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Encyclopedia > Second Sudanese Civil War
Second Sudanese Civil War

First anniversary of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement
Nearly two million civilians died in the war
Date 1983 - 2005
Location Southern Sudan
Result Southern autonomy with planned referendum on secession
Belligerents
Sudanese Government (North Sudan) Sudan People's Liberation Army
Eastern Front
Commanders
Gaafar Nimeiry
Sadiq al-Mahdi
Omar Hasan Ahmad al-Bashir
John Garang
Casualties and losses
1.9 million dead (mostly civilians, due to starvation and drought)

The Second Sudanese Civil War (sometimes referred to as Anyanya II) started in 1983, although it was largely a continuation of the First Sudanese Civil War of 1955 to 1972. It took place, for the most part, in southern Sudan and was one of the longest lasting and deadliest wars of the later 20th century. Roughly 1.9 million civilians were killed in southern Sudan, and more than 4 million have been forced to flee their homes at one time or another since the war began. The civilian death toll is one of the highest of any war since World War II.[1] The conflict officially ended with the signing of a peace agreement in January 2005, yet fighting continues to the present day, and hundreds of thousands remain internally displaced. Image File history File links Unmis18. ... For the Jimi Hendrix song, see 1983. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Southern Sudan is a region of Sudan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sudan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_SPLAM.svg The flag of the w:SPLAM File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): List of circulating currencies Wikipedia:Country referencing templates Southern Sudan User:Nightstallion/UN peacekeeping missions User:Nightstallion... SPLA/M emblem Sudan Peoples Liberation Army/Movement (SPLA/M) is a member of the National Democratic Alliance (NDA), the main opposition group in Sudan. ... The Eastern Front is a coalition of rebel groups operating in eastern Sudan along the border with Eritrea, particularly the states of Red Sea and Kassala. ... Gaafar Muhammad an-Nimeiry (otherwise known as Jaafar Nimeiry, Gaafar Nimeiry or Gafar Muhammad an-Numayri; born 1 January 1930) (Arabic: جعفر محمد النميري) was the President of Sudan from 1971 to 1985. ... Sadiq al Mahdi became Prime Minister of Sudan in 1986, when he formed a coalition government comprised of the Umma party (which he led); the National Islamic Front (led by his brother-in-law, Hassan al-Turabi); the Democratic Unionist Party; and four small Southern parties. ... Field Marshal Omar Hasan Ahmad al-Bashir (Arabic: عمر حسن احمد البشير ; born 1 January 1944) is President of Sudan. ... John Garang, August 2004 John Garang de Mabior (June 23, 1945 – July 30, 2005) was the vice president of Sudan and former leader of the rebel Sudan Peoples Liberation Army. ... Anyanya is the name of the separatist southern Sudanese rebel army of the First Sudanese Civil War which started in 1955. ... For the Jimi Hendrix song, see 1983. ... The First Sudanese Civil War was a conflict from 1955 to 1972 between the northern part of Sudan and a south that demanded more regional autonomy. ... Southern Sudan is a region of Sudan. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Comprehensive Peace Agreement, commonly known as the Naivasha Agreement, was a set of agreements culminating in January 2005 that were signed between the Sudan Peoples Liberation Movement and the Government of Sudan. ... 2005 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December- → Deaths in January • 29 Ephraim Kishon • 25 Philip Johnson • 23 Johnny Carson • 22 Parveen Babi • 20 Jan Nowak-Jeziorański • 17 Virginia Mayo • 17 Zhao Ziyang • 15 Ruth Warrick • 14 Rudolph Moshammer Recent deaths Ongoing events • Tsunami relief...

Contents

Background and causes

For more information, see History of Sudan, 1956-1969, History of Sudan, 1969-1985 This article details the period of Independent Sudan, January 1, 1956 to May 25, 1969, in the history of Sudan. ... On May 25, 1969, several young officers, calling themselves the Free Officers Movement, seized power in Sudan, thus bringing about the Nimeiri era in the history of Sudan. ...


The war is usually characterized as a fight between the southern, non-Arab populations against the northern, Arab-dominated government. Kingdoms and great powers based along the Nile river have fought against the people of inland Sudan for centuries. Since at least the 17th century, central governments have attempted to regulate and exploit the cattle herders of southern and inland Sudan.[2] For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ...

