FACTOID # 9: The bookmobile capital of America is Kentucky.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Second Severn Crossing
Second Severn Crossing
Second Severn Crossing
Second Severn crossing seen from the English side looking West, January 2006
Carries 6 lane M4 motorway
Crosses River Severn
Locale South West England/South East Wales
Design central span: Cable-stayed bridge
approach viaducts: Segmental bridge
Longest span 456 metres (1,496 ft)
Total length 5,128 metres (3.19 mi)
Opening date 5 June 1996
Coordinates 51°34′28″N 2°42′06″W / 51.5745, -2.7016Coordinates: 51°34′28″N 2°42′06″W / 51.5745, -2.7016
The Second Severn crossing, seen here from the English side of the river, carries the M4 motorway between England and Wales. The shipping channel lies between the two towers.
The Second Severn crossing, seen here from the English side of the river, carries the M4 motorway between England and Wales. The shipping channel lies between the two towers.

The Second Severn Crossing (Welsh: Ail Groesfan Hafren) is a motorway crossing over the River Severn between England and Wales, inaugurated on 5 June 1996 by Charles, Prince of Wales to augment the traffic capacity of the original Severn Bridge crossing built in 1966. The bridge marks the lower limit of the River Severn and the start of the Severn estuary. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2048x519, 421 KB) Summary Photograph of the Second Severn Crossing taken looking West from the southern bank. ... The M4 motorway is a motorway in Great Britain linking London with Wales. ... “Severn” redirects here. ... South West England is one of the regions of England. ... This article is about the country. ... A cable-stayed bridge is a bridge that consists of one or more columns (normally referred to as towers or pylons), with cables supporting the bridge deck. ... As its name implies, a segmental bridge is a bridge built in short sections (called segments), i. ... is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... Image File history File links Please see the file description page for further information. ... Image File history File links Please see the file description page for further information. ... Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ... Motorway symbol in UK, France and Ireland. ... “Severn” redirects here. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country. ... is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... “Prince Charles” redirects here. ... For the Ontario community, see Severn Bridge, Ontario. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the edifice (including an index to articles on specific bridge types). ...


Its location is further to the south than the old bridge and being more in line with the landward sides of the M4 motorway, is a shorter journey when travelling from England to South Wales. The junctions at each end are designed for most traffic to use this crossing – to use the old Severn Bridge crossing one has to leave the M4 and join the M48 motorway either at Aust or near Magor. The new crossing carries more traffic than the Severn Bridge, which is still in use. It is wider than the Severn Bridge, having three lanes and hard shoulder each way, compared to the 2 lanes and cyclepath/footpath of the original crossing. The M4 motorway is a motorway in Great Britain linking London with Wales. ... Approximate extent of South East Wales. ... The M48 is a small motorway in England and Wales that includes the original Severn Bridge. ... The concrete path, with the Severn Bridge in the background. ... Magor (Welsh: Magwyr) is a village located in Monmouthshire, southern Wales. ...

Contents

Tolls

In contrast to the original Severn Bridge crossing, the tolls are collected on the Welsh side near Rogiet (but in the same direction as on the first crossing). Tolls can be only be paid for by cash or cheque, or by use of the Severn TAG system. The Severn TAG is a wireless system by which payments are paid electronically as vehicles drive through the toll lane. Paying toll on passing a bridge. ... Rogiet is a village in Monmouthshire, Wales. ... The Severn TAG logo, used at toll collection area to indicate a TAG payment lane The Severn TAG is a payment system for collecting bridge tolls for drivers using either the Severn Bridge Crossing or the Second Severn Crossing over the Severn Estuary between England and Wales. ...


Tolls charges are based on a three tier pricing system:

Toll Category Description Charge
Category 1 Cars and minibuses with up to 9 seats £5.10
Category 2 Small buses with up to 17 seats

Vans up to 3.5 tons

£10.20
Category 3 Buses with more than 17 seats

Goods vehicles weighing 3.5 tons or more

£15.30

Motorcycles and other vehicles driven by a UK disabled badge holder are exempted from paying a toll, although these vehicles must stop at the toll booth to confirm their eligibility.


The toll prices are updated every year on 1 January in accordance with the Severn Bridges Act of 1992. is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Design

The crossing is 3.186 miles (5.128 km) long, consisting of a single central navigation span over the "Shoots" channel and approach viaducts on either side. The Shoots channel is the deepest section along the width of the Severn estuary, and a longer span was required to ease the passage of shipping under this section. The central bridge section, called the Shoots Bridge, is of cable-stayed design and the central span (between the bridge pylons) is 456 metres in length. The approach viaducts are of a segmental bridge design. Its Welsh end is in Monmouthshire; its English end at Severn Beach in South Gloucestershire. The crossing forms a gentle S shape and near the English side crosses over the top of the Severn railway tunnel. Span is a section between two intermediate supports of a bridge. ... Torontos Bloor Street Viaduct bridges the Don valley; road traffic uses the upper deck, rail traffic uses the lower deck. ... A cable-stayed bridge is a bridge that consists of one or more columns (normally referred to as towers or pylons), with cables supporting the bridge deck. ... As its name implies, a segmental bridge is a bridge built in short sections (called segments), i. ... Monmouthshire (Welsh: ) is both a historic county and principal area in south-east Wales. ... Severn Beach is a small town on the mouth of the river Severn in South Gloucestershire in England. ... South Gloucestershire is a local government area in South West England. ... The approach to the tunnel. ...


