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Encyclopedia > Second Spanish Republic
República Española
Spanish Republic

1931 – 1977
Flag Coat of arms
Flag Coat of arms
Anthem
El Himno de Riego
Capital Madrid
Language(s) Spanish
Government Republic
President
 - 1931–1936 Niceto Alcalá-Zamora
 - 1936–1939 Manuel Azaña
Legislature Congress of Deputies
Historical era Interwar period
 - Monarchy abolished April 14, 1931
 - Spanish Civil War 1936–1939
 - Republic in exile dissolved July 15, 1977
Currency Spanish peseta

The Second Spanish Republic is the name of the regime that existed in Spain between April 14, 1931, when King Alfonso XIII left the country, and April 1, 1939, when the last of the Republican (republicanas) forces surrendered to Nationalist (nacionales) forces in the Spanish Civil War. This article deals mainly with the period between 1931 and 1936; for the period between 1936 and 1939, see the Spanish Civil War article. Anthem Marcha Real Capital Madrid Language(s) Spanish Religion Roman Catholic Church Government Constitutional monarchy Monarch  - 1874-1885 Alfonso XII  - 1886-1931 Alfonso XIII  - 1885-1902 Maria Christina of Austria (Regent) Prime Minister¹  - 1874-1875 (first term) Antonio Cánovas del Castillo  - 1931 Juan Bautista Aznar Cabañas Legislature Congress... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Spain_under_Franco. ... The Spanish Civil War officially ended on 1 April 1939, the day Francisco Franco announced the end of hostilities. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Second_Spanish_Republic. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Flag of Spain in Plaza de Colón, Madrid. ... Coat of Arms of Spain (Official model) The current Coat of arms of Spain was approved by law [1] in 1981, when the present established replaced the interim version which, in turn, replaced the official arms of Francoist Spain. ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... Rafael del Riego El Himno de Riego is a song dating from the Spanish Civil War of 1820-1823 and named in honour of Colonel Rafael del Riego. ... Throughout the world there are many cities that were once national capitals but no longer have that status because the country ceased to exist, the capital was moved, or the capital city was renamed. ... This article is about the Spanish capital. ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Today, Spain is a monarchy, and there is thus no person holding the title of President of Spain. ... Cover of Time Magazine, May 4, 1931 Niceto Alcalá-Zamora y Torres (July 6, 1877 – February 18, 1949), served (very briefly) as first Prime Minister of the Second Spanish Republic, and then - from 1931 to 1936 - as its president. ... Image:F manuel azana. ... A legislatureis a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to ratify laws. ... The Spanish Congress of Deputies (Spanish: Congreso de los Diputados) is the lower house of the Cortes Generales, Spains legislative branch. ... Interbellum redirects here. ... Alfonso XIII (May 17, 1886 – February 28, 1941), King of Spain, posthumous son of Alfonso XII of Spain, was proclaimed King at his birth. ... is the 104th day of the year (105th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Not to be confused with the Spanish Civil War of 1820-1823. ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... ISO 4217 Code ESP User(s) Spain, Andorra Inflation 1. ... is the 104th day of the year (105th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Spanish monarchy, referred to as the Crown of Spain (Corona de España) in the Spanish Constitution of 1978, is the office of the King or Queen of Spain. ... Alfonso XIII (May 17, 1886 – February 28, 1941), King of Spain, posthumous son of Alfonso XII of Spain, was proclaimed King at his birth. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Not to be confused with the Spanish Civil War of 1820-1823. ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Not to be confused with the Spanish Civil War of 1820-1823. ...

Contents

1931 Constitution

The first action of the provisional Government was to call for new elections, whose representatives would work on a new, Republican Constitution. This was approved on December 9, 1931. Among its liberties, established freedom of speech and association, separation between Church and State and a right to divorce and universal suffrage to women. It also stripped Nobility of any juridic status, simplified the Legislative branch to the uni-cameral Congreso de los Diputados and opened a legal way to nationalise public services such as land, banks and railways. Though these never came into effect, it became a source of disruption in the following years. is the 343rd day of the year (344th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the general concept. ... Freedom of association is a Constitutional (legal) concept based on the premise that it is the right of free adults to mutually choose their associates for whatever purpose they see fit. ... Constantines Conversion, depicting the conversion of Emperor Constantine the Great to Christianity, by Peter Paul Rubens. ... Divorce or dissolution of marriage is the ending of a marriage before the death of either spouse. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Universal suffrage (also general suffrage or common suffrage) consists of the extension of the right to vote to all adults, without distinction as to race, sex, belief, intelligence, or economic or social status. ... The Spanish nobility is the system of titles and honours of Spain and of the former kingdoms that constitute it. ... The Spanish Congress of Deputies (Spanish: Congreso de los Diputados) is the lower house of the Cortes Generales, Spains legislative branch. ... Nationalization is the act of taking assets into state ownership. ...