When the British ran Sudan as a colony they administered the northern and southern provinces separately. The south was held to be more similar to the other east-African coloniesKenya, Tanganyika, and Uganda — while northern Sudan was more similar to Arabic-speaking Egypt. Northerners were prevented from holding positions of power in the south, and trade was discouraged between the two areas. Map of Sudan from http://www. ...  Eastern Africa (UN subregion)  East African Community  Central African Federation (defunct)  Geographic East Africa, including the UN subregion and East African Community East Africa or Eastern Africa is the easternmost region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics. ... This article is about a type of political territory. ... Flag of Deutsch-Ostafrika (1885-1919) Flag of Tanganyika (1919-1961) Flag of the Republic of Tanganyika 1962–64 Tanganyika is the name of an East African territory lying between the largest of the African great lakes: Lake Victoria, Lake Malawi and Lake Tanganyika, after which it was named. ... Arabic redirects here. ...


However, in 1946 the British gave in to northern pressure to integrate the two areas. Arabic was made the language of administration in the south, and northerners began to hold positions there. The southern elite, trained in English, resented the change as they were kept out of their own government.[3] After decolonization, most power was given to the northern elites based in Khartoum, causing unrest in the south. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Colonialism in 1945 Decolonization refers to the undoing of colonialism, the establishment of governance or authority through the creation of settlements by another country or jurisdiction. ... Nickname: Khartoums location in Sudan Coordinates: , Government  - Governor Abdul Halim al Mutafi Population (2005)  - Urban 2. ...


In 1955, southern resentment of northern Muslim Arab domination culminated in a mutiny among southern troops in Equatoria Province. These troops were upset that the Khartoum government had failed to deliver on its promises to Britain that it would create a federal system. For the next 17 years, the southern region experienced civil strife, and various southern leaders agitated for regional autonomy or outright secession. There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Equatoria (Al-Istiwaiyah in Arabic) began as a province of Egypt, located in the extreme south of present-day Sudan along the upper reaches of the White Nile. ... For theological federalism, see Covenant Theology. ... Self-governance is an abstract concept that refers to several scales of organization. ... For other uses, see Secession (disambiguation). ...


Another factor in the second war was the natural resources of Sudan, particularly in the south, where there are significant oil fields. Oil revenues make up about 70% of Sudan's export earnings. Due to numerous tributaries of the Nile river and heavier precipitation in southern Sudan, the south also has greater access to water, and is therefore much more fertile. The north of the country is on the edge of the Sahara desert. The northern desire to control these resources, and the southern desire to maintain control of them, contributed to the war. A parallel war between the Nuer and Dinka also raged in the south. Petro redirects here. ... For other uses, see Nile (disambiguation). ... The Nuer are a confederation of tribes located in Southern Sudan and western Ethiopia. ... This article is about the ethnic group for the language see Dinka language The Dinka are a group of tribes of south Sudan, inhabiting the swamplands of the Bahr el Ghazal region of the Nile basin, Jonglei and parts of southern Kordufan and Upper Nile regions. ...


Outbreak

This chronic state of insurgency against the central government was suspended in 1972 after the signing of the Addis Ababa Accords granting southern Sudan wide regional autonomy on internal matters. In 1983, as part of an Islamicization campaign President Nimeiry declared his intention to transform Sudan into a Muslim Arab state, divided the south into three regions and instituted Shari’a law. This was controversial even among Muslim groups. After questioning Nimeiry's credentials to Islamicize Sudan's society, Ansar leader Sadiq al-Mahdi was placed under house arrest. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x733, 58 KB) I modified this file based upon the image at :Commons:Image:Al-Buhairat. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x733, 58 KB) I modified this file based upon the image at :Commons:Image:Al-Buhairat. ... Southern Sudan is a region of Sudan. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Addis Ababa Accords were a series of compromises in 1972, aimed at appeasing the leaders of the insurgency in southern Sudan after the first Sudanese Civil War proved costly to the government in the South. ... For the Jimi Hendrix song, see 1983. ... Islamicization is the religious conversion of a people or location to practice the religion of Islam voluntarily, or by force if neccesary. ... Gaafar Muhammad an-Nimeiry (otherwise known as Jaafar Nimeiry, Gaafar Nimeiry or Gafar Muhammad an-Numayri; born 1 January 1930) (Arabic: جعفر محمد النميري) was the President of Sudan from 1971 to 1985. ... Sharia (Arabic: transliteration: ) is the body of Islamic religious law. ... Ansar (Arabic: الأنصار, meaning aiders, or patrons) refer to a class of warriors who are renouned for there arsenal of weapons and the speed and mobility of there arabian horse. ... Sadiq al Mahdi became Prime Minister of Sudan in 1986, when he formed a coalition government comprised of the Umma party (which he led); the National Islamic Front (led by his brother-in-law, Hassan al-Turabi); the Democratic Unionist Party; and four small Southern parties. ... In justice and law, house arrest is the situation where a person is confined (by the authorities) to his or her residence. ...


