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Encyclopedia > Second Vatican Council
Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican
Date 1962–1965
Previous council First Vatican Council
Convoked by Pope John XXIII
Presided by Pope John XXIII, Pope Paul VI
Attendance up to 2540
Topics of discussion The Church in itself, in relation to ecumenism and other religions, in relation to the modern world, renewal, liturgy, etc.
Documents and statements 4 Constitutions:

9 decrees: The First Vatican Council was summoned by Pope Pius IX by the bull Aeterni Patris of June 29, 1868. ... See also: 15th-century Antipope John XXIII. Pope John XXIII (Latin: ; Italian: ), born Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli (November 25, 1881 – June 3, 1963), known as Blessed John XXIII since his beatification, was elected as the 261st Pope of the Roman Catholic Church and sovereign of Vatican City on October 28, 1958. ... See also: 15th-century Antipope John XXIII. Pope John XXIII (Latin: ; Italian: ), born Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli (November 25, 1881 – June 3, 1963), known as Blessed John XXIII since his beatification, was elected as the 261st Pope of the Roman Catholic Church and sovereign of Vatican City on October 28, 1958. ... This article cites very few or no references or sources. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Ecumenism (also oecumenism, Å“cumenism) refers to initiatives aimed at greater religious unity or cooperation. ... Dei Verbum, the Dogmatic Constitution on Divine Revelation, is one of the principal documents of the Second Vatican Council, indeed their very foundation in the view of one of the leading Council Fathers, Bishop Christopher Butler. ... Lumen Gentium, the Dogmatic Constitution on the Church, is one of the principal documents of the Second Vatican Council. ... Gaudium et Spes, the Pastoral Constitution on the Church in the Modern World, was one of the chief accomplishments of the Second Vatican Council. ... Sacrosanctum Concilium, the Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy, was one of the most significant measures enacted by the Second Vatican Council. ...

3 declarations: Ad Gentes is the Second Vatican Councils Decree on the Missionary Activity of the Church. ... Apostolicam Actuositatem is the Second Vatican Councils Decree on the Apostolate of the Laity. ... Christus Dominus is the Second Vatican Councils Decree on the Pastoral Office of Bishops. ... Inter Mirifica is the Second Vatican Councils Decree on the Media of Social Communications. ... Optatam Totius, the Decree on Priestly Training, was a document produced by the Second Vatican Council. ... Orientalium Ecclesiarum is the Decree on the Catholic Churches of the Eastern Rite from the Second Vatican Council. ... Perfectæ Caritatis, the Decree on the Adaptation and Renewal of Religious Life (referring to Roman Catholic religious orders), is one of the shorter documents issued by the Second Vatican Council. ... Presbyterorum Ordinis, the Decree on the Ministry and Life of Priests, is one of the documents produced by the Second Vatican Council. ... Unitatis Redintegratio is the Second Vatican Councils Decree on Ecumenism. ...

Chronological list of Ecumenical councils

The Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican, or Vatican II, was the twenty-first Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. It opened under Pope John XXIII in 1962 and closed under Pope Paul VI in 1965. At least four future pontiffs took part in the council's opening session: Cardinal Giovanni Battista Montini, who on succeeding Pope John XXIII took the name of Paul VI; Bishop Albino Luciani, the future Pope John Paul I; Bishop Karol Wojtyła, who became Pope John Paul II; and 35-year-old Father Joseph Ratzinger, present as a theological consultant, who more than forty years later became the current Pope Benedict XVI.[1] Dignitatis Humanæ is the Second Vatican Councils Declaration on Religious Freedom. ... Gravissimum Educationis is the Second Vatican Councils Declaration on Christian Education. ... Nostra Aetate is the Declaration on the Relation of the Church with Non-Christian Religions of the Second Vatican Council. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Athanasius · Augustine · Constantine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Calvin · Luther · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      An... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Athanasius · Augustine · Constantine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Calvin · Luther · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      An... Catholic Church redirects here. ... See also: 15th-century Antipope John XXIII. Pope John XXIII (Latin: ; Italian: ), born Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli (November 25, 1881 – June 3, 1963), known as Blessed John XXIII since his beatification, was elected as the 261st Pope of the Roman Catholic Church and sovereign of Vatican City on October 28, 1958. ... This article cites very few or no references or sources. ... This article cites very few or no references or sources. ... Pope John Paul I (Latin: , Italian: Giovanni Paolo I), born Albino Luciani, (October 17, 1912—September 28, 1978) reigned as Pope of the Roman Catholic Church and as Sovereign of Vatican City from August 26, 1978 until his death. ... Coat of Arms of Pope John Paul II. The Letter M is for Mary, the mother of Jesus, to whom he held strong devotion Pope John Paul II (Latin: , Italian: Giovanni Paolo II, Polish: Jan PaweÅ‚ II) born   []; 18 May 1920 – 2 April 2005) reigned as the 264th Pope of... Papal Arms of Pope Benedict XVI. The papal tiara was replaced with a bishops mitre, and pallium of the Pope was added beneath the coat of arms. ...