The Republican Constitution also changed the symbols of the country. The Himno de Riego was established as the National Anthem and the Tricolour, with three horizontal red-yellow-purple fields, became the flag of Spain. Under the new Constitution, Spain's regions had the right to Autonomy for the first time in history. Catalonia (1932) and the Basque Country (1936) exercised this right, with Andalucia, Aragón and Galicia in talks before the breakout of the Civil War. Overall, in spite of a wide range of liberties, the Constitution failed to agree in key areas with the conservative right, which was very powerfully rooted in rural areas, and the powerful Catholic Church, which was stripped of schools and public subsidies under the new Constitution. (For the later constitution, see Spanish Constitution of 1978.) Himno de Riego is an anthem composed in honor of colonel Rafael del Riego during the 1820-1823 Spanish Civil War and the national anthem of the Second Spanish Republic (1931-1939). ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... French tricolour flag A tricolour is a flag or banner having three colours, usually in approximately equal size (horizontally or vertically) and lacking additional symbols. ... Look up autonomy, autonomous in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the Spanish autonomous community. ... Pays Basque) see Northern Basque Country. ... Motto: Dominator Hercules Fundator Andaluc a por s , para Espa a y la humanidad (Andalusia for herself, for Spain, and for humanity) Capital Seville Area  - total  - % of Spain Ranked 2nd 87 268 km 17,2% Population  - Total (2003)  - % of Spain  - Density Ranked 1st 7 478 432 17,9% 85,70... Capital Zaragoza Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 4th  47 719 km²  9,4% Population  â€“ Total (2003)  â€“ % of Spain  â€“ Density Ranked 11th  1 217 514  2,9%  25,51/km² Demonym  â€“ English  â€“ Spanish  Aragonese  aragonés Statute of Autonomy August 16, 1982 ISO 3166-2 AR Parliamentary representation  â€“ Congress seats  â€“ Senate... Galicia (Spain) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... The name Catholic Church can mean a visible organization that refers to itself as Catholic, or the invisible Christian Church, viz. ... The Spanish Constitution of 1978 is the culmination of the Spanish transition to democracy. ...


History of Spain series
Prehistoric Iberia
Roman Hispania
Medieval Spain
Visigothic Kingdom
Suevic Kingdom
Byzantine Spania
al-Andalus
Reconquista
Kingdom of Spain
Age of Expansion
Age of Enlightenment
Reaction and Revolution
First Spanish Republic
The Restoration
Second Spanish Republic
Spanish Civil War
Spain under Franco
Transition to Democracy
Modern Spain
Topics
Economic History
Military History
Social History

The history of Spain spans the period from pre-historic times, through the rise and fall of the first global empire, to Spains modern-day renaissance in the post-Franco era. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Alhambra-petit. ... The Prehistory of the Iberian peninsula begins with the arrival of the first hominins c. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Iberian Peninsula. ... After the disorders of the passage of the Vandals and Alans down the Mediterranean coast of Hispania from 409, the history of Medieval Spain begins with the Iberian kingdom of the Arian Visigoths (507 – 711), who were converted to Catholicism with their king Reccared in 587. ... A votive crown belonging to Reccesuinth (653–672) The Visigoths (Latin: ) were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe, the Ostrogoths being the other. ... The Suebi or Suevi were a Germanic people whose origin was near the Baltic Sea . ... ... The Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent under Justinian I. Justinians inherited empire in pink with his conquests, including Spania, in orange. ... Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ... For other senses of this word, see Reconquista (disambiguation). ... During the reign of Emperor Charles V (Carlos I of Spain), who ascended the thrones of the kingdoms of Spain after the death of his grandfather Ferdinand, Habsburg Spain controlled territory ranging from Philippines to the Netherlands, and was, for a time, Europes greatest power. ... The Age of Enlightenment came to Spain in the eighteenth century with the accession of King Philip V, the first Spanish king of the French Bourbon dynasty. ... History of Spain series Prehistoric Spain Roman Spain Medieval Spain - Visigoths - Al-Andalus - Age of Reconquest Age of Expansion Age of Enlightenment Reaction and Revolution First Spanish Republic The Restoration Second Spanish Republic Spanish Civil War The Dictatorship Modern Spain Topics Economic History Military History Social History Spain in the... Flag of the Spanish First Republic The First Spanish Republic lasted only two years, between 1873 and 1874. ... Anthem Marcha Real Capital Madrid Language(s) Spanish Religion Roman Catholic Church Government Constitutional monarchy Monarch  - 1874-1885 Alfonso XII  - 1886-1931 Alfonso XIII  - 1885-1902 Maria Christina of Austria (Regent) Prime Minister¹  - 1874-1875 (first term) Antonio Cánovas del Castillo  - 1931 Juan Bautista Aznar Cabañas Legislature Congress... Not to be confused with the Spanish Civil War of 1820-1823. ... The Spanish Civil War officially ended on 1 April 1939, the day Francisco Franco announced the end of hostilities. ... The Spanish transition to democracy or new Bourbon restoration was the era when Spain moved from the dictatorship of Francisco Franco to a liberal democratic state. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Economic history of Spain covers the development of the Spanish economy over the course of its history. ... The military history of Spain includes the history of battles fought in the territory of modern Spain, as well as her former and current overseas possessions and territories, and the military history of the Spanish people regardless of geography. ...