On 26 April 1983, President Nimeiry declared a state of emergency, in part to ensure that Shari’a was applied more broadly. Most constitutionally guaranteed rights were suspended. In the north, emergency courts, later known as "decisive justice courts", were established, with summary jurisdiction over criminal cases. Amputations for theft and public lashings for alcohol possession were common during the state of emergency. Southerners and other non-Muslims living in the north were also subjected to these punishments. These events, and other longstanding grievances, in part led to a resumption of the civil war. is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Jimi Hendrix song, see 1983. ... For other uses, see State of emergency (disambiguation). ...


The Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA) was founded in 1983 as a southern-based mainly non-Arabic rebel group, fighting against the central government and attempting to establish an independent Southern Sudan under its leadership. Its leader was John Garang. SPLA/M emblem Sudan Peoples Liberation Army/Movement (SPLA/M) is a member of the National Democratic Alliance (NDA), the main opposition group in Sudan. ... John Garang, August 2004 John Garang de Mabior (June 23, 1945 – July 30, 2005) was the vice president of Sudan and former leader of the rebel Sudan Peoples Liberation Army. ...


In September 1984, President Nimeiry announced the end of the state of emergency and dismantled the emergency courts but soon promulgated a new judiciary act, which continued many of the practices of the emergency courts. Despite Nimeiry's public assurances that the rights of non-Muslims would be respected, southerners and other non-Muslims remained deeply suspicious.


Arms Suppliers

Sudan relied on a variety of countries for its arms supplies. Following independence, the army was trained and supplied by the British. After the 1967 Six-Day War however, relations were cut off, as were relations with the United States and West Germany. Combatants Israel Egypt Syria Jordan Iraq Commanders Yitzhak Rabin, Moshe Dayan, Uzi Narkiss, Israel Tal, Mordechai Hod, Ariel Sharon Abdel Hakim Amer, Abdul Munim Riad, Zaid ibn Shaker, Hafez al-Assad Strength 264,000 (incl. ...


From 1968 to 1972, the Soviet Union and Eastern bloc nations sold large numbers of weapons and provided technical assistance and training to Sudan. At this time the army grew from a strength of 18,000 to roughly 50,000 men. Large numbers of tanks, aircraft, and artillery were acquired, and they dominated the army until the late 1980s. A map of the Eastern Bloc 1948-1989. ... The 1980s was the decade spanning from 1980 to 1989, also called The Eighties. The decade saw social, economic and general upheaval as wealth, production and western culture migrated to new industrializing economies. ...


Relations cooled between the two sides after the coup in 1972, and the Khartoum government sought to diversify its suppliers. The Soviet Union continued to supply weapons until 1977, when their support of Marxist elements in Ethiopia angered the Sudanese sufficiently to cancel their deals. The People's Republic of China was the main supplier in the late 1970s. A coup détat, or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. ... Marxism is both the theory and the political practice (that is, the praxis) derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ...


Egypt was the most important military partner in the 1970s, providing missiles, personnel carriers, and other military hardware. At the same time military cooperation between the two countries was important. For other uses, see Missile (disambiguation). ...