Contents

Background

Throughout the 1950s, Roman Catholic theological and biblical studies had begun to sway away from the neo-scholasticism and biblical literalism that the reaction to the Modernist heresy had enforced since the First Vatican Council. This shift could be seen in theologians such as Karl Rahner S.J., and John Courtney Murray S.J. who looked to integrate modern human experience with Christian dogma, as well as others such as Yves Congar, Joseph Ratzinger (now Pope Benedict XVI) and Henri de Lubac who looked to what they saw as a more accurate understanding of scripture and the early Church Fathers as a source of renewal ("ressourcement"). Neo-Scholasticism is the development of the Scholasticism of the Middle Ages during the latter half of the nineteenth century. ... Illustration depicting Modernism as the descent from Christianity to atheism. ... Heresy, as a blanket term, describes a practice or belief that is labeled as unorthodox. ... The First Vatican Council was summoned by Pope Pius IX by the bull Aeterni Patris of June 29, 1868. ... Karl Rahner in 1975. ... The Society of Jesus — also known by its Latin name Societas Iesu or its English variant Jesuit Order — is a religious order of the Roman Catholic Church in direct service to the Pope. ... TIME Magazine - Dec. ... Yves Marie Joseph Cardinal Congar (April 8, 1904-June 22, 1995) was a French Dominican priest and theologian. ... Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger (b. ... Papal Arms of Pope Benedict XVI. The papal tiara was replaced with a bishops mitre, and pallium of the Pope was added beneath the coat of arms. ... Henri de Lubac (February 20, 1896-September 4, 1991), a French Jesuit, can be considered to be one of the most influential theologians of post-modern time. ...


At the same time the world's bishops faced tremendous challenges driven by political, social, economic, and technological change. Some of these bishops sought new ways of addressing those challenges. The First Vatican Council had been held nearly a century before but had been cut short when the Italian Army entered the city of Rome at the end of Italian unification. As a result, only deliberations on the role of the Papacy were completed, with examination of pastoral and dogmatic issues concerning the whole church left undone.[2] Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      This article... The First Vatican Council was summoned by Pope Pius IX by the bull Aeterni Patris of June 29, 1868. ... Coat of Arms of the Italian Army Dardo IFV on exercise in Capo Teulada Soldiers of the 33rd Field Artillery Regiment Acqui on parade The Italian Army (Esercito Italiano) is the ground defense force of the Italian Republic. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Italian Unification (Italian: il Risorgimento, or The Resurgence) was the political and social movement that unified different states of the Italian peninsula into the single nation of Italy. ...


Pope John XXIII, however, gave notice of his intention to convene the Council on 25 January 1959, less than three months after his election in October 1958.[3]. This sudden announcement, which caught the Curia by surprise, caused little initial official comment from Church insiders. Reaction to the announcement was widespread and largely positive from both religious and secular leaders outside the Catholic Church,[4] and the council was formally summoned by an Apostolic Constitution (decree) entitled Humanae Salutis on 25 December 1961. [1][2] In various discussions before the Council actually convened, Pope John often said that it was time to open the windows of the Church to let in some fresh air.[5] He invited other Christian Churches to send observers to the Council. Acceptances came from both Protestant and Orthodox Churches.[6] See also: 15th-century Antipope John XXIII. Pope John XXIII (Latin: ; Italian: ), born Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli (November 25, 1881 – June 3, 1963), known as Blessed John XXIII since his beatification, was elected as the 261st Pope of the Roman Catholic Church and sovereign of Vatican City on October 28, 1958. ... is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... An Apostolic constitution (Latin constitutio apostolica) is a very solemn decree issued by the Pope of the Roman Catholic Church. ... is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ... ...


Sessions

Preparations for the Council, which took more than two years, included work from 10 specialized commissions, along with people for mass media and Christian Unity, and a Central Commission for overall coordination. These groups, composed mostly of members of the Roman Curia, produced 987 proposed constitutions and decrees (known as schemata) intended for consideration by the Council. It was expected that these groups would be succeeded by similarly constituted commissions during the Council itself that would carry out the main work of drafting and reviewing proposals before presentation to the Council as a whole for review and expected approval; what happened, however, was that every single schema was thrown out in the first session of the Council, and new ones were created.[7] The Roman Curia — usually called the Vatican — is the administrative apparatus of the Holy See, coordinating and providing the necessary organisation for the correct functioning of the Catholic Church and the achievement of its goals. ...


The general sessions of the Council were held in the autumns of four successive years (in four periods) 1962 through 1965. During the rest of the year special commissions met to review and collate the work of the bishops and to prepare for the next period. Sessions were held in Latin in St. Peter's Basilica, with secrecy kept as to discussions held and opinions expressed. Speeches (called interventions) were limited to ten minutes. Much of the work of the council, though, went on in a variety of other commission meetings (which could be held in other languages), as well as diverse informal meetings and social contacts outside of the council proper. For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... This article is about the famous building in Rome. ...


2,908 men (referred to as Council Fathers) were entitled to seats at the council. These included all bishops from around the world, as well as many superiors of male religious orders. 2,540 took part in the opening session, making it the largest gathering in any council in church history. (This compares to Vatican I where 737 attended, mostly from Europe.)[8] Attendance varied in later sessions from 2,100 to over 2,300. In addition, a varying number of periti (Latin for "experts") were available for theological consultation — a group that turned out to have a major influence as the council went forward. Seventeen Orthodox Churches and Protestant denominations sent observers.[9] More than three dozen representatives of other Christian communities were present at the opening session, and the number grew to nearly 100 by the end of the 4th Council Session.