1934–35 Period and Miners' Uprising

In these elections, the José María Gil Robles-led CEDA, a coalition of centre-right and right-wing parties ranging from Christian Democracy to Fascism, gained a majority and allied themselves to the Radical Republican Party of Lerroux, second in number of Congress representatives. Azaña and his socialist allies came third, probably due to their failed reforms. With Lerroux as head of Government, this new Executive suspended most of the reforms of the previous one. José María Gil-Robles y Quiñones (Salamanca, 27 November 1898-Madrid, 14 September 1980) was a prominent Spanish politician in the period leading up to the Spanish Civil War. ... ... Christian democracy is a diverse political ideology and movement. ... Fascism is an authoritarian political ideology (generally tied to a mass movement) that considers individual and other societal interests subordinate to the interests of the state. ...


The entry of three CEDA ministers into the government on October 1, 1934 led to a general strike and an armed uprising by socialists and anarchists in Asturias on October 6. Miners in Asturias occupied the capital, Oviedo, killing authorities, clergymen and burning theatres and the University. The Army, led by General Francisco Franco took two weeks to eventually crush the rebellion, destroying large areas of the city in the process leading Franco to be dubbed the "Butcher of Asturias" by the Left. There was another rebellion in Catalonia of an autonomist nature, which was also suppressed and followed by mass political arrests and trials. is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A general strike is a strike action by an entire labour force in a city, region or country. ... Anthem: Asturias, patria querida Capital Oviedo Official language(s) Spanish; Asturian has special status Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 10th  10,604 km²  2. ... is the 279th day of the year (280th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... “Franco” redirects here. ...


The suppression of the land reforms tried by the previous Government and the failure of the Asturias' uprising caused a more radical turn within the left parties, especially in PSOE, where the moderate Indalecio Prieto was losing voice to Francisco Largo Caballero, who advocated a socialist revolution regardless of cost and consequences, much like in the USSR. Also, the involvement of Lerroux's party in the Straperlo scandal deeply weakened the Centre party and further polarized the political spectrum between far-right and far-left parties, something that became evident in the 1936 election. Indalecio Prieto Tuero (April 30, 1883 - February 11, 1962) was a Spanish politician, one of the leading figures of the Spanish Socialist Workers Party (PSOE) in the years before and during the Second Spanish Republic. ... Francisco Largo Caballero (October 15, 1869 -March 23, 1946) was a Spanish politician and trade unionist. ... Straperlo or stra-perlo is a Spanish term referring to a fraudulent business activity, usually involving abusive prices. ...


The 1936 Election

On January 7, 1936, new Elections were called and Socialists, Communists, Catalan and Madrid-based left-wing Republicans, in spite of their major rivalries and differences, decided to work together under the name Popular Front. The results of the election on February 16 gave a lead of 263 MPs in favor of left-wing parties against 156 right-wing MPs, grouped within the National Front (coalition with CEDA, Carlists and Monarchists). This wide margin was achieved despite a difference of votes of 4.65 million to 4.50 million. Centre parties virtually disappeared, with Lerroux's group going from 104 (1934) to 9 representatives. Year 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Popular Front (Spanish Popular Front) was an electoral coalition and pact signed in January 1936 by various left-wing political organisations, instigated by Manuel Azaña for the purpose of contesting that years election. ... is the 47th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... In Spain, the National Front (Frente Nacional) was a far right political party. ... Carlism restored the cross of Burgundy assimilated by the Spanish Bourbons through the Spanish Habsburgs and used as flag of the Spanish empire. ...