Western countries began supplying Sudan again in the mid-1970s. The United States began selling Sudan a great deal of equipment around 1976, hoping to counteract Soviet support of Marxist Ethiopians and Libyans. Military sales peaked in 1982 at US$101 million. After the start of the second civil war, American assistance dropped, and was eventually cancelled in 1987.[4] USD redirects here. ...


1985-1991

For more information, see Transitional Military Council, Sadiq Al Mahdi and Coalition Governments

Early 1985 saw serious shortages of fuel and bread in Khartoum, a growing insurgency in the south, drought and famine, and an increasingly difficult refugee burden. In early April, during Nimeiry's absence from the country, massive demonstrations, first triggered by price increases on bread and other staples, broke out in Khartoum. This article details the period of Transitional Military Council, April 1985 to April 1986, in the history of Sudan. ... In June 1986, Sadiq al Mahdi formed a coalition government with the Umma, the Democratic Unionist Party (DUP), the National Islamic Front (NIF), and four southern parties. ... Fields outside Benambra, Victoria, Australia suffering from drought conditions A drought is an extended period of months or years when a region notes a deficiency in its water supply. ... <nowiki>Insert non-formatted text hereBold text</nowiki>A famine is a social and economic crisis that is commonly accompanied by widespread malnutrition, starvation, epidemic and increased mortality. ...


On 6 April, senior military officers led by Gen. Abdul Rahman Suwar ad-Dahhab mounted a coup. Among the first acts of the new government was to suspend the 1983 constitution, rescind the decree declaring Sudan's intent to become an Islamic state, and disband Nimeiry's Sudan Socialist Union. However, the "September laws" instituting Shari’a law were not suspended. A 15-member transitional military council was named, chaired by Gen. Suwar ad-Dahhab. In consultation with an informal conference of political parties, unions, and professional organizations known as the "Gathering", the council appointed an interim civilian cabinet, headed by Prime Minister Dr. Al-Jazuli Daf'allah. is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... -1...


Elections were held in April 1986, and a transitional military council turned over power to a civilian government as promised. The government, headed by Prime Minister Sadiq al-Mahdi of the Umma Party, consisted of a coalition of the Umma, the Democratic Unionist Party (DUP) (formerly the National Unionist Party, NUP), the National Islamic Front (Hassan al-Turabi’s NIF) and several southern parties. This coalition dissolved and reformed several times over the next few years, with Sadiq al-Mahdi and his Umma party always in a central role. Sadiq al Mahdi became Prime Minister of Sudan in 1986, when he formed a coalition government comprised of the Umma party (which he led); the National Islamic Front (led by his brother-in-law, Hassan al-Turabi); the Democratic Unionist Party; and four small Southern parties. ... The Umma Party is a political party in Sudan founded in 1945. ... The Democratic Unionist Party (Hizb Al-Ittihadi Al-Dimuqrati) is a political party in Sudan. ... The National Islamic Front is the political organization that controls Sudan. ... Dr. Hassan Abd Allah al-Turabi (الدكتور حسن عبد الله الترابي in Arabic), commonly called Hassan al-Turabi (sometimes transliterated Hassan al-Tourabi) (حسن الترابي), is a religiopolitical leader in Sudan, who may have been instrumental in institutionalizing Islamic Sharia law in the northern part of the country. ... Sadiq al Mahdi became Prime Minister of Sudan in 1986, when he formed a coalition government comprised of the Umma party (which he led); the National Islamic Front (led by his brother-in-law, Hassan al-Turabi); the Democratic Unionist Party; and four small Southern parties. ...


In May 1986, the Sadiq al-Mahdi government began peace negotiations with the Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA), led by Col. John Garang. In that year the SPLA and a number of Sudanese political parties met in Ethiopia and agreed to the "Koka Dam" declaration, which called for abolishing Islamic law and convening a constitutional conference. In 1988, the SPLA and the DUP agreed on a peace plan calling for the abolition of military pacts with Egypt and Libya, freezing of Islamic law, an end to the state of emergency, and a cease-fire. A constitutional conference would then be convened. SPLA/M emblem Sudan Peoples Liberation Army/Movement (SPLA/M) is a member of the National Democratic Alliance (NDA), the main opposition group in Sudan. ... John Garang, August 2004 John Garang de Mabior (June 23, 1945 – July 30, 2005) was the vice president of Sudan and former leader of the rebel Sudan Peoples Liberation Army. ...


