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Encyclopedia > Second Polish Republic
Rzeczpospolita Polska
Republic of Poland


1918 – 1939

Flag Coat of arms
Flag Coat of arms
Anthem: Mazurek Dąbrowskiego
Capital Warsaw
Language(s) Polish
Government Republic
President List
Prime minister List
Legislature Sejm
Historical era Interwar period
 - World War I November 111918
 - Invasion November 21939
Area
 - 1939 388,600 km2
150,039 sq mi
Population
 - 1939 est. 35,100,000 
     Density 90.3 /km² 
233.9 /sq mi
Currency Marka (until 1924)
Złoty (after 1924)

The Second Polish Republic is the name applied to the Republic of Poland between World War I and World War II. The Republic had borders with Germany, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Soviet Union, Latvia and Lithuania. Rzeczpospolita (pronounced: , zhech-poss-POH-lee-tah) is a Polish calque translation of the Latin expression res publica (public affair). It has been used in Poland since at least 16th century, originally to denote any democratic state. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1000x630, 220 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Austria-Hungary Coat of arms Portal:Austria-Hungary Portal:Austria-Hungary/Intro ... The Kingdom of Poland, also informally called Regency Kingdom of Poland (Polish: ), was the state proclaimed by the Act of November 5 issued by Imperial Germany and Austria-Hungary. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland_(bordered). ... Year 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_1933. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Soviet_Union. ... Motto: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) Translation: Workers of the world, unite!) Anthem: The Internationale (1922-1944) Hymn of the Soviet Union (1944-1991) Capital (and largest city) Moscow Official languages None; Russian de facto Government Socialist Republic/Federation of Soviet Republics  - Last President Mikhail Gorbachev  - Last Premier Ivan Silayev... Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Civil flag of the Republic of Poland State flag with coat of arms of the Republic of Poland. ... Flag of Poland with the coat of arms The coat of arms of Poland consists of a white eagle on a red shield. ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that is evoking and eulogizing the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a nations government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... Mazurek DÄ…browskiego (DÄ…browskis Mazurka) is the Polish national anthem written by Józef Wybicki in 1797. ... Image File history File links LocationIIPoland. ... This is a list of national capitals of the world in alphabetical order. ... Warsaw (Polish: , , in full The Capital City of Warsaw, Polish: Miasto StoÅ‚eczne Warszawa) is the capital of Poland, its largest city, and a gamma world city. ... For other uses, see Republic (disambiguation). ... This is a list of Polish presidents. ... This is a list of Polish presidents. ... The Prime Minister of the Republic of Poland represents the Council of Ministers (the Cabinet) and directs their work, supervises territorial self-government within the guidelines and in ways described in the Constitution and other legislation, and acts as the superior for all government administration workers (heading the public service... The Prime Minister of the Republic of Poland represents the Council of Ministers (the Cabinet) and directs their work, supervises territorial self-government within the guidelines and in ways described in the Constitution and other legislation, and acts as the superior for all government administration workers (heading the public service... A legislature is a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to adopt laws. ... The Sejm building in Warsaw. ... Europe between 1929 and 1938 The Interwar period (also interbellum) is understood within Western culture to be the period between the end of the First World War and the beginning of the Second World War in Europe, specifically 11 November 1918 to 1 September 1939. ... Combatants Allied Powers: Russian Empire France British Empire Italy United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary German Empire Ottoman Empire Bulgaria Commanders Nicholas II Aleksei Brusilov Georges Clemenceau Joseph Joffre Ferdinand Foch Herbert Henry Asquith Douglas Haig John Jellicoe Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna Armando Diaz Woodrow Wilson John Pershing Franz... November 11 is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 50 days remaining. ... Year 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Combatants Poland Germany, Soviet Union, Slovakia Commanders Edward Rydz-ÅšmigÅ‚y Fedor von Bock (Army Group North), Gerd von Rundstedt (Army Group South), Mikhail Kovalov (Belorussian Front), Semyon Timoshenko (Ukrainian Front), Ferdinand ÄŒatloÅ¡ (Field Army Bernolak) Strength 39 divisions, 16 brigades, 4,300 guns, 880 tanks, 400 aircraft, Total: 950... November 2 is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 59 days remaining. ... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... Population density by country, 2006 Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. ... The marka (Marka polska, abbreviated mp, plural marek) was the currency of the [[Regency Kingdom of Poland (1916-1918)|Regency Kingdom of Poland]] and of the Second Polish Republic between 1917 and 1924. ... ISO 4217 Code PLN User(s) Poland Inflation 2. ... Combatants Allied Powers: Russian Empire France British Empire Italy United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary German Empire Ottoman Empire Bulgaria Commanders Nicholas II Aleksei Brusilov Georges Clemenceau Joseph Joffre Ferdinand Foch Herbert Henry Asquith Douglas Haig John Jellicoe Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna Armando Diaz Woodrow Wilson John Pershing Franz... Combatants Major Allied powers: United Kingdom France Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Major Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Charles de Gaulle Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian...


