneously to the attack on Pearl Harbor, Japan also attacked U.S air bases in the Philippines. Immediately following these attacks, Japan invaded the Philippines, and also the British Colonies of Hong Kong, Malaya, Borneo and Burma with the intention of seizing the oilfields of the Dutch East Indies. All these territories, and more, fell to the Japanese onslaught in a matter of months. The British island fortress of Singapore was captured in what Churchill considered one of the most humiliating British defeats of all time. The Republic of the Philippines is a country of South East Asia, located in the western Pacific Ocean some 1,210 km (750 mi) from mainland Asia. ... Hong Kong (香港; Cantonese IPA: ; Jyutping: hoeng1 gong2; Yale: heūng góng; pinyin: Xiānggǎng; Wade-Giles: Hsiang-kang) is one of the two Special Administrative Regions of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Federation of Malaya, or in Malay Persekutuan Tanah Melayu, was formed in 1948 from the British settlements of Penang and Malacca and the nine Malay states and replaced the Malayan Union. ... Satellite photo of Borneo. ... The Dutch East Indies, or Netherlands East Indies, (Dutch: Nederlands Indië) was the name of the colonies colonised by the Dutch East India Company which came under administration of the Netherlands during the ninteenth century (see Indonesia). ... National motto: Majulah Singapura (English: Onward, Singapore) National anthem: Majulah Singapura Capital Singapore1 Largest city Singapore1 Official languages English, Mandarin Chinese, Malay, Tamil Government President Prime minister Westminster system (de jure) Dominant-party system (de facto) Sellapan Rama Nathan Lee Hsien Loong Independence - From Malaysia August 9, 1965 Area  - Total... The Battle of Singapore was a battle of the South_East Asian theatre of World War II, from January 30, 1942 – February 15, 1942. ...


1942: Coral Sea, Port Moresby, Midway, Guadalcanal

In May 1942, a naval attack on Port Moresby, New Guinea was thwarted by Allied navies in the Battle of the Coral Sea. Had the capture of Port Moresby succeeded, the Japanese Navy would have been within striking range of Australia. This was both the first successful opposition to Japanese plans and the first naval battle fought only between aircraft carriers. A month later the invasion of Midway Island was prevented, causing the loss of four carriers, which Japanese industry could not replace. The Japanese navy was now on the defensive. May is the fifth month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. ... 1942 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... Port Moresby, population 193,242 (1990), is the capital of Papua New Guinea. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Battle of the Coral Sea Conflict World War II, Pacific War Date May 4 – May 8, 1942 Place Coral Sea, between Australia, New Guinea, and the United States, Japan Commanders Frank Jack Fletcher Shigeyoshi Inoue Strength 2 large carriers, 3 cruisers 2 large carriers, 1 small carrier, 4 cruisers Casualties... Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is the sixth-largest country in the world, the only country to occupy an entire continent, and the largest in the region of Australasia/Oceania. ... Battle of Midway Conflict World War II, Pacific War Date June 4– June 6, 1942 Place Vicinity of Midway Island Result US Strategic and Tactical Victory The Battle of Midway, fought in World War II, took place on June 5, 1942 ( June 4 in US time zones). ...


However, in July an overland attack on Port Moresby was led along the rugged Kokoda Track. This was met with Australian reservists, many of them very young and untrained, fighting a stubborn rearguard action until the arrival of Australian regulars returning from action in North Africa, Greece and the Middle East. Kokoda Track Conflict World War II, Pacific War Date July 1942 – January 1943 Place New Guinea Result Australian victory The Kokoda Track or Kokoda Trail campaign was part of the Pacific War of World War II. The campaign consisted of a series of battles fought from July 1942 to January... The battle in the North African desert during World War II from 1940-1943. ... Greece, officaly called the Hellenic Republic (Greek: Ελληνική Δημοκρατία), is a country in the southeast of Europe on the southern tip of the Balkan peninsula. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...


The Allied leaders had agreed even prior to the American entry to the war that priority should be given to the defeat of Nazi Germany. Nonetheless US and Australian forces began to attack captured territories, beginning with Guadalcanal Island, against a bitter and determined defense by Japanese troops. On 7 August 1942 the island was assaulted by the United States. In late August and early September, while battle raged on Guadalcanal, an amphibious Japanese attack on the eastern tip of New Guinea was met by Australian forces at Milne Bay, and the Japanese land forces suffered their first conclusive defeat. In Guadalcanal, the Japanese resistance failed in February 1943. Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Battle of Guadalcanal Conflict World War II, Pacific War Date August 7, 1942 - February 9, 1943 Place Guadalcanal in the Solomon Islands Result Allied victory The Battle of Guadalcanal was one of the most important battles of World War II. The assault on the Japanese-occupied island of Guadalcanal by... August 7 is the 219th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (220th in leap years), with 146 days remaining. ... 1942 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... Battle of Milne Bay Conflict World War II, Pacific War Date August 25, 1942 – September 5, 1942 Place Milne Bay, New Guinea Result Allied victory The Battle of Milne Bay was a battle of the Pacific campaign of World War II. Japanese marines attacked the Australian base at Milne Bay... February is the second month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1943 is a common year starting on Friday. ...


1943: New Guinea, submarine warfare

Exhausted Australian and US forces then strove to retake the occupied parts of New Guinea and the Dutch East Indies, experiencing some of the toughest resistance of the Pacific Theatre. The rest of the Solomon Islands were retaken in 1943, New Britain and New Ireland in 1944. The Philippines were attacked in late 1944 following the Battle of Leyte Gulf. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Solomon Islands is a nation in the South Pacific Ocean, east of Papua New Guinea and is part of the Commonwealth of Nations. ... 1943 is a common year starting on Friday. ... (This article is about the island of New Britain in Papua New Guinea. ... New Ireland is an island in the Pacific, and the most northeastern province of Papua New Guinea. ... 1944 was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Battle of Leyte Gulf Conflict World War II, Pacific Campaign Date 23 October 1944 – 26 October 1944 Place The Philippines Result Decisive Allied victory The Battle of Leyte Gulf was a naval battle of the Pacific Campaign of World War II, fought in the seas around the island of Leyte...


US and Allied submarines and aircraft also attacked Japanese merchant shipping, depriving Japan's industry of the raw materials it had gone to war to obtain. The effectiveness of this stranglehold increased as the U.S. captured islands closer to the Japanese mainland.


