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Encyclopedia > Second Samuel
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The Books of Samuel, also referred to as [The Book of] Samuel (Hebrew: שְׁמוּאֵל), are (two) books in the Hebrew Bible (Judaism's Tanakh and originally written in Hebrew) and the Old Testament of Christianity. Note: Judaism uses the term Tanakh instead of Old Testament, because it does not recognize the New Testament as being part of the Biblical canon. ... Genesis (Greek: Γένεσις, having the meanings of birth, creation, cause, beginning, source and origin), also called The First Book of Moses, is the first book of Torah (five books of Moses), and is the first book of the Tanakh, part of the Hebrew Bible; it is also the first book of... Exodus is the second book of the Torah (the Pentateuch) and also the Tanakh (the Hebrew Bible), and Christian Old Testament. ... Leviticus is the third book of the Hebrew Bible, also the third book in the Torah (five books of Moses). ... The Book of Numbers is the fourth of the books of the Pentateuch, called in the Hebrew ba-midbar במדבר, i. ... Deuteronomy is the fifth book of the Hebrew Bible. ... The Book of Joshua is the sixth book in both the Hebrew Tanakh and the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. ... Judges (Hebrew: שֹּׁפְטִים) is a book of the Bible originally written in Hebrew. ... The Book of Ruth is a book in the Hebrew Bible known to Jews as the Tanakh and to Christians as the Old Testament. ... The Books of Samuel, also referred to as [The Book of] Samuel (Hebrew: שְׁמוּאֵל), are (two) books in the Hebrew Bible (Judaisms Tanakh and originally written in Hebrew) and the Old Testament of Christianity. ... The Books of Kings (also known as [The Book of] Kings in Hebrew: Sefer Melachim מלכים) is a part of Judaisms Tanakh, the Hebrew Bible. ... The Books of Kings (also known as [The Book of] Kings in Hebrew: Sefer Melachim מלכים) is a part of Judaisms Tanakh, the Hebrew Bible. ... The Book of Chronicles is a book in the Hebrew Bible (also see Old Testament). ... The Book of Chronicles is a book in the Hebrew Bible (also see Old Testament). ... The Book of Ezra is a book of the Bible in the Old Testament and Hebrew Tanakh. ... The Book of Esther is a book of the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible) and of the Old Testament. ... The Book of Job (איוב, Standard Hebrew Iyyov, Tiberian Hebrew ʾIyyôḇ; Arabic أيّوب ʾAyyÅ«b) is one of the books of the Hebrew Bible, or Tanakh, and is also one of the books of the Christian Old Testament. ... Psalms (Tehilim תהילים, in Hebrew) is a book of the Hebrew Bible or Tanakh, and of the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. ... The Book of Nehemiah is a book of the Hebrew Bible, known to Jews as the Tanakh and to Christians as the Old Testament. ... The Book of Proverbs is a book of the Tanakh/Old Testament. ... Ecclesiastes, Kohelet in Hebrew, is a book of the Hebrew Bible. ... Song of Solomon is also the title of a novel by Toni Morrison. ... Isaiah (Hebrew ישׁעיהו Yeshayahu or Yəša‘ăyāhû) is a book of the Jewish Hebrew Bible as well as the Christian Old Testament, containing prophecies attributed to Isaiah. ... For jer, an alternate spelling for the reduced vowels in Common Slavic, see yer. ... The Book of Lamentations (Hebrew מגילת איכה) is a book of the Bible Old Testament and Jewish Tanakh. ... This article is about the Book of Ezekiel. ... This article is about the Biblical book. ... The Book of Hosea is a book of the Jewish Hebrew Bible, known to Christians as the Old Testament written by Hosea. ... // Overview of Contents The book of Adam Bacher is part of the Jewish Hebrew Bible, the Tanakh, and also the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. ... // Who wrote it? Amos was a prophet during the reign of Jeroboam ben Joash (Jeroboam II), ruler of Israel from 793 BCE to 753 BCE, and the reign of Uzziah, King of Judah, at a time when both kingdoms (Israel in the North and Judah in the South) were peaking... // Overview of Contents The Book of Obadiah is found in both the Hebrew Bible and the Old Testament of the Christian Bible, where it is the shortest book. ... In the Hebrew Bible, the Book of Jonah is the 5th book in a series of books called the Minor Prophets (itself a subsection of the Nevi’im or Prophets). ... // Who wrote it? Micah wrote the book in the reigns of Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah, roughly 735-700 BC Few Old Testament scholars today would defend Micahs authorship of the entire book. ... The book of Nahum is a book in the Bibles Old Testament and Jewish Tanakh. ... // The Prophet There is not much biographical information on the prophet Habakkuk; in fact less is known about this prophet than any other. ... // Who wrote it? The superscription of the Book of Zephaniah attributes its authorship to “Zephaniah son of Cushi son of Gedaliah son of Amariah son of Hezekiah, in the days of King Josiah son of Amon of Judah” (1:1, NRSV). ... The Book of Haggai is a book in the Bible Old Testament and Jewish Tanakh, written by the prophet Haggai. ... Zechariah or Zecharya (זְכַרְיָה Renowned/Remembered of/is the LORD, Standard Hebrew Zəḫarya, Tiberian Hebrew Zəḵaryāh) was a person in the Bible Old Testament and Jewish Tanakh. ... Malachi (or Malachias, מַלְאָכִי, Malʾaḫi, Málakhî) is a book of the Bible Old Testament and Jewish Tanakh, written by the prophet Malachi. ... The Book of Tobit is a book of scripture that is part of the Catholic and Orthodox biblical canon, pronounced canonical by the Council of Carthage of 397 and confirmed for Roman Catholics by the Council of Trent (1546). ... Judith with the Head of Holophernes, by Christophano Allori, 1613 (Pitti Palace, Florence The Book of Judith is a parable, or perhaps the first historical novel according to Jewish authorities, who do not place it among the writings of the Tanakh or Hebrew Bible. ... 