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Encyclopedia > Second Swedish Crusade

Second Swedish Crusade was a semi-historical Swedish military expedition to Finland by Birger jarl in the 13th century. As a result of the crusade, Finland became permanently part of Sweden for the next 550 years. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

Contents

Year of the crusade

According to Eric's Chronicle from the 1320s, the crusade took place between the death of King Eric XI of Sweden in 1250 and Birger jarl getting elevated to the position of jarl in 1248.[1] The so-called "Detmar Chronicle" of Lübeck from around 1340 confirms the expedition with a short note that Birger jarl submitted Finland under Swedish rule.[2] From other sources, Birger jarl is known to have been absent from Sweden in winter 1249-50. Later on, the conquest of Finland was redated to 1150s by the official Swedish legends, crediting the national saint King Eric for it. Erics Chronicle (Erikskrönikan in Swedish) is the oldest surviving Swedish chronicle written by one or more unknown authors in the early 14th century. ... Eric XI of Sweden Eric XI Ericsson (1216 – February 2, 1250) den läspe och halte: the stuttering and lame, was king of Sweden 1222 – 1229 and 1234 – 1250. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Lübeck ( pronunc. ... The First Swedish Crusade is a legendary military expedition presumably in the 1150s that has traditionally been seen as the conquest of Finland by Sweden, with pagan Finns converted into Christianity. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


The point of time when the attack took place has been somewhat disputed. Attempts have been made to date the attack either to 1239 or to 1256. Neither date has received wide acceptance.[3]


Background

19th century representation of Birger Jarl, who started the Swedish conquest of Finland in 1249.

Sweden's sudden determinance to take over Finland has not been explained, but for a reason or another Finland was high on Birger jarl's agenda. He seems to have headed for Finland right after crushing the Folkung uprising 1247-1248 and finalizing the Treaty of Lödöse with Norway earlier in summer 1249. Image File history File links Portrait_of_Birger_Jarl. ... Image File history File links Portrait_of_Birger_Jarl. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Coat of arms of Folkung family In modern Swedish, Folkung has two meanings, which appear to be opposites: The noble (royal) clan of some Folkungar, later named Folkungaätten (ätt means clan), who in effect introduced inheritance of the throne during the 12th century. ... Treaty of Lödöse was a peace treaty between Sweden and Norway in 1249. ...


Sweden's previous attempts to gain foothold in Estonia in 1220 and at the Neva in 1240, both its traditional long-term colonies from the Viking Age, had ended disasterously, which may have urged Sweden to settle with what was still available. Eric's Chronicle also points out the threat from Russians, mentioning that the "Russian king" had now lost the conquered land. Combatants Estonian tribes Sweden Commanders  ? Jarl Charles the Deaf Strength  ? 500 men Casualties  ? Leader, bishop killed 500 men killed Battle of Lihula was fought between invading Swedes and Estonians for the control of the Lihula Castle in Lihula, Estonia in 1220. ... The Battle of the Neva (Невская битва in Russian, or Nevskaya bitva), a Swedish armies on the Neva River on July 15, 1240. ... The Viking Age is the name of the age in Northern Europe, following the Germanic Iron Age. ...


Target of the crusade

Christianization of Finland
People
Bishops: Thomas · Henry
Rodulff · Fulco · Bero
Popes: Alexander III
Innocent III · Gregory IX
Archbishops: Anders
Valerius
Others: Birger Jarl · Lalli
King Eric (IX)
Locations
Kokemäki · Köyliö
Nousiainen · Koroinen
Turku Cathedral
Events
Finnish-Novgorodian wars
First Swedish Crusade
Second Swedish Crusade