The Nationalist Kuomintang Army under Chiang Kai-shek and the Communist Chinese Army under Mao Zedong both opposed the Japanese occupation of China, but never truly allied against the Japanese. Conflict between Nationalist and Communist forces continued after and, to an extent, even during the war. The Kuomintang (KMT) or Nationalist Party of China (Traditional: 中國國民黨; Simplified: 中国国民党; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chung-kuo Kuo-min-tang; Tongyong Pinyin: Jhongguo Guomindang) is a conservative political party currently active in the Republic of China (ROC) on Taiwan. ... Chiang Kai-shek ( October 31, 1887 – April 5, 1975) was a Chinese military and political leader who assumed the leadership of the Kuomintang (KMT) after the death of Sun Yat-sen in 1925. ... Communist Party of China flag The Communist Party of China ( Simplified Chinese: 中国共产党; Traditional Chinese: 中國共産黨; pinyin: ) is the ruling party of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Mao Zedong (December 26, 1893—September 9, 1976) was the chairman of the Communist Party of China from 1935 until his death. ...


The Japanese captured most of Burma severing the Burma Road by which the Western Allies had been supplying the Chinese Nationalists. This forced the Allies to create a large sustained airlift of the war known as the Hump. US lead and trained Chinese divisions, a few thousand US ground forces and a British Division, cleared the Japanese forces from northern Burma so that the Ledo Road could be built to replace the Burma Road. Further south the main Japanese army in the theater were fought to a standstill on the Burma India frontier by the British Fourteenth Army (the "forgotten" army) which then counter-attacked and having recaptured all of Burma was planning attacks towards Malaya when the war ended. The Burma Campaign was a campaign in the South_East Asian Theatre of World War II. Command Structure Initially command problems beset the Burma campaign. ... The Burma Road is a road linking Burma (now China. ... The Hump was the name given by Allied pilots to the eastern end of the Himalayan Mountains over which they flew from India to China to resupply the Flying Tigers and the Chinese Government of Chiang Kai-shek. ... The Northern Combat Area Command or NCAC was a mainly Sino-American formation that held the northern end of the Allied front in Burma during World War II. For much of its existence it was commanded by the acerbic General Joseph Stilwell. ... The Ledo Road was built during World War II so that the Western Allies could continue to supply the Chinese after the Japanese cut the Burma Road. ... The South-East Asian Theatre of World War II was the name given to the campaigns of the Pacific War in India, Burma, Thailand, Malaya and Singapore. ... The British Fourteenth Army, in spite of its name, was a multinational force: most of its units were from the Indian Army and there were also significant contributions from East African divisions within the British Army. ...


1945: Iwo Jima, Okinawa, atomic bombings, Japan surrenders

Japan formally surrenders aboard the USS Missouri in Tokyo Bay

Capture by the Allies of islands such as Iwo Jima and Okinawa close to Japan brought the homeland within range of naval and air attacks, Tokyo was firebombed and later on 6 August 1945 an atomic bomb, the "Little Boy", was dropped from the B-29 "Enola Gay" and destroyed Hiroshima. On 8 August 1945 the Soviet Union declared war on Japan, as had been agreed to at Yalta, and launched a large scale invasion of Japanese occupied Manchuria (operation August Storm). On August 9, in Nagasaki, another atom bomb, "Fat Man" was dropped by the B-29 "Bock's Car". Surrender ceremony on the USS Missouri From http://teachpol. ... Surrender ceremony on the USS Missouri From http://teachpol. ... Battle of Iwo Jima Conflict World War II, Pacific War Date February 16, 1945 – March 26, 1945 Place Iwo Jima, Japan Result American victory The Battle of Iwo Jima was fought between the United States and Japan during February and March of 1945, during the Pacific Campaign of World War... Battle of Okinawa Conflict World War II, Pacific War Date April 1, 1945 – June 21, 1945 Place Okinawa, Japan Result American victory The Battle of Okinawa, fought on the island of Okinawa in the Ryukyu Islands (south of the four big islands of Japan) was the largest amphibious assault during... Tokyo (東京; Tōkyō, lit. ... The U.S. bombing of Tokyo during World War II took place between 1942 and 1945. ... August 6 is the 218th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (219th in leap years), with 147 days remaining. ... 1945 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ... Little Boy bomb casing Little Boy was the codename given to the nuclear weapon dropped on Hiroshima, Japan on Monday, August 6, 1945. ... Citizens of Hiroshima walk by the A-Bomb Dome, the closest building to have survived the citys atomic bombing, on August 6, 2004 During World War II, the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, were destroyed by atomic bombs dropped by the United States military on August 6 and... Main keep of Hiroshima Castle The city of Hiroshima (広島市; -shi) is the capital of Hiroshima Prefecture, and the largest city in the Chugoku region of western Japan. ... August 8 is the 220th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (221st in leap years), with 145 days remaining. ... 1945 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Operation August Storm was the code name for the Soviet invasion of Japanese occupied Manchuria, Korea and southern Sakhalin Island during World War II. The Soviets agreed at the Yalta Conference to enter the war against Japan within 3 months of the end of the war in Europe. ... August 9 is the 221st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (222nd in leap years), with 144 days remaining. ... Megane-bashi, the Eyeglasses Bridge Nagasaki (長崎市; -shi) is the capital and the largest city of Nagasaki Prefecture located at the south-western coast of Kyushu, Japan. ... The nuclear weapon code-named Fat Man was detonated over Nagasaki, Japan, on August 9, 1945. ...


The combination of the use of nuclear weapons and the new inclusion of the Soviet Union in the war were both highly responsible for the surrender of Japan, although the importance of the Soviet incursion has been largely overlooked in conventional American histories of the conflict. The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ... Soviet Union - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... Official language Japanese Capital Tokyo Largest City Tokyo Emperor Akihito Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 60th 377,835 km² 0. ... Soviet redirects here. ...


The Japanese surrendered on August 14, 1945, signing official surrender papers on September 2, 1945 aboard the USS Missouri in Tokyo Bay. August 14 is the 226th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (227th in leap years), with 139 days remaining. ... 1945 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... September 2 is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years). ... 1945 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... USS Missouri (BB-63) is a United States Navy battleship, notable as both the last battleship to be built by the United States, and as the site of the Japanese surrender at the end of World War II. She is presently a museum ship at Pearl Harbor. ...