When the borders of the state were fixed in 1921, it had an area of 388.6 thousand km² (sixth largest in Europe), and 27.2 million inhabitants according to the census of that year. In 1939, just before the outbreak of World War II, it had an estimated 35.1 million inhabitants. A third of these were national minorities (17% Ukrainians and Belarusians, 10% Jews, 5% Germans, and 1% percent Lithuanians, Russians and Czechs). Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for full calendar). ... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Combatants Major Allied powers: United Kingdom France Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Major Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Charles de Gaulle Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian...


The Second Republic is often associated with times of great adversity, of troubles and of triumph. Having to deal with the economic difficulties and destruction of World War I, followed by the Soviet invasion during the Polish Soviet War, and then increasingly hostile neighbors such as Nazi Germany, the Republic managed to endure. Lacking an overseas empire, Poland nevertheless maintained a level of economic development and prosperity comparable to that of the West. The cultural hubs of Warsaw, Kraków and Lwów raised themselves to the level of major European cities. They were also the sites of internationally renowned universities and places of higher learning. By 1939 the Republic was becoming a major world player in politics and economics. Combatants Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic Second Polish Republic Commanders Mikhail Tukhachevsky Semyon Budyonny Joseph Stalin Józef PiÅ‚sudski Edward Rydz-ÅšmigÅ‚y Strength 950,000 combatants 5,000,000 reserves 360,000 combatants 738,000 reserves Casualties Unknown, dead estimated at 100,000–150,000 Unknown, dead estimated... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Warsaw (Polish: , , in full The Capital City of Warsaw, Polish: Miasto StoÅ‚eczne Warszawa) is the capital of Poland, its largest city, and a gamma world city. ... Wawel Hill. ... Motto: Semper fidelis Location Map of Ukraine with Lviv. ...

Contents

History

Timeline (1918-1939)

Polish armoured car Korfanty in 1920 in the Silesian Uprisings
Polish armoured car Korfanty in 1920 in the Silesian Uprisings
Roman Dmowski
Roman Dmowski
Edward Rydz-Śmigły receiving the Marshal buława from president of Poland Ignacy Mościcki. November 10, 1936, Warsaw.
Edward Rydz-Śmigły receiving the Marshal buława from president of Poland Ignacy Mościcki. November 10, 1936, Warsaw.
Polish Statehood
Main article: History of Poland (1918-1939)