All details of the crusade are from Eric's Chronicle, which is largely propagandist in nature, written amidst internal unrest and war against Novgorod. The chronicle has caused a long controversy on the actual target of the expedition, since it presents Tavastians (taffwesta) as the Swedish opponents. Based on this, it is usually assumed that the target of the crusade was also Tavastia, even though that is not explicitly said in the chronicle. Tavastians are known to have rebelled against the church in the 1230s, which had resulted in a papal demand for a crusade against them in a letter in 1237.[4] St Francis Xavier converting the Paravas: a 19th-century image of the docile heathen The historical phenomenon of Christianization, the conversion of individuals to Christianity or the conversion of entire peoples at once, also includes the practice of converting pagan practices, pagan religious imagery, pagan sites and the pagan calendar... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Diocese of Finland was the predecessor of the Catholic diocese of Turku. ... Bishop Thomas is the first known Bishop of Finland. ... Bishop Henry and Lalli as depicted in Missale Aboense. ... Bishop Rodulff (Rodulf) is claimed by a 15th century chronicle Chronicon episcoporum Finlandensium to have worked as a missionary bishop in Finland after Bishop Henry had died in the 1150s. ... Bishop Fulco was the first known missionary Bishop of Estonia. ... Bishop Bero (Björn) was the first quite certainly Swedish Bishop of Finland in the mid-13th century. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Pope of Rome... Alexander III, né Orlando Bandinelli (c. ... Pope Innocent III (c. ... Pope Gregory IX, born Ugolino dei Conti, was pope from 1227 to August 22, 1241. ... In Christianity, an archbishop is an elevated bishop. ... Anders Sunesen in the Battle of Lyndanisse 1219 Anders Sunesen (also Andreas, Suneson, Sunesøn, Latin: Andreas Sunonis) (c. ... Valerius was the Swedish Archbishop 1207-1219. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Lalli is a character in Finnish history. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Kokemäki (Kumo in Swedish) is a municipality of Finland. ... Köyliö (Kjulo in Swedish) is a municipality of Finland. ... Province Western Finland Region Finland Proper District Turku City manager Hannu Rämö Official languages Finnish Area  - total  - land ranked 331st 198. ... Koroinen on a map of Turku. ... The Cathedral of Turku The Turku Cathedral is a Evangelical Lutheran cathedral in Turku, Finland. ... Finnish-Novgorodian wars were a series of badly documented conflicts that took place between the Finnish tribes and the Republic of Novgorod in the 12th and early 13th centuries. ... The First Swedish Crusade is a legendary military expedition presumably in the 1150s that has traditionally been seen as the conquest of Finland by Sweden, with pagan Finns converted into Christianity. ... Tavastia, Tavastland or Häme, is a historical province in the south of Finland. ... Map highlighting the location of Tavastia Tavastia, Tavastland or Häme, is a historical province in the south of Finland. ...


According to the chronicle, the expedition was prepared in Sweden and then conducted over sea to a land on the coast, where the enemy was waiting. Since Tavastia was inland, this contradiction was later explained so that there was a Tavastian port somewhere on the coast that was the primary target of the attack.


Chronicle also mentions that a castle called "taffwesta borg" was established after the war. There have been lot of attempts to identify the castle with either Häme Castle or Hakoinen Castle in central Tavastia, but neither has been indisputably dated to such an early period. The first Swedish garrisons in Finland seem to have been in a hill fort later called as "Old Castle of Lieto", not far from Turku and near Koroinen, the fortified church-residence of the early bishops, along the Oxen Way to central Tavastia. Hämeen linna on the 21th century Hämeen linna at the end of 1650s Häme castle (Hämeen linna) is one of Finlands medieval kingdoms castles. ... Hakoinen Castle (Hakoisten linnavuori in Finnish) are the ruins of a fortification on a hill in Janakkala, Finland. ... The Old Castle of Lieto (Liedon Vanhalinna) is one of the important pre-historical fortressed hills of Finland. ... Turku (IPA:  , Swedish:  ), founded in the 13th century, is the oldest and fifth largest city in Finland, with a population of 174,868 (as of 2005). ... Koroinen on a map of Turku. ...


Church reaction and reorganization

Probably related to preventing other parties from getting involved in the conflict, Pope Innocent IV took Finland under his special protection in August, 1249, however without mentioning Sweden in any way.[5] Finland's bishop Thomas, probably a Dominican monk, had resigned already in 1245 and died three years later in a Dominican convent in Gotland. The see being vacant, the diocese had probably been under the direct command of the papal legate William of Modena whose last orders to Finnish priests were given in June, 1248.[6] Pope Innocent IV (Manarola, 1180/90 – Naples, December 7, 1254), born Sinibaldo de Fieschi, Pope from 1243 to 1254, belonged to the feudal nobility of Liguria, the Fieschi, counts of Lavagna. ... Diocese of Finland was the predecessor of the Catholic diocese of Turku. ... Bishop Thomas is the first known Bishop of Finland. ...   is a county and province of Sweden and the largest island in the Baltic Sea. ... A papal Legate, from the Decretals of Boniface VIII (1294 to 1303). ... William of Modena, Bishop of Modena in 1221, was frequently appointed a legate, or papal ambassador by the popes Honorius III and Gregory IX, especially in Livonia in the 1220s and in the Prussian questions of the 1240s. ...