Mediterranean and North Africa, 1940-45

1940: Egypt and Somaliland

The North African Campaign began in 1940, when small British forces in Egypt turned back an Italian advance from Libya. This advance was stopped in 1941 when German forces under Erwin Rommel landed in Libya. The battle in the North African desert during World War II from 1940-1943. ... 1940 was a leap year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Arab Republic of Egypt, commonly known as Egypt, (in Arabic: مصر, romanized Miṣr or Maṣr, in Egyptian dialect) is a republic mostly located in north-eastern Africa. ... The Great Socialist Peoples Libyan Arab Jamahiriya or Libya (Arabic: ليبيا) is a country in North Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, located between Egypt on the east, Sudan on the southeast, Chad and Niger on the south and Algeria and Tunisia to the west. ... 1941 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Field Marshal Erwin Rommel Erwin Johannes Eugen Rommel (November 15, 1891–October 14, 1944) was one of the most distinguished German Field Marshals and commander of the Deutsches Afrika Korps in World War II. He is also known by his nickname The Desert Fox (Wüstenfuchs). ...


1941: Syria, Lebanon, Afrika Korps to Tobruk

In June 1941 the Australian Army and allied forces invaded Syria and Lebanon, capturing Damascus on 17 June. Rommel's Afrika Korps advanced rapidly eastward, laying siege to the vital seaport of Tobruk. The Australian and British troops in the city resisted all until relieved, but a renewed Axis offensive captured the city and drove the Eighth Army back to a line at El Alamein. June is the sixth month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of four with the length of 30 days. ... 1941 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Australian Army is Australias military land force. ... The Syrian Arab Republic or Syria is a country in the Middle East, bordering (from south to north) on Lebanon, Israel, Jordan, Iraq and Turkey. ... The Lebanese Republic or Lebanon is a country in the Middle East, along the Mediterranean Sea, bordered by Syria and Israel. ... This is about Damascus, the capital of Syria. ... June 17 is the 168th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (169th in leap years), with 197 days remaining. ... The Deutsches Afrikakorps (often just Afrika Korps or DAK) was the corps_level headquarters controlling the German Panzer divisions in Libya and Egypts Western Desert during the North African Campaign of World War II. Since there was little turnover in the units attached to the corps the term is commonly... Tobruk is a sea-port in eastern Libya. ... El Alamein is a town in northern Egypt on the Mediterranean Sea coast. ...


1942: First and Second Battles of El Alamein, Operation Torch

The First Battle of El Alamein took place between July 1 and July 27, 1942. German forces had advanced to the last defensible point before Alexandria and the Suez Canal. However they had outrun their supplies, and a British and Commonwealth defense stopped their thrusts. The Second Battle of El Alamein occurred between October 23 and November 3, 1942 after Bernard Montgomery had replaced Claude Auchinleck as commander of the Eighth Army. Rommel, the brilliant German commander of the Afrika Corps, known as the "Desert Fox", was absent for this epic battle, because he was recovering from jaundice back in Europe. Who knows what would have happened if he had been present? We can only assume with the British decoder Ultra, that Montgomery knew Rommel was absent. Commonwealth forces took the offensive, and though the British lost more tanks then the Germans began the battle with, Montgomery was ultimately triumphed over the, at first slightly hesitant without their leader, German officers. The western Allies had the advantage of being close to their supplies during the battle. In addition, Rommel was getting little or no help by this time in the war from the struggling Luftwaffe, which was now more tasked with defending Western European air space, and fighting the Soviet Union, than providing Rommel with support in North Africa. After the German defeat at El Alamein, Rommel made a brilliant strategic withdrawal. Many historians feel Rommel's successful strategic withdrawal of the Afrika Corps from Egypt was more impressive than his earlier victories, including Tobruk, because he managed to get his whole force back intact, against the overwhelming air superiority, and numbers of the British now reinforced by the Americans. The First Battle of El Alamein 1–July 31, 1942 was a battle of the Western Desert Campaign of World War II, fought between the German–Italian Afrikakorps commanded by Erwin Rommel and the British Eighth Army, commanded by Claude Auchinleck. ... July 1 is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 183 days remaining. ... July 27 is the 208th day (209th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 157 days remaining. ... 1942 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... Antiquity and modernity stand cheek-by-jowl in Egypts chief Mediterranean seaport Located on the Mediterranean Sea coast, Alexandria (in Arabic, الإسكندرية — al-Iskandariyah) is the chief seaport in Egypt, and that countrys second largest city, and the capital of the Al Iskandariyah governate. ... 1881 drawing of the Suez Canal The Suez Canal ( Arabic, Qanā al-Suways), west of the Sinai Peninsula, forms a 163  km (118 miles) ship canal in Egypt between Port Said (Būr Saīd) on the Mediterranean Sea and Suez (al-Suways) on the Red Sea. ... The Battle of Alamein, or more correctly the Second Battle of El Alamein, marked a significant turning point in the Western Desert Campaign of World War II and was the first major victory by an Allied force over the Wehrmacht. ... October 23 is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 69 days remaining. ... November 3 is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 58 days remaining. ... 1942 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... Bernard Law Montgomery Field Marshal Bernard Law Montgomery, 1st Viscount Montgomery of Alamein (November 17, 1887 - March 24, 1976) was a British military officer during World War II often referred to as Monty. ... Field Marshal Sir Claude John Eyre Auchinleck, GCB, GCIE, CSI, DSO, OBE (June 21, 1884 - 1981), nicknamed The Auk, was a British army commander during World War II. Born in Aldershot, he grew up in impoverished circumstances, but was able through hard work and scholarships to graduate from the Royal...


To complement this victory, on 8 November 1942, American and British troops landed in Morocco and Algeria in Operation Torch. The local forces of Vichy France put up limited resistance before joining the Allied cause. Rommel's Africa Corps was not being supplied adequately because of the loss of transport shipments by the British Royal Navy and Air Force in the Mediteranian. This lack of supplies and no air force to speek of, destroyed any chance of large offensive capabilites for the Germans in Afirca. Ultimately German and Italian forces were caught in the pincers of a twin advance from Algeria and Libya. The withdrawing Germans continued to put up stiff defense, and Rommel defeated the American forces decisviely, at the "Battle of the Kasserine Pass" before finishing his strategic withdrawal back to the meager german supply chain. Inevitably, advancing from both the east and west, the Allies finally defeated the German Afrika Corps on May 13, 1943. November 8 is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 53 days remaining. ... 1942 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Kingdom of Morocco is a country in northwest Africa. ... The People’s Democratic Republic of Algeria, or Algeria, is a nation in north Africa, and the second largest country on the African continent. ... Operation Torch (from November 8, 1942) was the Anglo-American invasion of French North Africa in World War II during the North African Campaign. ... Vichy France (French: now called Régime de Vichy or Vichy; called itself at the time État Français, or French State) was the French state of 1940-1944 which was a puppet government under Nazi influence, as opposed to the Free French Forces, based first in London and later in Algiers. ... The People’s Democratic Republic of Algeria, or Algeria, is a nation in north Africa, and the second largest country on the African continent. ... May 13 is the 133rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (134th in leap years). ... 1943 is a common year starting on Friday. ...