The sides of the bridge are fitted with special railings to reduce lateral wind loads coming from the Severn estuary onto the traffic and this has reduced the number of times that speed restrictions have been needed. The overall design of the new crossing makes it more resistant to high winds than the old Severn Bridge.


Construction

The crossing was built by a business consortium under a Public-private partnership. A company called Severn River Crossing Plc, led by John Laing plc and GTM-Entrepose, was formed to build the new crossing. The company also took over the responsibility of managing and maintaining the old Severn Bridge crossing, as well as managing and maintaining the new crossing. The cost of constructing the new crossing was expected to be paid for by tolls collected from motorists using the two crossings. Work on the new crossing began in 1992 with completion in 1996. Public-private partnership (PPP) is a system in which a government service or private business venture is funded and operated through a partnership of government and one or more private sector companies. ... For John Laing, the 15th century bishop of Glasgow, see John Laing (bishop) John Laing plc is a British developer and operator of privately financed, public sector infrastructure projects such as roads, railways, hospitals and schools through Public-Private Partnership (PPP) and Private Finance Initiative (PFI) arrangements. ...


Sub-assemblies for the bridge were constructed onshore and then shifted by a large tracked vehicle (similar to that used to move the Apollo and Space Shuttle at Cape Kennedy) onto a barge, prior to being floated out on the high tide to the appropriate site. The 37 bridge pier foundations on the approach viaducts are 98.11 metres (321.9 ft) apart, and consist of concrete pneumatic caissons weighing 37 tonnes, which were sunk into the mud of the estuary. The decking consists of 3.5 metres (11.5 ft) post stressed match cast sections, weighing 200 tonnes each. This article is about the series of human spaceflight missions. ... This article is about the space vehicle. ... Cape Canaveral is a strip of land in Brevard County, Florida, near the center of the Atlantic coast. ... In geotechnical engineering, a caisson is a retaining, watertight structure used, for example, to work on the foundations of a bridge pier, for the construction of a concrete dam, or for the repair of ships. ...


The cable stayed section of the crossing is over 900 metres (2,953 ft) long, consisting of a 35 metres (115 ft) wide deck made from steel plate girders with a composite reinforced concrete slab. These were prefabricated on shore and put in place using balanced cantilever methods. There are two 149 metres (489 ft) high twin leg, reinforced and pre-stressed concrete pylons carrying 240 cables which support the bridge deck. Cable vibrations were experienced during construction and secondary cables were added to eliminate this. To avoid detracting from the aesthetics of the primary cables, the secondary cables are very slender and are not very noticeable. A plate girder bridge is a bridge often seen supporting railroad roadbeds over short spans. ... Reinforced concrete at Sainte Jeanne dArc Church (Nice, France): architect Jacques Dror, 1926–1933 Reinforced concrete, also called ferroconcrete in some countries, is concrete in which reinforcement bars (rebars) or fibers have been incorporated to strengthen a material that would otherwise be brittle. ... Prestressed concrete, invented by Frenchman Eugène Freyssinet in 1928, is a method for overcoming concretes natural weakness in tension. ...


Environmental criticisms

Prior to the bridge's construction environmentalists raised numerous concerns and criticisms, chiefly about the immediate damage from construction work and the effects of long-term pollution from a projected increase in car traffic. The approach viaducts from the east sit on English Stones, a rocky outcrop uncovered at low tide. And the crossing is built near extensive mudflats in the Severn Estuary used by various migrating birds.[citation needed] English Stones is a rocky outcrop in the Severn Estuary between Caldicot and Severn Beach. ... Mudflats in Brewster, Massachusetts extending hundreds of yards offshore at the low tide. ... Satellite view of the Bristol Channel Map of the Bristol Channel The Bristol Channel (Welsh: ) is a major inlet in the island of Great Britain, separating South Wales from the West Country and extending from the lower estuary of the River Severn (Afon Hafren) to that part of the North... Flock of Barnacle Geese during autumn migration Bird migration refers to the regular seasonal journeys of varying distances undertaken by many species of birds. ...

View of the Second Severn Crossing from Severn Beach on the English side.
View of the Second Severn Crossing from Severn Beach on the English side.

Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 96 pixelsFull resolution (9800 × 1175 pixel, file size: 2. ...

External links

  • Severn River Crossing PLC
  • The Motorway Archive: M4 Second Severn Crossing
  • Timelapse video of the crossing on Youtube
  • River Severn Bridges

  Results from FactBites:
 
Severn crossing - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1308 words)
The Second Severn crossing (Welsh: Ail Groesfan Hafren)
The Second Severn crossing was built by a business consortium, and this time the tolls were collected on the Welsh side near Rogiet (but in the same direction as on the first crossing).
The crossing bridge is built near extensive mudflats in the Severn Estuary, which are used by migrating birds.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m