First Session (Autumn 1962)

Pope John opened the Council on October 11, 1962 in a public session which included the Council Fathers as well as representatives of 86 governments and international bodies. Following a Mass, the Pope read an address to the assembled bishops entitled Gaudet Mater Ecclesia (Latin for "Mother Church Rejoices"). In the speech, he rejected the thoughts of "prophets of doom who are always forecasting disaster" in the world and in the future of the Church. Pope John stressed the pastoral, not doctrinal, nature of the Council: The Church did not need to repeat or reformulate existing doctrines and dogmata but rather had to teach Christ's message in light of the modern world's ever-changing trends. He exhorted the Council Fathers "to use the medicine of mercy rather than the weapons of severity" in the documents they would produce. is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Bishops Assert Themselves

October 13, 1962 marked the initial working session of the Council. That day's agenda included the election for members of the ten conciliar commissions. Each would have sixteen elected and eight appointed members, and were expected to do most of the work of the Council.[10] It had been expected that the members of the preparatory commissions, where the Curia was heavily represented, would be confirmed as the majorities on the conciliar commissions.[11] Senior French Cardinal Achille Liénart addressed the Council, saying that the bishops could not intelligently vote for strangers. He asked that the vote be postponed to give all the bishops a chance to draw up their own lists. German Cardinal Josef Frings seconded that proposal, and the vote was postponed, to the applause of the assembled Council Fathers.[12] The very first meeting of the Council adjourned after only fifteen minutes.[13] is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Cardinal Achille Liénart was the Archbishop of Lille and later a cardinal involved in the Second Vatican Council. ... Sculpture of Frings in Cologne. ...


The bishops met to discuss the membership of the commissions, along with other issues, both in national and regional groups, as well as in more informal gatherings. When the council met on October 16, 1962, a new slate of commission members was presented and approved by the Council.[14] One important change was a significant increase in membership from Central and Northern Europe, instead of countries such as Spain or Italy. More than 100 bishops from Africa, Asia, and Latin America were Dutch or Belgian and tended to associate with the bishops from those counties. These groups were led by Cardinal Jan Alfrink of the Netherlands and Cardinal Leo Joseph Suenens of Belgium.[15] is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Bernardus Johannes Cardinal Alfrink ((Nijkerk, 5 July 1900 - Nijmegen, 16 December 1987). ... Leo Jozef Cardinal Suenens (July 16, 1904—May 6, 1996) was a Belgian prelate of the Roman Catholic Church. ...


Issues

Issues considered during the sessions included liturgy, mass communications, the Eastern Catholic churches, and the nature of revelation. Most notably, the schema on revelation was rejected by a majority of bishops, and Pope John intervened to require its rewriting.[16] The Eastern Catholic Churches are autonomous particular Churches in full communion with the Pope in Rome. ...


After adjournment on December 8, work began on preparations for the sessions scheduled for 1963. These preparations, however, were halted upon the death of Pope John XXIII on June 3, 1963. Pope Paul VI was elected on June 21, 1963 and immediately announced that the Council would continue.[17] is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... See also: 15th-century Antipope John XXIII. Pope John XXIII (Latin: ; Italian: ), born Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli (November 25, 1881 – June 3, 1963), known as Blessed John XXIII since his beatification, was elected as the 261st Pope of the Roman Catholic Church and sovereign of Vatican City on October 28, 1958. ... is the 154th day of the year (155th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1963 (disambiguation). ... This article cites very few or no references or sources. ... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1963 (disambiguation). ...


Second Session (Autumn 1963)

In the months prior to the second general session, Pope Paul VI worked to correct some of the problems of organization and procedure that had been discovered during the first period. This included inviting additional lay Catholic and non-Catholic observers, reducing the number of proposed schemata to seventeen (which were made more general, in keeping with the pastoral nature of the council) and later eliminating the requirement of secrecy surrounding general sessions.[17]


Pope Paul's opening address on September 29, 1963 stressed the pastoral nature of the council, and set out four purposes for it: is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1963 (disambiguation). ...

  • to more fully define the nature of the church and the role of the bishop;
  • to renew the church;
  • to restore unity among all Christians, including seeking pardon for Catholic contributions to separation;
  • and to start a dialogue with the contemporary world.

During this period, the bishops approved the constitution on the liturgy (Sacrosanctum Concilium) and the decree on the media of social communication (Inter Mirifica). Work went forward with the schemata on the Church, bishops and dioceses, and ecumenism. On November 8, 1963, Cardinal Joseph Frings criticized the Holy Office (known before 1908 as the Holy Roman and Universal Inquisition), and drew an articulate and impassioned defense by its Secretary, Alfredo Cardinal Ottaviani. This exchange is often considered the most dramatic of the council. (Cardinal Frings's theological advisor was the young Joseph Ratzinger, now Pope Benedict XVI, who would later, as Cardinal, head the same department of the Holy See.) The second session ended on December 4. Sacrosanctum Concilium, the Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy, was one of the most significant measures enacted by the Second Vatican Council. ... Inter Mirifica is the Second Vatican Councils Decree on the Media of Social Communications. ... is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1963 (disambiguation). ... Sculpture of Frings in Cologne. ... The Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith (CDF) (Congregatio pro Doctrina Fidei) is the oldest of the nine congregations of the Roman Curia. ... The Roman Inquisition began in 1542 when Pope Paul III established the Holy Office as the final court of appeal in trials of heresy and served as an important part of the Counter-Reformation. ... Alfredo Cardinal Ottaviani, PhD, STD, JCD (October 29, 1890—August 3, 1979) was an Italian prelate of the Roman Catholic Church. ... Papal Arms of Pope Benedict XVI. The papal tiara was replaced with a bishops mitre, and pallium of the Pope was added beneath the coat of arms. ... is the 338th day of the year (339th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Third Session (Autumn 1964)

In the period between the second and third sessions, the proposed schemata were further revised based on comments from the council fathers. A number of topics were reduced to statements of fundamental propositions that could gain approval during the third period, with postconciliar commissions handling implementation of these measures. Eight religious and seven lay women observers were invited to the sessions of the third period, along with additional male lay observers.