1 Maccabees is a deuterocanonical book of the Bible which was probably written about 100 BC, after the restoration of an independent Jewish kingdom. ... 2 Maccabees is a deuterocanonical book of the Bible which focuses on the Jews revolt against Antiochus and concludes with the defeat of the Syrian general Nicanor in 161 BC by Judas Maccabeus, the hero of the work. ... Wisdom, also known as the Wisdom of Solomon, is one of the deuterocanonical books of the Bible that are not translations of Hebrew originals. ... The Book of Baruch is a deuterocanonical book, found in the Greek Bible (LXX) and in the Vulgate Bible, but not in the Hebrew Bible, although it was included in Theodotions version¹. ... 1 Esdras is a deuterocanonical book accepted by most Orthodox, but rejected as Jews, Catholics and Protestants. ... The Biblical book 3 Maccabees is found in most Orthodox Bibles as a part of the deuterocanonical books. ... The book of 4 Maccabees is a homily or philosophic discourse praising the supremacy of pious reason over the passions. ... Odes is the title of an album of Greek Folk Songs by Vangelis and Irene Papas. ... Letter of Jeremiah is an Apocryphal book consisting of a letter ascribed to Jeremiah to the Jews in exile in Babylon warning them against idolatry by demonstrating its unreasonableness. ... Neviim [נביאים] or Prophets is the second of the three major sections in the Tanakh (the Hebrew Bible). ... The Book of Joshua is the sixth book in both the Hebrew Tanakh and the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. ... Judges (Hebrew: שֹּׁפְטִים) is a book of the Bible originally written in Hebrew. ... The Books of Kings (also known as [The Book of] Kings in Hebrew: Sefer Melachim מלכים) is a part of Judaisms Tanakh, the Hebrew Bible. ... Isaiah (Hebrew ישׁעיהו Yeshayahu or Yəša‘ăyāhû) is a book of the Jewish Hebrew Bible as well as the Christian Old Testament, containing prophecies attributed to Isaiah. ... For jer, an alternate spelling for the reduced vowels in Common Slavic, see yer. ... This article is about the Book of Ezekiel. ... The Book of Hosea is a book of the Jewish Hebrew Bible, known to Christians as the Old Testament written by Hosea. ... // Overview of Contents The book of Adam Bacher is part of the Jewish Hebrew Bible, the Tanakh, and also the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. ... // Who wrote it? Amos was a prophet during the reign of Jeroboam ben Joash (Jeroboam II), ruler of Israel from 793 BCE to 753 BCE, and the reign of Uzziah, King of Judah, at a time when both kingdoms (Israel in the North and Judah in the South) were peaking... // Overview of Contents The Book of Obadiah is found in both the Hebrew Bible and the Old Testament of the Christian Bible, where it is the shortest book. ... In the Hebrew Bible, the Book of Jonah is the 5th book in a series of books called the Minor Prophets (itself a subsection of the Nevi’im or Prophets). ... // Who wrote it? Micah wrote the book in the reigns of Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah, roughly 735-700 BC Few Old Testament scholars today would defend Micahs authorship of the entire book. ... The book of Nahum is a book in the Bibles Old Testament and Jewish Tanakh. ... // The Prophet There is not much biographical information on the prophet Habakkuk; in fact less is known about this prophet than any other. ... // Who wrote it? The superscription of the Book of Zephaniah attributes its authorship to “Zephaniah son of Cushi son of Gedaliah son of Amariah son of Hezekiah, in the days of King Josiah son of Amon of Judah” (1:1, NRSV). ... The Book of Haggai is a book in the Bible Old Testament and Jewish Tanakh, written by the prophet Haggai. ... For the priest Zechariah of Luke 1:5 see the article Zacharias. ... Malachi (or Malachias, מַלְאָכִי, Malʾaḫi, Málakhî) is a book of the Bible Old Testament and Jewish Tanakh, written by the prophet Malachi. ... Hebrew is a Semitic language of the Afro-Asiatic language family spoken by more than 6 million people, mainly in Israel, the West Bank, the United States and by Jewish communities around the world. ... 11th century manuscript of the Hebrew Bible with Targum This article discusses usage of the term Hebrew Bible. For the article on the Hebrew Bible itself, see Tanakh. ... // Judaism is the religion of the Jewish people. ... 11th century Targum Tanakh [תנ״ך] (also Tanach or Tenach) is an acronym that identifies the Hebrew Bible. ... Hebrew is a Semitic language of the Afro-Asiatic language family spoken by more than 6 million people, mainly in Israel, the West Bank, the United States and by Jewish communities around the world. ... Note: Judaism uses the term Tanakh instead of Old Testament, because it does not recognize the New Testament as being part of the Biblical canon. ... See also: Timeline of Christianity Beliefs Jesus crucifixion as portrayed by Diego Velázquez. ...


