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Encyclopedia > Second generation warfare

Second generation warfare is a term created by the U.S. military in 1989, referring to the tactics of warfare used after the invention of the rifled musket and breech-loading weapons and continuing through the development of the machine gun and indirect fire. The military of the United States, officially known as the United States Armed Forces, is structured into five branches consisting of the: United States Army United States Marine Corps United States Navy United States Air Force United States Coast Guard All the branches are under civilian control with the President... The rifled musket is a long-barreled infantry weapon (to be distinguished from the shorter rifle carried by some light infantry units), usually percussion, that was common in the 19th century. ... An interrupted screw style breech plug in the M109 howitzer A breech-loading weapon, usually a gun or cannon, is one where the bullet or shell is inserted or loaded into the gun at the rear of the barrel, or breech; the opposite of muzzle-loading. ... A machine gun is a fully-automatic firearm that is capable of firing bullets in rapid succession. ... Indirect fire is a characteristic unique to artillery in which the fire is adjusted out of sight of the guns. ...

Contents

History

In the 1800s, the invention of the breech-loading rifled musket meant longer range, greater accuracy, and faster rate of fire. Marching ranks of men straight into a barrage of fire from weapons such as that would cause tremendous rates of casualties, so a new strategy was developed.


Second generation warfare still maintained lines of battle but focused more on the use of technology to allow smaller units of men to advance separately. These smaller units allowed for faster advances, less concentrated casualties, and the ability to use cover and concealment to advantage. To some degree, these concepts have remained in use even as the next generations have arisen, so the end of the second generation is not as clearly defined as that of the first. The development of the blitzkrieg highlighted some of the flaws of static firing positions and slow-moving infantry, so this can be considered the beginning of the end for the second generation, at least as the dominant force in military strategy. British and Danish ships in line of battle at the Battle of Copenhagen (1801). ... One of the defining characteristics of what is commonly known as Blitzkrieg is close co-operation between infantry and tanks. ...


Contributions to warfare

The contributions of the second generation were responses to technological development. The second generation saw the rise of trench warfare, artillery support, more advanced reconnaissance techniques, extensive use of camouflage uniforms, radio communications, and fireteam maneuvers. Trench warfare is a form of war in which both opposing armies have static lines of defence. ... Historically, artillery (from French artillerie) refers to any engine used for the discharge of projectiles during war. ... Mixed reconnaissance patrol of the Polish Home Army and the Soviet Red Army during Operation Tempest, 1944 Reconnaissance is the military term for the active gathering of information about an enemy, or other conditions, by physical observation. ... Camouflage became an essential part of modern military tactics after the increase in accuracy and rate of fire of weapons at the end of the 19th century. ... A fireteam is a small military unit of infantry. ...


Examples

Combatants Allied Powers: British Empire France Italy Russia United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary Bulgaria Germany Ottoman Empire Commanders Ferdinand Foch Georges Clemenceau Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna Armando Diaz Nicholas II Aleksei Brusilov Herbert Henry Asquith Douglas Haig John Jellicoe Woodrow Wilson John Pershing Wilhelm II Paul von Hindenburg... An Irish War of Independence memorial in Dublin The Anglo-Irish War (also known as the Irish War of Independence) was a guerrilla campaign mounted against the British government in Ireland by the Irish Republican Army under the proclaimed legitimacy of the First Dáil, the extra-legal Irish parliament... Combatants Spanish Republic CNT-FAI UGT POUM Soviet Union International Brigades Spanish State Falangists Carlists Fascist Italy Nazi Germany Commanders Manuel Azaña Francisco Largo Caballero Juan Negrín Francisco Franco Casualties Civilians killed/wounded = hundreds of thousands The Spanish Civil War, which lasted from July 17, 1936 to April... Combatants Major Allied powers: United Kingdom Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Major Axis powers: Nazi Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Harry Truman Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead...

References

February 20 is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... February 20 is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also


 
 

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