1943-45: Invasion of Sicily and Italy, Mussolini falls, Allied offensive north

North Africa was used as a springboard for the invasion of Sicily on 10 July 1943. Operation control was, for the first few months, based on the island of Malta. Having captured Sicily, the Allies invaded mainland Italy on 3 September 1943. Shortly before the main invasion of 8 September, the Italian government surrendered. The German Army continued to fight from the Gothic Line and then Winter Line in Italy's mountains. The conflict would last until the spring of 1945. Husky was also the codename of Australian military support to Sierra Leone ending in February 2003. ... July 10 is the 191st day (192nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 174 days remaining. ... 1943 is a common year starting on Friday. ... Official languages Maltese and English Capital Valletta Largest City Birkirkara President Edward (Eddie) Fenech Adami Prime Minister Lawrence Gonzi Religion Catholicism Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 184th 316 km² Negligible Population  - Total (2003)  - Density Ranked 211th 399,867 1262/km² Independence  - Date From the UK September 21, 1964 Currency lira Time... This article covers the invasion of mainland Italy by the World War II Allies in September 1943 during the Italian Campaign. ... September 3 is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years). ... 1943 is a common year starting on Friday. ... September 8 is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years). ... Gothic Line also known as Linea Gotica was Field Marshall Albert Kesselrings last line of defence along the top of the Apennines during the retreat of Nazi Germanys forces from Italy near the end of World War II. After the fall of Rome on June 4, 1944, the... The Winter Line was a series of German military fortifications in Italy, constructed during World War II by Organisation Todt. ... 1945 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Home front

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During the war, women worked in factories throughout much of the West.

Home front is the name given to the activities of civilians in a state of total war. During World War II, women joined the work force in jobs that the men overseas used to occupy. Families also grew victory gardens, small home vegetable gardens, to supply themselves with food during the war. They did this because the food was limited and they had to use ration stamps to get food. Sugar and coffee were especially hard to get, and gasoline was also rationed, as was silk. Schools and organizations held scrap drives and money collections to help the war effort. Many things were conserved to turn into weapons later, such as fat left over from cooking. This was later used to make explosives such as nitroglycerin. Franklin D. Roosevelt stated that the efforts of civilians at home to support the war through personal sacrifice was as critical to winning the war as the efforts of the soldiers themselves, and that the civilian populace constituted an additional front at home. Home front is the term commonly used to describe the civilian populace of the nation at war as an active support system of the fighting effort. ... A civilian is a person who is not a member of a military. ... Total war describes an international war in which countries or nations use all of their resources to destroy another organized countrys or nations ability to engage in war. ... Nitroglycerin (also nitroglycerine, trinitroglycerin, or glyceryl trinitrate) is a chemical compound, a heavy, colorless, poisonous, oily, explosive liquid obtained by nitrating glycerol. ...


Civilian populations were heavily involved in war production and subject to propaganda from their governments. This article is about the type of communication. ...


Genocide, atrocities, warcrimes and internment

Acts of genocide against or mass internment of civilian populations occurred in the territories and/or occupied territories of most great powers of the war, including Germany, Japan, the United States, and the Soviet Union. Some of these were so unimaginably immense and horrific that they changed the psyche of Western civilization; bringing to an end the optimistic beliefs in continual improvement in human nature which had supported western civilization in its education and imperialism up to that point. Genocide has been defined as the deliberate killing of people based on their ethnicity, nationality, race, religion, or (sometimes) politics, as well as other deliberate actions leading to the physical elimination of any of the above categories. ... The word internment is generally used to refer to the imprisonment or confinement of people without due process of law and a trial. ...


Internment and genocide - The worst conditions were imposed in Nazi concentration camps. Most camps were specialized into variously forced labour camps, starvation camps (Buchenwald) or later extermination camps (Treblinka, Sobibor); though Auschwitz, the largest and most infamous, had a separate camp devoted to each purpose. In the Holocaust "Death-camps" large numbers of people were killed using gas, usually immediately they disembarked from trains under the pretense of being given a shower to prevent disease. Grounds for this mass murder were variously racist (Jews, Gypsies) "eugenic" (mental patients, homosexuals) and military/political opposition: initially anarchist and communist militant opponents, then ideological opponents (pacifists, Jehovah's Witnesses), later Soviet POWs and then military and underground opposition. Jews were the largest group of people killed, approximately 6 million, next in reducing order were Poles, other Slavs, Soviet POWs and then other groups. The Nazi party used a right-facing swastika as their symbol and the red and black colors were said to represent Blut und Boden (blood and soil). ... A concentration camp is a large detention centre created for political opponents, aliens, specific ethnic or religious groups, civilians of a critical war-zone, or other groups of people, often during a war. ... Unfree labour is a generic or collective term for forms of work, especially in modern or early modern history, in which adults and/or children are employed without wages, or for a minimal wage. ... A labor camp is a simplified detention facility where inmates are engaged in forced labor. ... Slave laborers in the Buchenwald concentration camp (Elie Wiesel is second row, seventh from left). ... Majdanek - crematorium Extermination camp (German Vernichtungslager) was the term applied to a group of camps set up by Nazi Germany during World War II for the express purpose of killing the Jews of Europe, although members of some other groups whom the Nazis wished to exterminate, such as Roma (Gypsies... Treblinka is a small village in the Mazowieckie voivodship (province) of Poland. ... Sobibór was a Nazi extermination camp that was part of Operation Reinhard. ... Auschwitz is the name loosely used to identify three main Nazi German concentration camps and 45-50 sub-camps. ... Concentration camp inmates during the Holocaust The Holocaust refers to Nazi Germanys systematic genocide ( ethnic cleansing) of various ethnic, religious, national, and secular groups during World War II starting in 1941 and continuing through 1945. ... Majdanek - crematorium Extermination camp (German Vernichtungslager) was the term applied to a group of camps set up by Nazi Germany during World War II for the express purpose of killing the Jews of Europe, although members of some other groups whom the Nazis wished to exterminate, such as Roma (Gypsies... An African-American drinks out of a water fountain marked for colored in 1939 at a street car terminal in Oklahoma City. ... The word Jew (Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination of these attributes. ... The Rroma people (pronounced rahma, singular Rrom) along with the closely related Sinti people are commonly known as Gypsies. ... The word eugenics (from the Greek εὐγενής, for well-born) was coined in 1883 by Sir Francis Galton, a cousin of Charles Darwin, to refer to the study and use of selective breeding (of animals or humans) to improve a species over generations, specifically in regards to hereditary features. ... Anarchism is a generic term describing various political philosophies and social movements that advocate the elimination of hierarchy and imposed authority. ... Communism - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... Pacifism is opposition to the practice of war. ... Jehovahs Witnesses in Germany were persecuted between 1933 and 1945. ... The Republic of Poland, a democratic country with a population of 38,626,349 and area of 312,685 km², is located in Central Europe, between Germany to the west, the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south, Ukraine and Belarus to the east, and the Baltic Sea, Lithuania and... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ...