During this session, which began on September 14, 1964, the Council Fathers worked through a large volume of proposals. Schemata on ecumenism (Unitatis Redintegratio), the Eastern Rite churches (Orientalium Ecclesiarum), and the Dogmatic Constitution of the Church (Lumen Gentium) were approved and promulgated by the Pope. is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... Unitatis Redintegratio is the Second Vatican Councils Decree on Ecumenism. ... Orientalium Ecclesiarum is the Decree on the Catholic Churches of the Eastern Rite from the Second Vatican Council. ... Lumen Gentium, the Dogmatic Constitution on the Church, is one of the principal documents of the Second Vatican Council. ...


A votum or statement concerning the sacrament of marriage was submitted for the guidance of the commission revising the Code of Canon Law regarding a wide variety of juridicial, ceremonial, and pastoral issues. The bishops submitted this schema with a request for speedy approval, but the Pope did not act during the council. Pope Paul also instructed the bishops to defer the topic of contraception, which had arisen in part due to the advent of effective oral contraceptives, to a commission of clerical and lay experts that he had appointed. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Canon law is the term used for... Birth control is the practice of preventing or reducing the probability of pregnancy without abstaining from sexual intercourse; the term is also sometimes used to include abortion, the ending of an unwanted pregnancy, or abstinence. ...


Schemata on the life and ministry of priests and the missionary activity of the Church were rejected and sent back to commissions for complete rewriting. Work continued on the remaining schemata, in particular those on the Church in the modern world and religious freedom. There was controversy over revisions of the decree on religious freedom and the failure to vote on it during the third period, but Pope Paul promised that this schema would be the first to be reviewed in the next session.


Pope Paul closed the third session on November 21 by announcing a change in the Eucharistic fast and formally declaring Mary as "Mother of the Church," as had always been taught.[18] is the 325th day of the year (326th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Fourth Session (Autumn 1965)

Eleven schemata remained unfinished at the end of the third period, and commissions worked to give them their final form. Schema 13, on the Church in the modern world, was revised by a commission that worked with the assistance of laymen.


Pope Paul VI opened the last session of the Council on September 14, 1965 with the establishment of a Synod of Bishops. This more permanent structure was intended to preserve close cooperation of the bishops with the Pope after the council. is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ...


The first business of the fourth period was the consideration of the decree on religious freedom, which may be the most controversial of the conciliar documents. The vote was 1,997 for to 224 against (a margin that widened even farther by the time the bishop's final signing of the decree (Dignitatis Humanæ)). The principal work of the rest of the period was work on three documents, all of which were approved by the council fathers. The lengthened and revised pastoral constitution on the Church in the modern world (Gaudium et Spes), was followed by decrees on missionary activity (Ad Gentes) and the ministry and life of priests (Presbyterorum Ordinis). Dignitatis Humanæ is the Second Vatican Councils Declaration on Religious Freedom. ... Gaudium et Spes, the Pastoral Constitution on the Church in the Modern World, was one of the chief accomplishments of the Second Vatican Council. ... Ad Gentes is the Second Vatican Councils Decree on the Missionary Activity of the Church. ... Presbyterorum Ordinis, the Decree on the Ministry and Life of Priests, is one of the documents produced by the Second Vatican Council. ...


The council also gave final approval to other documents that had been considered in earlier sessions. This included decrees on the pastoral office of bishops (Christus Dominus), the life of persons in religious orders (expanded and modified from earlier sessions, finally titled Perfectæ Caritatis), education for the priesthood (Optatam Totius), Christian education (Gravissimum Educationis), and the role of the laity (Apostolicam Actuositatem). Christus Dominus is the Second Vatican Councils Decree on the Pastoral Office of Bishops. ... Perfectæ Caritatis, the Decree on the Adaptation and Renewal of Religious Life (referring to Roman Catholic religious orders), is one of the shorter documents issued by the Second Vatican Council. ... Optatam Totius, the Decree on Priestly Training, was a document produced by the Second Vatican Council. ... Gravissimum Educationis is the Second Vatican Councils Declaration on Christian Education. ... Apostolicam Actuositatem is the Second Vatican Councils Decree on the Apostolate of the Laity. ...


One of the most controversial documents was Nostra Ætate, which stated that the Jews of the time of Christ, taken indiscriminately, and all Jews today are no more responsible for the death of Christ than Christians. From Nostra Ætate[3]: Nostra Aetate is the Declaration on the Relation of the Church with Non-Christian Religions of the Second Vatican Council. ... Nostra Aetate is the Declaration on the Relation of the Church with Non-Christian Religions of the Second Vatican Council. ...

"True, the Jewish authorities and those who followed their lead pressed for the death of Christ; still, what happened in His passion cannot be charged against all the Jews, without distinction, then alive, nor against the Jews of today. Although the Church is the new people of God, the Jews should not be presented as rejected or accursed by God, as if this followed from the Holy Scriptures. All should see to it, then, that in catechetical work or in the preaching of the word of God they do not teach anything that does not conform to the truth of the Gospel and the spirit of Christ. Furthermore, in her rejection of every persecution against any man, the Church, mindful of the patrimony she shares with the Jews and moved not by political reasons but by the Gospel's spiritual love, decries hatred, persecutions, displays of anti-Semitism, directed against Jews at any time and by anyone."