During this period, the civil war intensified in lethality and the economy continued to deteriorate. When prices of basic goods were increased in 1988, riots ensued, and the price increases were cancelled. When Sadiq al-Mahdi Rya refused to approve a peace plan reached by the DUP and the SPLA in November 1988, the DUP left the government. The new government consisted essentially of the Umma and the Islamic fundamentalist NIF.


In February 1989, the army presented Sadiq with an ultimatum: he could move toward peace or be thrown out. He formed a new government with the DUP and approved the SPLA/DUP agreement. A constitutional conference was tentatively planned for September 1989.


On 30 June 1989, however, military officers under then-Col. Omar Hassan al-Bashir, with NIF instigation and support, replaced the government with the Revolutionary Command Council for National Salvation (RCC), a junta comprised of 15 military officers (reduced to 12 in 1991) assisted by a civilian cabinet. General al-Bashir became president and chief of state, prime minister and chief of the armed forces. is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... Omar al-Bashir Lieutenant General Omar Hasan Ahmad al-Bashir (born January 1, 1944) is the president of Sudan. ... The Revolutionary Command Council for National Salvation (RCC) was the authority by which the military government of Sudan under Lt. ... A military junta is government by a committee of military leaders. ...


The new military government banned trade unions, political parties, and other "non-religious" institutions. 78,000 members of the army, police, and civil administration were purged in order to reshape the government. The Lawrence textile strike (1912), with soldiers surrounding peaceful demonstrators A trade union or labor union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas such as wages, hours, and working conditions, forming a cartel of labour. ...


In March 1991, a new penal code, the Criminal Act of 1991, instituted harsh punishments nationwide, including amputations and stoning. Although the southern states are officially exempt from these Islamic prohibitions and penalties, the 1991 act provides for a possible future application of Islamic Law (Shari’a) in the south. In 1993, the government transferred all non-Muslim judges from the south to the north, replacing them with Muslim judges. The introduction of Public Order Police to enforce Shari’a law resulted in the arrest and treatment under Shari’a law of southerners and other non-Muslims living in the north.


Conduct of the war: 1991-2001

It is estimated that as many as 200,000 Southern Sudanese and Nuba children and women have been taken into slavery—mainly to North Sudan—during raids perpetrated in Southern Sudanese towns and villages. On the pretext of fighting Southern Sudanese rebels, the National Islamic government of the Sudan (GOS) has deployed its regular armed forces and militia notoriously known as the People's Defense Forces (PDF) to attack and raid villages in the South and the Nuba Mountains for slaves and cattle.[5]


The SPLA was in control of large areas of Equatoria, Bahr al Ghazal, and Upper Nile provinces and also operates in the southern portions of Darfur, Kordofan, and Blue Nile provinces. The government controlled a number of the major southern towns and cities, including Juba, Wau, and Malakal. An informal cease-fire in May broke down in October 1989. The Bahr el Ghazal (Arabic: Gazelle River) is both a river and a region of southwestern Sudan, the region taking its name from the river. ... For other uses, see Darfur (disambiguation). ... Kordofan is a former province of central Sudan. ... For other uses, see Blue Nile (disambiguation). ... Juba in the state of Central Equatoria Juba is the capital of the state of Central Equatoria in southern Sudan. ... Location of Wau within Sudan Wau (Arabic: واو Wāw; also Wow or Waw) is a town in southern Sudan on the western bank of the Jur River, and the capital of the West Bahr al Ghazal state. ... Location of Malakal within Sudan Malakal (Arabic: ملكال) is the capital of the Wilayah (state) of Upper Nile, Sudan. ...