Next worst is disputed; but the USSR's gulags and Japanese POW camps both had high death rates. Many German POW's died in the Soviet Gulags or Labor camps, along with many opponents of Stalin's regime and large proportions of some ethnic groups (particularly Chechens). Many Japanese POW camps were used as labour camps and starvation conditions among the mainly U.S. and Commonwealth prisoners were little better than many German concentration camps. Gulag (from the Russian ГУЛАГ: Главное Управление Исправительно— Трудовых Лагерей, Glavnoye Upravleniye Ispravitelno-trudovykh Lagerey, The Chief Directorate [or Administration] of Corrective Labour Camps) was the branch of the Soviet internal police and security service that operated the penal system of forced labour camps and associated detention and transit camps... Gulag (from the Russian ГУЛАГ: Главное Управление Исправительно— Трудовых Лагерей, Glavnoye Upravleniye Ispravitelno-trudovykh Lagerey, The Chief Directorate [or Administration] of Corrective Labour Camps) was the branch of the Soviet internal police and security service that operated the penal system of forced labour camps and associated detention and transit camps... A labor camp is a simplified detention facility where inmates are engaged in forced labor. ... Chechen can mean: Chechen people, an ethnic group Chechen language Related to Chechnya This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... A Prisoner-of-war camp is a site for the containment of persons captured by the enemy in time of war. ...


Atrocity and War crimes - Few forms of atrocity were excluded from the Eastern European War theatre, including the killing of millions of Ukrainians and Belorussians in the name of Lebensraum, of over a million Yugoslavs in disproportionate reprisal killings for Partisan activity, plus medical experimentation on concentration camp inmates. The population of Kiev dropped by 90% between the the early 1930s and 1945, partly from starvation under Stalin, mostly under the Nazis. The Japanese Unit 731 experimented in Biological warfare in Manchuria, with a view to eliminating Chinese populations. Japanese atrocities in China included rape, pillage, murder and cannibalism. The best known atrocity in China is the Nanjing Massacre. During the Allied island advances in the Pacific surrendering troops were almost routinely killed, by Japanese, American and Australian troops; for identical behaviour against Americans during the Battle of the Bulge German SS commanders were tried for warcrimes after the war. A war crime is a punishable offense, under international law, for violations of the law of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ... The Eastern Front was the theatre of combat between Nazi Germany and its allies against the Soviet Union during World War II. It was somewhat separate from the other theatres of the war, not only geographically, but also for its scale and ferocity. ... Ukraine (Україна, Ukrayina in Ukrainian; Украина in Russian) is a republic in eastern Europe which borders Russia to the east, Belarus to the north, Poland, Slovakia and Hungary to the west, Romania and Moldova to the southwest and the Black Sea to the south. ... Belarus (Belarusian: Белару́сь, Russian: Белару́сь (formerly: Белору́ссия)) is a landlocked nation of Eastern Europe with the capital Minsk. ... Lebensraum (Living space) is an idea that was used to justify the expansionist politics of Nazi Germany. ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in all south Slavic languages) is a term used for three separate but successive political entities that existed during most of the 20th century on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe. ... Kiev (Київ, Kyiv, in Ukrainian; Киев, Kiev, in Russian) is the capital and largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper river. ... body disposal at Unit 731 Unit 731 was a secret military medical unit of the Imperial Japanese Army that researched biological warfare and other topics through human experimentation during the Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945) and World War II era. ... Biological warfare, also known as germ warfare, is the use of any organism ( bacteria, virus or other disease-causing organism) or toxin found in nature, as a weapon of war. ... Approximate extent Northeast China (Simplified Chinese: 东北; Traditional Chinese: 東北; pinyin: Dōngběi; literally east-north), historically known as Manchuria, is the name of a region (ca. ... This article is in need of attention. ... The German Ardennes Offensive1, popularly known as the Battle of the Bulge, started in late December 1944 and was the last major German offensive on the Western Front during World War II. The German army had intended to split the Allied line in half, capturing Antwerp and then proceeding to...


From 1945 to 1949 German and Japanese officials were prosecuted by Allied tribunals for war crimes. Accused of genocide and atrocities, many German officials were tried at the Nuremburg Trials and many Japanese officials at the Tokyo War Crime Trial. A war crime is a punishable offense, under international law, for violations of the law of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ... Genocide has been defined as the deliberate killing of people based on their ethnicity, nationality, race, religion, or (sometimes) politics, as well as other deliberate actions leading to the physical elimination of any of the above categories. ... An atrocity (from the Latin atrox, atrocious, from Latin ater = matte black (as distinct from niger = shiny black)) is a term used to describe crimes ranging from an act committed against a single person to one committed against a population or ethnic group. ... The Nuremberg Trials is the general name for two sets of trials of Nazis involved in World War II and the Holocaust. ... Categories: Possible copyright violations ...


Although pursuant to Article XXII of the draft Hague Rules of Air Warfare 1923, "aerial bombardment for the purpose of terrorizing the civilian population, of destroying or damaging private property not of a military character, or of injuring non-combatants" was to be prohibited, these rules had never been ratified by the Powers. Some attempt was made to adhere to the rules in the early part of the war by some of the participants. In the first months of the war the RAF was for example ordered by the British Government to adhere strictly to the draft rules, but this restriction was progressively relaxed, and abandoned altogether in 1942. By 1945 the strategic bombing of cities had been employed extensively by all sides, most notably in Poland, Russia, Ukraine, Britain, Germany and Japan, and no action was taken against those responsible. 1942 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1945 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Though no Allies faced criminal charges for their actions, acts such as the internment of thousands of Japanese Americans by the US government, the atomic bombing of 2 Japanese civilian populations, and the fire-bombing of many German cities including Hamburg and Dresden by Anglo-American forces have been subject to criticism during the post-war era as possible war crimes. The bombing of Dresden in World War II by the Allies remains controversial after more than 50 years. ...