Swedish Bero was eventually appointed as the new bishop in 1248/9, presumably soon after William's visit to Sweden for an important church meeting at Skänninge that ended in March 1, 1248. The so-called "Palmsköld booklet" from 1448 noted that it was Bero who gave Finns' tax to the Swedish king.[7] Bero came directly from the Swedish court like his two successors. It seems that Swedish bishops also held all secular power in Finland until 1280s when the position of the Duke of Finland was established. Bishop Bero (Björn) was the first quite certainly Swedish Bishop of Finland in the mid-13th century. ... Market square Skänninge is a town in the province of Östergötland, Sweden. ... Duke of Finland (in Finnish Suomen herttua; Swedish hertig av Finland) was an occasional medieval title granted as a tertiogeniture to the relatives of the King of Sweden between the 13th and 16th centuries. ...


In 1249, the situation was also seen clear enough to have the first Dominican convent established in Finland.[8] There had been no monasteries in Finland before that. The convent was situated next to the bishop's fortification in Koroinen until the end of the century. This article is about an abbey as a religious building. ...


Aftermath

As an unexpected side effect, the expedition seems to have cost Birger the Swedish crown. As King Eric died in 1250 and Birger was still absent from Sweden, the rebellious Swedish lords selected Birger's under-aged son Valdemar as the new king instead of the powerful jarl himself. Valdemar Birgersson (1239-1302), King of Sweden 1250-1275/1288/1302, was the son of princess Ingeborg Eriksdotter of Sweden and Birger Jarl, Earl Birger Magnusson of Bjälbo, who more or less ruled Sweden from 1248 under king Eric Ericsson the Lame his brother in law. ...


From 1249 onwards, sources generally regard Finland as a part of Sweden. Diocese of Finland is first listed among the Swedish dioceses in 1253.[9] In Russian chronicles, the first reliable mention of Finns being a part of Swedish forces is from 1256.[10] However, very little is known about the situation in Finland during the following decades. Reason for this is partly the fact that Finland was now ruled from Turku and most of the documentation remained there. As the Novgorod forces burned the city in 1318 during the Swedish-Novgorodian Wars, very little remained about what had happened in the previous century. Turku (IPA:  , Swedish:  ), founded in the 13th century, is the oldest and fifth largest city in Finland, with a population of 174,868 (as of 2005). ... The Novgorod Republic was an early republic that existed in the North-West territory of modern day Russia, in Novgorod lands between 1136 and 1478. ... The Republic of Novgorod and medieval Sweden waged a number of wars for control of the Gulf of Finland, an area vital for the lucrative Hanseatic trade. ...


See also

Scattered information on wars against Finland or by Finns to neighboring countries prior to the Swedish conquest has survived in Icelandic sagas, German, Norwegian, Danish and Russian chronicles and Swedish legends. ... The First Swedish Crusade is a legendary military expedition presumably in the 1150s that has traditionally been seen as the conquest of Finland by Sweden, with pagan Finns converted into Christianity. ... The Third Swedish Crusade was a Swedish military expedition to Karelia in 1293 CE, on area controlled by Novgorod. ... The Teutonic knights in Pskov in 1240. ... Combatants Estonian tribes Sweden Commanders  ? Jarl Charles the Deaf Strength  ? 500 men Casualties  ? Leader, bishop killed 500 men killed Battle of Lihula was fought between invading Swedes and Estonians for the control of the Lihula Castle in Lihula, Estonia in 1220. ... The Battle of the Neva (Невская битва in Russian, or Nevskaya bitva), a Swedish armies on the Neva River on July 15, 1240. ...

References

  1. ^ Description of the crusade. Original text.
  2. ^ Suomen varhaiskeskiajan lähteitä, 1989. ISBN 951-96006-1-2. See page 7.
  3. ^ Suomen Museo 2002. See page 66. The book can be ordered from the Finnish Antiquarian Society.
  4. ^ Letter by Pope Gregory IX about an uprising against the church in Tavastia. In Latin.
  5. ^ Letter by Innocentius IV to the diocese of Finland and its people. In Latin.
  6. ^ Wilhelm of Sabina's letter to the priests of Finland in 1248. In Latin.
  7. ^ Original text as hosted by the University of Columbia; in Latin. See also Suomen varhaiskeskiajan lähteitä, 1989. ISBN 951-96006-1-2. Page 7.
  8. ^ Convent established in Finland. In Latin.
  9. ^ Surviving lists from 1241 and 1248 still did not include Finland.
  10. ^ Novgorod First Chronicle entry about the Swedish attack to Novgorod and Novgorodian counterattack to Finland. In Swedish.

 
 

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