In August 1991, internal dissension among the rebels led opponents of Colonel Garang's leadership of the SPLA to form the so-called Nasir faction of the rebel army. The attempt to overthrow Garang was led by Riek Machar and Lam Akol. The SPLA-Nasir was a splinter faction of the Sudan Peoples Liberation Army (SPLA), a rebel group that fought in the Second Sudanese Civil War. ... Riek Machar Teny (b. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Osama bin Laden and his Al Qaeda organization moved to Sudan in 1991. Osama brought some wealth to Sudan while he directed some of his first terrorist attacks out of Sudan. Osama bin Muhammad bin Awad bin Laden (Arabic: ‎; born March 10, 1957[1]), most often mentioned as Osama bin Laden or Usama bin Laden, is a Saudi Arabian militant Islamist and is widely believed to be one of the founders of the organization called al-Qaeda. ... Map of major attacks attributed to al-Qaeda Al-Qaeda (also al-Qaida or al-Qaida or al-Qaidah) (Arabic: ‎ , translation: The Base) is an international alliance of terrorist organizations founded in 1988[4] by Osama bin Laden and other veteran Afghan Arabs after the Soviet War in...


In September 1992, William Nyuon Bany formed a second rebel faction, and in February 1993, Kerubino Kwanyin Bol formed a third rebel faction. On 5 April 1993, the three dissident rebel factions announced a coalition of their groups called SPLA United at a press conference in Nairobi, Kenya. After 1991, the factions clashed occasionally and thus, the rebels lost much of their credibility with the West. William Nyuon Bany (died 1996) was a Southern Sudanese politician who was also a high-ranking officer in The Sudan Peoples Liberation Army. ... is the 95th day of the year (96th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... Location of Nairobi Coordinates: , Country Province HQ City Hall Founded 1899 Constituencies of Nairobi List Makadara Kamukunji Starehe Langata Dagoretti Westlands Kasarani Embakasi Government  - Mayor Geoffrey Majiwa Area  - City 684 km² (264. ...


In 1990-91 the Sudanese government supported Saddam Hussein in the Gulf War. This changed American attitudes toward the country. Bill Clinton's administration prohibited American investment in the country and supplied money to neighbouring countries to repel Sudanese incursions. The US also began attempts to "isolate" Sudan and began referring to it as a rogue state. Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was the fifth President of Iraq and Chairman of the Iraqi Revolutionary Command Council from 1979 until his overthrow by US forces in 2003. ... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ...


Since 1993, the leaders of Eritrea, Ethiopia, Uganda, and Kenya have pursued a peace initiative for the Sudan under the auspices of the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD), but results have been mixed. Despite that record, the IGAD initiative promulgated the 1994 Declaration of Principles (DOP) that aimed to identify the essential elements necessary to a just and comprehensive peace settlement; i.e., the relationship between religion and the state, power-sharing, wealth-sharing, and the right of self-determination for the south. The Sudanese Government did not sign the DOP until 1997 after major battle field losses to the SPLA. The Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) is a seven-country regional development organization in Eastern Africa. ...


In 1995, a coalition of internal and exiled opposition parties in the north and the south created the National Democratic Alliance as an anti-government umbrella group. This development opened a northeastern front to the civil war, making it more than before a center-periphery rather than simply a north-south conflict. The SPLA, DUP, and Umma Parties were the key groups forming the NDA, along with several smaller parties and northern ethnic groups. The National Democratic Alliance is a name used by at least two groups India - National Democratic Alliance (India) Iraq - National Democratic Alliance (Iraq) Sudan - National Democratic Alliance (Sudan) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


In 1996, Osama bin Laden was expelled from Sudan, and he moved his organization to Afghanistan.


Also in 1997, the government signed a series of agreements with rebel factions, led by former Garang Lieutenant Riek Machar, under the banner of "Peace from Within". These included the Khartoum, Nuba Mountains, and Fashoda agreements that ended military conflict between the government and significant rebel factions. Many of those leaders then moved to Khartoum where they assumed marginal roles in the central government, or collaborated with the government in military engagements against the SPLA. These three agreements paralleled the terms and conditions of the IGAD agreement, calling for a degree of autonomy for the south and the right of self-determination. Riek Machar Teny (b. ... Nuba Mountains The Nuba Mountains are a mountain range in Kordofan, a province in central Sudan, Africa. ... Kodok (formerly Fashoda) is a town in the southeastern Sudanese state of Upper Nile. ...