Manuel Azaña was again named President of the Government, but in April Alcalá-Zamora was dismissed and Azaña took his position as Head of State on May 10, thus removing from Government the leader more capable of bringing together all the different factions in the Spanish republican left. is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


In the following months, violence between left and right-wing extremists spread. As a result, the Spanish Phalanx, a Nationalist party led by José Antonio Primo de Rivera (son of the former dictator) and inspired by Fascism rose sharply. From having only 0.7 per cent of votes in the election, by July it had 40,000 members. The Falange (or Phalange) is the name assigned to several political movements and parties dating from the 1930s, most particularly the original movement in Spain. ... For other people called Jose Rivera, see Jose Rivera José Antonio Primo de Rivera José Antonio Primo de Rivera, Marqués de Estella (April 24, 1903–November 20, 1936) was the son of general Miguel Primo de Rivera, who was dictator of Spain from 1923 until 1930. ...


On July 12, Lieutenant José Castillo, an important member of the anti-fascist military organization Unión Militar Republicana Antifascista (UMRA), was murdered by Falangist gunmen. is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... José Castillo (? – July 12, 1936) was a Spanish Police Assault Guard lieutenant during the Second Spanish Republic. ... The Unión Militar Republicana Antifascista (UMRA, Republican Antifascist Military Union) was a self-described anti-fascist organization for military members in Spain during the Second Spanish Republic. ... Yoke and Arrows. ...


The following day, several of Castillo's comrades shot dead José Calvo Sotelo, then leader of the right-wing opposition. Calvo Sotelo was the most prominent Spanish monarchist and had protested against what he viewed as an escalating anti-religious terror, expropriations, and hasty agricultural reforms, which he considered Bolshevist and Anarchist. Calvo Sotelo had declared that Spanish soldiers "would be mad to not rise for Spain against anarchy".[citation needed] Momument to Calvo Sotelo (1960) José Calvo Sotelo (Tui, Pontevedra, May 6, 1893—Madrid, July 13, 1936) was a Spanish political figure prior to and during the Second Spanish Republic. ... Bolshevik Party Meeting. ...


Sotelo's murder aroused suspicions among the right of government involvement in the act, and is sometimes seen as the catalyst for further political polarization. Yet well before this, Falangists and rightist civilian conspirators such as Juan de la Cierva had been coordinating with Francisco Franco and other rebel officers with the intent of launching a coup d'état.[1] Both Castillo and Calvo Sotelo were buried July 14; fighting between Police Assault Guard and fascist militias broke out in the streets surrounding the cemetery of Madrid, resulting in four deaths. Juan de la Cierva (21 September 1895 – 19 December 1936) was a Spanish aeronautical engineer and pilot. ... Generalísimo Francisco Franco, caudillo de España por la gracia de Dios Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco y Bahamonde Salgado Pardo de Andrade (December 4, 1892 - November 20, 1975), abbreviated Francisco Franco Bahamonde and sometimes known as Generalísimo Francisco Franco, was dictator of Spain from 1939 until... is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...


Three days later (July 17), the army uprising began more or less as planned in Spanish Morocco, spreading to several regions of the country. That the uprising did not "take" outright as did previous military coups resulted in its development into a full-blown civil war with the Madrid government. is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Spanish Morocco, was the area of Morocco ruled by Spain from up to 1956, when France and Spain recognised Moroccan independence. ...


Civil War

Main article: Spanish Civil War

Not to be confused with the Spanish Civil War of 1820-1823. ...

Exile

A Spanish Republican Government in Exile was immediately formed in Mexico City. The legislature was last reunited on November 9, 1945, in Mexico City, to elect the President Diego Martinez Barrio and gave a vote of confidence to the government of José Giral. In 1946, after the end of WWII, the offices were transferred in Paris. Many states withdraw recognition when the Spanish State was admitted to United Nations, in 1953, after the repeal of the ban on diplomatic missions imposed on the Franco regime. Mexico City (in Spanish: Ciudad de México, México, D.F. or simply México) is the capital city of Mexico. ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... A Motion of Confidence is a motion of support proposed by a government in a parliament to give members of parliament a chance to register their confidence for a government by means of a parliamentary vote. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... German soldiers at the Battle of Stalingrad World War II was the most extensive and costly armed conflict in the history of the world, involving the great majority of the worlds nations, being fought simultaneously in several major theatres, and costing tens of millions of lives. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Flag Motto Una Grande Libre Anthem Marcha Real Capital Madrid Language(s) Spanish Religion Roman Catholic Church Government Monarchy Head of State¹  - 1939-1975 Francisco Franco  - 1975-1978 Juan Carlos I Legislature Cortes Generales Historical era Cold War  - Spanish Civil War 1936-1939  - Republic defeated April 4, 1939  - Death of... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... January 7 - President Harry S. Truman announces the United States has developed a hydrogen bomb. ... “Franco” redirects here. ...