Technology in World War II

The massive research and development involved in the Manhattan Project in order to quickly achieve a working nuclear weapon design greatly impacted the scientific community, among other things creating a network of national laboratories in the United States. In addition, the pressing for numerous calculations for various things like code breaking and ballistics tables kick-started the development of electronic computer technology. While the war stimulated many technologies: radio development accelerated, and radar developed; it retarded others, most notably popular television which the BBC had been developing, but which was shelved, as it also was in Germany and the USA, until the end of the war. Control panels and operators for calutrons at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. ... Nuclear weapon designs are often divided into two classes, based on the dominant source of the nuclear weapons energy. ... A Colossus Mark II computer. ... The tower of a personal computer (specifically a Power Mac G5). ... Radio transmission diagram and electromagnetic waves Radio is a technology that allows the transmission of signals by modulation of electromagnetic waves with frequencies below those of light. ... M*A*S*H, see Corporal Walter (Radar) OReilly. ... ...


The Jet aircraft age began during the war with the development of the Heinkel He 178 the first true turbojet, the Messerschmitt 262 - the first jet in combat, and the Gloster Meteor the first reliable and useful jet fighter. The Nazi terror weapon, the V-2 rocket, was the first step into the space age as its trajectory took it higher than any aircraft through the stratosphere. It led directly to the development of the ICBM. The V2 development team was led by Wernher Von Braun, who later immigrated to the USA and developed the Saturn 5 rocket which took men to the moon in 1969. Jet aircraft are aircraft with jet engines. ... The Heinkel He 178 was the worlds first aircraft to fly under turbojet power, and the first practical jet plane. ... The Messerschmitt Me 262 Schwalbe (Swallow) was the first operational jet powered aircraft. ... The Gloster Meteor was the RAFs first jet fighter aircraft, introduced into service only weeks after the Messerschmitt Me 262 in August 1944. ... German test launch. ... The Stratosphere is also a major hotel and casino resort in Las Vegas. ... A Minuteman III missile soars after a test launch. ... In May 1964, von Braun stands at his Marshall Space Flight Center desk in Huntsville, Alabama with models of rockets developed and in progress. ... This article is about the rocket. ...


All forms of military technology progressed at a forced pace faster even than modern computers and over six years there was a disorientatingly fast rate of change in combat. The best jet fighters at the end of the war could have effectively combatted twenty Spitfire Mark Is , the best early war fighters. The best late war tank, the JS-3 may well have defeated thirty of the best tanks of 1939, Panzer IVDs. The early war bombers that caused such carnage would almost all have been shot down in 1945, many with one shot, by radar aimed, proximity fuse detonated anti aircraft fire, just as the 1941 "invincible fighter", the Zero had by 1944 become the "turkey" of the "Turkey shoot". This future shock was capped by the atomic bomb. The tower of a personal computer. ... The Supermarine Spitfire was a single seat fighter used by the RAF and many Allied countries in World War II. The Spitfires elliptical wings gave it a very distinctive look; their thin cross-section gave it speed; the brilliant design of Chief Designer R.J. Mitchell and his successors... The Iosef Stalin tank, named after Joseph Stalin, was a heavy tank developed by the Soviet Union during World War II. It is sometimes transliterated Iosif Stalin, from the Russian, Иосиф Сталин. ... The Panzerkampfwagen IV (PzKpfw IV), more commonly referred to as the Panzer IV, was a tank developed by Nazi Germany and used extensively in World War II. It was designed initially as an infantry-support medium tank, to work in conjunction with the anti-tank Pzkpfw III. Later in the... A proximity fuse (sometimes spelled fuze) is a fuse that is designed to detonate an explosive automatically when close enough to the target to destroy it. ... American troops man an anti-aircraft gun near the Algerian coastline in 1943 Anti-aircraft, or air defense, is any method of combating military aircraft from the ground. ... Mitsubishi A6M2 Zero Model 21 (cowling removed) The Mitsubishi A6M was a light-weight carrier-based fighter aircraft employed by the Imperial Japanese Navy from 1940 to 1945. ... Battle of the Philippine Sea Conflict World War II, Pacific Theater of Operations Date 19–20 June 1944 Place The Philippine Sea Result Decisive American victory The Battle of the Philippine Sea was an air-sea battle of the Pacific campaign of World War II fought between the US Navy... Future Shock is a controversial book written by the sociologist and futurologist Alvin Toffler in 1970. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ...


The chaotic impotence of opposed amphibious landings typical of WW1 disasters was overcome; the DUKW, a six-wheel-drive amphibious truck, and amphibious tanks were developed by the United States to support beach landing attacks and the organization and coordination of amphibious assaults became a science; laying the foundations for the methodology of Project Management used to organize most modern large scale technological and engineering development. Battle of Gallipoli Conflict First World War Date 19 February 1915 - 9 January 1916 Place Gallipoli peninsula, Turkey Result Ottoman victory The Battle of Gallipoli took place on the Turkish peninsula of Gallipoli in 1915 during the First World War. ... A DUKW in WW II. The DUKW, popularly called the DUCK, is a six-wheel-drive amphibious truck developed by the United States during World War 2 for transporting goods and troops over land and water and for use approaching and crossing beaches in amphibious attacks. ... An amphibian or amphibious vehicle, is a vehicle that, like an amphibian, can move on land as well as on water. ... Project management is the ensemble of activities (such as tasks) concerned with successfully achieving a set of goals. ...


Consequences

In contrast to World War I, the Western victors in the Second World War did not demand compensation from the defeated nations. On the contrary, a plan created by U. S. Secretary of State George Marshall, the "European Recovery Program", better known as the Marshall Plan, called for the U.S. Congress to allocate billions of dollars for the reconstruction of Europe. Also as part of the effort to rebuild global capitalism and spur post-war reconstruction, the Bretton Woods system was put into effect after the war. Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... George C. Marshall George Catlett Marshall ( December 31, 1880– October 16, 1959), was an American military leader and statesman best remembered for his leadership in the Allied victory in World War II and for his work establishing the post-war reconstruction effort for Europe, which became known as the Marshall... U.S. postage stamp issued 1997 honoring the 50th anniversary of the Marshall Plan. ... Seal of the Congress. ... World map showing location of Europe A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is geologically and geographically a peninsula, forming the westernmost part of Eurasia. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...