More on this topic is available in the article on Christian-Jewish reconciliation. In recent years there has been much to note in the way of reconciliation between some Christian groups and the Jewish people. ...


A major event of the final days of the council was the act of Pope Paul and Orthodox Patriarch Athenagoras of a joint expression of regret for many of the past actions that had led up to the Great Schism between the western and eastern churches, expressed as the Catholic-Orthodox Joint declaration of 1965. Patriarch Athenagoras I (left) met Pope Paul VI in 1964 Patriarch Athenagoras I (born Aristokles Spyrou) (March 25, 1886 - July 6/7, 1972) was the Patriarch of Constantinople from 1948 to 1972. ... The Second Ecumenical Council whose contributions to the Nicene Creed lay at the heart of the famous theological disputes underlying the East-West Schism. ... The Catholic-Orthodox Joint Declaration of 1965 was read out on 7 December 1965 simultaneously at a public meeting of the Second Vatican Council in Rome and at a special ceremony in Istanbul. ...


On December 8, the Second Vatican Council was formally closed, with the bishops professing their obedience to the Council's decrees. To help carry forward the work of the Council, Pope Paul: is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

  • had earlier formed a Papal Commission for the Media of Social Communication to assist bishops with the pastoral use of these media;
  • declared a jubilee from January 1 to May 26, 1966 to urge all Catholics to study and accept the decisions of the council and apply them in spiritual renewal;
  • changed in 1965 the title and procedures of the Holy Office, giving it the name of the Sacred Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, as well as the titles and competences of other departments of the Roman curia;
  • made permanent the secretariates for the Promotion of Christian Unity, for Non-Christian Religions, and for Non-Believers.[19]

is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... The Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith (CDF) (Congregatio pro Doctrina Fidei) is the oldest of the nine congregations of the Roman Curia. ...

Issues

The Church

Perhaps the most famous and most influential product of the council is the Dogmatic Constitution on the Church, Lumen Gentium. Lumen Gentium, the Dogmatic Constitution on the Church, is one of the principal documents of the Second Vatican Council. ...


In its first chapter, titled "The Mystery of the Church," is the famous statement that "the sole Church of Christ which in the Creed we profess to be one, holy, catholic and apostolic, which our Saviour, after His Resurrection, commissioned Peter to shepherd, and him and the other apostles to extend and direct with authority, which He erected for all ages as 'the pillar and mainstay of the truth.' This Church, constituted and organized as a society in the present world, subsists in the Catholic Church, which is governed by the successor of Peter and by the bishops in communion with him" (Lumen Gentium, 8). The document immediately adds: "Nevertheless, many elements of sanctification and of truth are found outside its visible confines." The Latin phrase subsistit in appears in the eighth paragraph of Lumen Gentium, a landmark document of the Second Vatican Council of the Catholic Church, with important implications for how the Catholic Church views its relations with other Christian Churches and other religions. ...


In the second chapter, titled "On the People of God", the Council teaches that God wills to save people not just as individuals but as a people. For this reason God chose the Israelite people to be his own people and established a covenant with it, as a preparation and figure of the covenant ratified in Christ that constitutes the new People of God, which would be one, not according to the flesh, but in the Spirit and which is called the Church of Christ (Lumen Gentium, 9). All human beings are called to belong to the Church. Not all are fully incorporated into the Church, but "the Church knows that she is joined in many ways to the baptized who are honored by the name of Christ, but who do not however profess the Catholic faith in its entirety or have not preserved unity or communion under the successor of Peter" (Lumen Gentium, 15) and even with "those who have not yet received the Gospel," among whom Jews and Muslims are explicitly mentioned (Lumen Gentium, 16). The idea of any opening toward Protestantism caused a major controversy among traditionalist Catholic groups. Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ... A traditionalist Catholic is a Roman Catholic who believes that there should be a restoration of the liturgical forms, public and private devotions, and presentation of Catholic teachings that prevailed in the Catholic Church just before the Second Vatican Council (1962-1965). ...


The title of the third chapter, "The Church is Hierarchical," indicates clearly its contents, outlining the essential role of the bishops and of the Roman Pontiff.


There follow chapters on the laity, the call to holiness, religious, the pilgrim Church, and Our Lady. The chapter on the call to holiness is significant because it indicates that sanctity should not be the exclusive province of priests and religious, but rather that all Christians are called to holiness. In religious organizations, the laity comprises all lay persons collectively. ...


The chapter on Mary was the subject of debate. Original plans had called for a separate document about the role of Mary, keeping the document on the Church "ecumenical," in the sense of "non-offensive" to Protestant Christians, who viewed special veneration of Mary with suspicion. However, the Council Fathers insisted, with the support of the Pope, that, as Mary's place is within the Church, treatment of her should appear within the Constitution on the Church. Virgin Mary redirects here. ...