In Hebrew bibles, the two books of Samuel are often considered as just one "Book of Samuel" (Sefer Shmuel).

Contents


The contents of the books

The first book comprises a period of about a hundred years, and nearly coincides with the life of Samuel. It contains For other people with the name Samuel see Sam In the Old Testament, Samuel or Shmuel (שְׁמוּאֵל Name/Heard of God, Standard Hebrew Šəmuʼel, Tiberian Hebrew Šəmûʼēl) is a leader of ancient Israel. ...

  1. the history of Eli (1-4)
  2. the history of Samuel (5-12)
  3. the history of Saul, and of David in exile (13-31).

The second book, comprising a period of perhaps fifty years, contains a history of the reign of David. Samuel does not appear in it. Eli (עֵלִי Ascent, Standard Hebrew ʿEli, Tiberian Hebrew ʿĒlî) is the name of one of the last Israelite judges before the rule of kings in ancient Israel. ... For other people with the name Samuel see Sam In the Old Testament, Samuel or Shmuel (שְׁמוּאֵל Name/Heard of God, Standard Hebrew Å É™muʼel, Tiberian Hebrew Å É™mûʼēl) is a leader of ancient Israel. ... Saul or Shaul (שָׁאוּל Borrowed, Standard Hebrew Å aʾul, Tiberian Hebrew Šāʾûl) was the first king of Israel according to the Old Testament of the Bible. ... Michelangelos David. ...

  1. David's reign over Judah (1-4), and
  2. David's reign over all Israel (5-24), mainly in its political aspects, and including his second temporary exile during Absalom's coup.