In July 2000, the Libyan/Egyptian Joint Initiative on the Sudan was mooted, calling for the establishment of an interim government, powersharing, constitutional reform, and new elections. Southern critics objected to the joint initiative because it neglected to address issues of the relationship between religion and the state and failed to mention the right of self-determination. It is unclear to what extent this initiative will have a significant impact on the search for peace, as some critics view it as more aimed at a resolution among northern political parties and protecting the perceived security interests of Egypt in favour of the unity of the Sudan.


Foreign interventions

In September 2001, former U.S. Senator John Danforth was designated Presidential Envoy for Peace in the Sudan. His role is to explore the prospects that the US could play a useful catalytic role in the search for a just end to the civil war, and enhance humanitarian services delivery that can help reduce the suffering of the Sudanese people stemming from war related effects. Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... John Danforth John Claggett Danforth (born September 5, 1936), also referred to as Jack Danforth, is a former United States Ambassador to the United Nations and former Republican United States Senator from Missouri. ...


Following an internal outcry, the Sadiq al-Mahdi government in March 1989 agreed with the United Nations and donor nations (including the US) on a plan called Operation Lifeline Sudan (OLS), under which some 100,000 tons of food was moved into both government and SPLA-held areas of the Sudan, and widespread starvation was averted. Phase II of OLS to cover 1990 was approved by both the government and the SPLA in March 1990. In 1991, Sudan faced a 2-year drought and food shortage across the entire country. The US, UN, and other donors attempted to mount a coordinated international relief effort in both north and south Sudan to prevent a catastrophe. However, due to Sudan's human rights abuses and its pro-Iraqi stance during the Gulf War, many donors cut much of their aid to the Sudan. In a similar drought in 2000-01, the international community again responded to avert mass starvation in the Sudan. International donors continue to provide large amounts of humanitarian aid to all parts of the Sudan. UN redirects here. ... Categories: Possible copyright violations ... A famine is an phenomenon in which a large percentage of the population of a region or country are undernourished and death by starvation becomes increasingly common. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ...


The US government's Sudan Peace Act of 21 October 2002 accused Sudan of genocide for killing more than 2 million civilians in the south during the civil war since 1983. The Sudan Peace Act is a US law condemning Sudan for genocide. ... is the 294th day of the year (295th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... For other uses, see Genocide (disambiguation). ... For the Jimi Hendrix song, see 1983. ...


Peace talks between the southern rebels and the government made substantial progress in 2003 and early 2004, although skirmishes in parts of the south have reportedly continued. The two sides have agreed that, following a final peace treaty, southern Sudan will enjoy autonomy for six years, and after the expiration of that period, the people of southern Sudan will be able to vote in a referendum on independence. Furthermore, oil revenues will be divided equally between the government and rebels during the six-year interim period. The ability or willingness of the government to fulfill these promises has been questioned by some observers, however, and the status of three central and eastern provinces was a point of contention in the negotiations. Some observers wondered whether hard line elements in the north would allow the treaty to proceed. Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A referendum (plural referendums or referenda), ballot question, or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita, originally a decree of the Concilium Plebis) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ...


A Comprehensive Peace Agreement was signed on 9 January 2005 in Nairobi. The terms of the peace treaty are as follows: The Comprehensive Peace Agreement, commonly known as the Naivasha Agreement, was a set of agreements culminating in January 2005 that were signed between the Sudan Peoples Liberation Movement and the Government of Sudan. ... is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

  • The south will have autonomy for six years, followed by a referendum on secession.
  • Both sides of the conflict will merge their armed forces into a 39,000-strong force after six years, if the secession referendum should turn out negative.
  • Income from oilfields is to be shared 50 to 50.
  • Jobs are to be split according to varying ratios (central administration: 70 to 30, Abyei/Blue Nile State/Nuba Mountains: 55 to 45, both in favour of the government).
  • Islamic law is to remain in the north, while continued use of the sharia in the south is to be decided by the elected assembly.

Alternate cover US 1979 and 2002 reissue cover, also known as paint spatter cover For the military meaning, see Armed forces. ... Abyei is a district and region of West Kurdufan, Sudan that is considered a historical bridge between northern and Southern Sudan. ... Blue Nile Blue Nile (Arabic: النيل الأزرق; transliterated: an-Nyl al-Azraq) is one of the 26 wilayat or states of Sudan. ... Nuba Mountains The Nuba Mountains are a mountain range in Kordofan, a province in central Sudan, Africa. ... Sharia (Arabic: transliteration: ) is the body of Islamic religious law. ...