United Nations and the Cold War

Since the League of Nations had obviously failed to prevent the war, a new international order was constructed. In 1945 the United Nations was founded. Also, in order to prevent such devastating war from occurring again and to establish a lasting peace in Europe, the European Coal and Steel Community was born in 1951 (Treaty of Paris (1951)), the predecessor of the European Union. The League of Nations was an international organisation founded after the First World War with its constitution being approved by the Paris Peace Conference in 1919. ... The United Nations, or UN, is an international organization made up of 191 states established in 1945. ... The European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) was founded in 1951 (Treaty of Paris), by France, West Germany, Italy, Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to pool the steel and coal resources of its member-states, thus preventing another European war. ... Global Metrics Human security Major Armed Conflicts: Total Deaths in Battle: 700,000 people Violent Deaths caused by Government (Other than War): Violent Deaths caused by other humans: Juvenile Violent Crime: Political security Nations Holding Multi-party Elections: Percentage Living under a Fully Democratic System of Governance: Free Countries: Percentage... The Treaty of Paris, signed on April 18, 1951 between Belgium, France, West Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands established the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), which subsequently became part of the European Union. ... The European Union or EU is an intergovernmental organisation of European countries, which currently has 25 member states. ...


The future Warsaw Pact countries did not subscribe to the Marshall Plan. In the Paris Peace Treaty, the Soviet Union's enemies Hungary, Finland and Romania were required to pay war reparations of $300,000,000 each (in 1938 dollars) to the USSR. Italy was required to pay $360,000,000, shared chiefly between Greece, Yugoslavia and the Soviet Union. Map of Warsaw Pact member countries. ... This page is about the partial formal conclusion of World War II. For other Paris peace treaties see article Treaty of Paris. ... The Republic of Hungary (Magyar Köztársaság) or Hungary (Magyarország) is a landlocked country in Central Europe, bordered by Austria, Slovakia, Ukraine, Romania, Serbia, Croatia and Slovenia. ... The Republic of Finland (Finnish: Suomen tasavalta, Swedish: Republiken Finland) is a Nordic country in northeastern Europe, bordered by the Baltic Sea to the southwest, the Gulf of Finland to the southeast and the Gulf of Bothnia to the west. ... Romania (formerly spelled Rumania or Roumania; Romanian: România) is a country in southeastern Europe. ... War reparations refer to the monetary compensation provided to a triumphant nation or coalition from a defeated nation or coalition. ... The Italian Republic or Italy (Italian: Repubblica Italiana or Italia) is a country in southern Europe. ... Greece, officaly called the Hellenic Republic (Greek: Ελληνική Δημοκρατία), is a country in the southeast of Europe on the southern tip of the Balkan peninsula. ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in all south Slavic languages) is a term used for three separate but successive political entities that existed during most of the 20th century on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe. ...


In the areas occupied by Western Allied troops, democratic governments were created, in the areas occupied by Soviet troops, communist governments were created. Germany was partitioned into four zones of occupation, with the American, British and French zones grouped as West Germany and the Soviet zone as East Germany. Austria was once again separated from Germany and it, too, was divided into four zones of occupation which eventually re-united and became the state of Austria. The Cold War had begun, and soon NATO and the Warsaw Pact would form. West Germany was the informal but almost universally used name for the Federal Republic of Germany from 1949 until 1990, during which years the Federal Republic did not yet include East Germany. ... For the historical eastern German provinces, see Historical Eastern Germany East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic (GDR), German Deutsche Demokratische Republik (DDR), was a Communist Party-led state that existed from 1949 to 1990 in the former Soviet occupation zone of Germany. ... The Republic of Austria (German: Republik Österreich) is a landlocked country in Central Europe. ... The Cold War ( 1947- 1991) was the open yet restricted rivalry that developed after World War II between groups of nations practicing different ideologies and political systems. ... For the National Association of Theatre Owners, please see National Association of Theatre Owners. ... Map of Warsaw Pact member countries. ...


The repatriation, pursuant to the terms of the Yalta Conference, of two million Russian soldiers who had come under the control of advancing American and British forces, resulted for the most part in their deaths. The Yalta Conference, sometimes called the Crimea conference and codenamed the Argonaut Conference, was the wartime meeting from February 4 to 11, 1945 between the heads of government of the United States, the United Kingdom and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. ...


See also


List of World War II conferences Note: links to conference, not location. ... This article discusses the history of the continent of Europe. ... Current political map of the Balkans. ... Total war describes an international war in which countries or nations use all of their resources to destroy another organized countrys or nations ability to engage in war. ...