The last four chapters of Second Samuel may be regarded as a sort of appendix recording various events, but not chronologically. The death of David and enthronement of Solomon, while belonging to the Books of Samuel based on its narrative style, is found at the beginning of the First Book of the Kings. The Kingdom of Judah (Hebrew מַלְכוּת יְהוּדָה, Standard Hebrew Malḫut Yəhuda, Tiberian Hebrew Malḵûṯ Yəhûḏāh) in the times of the Hebrew Bible, was the nation formed from the territories of the tribes of Judah, Simeon, and Benjamin after the Kingdom of Israel was divided, and was named after... Absalom or Avshalom (אַבְשָׁלוֹם Father/Leader of/is peace, Standard Hebrew Avšalom, Tiberian Hebrew ʾAḇšālôm), in the Bible, is the third son of David, king of Israel. ... Solomon (Hebrew, Shlomo from Shalom for peace, also Arabic as Suleiman or Sulyaman meaning peace) can mean any of the following: 1. ...


These books do not contain complete histories. Frequent gaps are met with in the record, because their object is to present a history of the kingdom in its gradual development, and not of the events of the reigns of the successive rulers. In compiling the history of ancient Israel and Judah, there are many available sources, including the Jewish Tanakh (the Old Testament) and other Jewish texts such as the Talmud, the Ethiopian book of history known as the Kebra Nagast, the writings of historians such as Nicolaus of Damascus, Artapanas, Philo...


It is noticeable that the section (2 Sam. 11:2-12: 29) containing an account of David's sin in the matter of Bathsheba is omitted in the corresponding passage in 1 Chr. 20. Cornelis van Haarlem: Batsheba bathing In the Old Testament, Bathsheba is the wife of Uriah the Hittite and later of King David. ...


Authorship

Traditionally, the authors of the books of Samuel have been held to be Samuel, Gad, and Nathan. Samuel is believed to have penned the first twenty-four chapters of the first book. Gad, the companion of David (1 Sam. 22:5), is believed to have continued the history thus commenced; and Nathan is believed to have completed it, probably arranging the whole in the form in which we now have it (1 Chronicles 29:29). However, this theory is not believed by everyone. Indeed, there are more theories regarding the authorship of the work. Many biblical scholars will still call the works author "unknown". For other people with the name Samuel see Sam In the Old Testament, Samuel or Shmuel (שְׁמוּאֵל Name/Heard of God, Standard Hebrew Šəmuʼel, Tiberian Hebrew Šəmûʼēl) is a leader of ancient Israel. ... Gad can refer to: Gad (see Gad Guard), a metallic cube artifact that figures prominantly in the anime Gad Guard Gad (Bible character), the sixth son of Jacob as related in Genesis 29 - 30 Tribe of Gad, one of the Hebrew tribes founded by Gad GAD as a three-letter... Nathan (נתן Gift, Standard Hebrew Natan, Tiberian Hebrew Nāṯān) is the name of at least six men, and perhaps as many as eight, in the Hebrew Bible. ... The Book of Chronicles is a book in the Hebrew Bible (also see Old Testament). ...


Historical background

The Books show a surprisingly balanced and psychologically believable view of the time they describe. Saul's and David's heroism and strength, their development and their friendships, but also their doubts, sins, and failures are described; this is unique and unprecedented in historical writings at the time they were penned, a time when all-positive or all-negative portraits of rulers were the norm. History is often used as a generic term for information about the past, such as in geologic history of the Earth. When used as the name of a field of study, history refers to the study and interpretation of the record of human societies. ...


Later Greek and Latin translators

The Greek Septuagint translators regarded the books of Samuel and the Kings as forming one continuous history, which they divided into four books, which they called "The Books of the Kingdoms." The Latin Vulgate version followed this division, but styled them "The Books of the Kings." These books of Samuel they accordingly called the "First" and "Second" Books of Kings, and not, as in most modern Christian versions, the "First" and "Second" Books of Samuel. The Septuagint (LXX) is the name commonly given in the West to the Koine Greek Alexandrine text of the Hebrew Bible (Tanakh/Old Testament) produced some time between the third to first century BC. The Septuagint Bible includes additional books of the old Jewish canon beyond those contained in the... The Books of Kings (also known as [The Book of] Kings in Hebrew: Sefer Melachim מלכים) is a part of Judaisms Tanakh, the Hebrew Bible. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... For the Arthurian Vulgate Cycle, see Lancelot-Grail Cycle. ...