Liturgy

One of the first issues considered by the council, and the matter that had the most immediate effect on the lives of individual Catholics, was the revision of the liturgy. The central idea was (from the Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy):

"Mother Church earnestly desires that all the faithful should be led to that fully conscious and active participation in liturgical celebrations which is demanded by the very nature of the liturgy. Such participation by the Christian people as a chosen race, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, a redeemed people (1 Pet. 2:9; cf. 2:4–5), is their right and duty by reason of their baptism." (Sacrosanctum Concilium 14)

Many have claimed that Vatican II went much further in encouraging "active participation" than previous Popes had allowed or recommended. Though popes Pius X, Pius XI, and Pius XII consistently asked that the people be taught how to chant the responses at Mass and that they learn the prayers of the Mass in order to participate intelligently, while for its part, Vatican II never asked for the involvement of the laity in the sanctuary that is typical of postconciliar practice. The council fathers established guidelines to govern the revision of the liturgy, which included allowing the very limited use of the vernacular (native language) instead of Latin. As bishops determined, local or national customs could be cautiously incorporated into the liturgy. Sacrosanctum Concilium, the Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy, was one of the most significant measures enacted by the Second Vatican Council. ...


Implementation of the Council's directives on the liturgy was carried out under the authority of Pope Paul VI by a special papal commission, later incorporated in the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments, and, in the areas entrusted to them, by national conferences of bishops, which, if they had a shared language, were expected to collaborate in producing a common translation. This article cites very few or no references or sources. ...

See also: Mass of Paul VI, Liturgy

The Mass of Pope Paul VI is the liturgy of the Catholic Mass of the Roman Rite as revised after the Second Vatican Council (1962–1965). ... A liturgy is the customary public worship of a religious group, according to their particular traditions. ...

Scripture and divine revelation

Main article: Dei Verbum

The council sought to revive the central role of Scripture in the theological and devotional life of the Church, building upon the work of earlier popes in crafting a modern approach to Scriptural analysis and interpretation. A new approach to interpretation was approved by the bishops. The Church was to continue to provide versions of the Bible in the "mother tongues" of the faithful, and both clergy and laity were to continue to make Bible study a central part of their lives. This affirmed the importance of Sacred Scripture as attested by Providentissimus Deus by Pope Leo XIII and the writings of the Saints, Doctors, and Popes throughout Church history but also approved historically conditioned interpretation of Scripture as presented in Pius XII's 1943 encyclical Divino Afflante Spiritu. Dei Verbum, the Dogmatic Constitution on Divine Revelation, is one of the principal documents of the Second Vatican Council, indeed their very foundation in the view of one of the leading Council Fathers, Bishop Christopher Butler. ... Look up Vernacular in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Providentissimus Deus, On the Study of Holy Scripture, was an encyclical issued by Pope Leo XIII on 18 November 1893. ... Pope Leo XIII (March 2, 1810—July 20, 1903), born Count Vincenzo Gioacchino Raffaele Luigi Pecci, was the 256th Pope of the Roman Catholic Church, reigning from 1878 to 1903, succeeding Pope Pius IX. Reigning until the age of 93, he was the oldest pope, and had the third longest... Divino Afflante Spiritu was an encyclical letter issued by Pope Pius XII on September 30, 1943. ...


The bishops

The role of the bishops of the Church was brought into renewed prominence, especially when seen collectively, as a college that has succeeded to that of the Apostles in teaching and governing the Church. This college does not exist without its head, the successor of St. Peter. Accordingly, claims made by some, that the Council gave the Church two separate earthly heads, the College of Bishops and the Pope, were countered by the Preliminary Explanatory Note added to the Dogmatic Constitution on the Church Lumen Gentium and printed at the end of the text.[4] This Note states: "There is no such thing as the college without its head ... and in the college the head preserves intact his function as Vicar of Christ and pastor of the universal Church. In other words it is not a distinction between the Roman Pontiff and the bishops taken together, but between the Roman Pontiff by himself and the Roman Pontiff along with the bishops." Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      For...


In many countries, bishops already held regular conferences to discuss common matters. The Council required the setting up of such episcopal conferences, entrusting to them responsibility for the necessary adaptation to local conditions of general norms (cf. Decree on the Pastoral Office of Bishops in the Church Christus Dominus, 18). Certain decisions of the conferences have binding force for individual bishops and their dioceses, but only if adopted by a two-thirds majority and confirmed by the Holy See.


Regional conferences, such as the CELAM, exist to assist in promoting common action on a regional or continental level, but do not have even that level of legislative power. CELAM (Consejo Episcopal Latinoamericano - Latin American Episcopal Conference) was created in 1955 in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). ...


Criticism of the Council within the Catholic Church

Many traditionalist Catholics hold that the Second Vatican Council, or subsequent interpretations of its documents, moved the Church away from important principles of the historic Catholic faith. The principles from which the church is thought to have moved away include: A traditionalist Catholic is a Roman Catholic who believes that there should be a restoration of the liturgical forms, public and private devotions, and presentation of Catholic teachings that prevailed in the Catholic Church just before the Second Vatican Council (1962-1965). ...

In contradiction to many Catholics' claims that it marked the beginning of a "new springtime" for the Church, critics see the Council as a major cause of a tremendous decline in vocations and the erosion of Catholic belief and the influence of the Church in the Western world. They further argue that it changed the focus of the Church from seeking the salvation of souls to improving mankind's earthly situation (cf. Liberation theology). The phrase One, Holy, Catholic and Apostolic Church appears in the Nicene Creed () and, in part, in the Apostles Creed (the holy catholic church, sanctam ecclesiam catholicam). ... The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen guarantees freedom of religion, as long as religious activities do not infringe on public order in ways detrimental to society. ... Scholasticism comes from the Latin word scholasticus, which means that [which] belongs to the school, and is the school of philosophy taught by the academics (or schoolmen) of medieval universities circa 1100–1500. ... Latin Rite, in the singular and accompanied, in English, by the definite article, refers to the sui juris particular Church of the Roman Catholic Church that developed in the area of western Europe and northern Africa where Latin was for many centuries the language of education and culture. ... The Tridentine Mass (Pontifical High Mass) being celebrated at Our Lady of Mount Carmel Church in Wyandotte, Michigan - 1949. ... Liberation theology is a school of theology within the Catholic Church that focuses on Jesus Christ as not only the Redeemer but also the Liberator of the oppressed. ...