Social effects

The ongoing civil war has displaced more than 4 million southerners. Some fled into southern cities, such as Juba; others trekked as far north as Khartoum and even into Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda, Egypt, and other neighboring countries. These people were unable to grow food or earn money to feed themselves, and malnutrition and starvation became widespread (see also 1998 Sudan famine). Approximately 500,000 Sudanese are believed to have fled Sudan. Juba in the state of Central Equatoria Juba is the capital of the state of Central Equatoria in southern Sudan. ... This article is about extreme malnutrition. ... The famine in Sudan in 1998 was a humanitarian disaster caused mainly by human rights abuses, as well as drought and the failure of the international community to react to the famine risk with adequate speed. ...


The lack of investment in the south resulted as well in what international humanitarian organizations call a "lost generation" who lack educational opportunities, access to basic health care services, and low prospects for productive employment in the small and weak economies of the south or the north. Invest redirects here. ...


The agreement reached during this war in 2002 is also one of the causes of the Darfur conflict. Combatants JEM factions NRF alliance Janjaweed SLM (Minnawi)  Sudan African Union Mission in Sudan (AMIS) United Nations African Union Mission in Darfur (UNAMID) Commanders Ibrahim Khalil Ahmed Diraige Omar al-Bashir Minni Minnawi Luke Aprezi Strength N/A N/A 7,000 The Darfur conflict is a crisis in the...


See also

SPLA/M emblem Sudan Peoples Liberation Army/Movement (SPLA/M) is a member of the National Democratic Alliance (NDA), the main opposition group in Sudan. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Sudan: Nearly 2 million dead as a result of the world's longest running civil war, U.S. Committee for Refugees, 2001. Archived 10 December 2004 on the Internet Archive. Accessed 10 April 2007.
  2. ^ Lee J.M. Seymour, Review of Douglas Johnson, The Root Causes of Sudan’s Civil Wars. African Studies Quarterly, African Studies Quarterly, Volume 7, Issue 1, Spring 2003 (TOC). Accessed 10 April 2007.
  3. ^ What's happening in Sudan?, Sudanese Australian Integrated Learning (SAIL) Program. Archived 27 December 2005 on the Internet Archive. Accessed 10 April 2007.
  4. ^ Sudan - Foreign Military Assistance, Library of Congress Country Study (TOC), research completed June 1991. Accessed 10 April 2007.
  5. ^ Sabit A. Alley, War and Genocide in the Sudan, iAbolish. Paper originally delivered at "The 19th Annual Holocaust and Genocide Program: Learning Through Experience" hosted by the Institute for Holocaust and Genocide Studies of Raritan Valley College in New Jersey on March 17, 2001. Archived 21 December 2005 on the Internet Archive. Accessed 10 April 2007.

is the 344th day of the year (345th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Internet Archive headquarters is in the Presidio, a former US military base in San Francisco. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... December 27 is the 361st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (362nd in leap years). ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Internet Archive headquarters is in the Presidio, a former US military base in San Francisco. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Internet Archive headquarters is in the Presidio, a former US military base in San Francisco. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...

External links

The Council on Foreign Relations (CFR) is an influential and independent, nonpartisan foreign policy membership organization founded in 1921 and based at 58 East 68th Street (corner Park Avenue) in New York City, with an additional office in Washington, D.C. Through its membership, meetings, and studies, it has been... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Reference for Civil war - Search.com (2432 words)
A civil war is "a violent conflict within a country fought by organized groups that aim to take power at the center or in a region, or to change government policies".
Civil wars that are fought over religion have tended to occur more in monotheistic than in polytheistic societies; one explanation is that the latter tend to be more "flexible" in terms of dogma, allowing for some latitude in belief.
Civil wars between Roman Catholicism and Protestantism consumed France in the Wars of Religion, the Netherlands during the Eighty Years' War, Germany during the Thirty Years' War, and more recently, The Troubles of Northern Ireland.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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