In Islam

The Qur'an also contains elements of the books of Samuel. The stories of David and Goliath and the appointment of King Saul are told (see Similarities between the Bible and the Qur'an). The Quran (Arabic: al-qurān, literally the recitation; also called Al Qurān Al Karīm or The Noble Quran; or transliterated Quran, Koran, and less commonly Alcoran) is the holy book of Islam. ... The Quran (Koran) contains many references to people and events that are mentioned in the Bible; especially the stories of the prophets of Islam, among whom are included Moses, David and Jesus. ...


Modern critics

Modern criticism holds the view that the books were not to have reached their final written form until the 7th or 6th century BC, whereas the events they describe come from around the year 1000 BC. They do of course preserve a detailed older (oral or written) tradition to which the traditional authors may have contributed; it seems certain from the books' level of detail that that tradition did indeed originate during the time the books describe. (8th century BC - 7th century BC - 6th century BC - other centuries) (700s BC - 690s BC - 680s BC - 670s BC - 660s BC - 650s BC - 640s BC - 630s BC - 620s BC - 610s BC - 600s BC - other decades) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) Events Scythians arrived in Asia Collapse... (7th century BC - 6th century BCE - 5th century BCE - other centuries) (600s BCE - 590s BCE - 580s BCE - 570s BCE - 560s BCE - 550s BCE - 540s BCE - 530s BCE - 520s BCE - 510s BCE - 500s BCE - other decades) (2nd millennium BCE - 1st millennium BCE - 1st millennium) The 5th and 6th centuries BCE were...


External links

  • Jewish translations:
    • 1 Samuel at Mechon-Mamre (Jewish Publication Society translation)
    • 2 Samuel at Mechon-Mamre (Jewish Publication Society translation)
    • Shmuel I - Samuel I (Judaica Press) translation with Rashi's commentary at Chabad.org
    • Shmuel II - Samuel II (Judaica Press) translation with Rashi's commentary at Chabad.org
  • Christian translations:
    • 1 Samuel at The Great Books (New Revised Standard Version)
    • 2 Samuel at The Great Books (New Revised Standard Version)
    • 1 Samuel at Bible Gateway of Gospel Communications (various versions)
    • 2 Samuel at Bible Gateway of Gospel Communications (various versions)
    • 1 Samuel at Wikisource (Authorised King James Version)
    • 2 Samuel at Wikisource (Authorised King James Version)
  • Related article:
    • Books of Samuel article (Jewish Encyclopedia)

This entry incorporates text from the public domain Easton's Bible Dictionary, originally published in 1897. Hebrew is a Semitic language of the Afro-Asiatic language family spoken by more than 6 million people, mainly in Israel, the West Bank, the United States and by Jewish communities around the world. ... Hebrew is a Semitic language of the Afro-Asiatic language family spoken by more than 6 million people, mainly in Israel, the West Bank, the United States and by Jewish communities around the world. ... // Judaism is the religion of the Jewish people. ... Rashi Rashi (February 22, 1040 – July 17, 1105) is the acronym of Rabbi Solomon ben Isaac (or: Shlomo Yitzchaki). ... Rashi Rashi (February 22, 1040 – July 17, 1105) is the acronym of Rabbi Solomon ben Isaac (or: Shlomo Yitzchaki). ... As a noun, Christian is an appellation and moniker deriving from the appellation Christ, which many people associate exclusively with Jesus of Nazareth. ... Eastons Bible Dictionary generally refers to the Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Third Edition, by Matthew George Easton M.A., D.D. ( 1823- 1894), published three years after Eastons death in 1897 by Thomas Nelson. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Books of Samuel - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (6703 words)
The child is identified as Samuel, though many modern academics think this is a later edit to the story and it was originally the birth narrative of Saul.
Samuel comes toward Saul as he enters the town, and realises that Saul is the man that God has chosen to be king, so he is hospitable to him.
The death of Saul and Jonathan (1 Samuel 31:1-2 Samuel 1:27) - the Philistines attack the Israelites at Gilboa, and kill Jonathan and inflict a mortal wound on Saul.
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: First and Second Samuel (5887 words)
Samuel's birth and consecration to the Lord, I, i-ii, 11.
Samuel's call to the prophetic office; his first vision, in which the impending punishment of the house of Heli is revealed to him, iii.
In I, vii, 15, Samuel is said to have judged Israel all the days of his life, though in his old age he delegated his powers to his sons (viii, 1), and after the election of Saul solemnly laid down his office (xii).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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