One response made by conservative mainstream Catholics to such criticism is that the actual teachings of the Council and the official interpretations of them must be distinguished from the more radical changes which have been made or proposed by liberal churchmen over the last 40 years in "the spirit of Vatican II". They agree that such changes are contrary to canon law and Church Tradition. An example: a conservative mainstream Catholic might agree that liberal priests who introduce new and arguably un-Catholic elements into the celebration of Mass are to be condemned, but would note that such "abuses" are introduced in violation of Vatican II's decree on the sacred liturgy and the official Church documents governing the celebration of e.g. the Mass of Paul VI. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Canon law is the term used for... The Mass of Pope Paul VI is the liturgy of the Catholic Mass of the Roman Rite as revised after the Second Vatican Council (1962–1965). ...


In a 22 December 2005 speech to the Roman Curia, Pope Benedict XVI decried those who interpreted the documents of the Council in terms of "discontinuity and rupture". The proper interpretation, he said, is that proposed at the start and at the close of the Council by Popes John XXIII and Paul VI. On opening the Council, Pope John XXIII stated that the Council intended "to transmit the doctrine pure and entire, without diminution or distortion", adding: "It is our duty not only to guard this precious treasure, as if interested only in antiquity, but also to devote ourselves readily and fearlessly to the work our age requires. ... This sure unchangeable doctrine, which must be faithfully respected, has to be studied in depth and presented in a way that fits the requirements of our time. For the deposit of the faith, that is, the truths contained in our venerable doctrine, is one thing, and the way in which they are enunciated, while still preserving the same meaning and fullness, is another." After thus quoting his predecessor, Pope Benedict XVI then declared: "Wherever this interpretation has guided reception of the Council, new life has grown and new fruit has ripened. ... Today we see that the good seed, though slow in developing, is nonetheless growing, and our profound gratitude for the Council's work is growing likewise.". is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Papal Arms of Pope Benedict XVI. The papal tiara was replaced with a bishops mitre, and pallium of the Pope was added beneath the coat of arms. ... See also: 15th-century Antipope John XXIII. Pope John XXIII (Latin: ; Italian: ), born Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli (November 25, 1881 – June 3, 1963), known as Blessed John XXIII since his beatification, was elected as the 261st Pope of the Roman Catholic Church and sovereign of Vatican City on October 28, 1958. ... This article cites very few or no references or sources. ...


Notes

  1. ^ Cath. Encyclopedia 1967, p. 563; Alberigo 2005, p. 69
  2. ^ Bokenkotter 1967, p.337; Hahnenberg 2007, p.44
  3. ^ Alberigo 2005, p. 1
  4. ^ Alberigo 2005, p. 4-7
  5. ^ Sullivan 2002, p.17
  6. ^ Sullivan 2002, p.21 -- There has been speculation that the Vatican somehow assured the Russian Orthodox Church that Communism and the Soviet State were topics that would not be raised at the Council. However, in chapter IV, The External Climate (Albiergo, The History of Vatican II, Vol. 1, p.404), J.O. Beozzo states that the real issue was the desire of the Russian Orthodox to be invited directly, instead of through the Ecumenical Patriarch in Turkey.
  7. ^ Cath. Encyclopedia 1967, p. 563
  8. ^ Sullivan 2002, p.21
  9. ^ "Vatican Council II", New Catholic Encyclopedia, vol. XIV, p. 563
  10. ^ Bokenkotter 1979, p.413
  11. ^ Alberigo 2005, p. 24; Sullivan 2002, p.27
  12. ^ Sullivan 2002, p.27
  13. ^ Hahnenberg 2007, p.4
  14. ^ Alberigo 2005, p.24
  15. ^ Sullivan 2002, p.28
  16. ^ Cath. Encyclopedia 1967, p. 564-5
  17. ^ a b Cath. Encyclopedia 1967, p. 565-6
  18. ^ Cath. Encyclopedia 1967, p. 566-7
  19. ^ "Cath. Encyclopedia 1967, p. 567-8

The Catholic Encyclopedia, also referred to today as the Old Catholic Encyclopedia, is an English-language encyclopedia published in 1913 by The Encyclopedia Press. ...