German Führer Adolf Hitler Preceding events (See also Events preceding World War II in Europe and Causes of World War II.) br Germany was in debt after World War I, due to the Great Depression and the forced payments to the victors of World War I. Germans wanted a leader... Polish Defence War of 1939 Conflict World War II Date 1 September - 6 October 1939 Place Poland Result Decisive German and Soviet victory The Polish September Campaign (alternatively refered to as the German plan Fall Weiss) refers to the conquest of Poland by the armies of Nazi Germany and the... The Allied campaign in Norway took place from April 1940 until early June 1940. ... The Phony War, or in Winston Churchills words the Twilight War, was the phase of World War II marked by no military operations in Continental Europe, that followed the collapse of Poland. ... In World War II, Battle of France or Case Yellow (Fall Gelb in German) was the France and the Low Countries, executed 10 May 1940 which ended the Phony War. ... Battle of Britain - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... The Eastern Front was the theatre of combat between Nazi Germany and its allies against the Soviet Union during World War II. It was somewhat separate from the other theatres of the war, not only geographically, but also for its scale and ferocity. ... During World War II, the Western Front was the theater of fighting west of Germany, encompassing France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxemberg, and Denmark. ... The Pacific War (1937–1945) is not to be confused with the War of the Pacific (1879–1884) in South America. ... The Second Sino-Japanese War was a major invasion of eastern China by Japan preceding and during World War II. It ended with the surrender of Japan in 1945. ... The South-East Asian Theatre of World War II was the name given to the campaigns of the Pacific War in India, Burma, Thailand, Malaya and Singapore. ... Pacific Ocean Areas was a major Allied military command during World War II. It was one of four major commands during the Pacific War, and one of two United States commands in the Pacific theatre of operations. ... This article deals with the military command/theatre known as the South West Pacific Area. ... August storm Conflict World War II Date August 8 – September 2, 1945 Place Manchukuo Result Soviet victory Operation August Storm was the codename for the Soviet invasion of Manchukuo, Mengjiang, Korea, the southern portion of Sakhalin, the Kuril Islands, and Hokkaido; it would be the initial action of the Soviet... The Middle East Theatre of World War II Command Structure main article Middle East Command The British Middle East Command was based in Cairo with responsibility not just for British Empire and Dominions ( British Commonwealth) operations in the Middle East and North Africa, but also East Africa, Persia, and the... The Mediterranean region. ... The name African Theatres of World War II encompasses actions which took place in World War II between Allied forces and Axis forces, between 1940 and 1943 both on the African mainland and in nearby waters and islands. ... Battle of Mediterranean Conflict World War II Date Place Mediterranean Sea Result Allied victory The Naval Battle of the Mediterranean was waged during World War II, to attack and keep open the respective supply lines of Allied and Axis armies, and to destroy the opposing sides ability to wage... The East African Campaign refers to the battles fought between the United Kingdom and Italy around the region of Italian East Africa during World War II. This campaign is often seen as part of the North African Campaign. ... The battle in the North African desert during World War II from 1940-1943. ... The name West African campaign refers to two battles during World War II, the Battle of Dakar (also known as Operation Menace) and the Battle of Gabon, both of which were in late 1940. ... The Balkans Campaign was the Italian and German invasion of the Yugoslavia, Greece during the Second World War. ... The Middle East Campaign was a part of the Middle East Theatre of World War II Over view This campaign included: The British police actions in Palestine. ... The Battle of Madagascar is another name for Operation Ironclad, the Allied invasion of Madagascar launched on May 5, 1942, when it was feared that bases on the Vichy French-controlled island might be used by Japan. ... The Italian Campaign of World War II was the name of Allied operations in and around Italy, from 1943 to the end of the war. ... The Second Battle of the Atlantic was the longest continuous military campaign of World War II, running from 1939 right through to the defeat of Nazi Germany in 1945, and was at its height from mid-1940 through to about the end of 1943. ... Strategic Bombing during World War II was unlike anything the world had previously witnessed. ... Small to medium-sized raiding operations were carried out by both Allied and Axis armies during World War II. The modus operandi used included guerrilla attacks by partisans in occupied territory and/or combined operations involving the landing and removal of specialised light infantry, such as commandos, by means of... The Chinese Civil War was a conflict in China between the Kuomintang (the Nationalist Party; KMT) and the Communist Party of China (CPC). ... The Winter War (also known as the Russo-Finnish War) broke out when the Soviet Union attacked Finland on November 30, 1939, three months after the start of World War II. As a consequence, the Soviet Union was expelled from the League of Nations on December 14th. ... The Continuation War was fought between Finland and the Soviet Union during World War II; from the Soviet bombing attacks on June 25, 1941, to cease-fire September 4, 1944 (on the Finnish side) and September 5 (on the Soviet side). ...

Military history of World War II by nation
Britain | China | Egypt | Finland | France | Germany | India | Italy | Japan | Poland | Soviet Union | United States | Australia | Canada | New Zealand

Military history is the recording (in writing or otherwise) of the events in the history of humanity that fall within the category of conflict. This may range from a dispute between two tribes that come to blow over a plot of land, to a world war. ... The United Kingdom, along with France, declared war on Nazi Germany in 1939 as part of the United Kingdoms pledge to defend Poland to the invasion of Poland. ... Military history of Egypt during World War II. Introduction See History of Modern Egypt. ... The Military history of Finland during World War II is covered chiefly in three articles: Winter War Continuation War Lapland War There are also other, more specialized articles: Category:Winter War Moscow Peace Treaty (1940) Salpalinja Category:Continuation War Paris Peace Treaties, 1947 Lotta Svärd Finnish war children Post-war... This page is intended to serve as a focal point for information pertinent to understanding German military activity during World War II. Foreword When in 1933 Hitler gained power, and set on a massive program of rearmament, no one could have predicted the scope, intensity, and duration of the armed... During World War II, India was a British Crown colony. ... This page is intended to serve as a focal point for studying Italian military history during the WWII-era. ... Stalin and Voroshilov salute a military parade in Red Square above the message Long Live the Workers and Peasant Red Army - Loyal Guard of the Soviet Border! The military history of the Soviet Union began in the early days following the 1917 October Revolution and the creation of the Russian... Contents // Categories: Military stubs | Australia-related stubs | Australian history ... The First Nations Indigenous peoples’ warfare tended to be formal and ritualistic in nature and entailed relatively few casualties. ... This article is in need of attention. ...

Notes

Note 1:

Listen to United Kingdom Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain declaring war on Germany. MP3 file, 1.32MB.
This speech is also available in OGG Vorbis format. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... MP3 (or, more precisely, MPEG-1/2 Audio Layer 3) is an audio compression algorithm capable of greatly reducing the amount of data required to reproduce audio, while sounding like a faithful reproduction of the original uncompressed audio to most listeners. ... mb, Mb, and MB may stand for: Manitoba Mercedes Benz a manned base Bachelor of Medicine (academic degree) Medical Board megabit (Mb)¹, or 1,048,576 (220) bits, or 1,000,000 bits megabyte (MB)¹, or 1,048,576 (220) bytes, or 1,000,000 bytes millibar (mb...


Note 2: See the front page of the 6 June, 1944 edition (http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/treasures/images/uc68a.1.jpg) of The New York Times. The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ...


Note 3: The text of Germany's surrender documents is available here (http://www.law.ou.edu/hist/germsurr.html).


References

Sir Martin Gilbert (born October 25, 1936 in London) is a British historian and biographer and author of over seventy books on a range of historical subjects. ... Sir John Keegan (born 1934) is an English military historian specializing in 20th-century wars. ... Basil Henry Liddell Hart (October 31, 1895 _ January 29, 1970) was a military historian and is considered among the great military strategists of the 20th century. ... Richard Overy has published extensively on the history of World War II and the Third Reich. ... 1994 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International year of the Family. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has more media related to:
  • Color photographs of the war (http://www.ww2incolor.com/)
  • WW2 People's War (http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/ww2/) - A project by the BBC to gather the stories of ordinary people from World War II
  • BBC History: World War Two (http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/war/wwtwo/)
  • Deutsche Welle special section on World War II (http://www6.dw-world.de/en/worldwarII.php) created by one of Germany's public broadcasters on World War II and the world 60 years after.
  • Online Newspaper Archive (http://warmuseum.ca/cwm/newspapers/intro_e.html)
  • WorldWar-2.net (http://www.worldwar-2.net/)

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Second World War (1105 words)
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