On July 15, 1977, the same day of the first free elections in Spain until 1936 José Maldonado Gonzalez, last President of the Republic, recognized the elections and declared the dissolution of the Spanish Republic. is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... Won by a Mr Martin J Hollerwatch of 34 Clackton Road, Cumberbatch-On-Sea (El Partido Malvado - The Evil Party) through a sliding majority poll of fifty to something. ... Year 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Conclusion

The Second Republic was marked by a period of worldwide economic depression, and the resulting high unemployment and poverty led to dissatisfaction with the republican government as well as traditional centers of power, such as the Church, landowners, and the nobility. In the ensuing civil unrest, violence in the form of assassination, revolutionary general strikes, and mob actions increased dangerously. A general strike is a strike action by an entire labour force in a city, region or country. ...


In the context of the rise of totalitarian government, especially Nazism in Germany, Fascism in Italy and Stalinism in the Soviet Union, political discourse became increasingly polarized. Rather than working towards consensus between political forces, politicians leaned towards radicalization and resorted to violence: by 1936, politicians such as Largo Caballero called openly for a "bloody workers' Revolution". Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazism or National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), refers primarily to the ideology and practices of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers Party, German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) under Adolf Hitler. ... Fascism is an authoritarian political ideology (generally tied to a mass movement) that considers individual and other societal interests subordinate to the interests of the state. ... For architecture, see Stalinist architecture. ...


The murders of the leftist military leader Castillo and the rightist politician Calvo Sotelo opened the way to a rapidly increasing flood of violence between the political left and right. There remains to the present day controversy and debate over whether responsibility for the initial violence and its escalation rests with the political left or the political right. Arguments have been made that rightist elements initiated the coup d'etat against the increasingly ungovernable Republic in response to the threats of communism, anarchism, anti-clericalism, and the violence that accompanied these trends. Conversely, it is also asserted by others, such as the historian Helen Graham, that the nationalist revolt was in essence a betrayal of the Republic and an attempt by the formerly powerful to violently reassert their authority. Regardless of the attribution of blame or responsibility, history bears evidence to the fact that from 1936 Spain entered a chaotic period of incredible violence and brutality in which not only partisans of the right and left but also ordinary citizens bore the burden of war, poverty, and murder.


References

  1. ^ Antony Beevor. The Battle for Spain: The Spanish Civil War 1936–1939. New York: Penguin Books, 2006. p. 51

Antony Beevor (born on December 14, 1946) is a British historian, educated at Winchester College and Sandhurst. ...

External links

  • Constitución de la República Española (1931)
  • Pro-Republic, 75th Anniversary Manifiesto (Spanish)
  • Original article from the beginning of the Spanish Civil War in "The Guardian" archives.
  • History of the republic and the victory of the Popular Front in elections

  Results from FactBites:
 
NationMaster - Encyclopedia: Spanish Civil War (2335 words)
Combatants Second Spanish Republic Nationalist Spain Commanders Alberto Bayo Manuel Uribarri García Ruiz Strength 8,000 militia 10 guns 3,500 regulars and militia Casualties Unknown Unknown The Battle of Mallorca, known as the Mallorca Landings in Spanish (optimistically called the Reconquest of Mallorca by the Republicans) was an...
Combatants Second Spanish Republic Nationalist Spain Commanders José Villalba Lacorte Queipo de Llano Mario Roatta Strength 40,000 militia 10,000 Moors 5,000 Requetés 5,000 Italians Casualties Unknown Unknown The Battle of Málaga was the culmination of an offensive in early 1937 by the combined Nationalist...
The Spanish Civil War was also an example of total war, where the bombing of the Basque town of Guernica by the Legión Cóndor, as depicted by Pablo Picasso in Guernica, foreshadowed episodes of World War II such as the bombing campaign on Britain by the Nazis and the bombing of Dresden by the Allies.
Second Spanish Republic Information (785 words)
The Second Spanish Republic (1931 1939) was the second and last period in Spanish history in which the election of both the positions of Head of State and Head of government were in the hands of the people.
The Republic, under military boycott by Britain and France, was militarily inferior to Franco's Nazi-aided forces and dependent for aircraft and tanks upon Stalin's distant USSR and for some of its front line troops upon International Brigades comprising socialist volunteers from around the world and Spanish anarchist militias.
For such reasons, the Nationalist victory in the Spanish Civil War and the abolition of the Republic are regarded by many as the first defeat of democracy, and a prelude of what was about to happen in the rest of Europe.
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