References

  • Bühren, Ralf van : Kunst und Kirche im 20. Jahrhundert. Die Rezeption des Zweiten Vatikanischen Konzils (Konziliengeschichte, Reihe B: Untersuchungen). Paderborn: Ferdinand Schöningh 2008 (ISBN 978-3-506-76388-4)
  • Bredeck, Michael: Das Zweite Vatikanum als Konzil des Aggiornamento. Zur hermeneutischen Grundlegung einer theologischen Konzilsinterpretation (Paderborner theologische Studien, 48). Paderborn: Ferdinand Schöningh 2007 (ISBN 978-3-506-76317-4)
  • Hahnenberg, Edward. A Concise Guide to the Documents of Vatican II. Cincinatti:St. Anthony Messenger Press, 2007
  • Alberigo, Giuseppe. A Brief History of Vatican II. Trans. Matthew Sherry. Maryknoll, NY:Orbis, 2006
  • Sullivan, Maureen. 101 Questions and Answers on Vatican II. New York:Paulist Press, 2002
  • Bokenkotter, Thomas. A Concise History of the Catholic Church. Revised Edition. Garden City, NY:Image, 1979
  • "Vatican Council II", in: New Catholic Encyclopedia. Ed. faculty of Catholic University of America. Vol. XIV. McGrawHill:1967

The Catholic Encyclopedia, also referred to today as the Old Catholic Encyclopedia, is an English-language encyclopedia published in 1913 by The Encyclopedia Press. ...

External links

Vatican texts

Commentary

is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ...

Documentaries

  • The II Vatican Council produced by the Vatican Television Center, distributed by HDH Communications, 2006.
Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Athanasius · Augustine · Constantine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Calvin · Luther · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      An... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The term... The First Council of Nicaea, held in Nicaea in Bithynia (present-day Iznik in Turkey), convoked by the Roman Emperor Constantine I in 325, was the first Ecumenical council[1] of the early Christian Church, and most significantly resulted in the first uniform Christian doctrine, called the Nicene Creed. ... The First Council of Constantinople (second ecumenical council) was called by Theodosius I in 381 to confirm the Nicene Creed and deal with other matters of the Arian controversy . ... Cyril of Alexandria The Council of Ephesus was held in the Church of Mary in Ephesus, Asia Minor in 431 under Emperor Theodosius II, grandson of Theodosius the Great; Ephesus was the city of Artemis (see Acts 19:28). ... The Second Council of Ephesus (called the Robber Council of Ephesus, Robber Synod or Latrocinium by its opponents) was a church council at Ephesus. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... Orthodox icon of Pentecost. ... The First Council of Nicaea, held in Nicaea in Bithynia (present-day Iznik in Turkey), convoked by the Roman Emperor Constantine I in 325, was the first Ecumenical council[1] of the early Christian Church, and most significantly resulted in the first uniform Christian doctrine, called the Nicene Creed. ... The First Council of Constantinople (second ecumenical council) was called by Theodosius I in 381 to confirm the Nicene Creed and deal with other matters of the Arian controversy . ... Cyril of Alexandria The Council of Ephesus was held in the Church of Mary in Ephesus, Asia Minor in 431 under Emperor Theodosius II, grandson of Theodosius the Great; Ephesus was the city of Artemis (see Acts 19:28). ... The Council of Chalcedon was an ecumenical council that took place from October 8 to November 1, 451, at Chalcedon (a city of Bithynia in Asia Minor), today part of the city of Istanbul on the Asian side of the Bosphorus and known as the district of Kadıköy. ... The Fifth Ecumenical Council (the Second Council of Constantinople) was a Christian Ecumenical Council that was held in 553. ... The Sixth Ecumenical Council met on November 7, 680 for its first session; it ended its meetings, said to have been eighteen in number, on September 16 of 681. ... The Second Council of Nicaea was the seventh ecumenical council of Christianity; it met in 787 AD in Nicaea (site of the First Council of Nicaea) to restore the honoring of icons (or, holy images), which had been suppressed by imperial edict inside the Byzantine Empire during the reign of... The Fourth Council of Constantinople as an ecumenical council is a name given to one of two meetings in Constantinople: the first in 869-870; the second in 879-880. ... Orthodox icon of Pentecost. ... Both the Fifth Ecumenical Council and the Sixth Ecumenical Council failed to produce disciplinary norms, for which reason the emperor Justinian II convoked an assembly in 692 to meet in Constantinople in the same domed hall where the Sixth Council had been held, called in Trullo (= under the dome). ... The Fifth Council of Constantinople was really a series of councils, held in Constantinople in 1341, 1347 and 1351, which exonerated St. ... By far the most important of the many synods held at Jerusalem (see Wetzer and Welte, Kirchenlexikon, 2nd ed. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... This article incorporates text from the public domain Catholic Encyclopedia The Council of 1123 is reckoned in the series of Ecumenical councils. ... The Second Lateran, and tenth ecumenical council was held by Pope Innocent II in April 1139, and was attended by close to a thousand clerics. ... The Third Council of the Lateran met in March, 1179 as the 11th ecumenical council. ... The Fourth Council of the Lateran was summoned by Pope Innocent III with his Bull of April 19, 1213. ... The First Council of Lyon (Lyons I) was the Thirteenth Ecumenical Council and took place in 1245. ... The Second Council of Lyon was a Roman Catholic council convoked 31 March 1272, which convened in Lyon in 1274. ... Above all else, the Roman Catholic Council of Vienne was the Ecumenical Council that withdrew papal support for the Knights Templar, confirming the destruction of the rich Order by the bureaucrats of Philip IV of France. ... The Council of Constance was an ecumenical council considered valid by the Roman Catholic Church. ... A decree of the Council of Constance (9 October 1417), sanctioned by Pope Martin V obliged the papacy to summon general councils periodically. ... When elected pope, Julius II promised under oath that he would soon convoke a general council. ... The Council of Trent is the Nineteenth Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Assyrian Church of the East... This box:      Anglicanism most commonly refers to the beliefs and practices of the Anglican Communion, a world-wide affiliation of Christian Churches, most of which have historical connections with the Church of England. ... Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ...

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