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Military armored cars A French VBL reconnaissance vehicle. ... Roman Dmowski This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Roman Dmowski This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Download high resolution version (700x922, 372 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Second Polish Republic Edward Rydz-Smigly List of Marshals of Poland Bulawa Categories: Pre-1994 Poland images ... Download high resolution version (700x922, 372 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Second Polish Republic Edward Rydz-Smigly List of Marshals of Poland Bulawa Categories: Pre-1994 Poland images ... Edward Rydz-Śmigły. ... Marshal (also sometimes spelled marshall in American English, but not in British English) is a word used in several official titles of various branches of society. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... Following are the successive heads of state of Poland. ... Ignacy Mościcki. ... November 10 is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 51 days remaining. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Warsaw (Polish: , , in full The Capital City of Warsaw, Polish: Miasto StoÅ‚eczne Warszawa) is the capital of Poland, its largest city, and a gamma world city. ... November 11 is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 50 days remaining. ... Year 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... January 26 is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Treaty of Versailles (1919) was the peace treaty which officially ended World War I between the Allied and Central Powers and the German Empire. ... Orlęta, a 1926 painting by Wojciech Kossak The Polish-Ukrainian War of 1918 and 1919 was a conflict between the forces of Poland and Western-Ukrainian Peoples Republic for the control over the Eastern Galicia after the dissolution of Austria-Hungary. ... Combatants Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic Second Polish Republic Commanders Mikhail Tukhachevsky Semyon Budyonny Joseph Stalin Józef PiÅ‚sudski Edward Rydz-ÅšmigÅ‚y Strength 950,000 including reserves 5 million 360,000 including reserves 738,000 Casualties Unknown, dead estimated at 100,000 - 150,000 Unknown, dead estimated at... The Battle of Warsaw (sometimes referred to as the Miracle at the Vistula, Polish Cud nad WisÅ‚Ä…) was the decisive battle of the Polish-Bolshevik War (also known as the Polish-Soviet War), the war that began soon after the end of World War I in 1918 and lasted until... The Peace of Riga (also known as the Treaty of Riga, Polish: Traktat Ryski) signed on 18th March 1921 between Poland and Soviet Russia ended the Polish-Bolshevik War. ... Combatants Poland Lithuania Commanders Adam Nieniewski Silvestras Žukauskas Strength  ? ca. ... Border conflicts between Poland and Czechoslovakia started in 1918 between the two newly independent countries of Poland (Second Polish Republic) and Czechoslovakia. ... Soldiers of Greatpolish Army Greater Poland Uprising of 1918- 1919 (Polish: powstanie wielkopolskie 1918-19 roku) was a military insurrection of the Polish people in the Greater Poland region (also called the Grand Duchy of Poznań) against the German/Prussian forces. ... The Silesian Uprisings (Polish: Powstania Å›lÄ…skie) was a series of three military insurections (1919-1921) of the Polish people in the Upper Silesia region against the German/Prussian forces in order to force them out the region and join it with Poland, that regained her independence after the World... July 15 is the 196th day (197th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 169 days remaining. ... Year 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... March 17 is the 76th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (77th in leap years). ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for full calendar). ... The Second Polish Republic adopted the March Constitution of Poland on March 17, 1921, after ousting the occupation of the German/ Prussian forces in the 1918 Greater Poland Uprising, and avoiding conquest by the Soviets in the 1920 Polish-Soviet War . ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar). ... November 5 is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 56 days remaining. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar). ... November 12 is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 49 days remaining. ... Term of office from December 9, 1922, until December 16, 1922 Profession Engineer, university professor Political party nonpartisan Spouse Date of birth March 17, 1865 Place of birth Telsze (in todays Lithuania) Date of death December 16, 1922 Place of death Warsaw, Poland Gabriel Narutowicz, born on March 17... December 16 is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar). ... Categories: People stubs | Prime Ministers of Poland | 1874 births | 1938 deaths ... The National Bank of Poland (Polish: , NBP), is the central bank of Poland. ... December 20 is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar). ... May Coup (Polish: Przewrót majowy or zamach majowy) was a coup detat successfully carried out in Poland by Józef PiÅ‚sudski between May 12 and May 14, 1926. ... May Coup (Polish: Przewrót majowy or zamach majowy) was a coup detat successfully carried out in Poland by Józef PiÅ‚sudski between May 12 and May 14, 1926. ... A coup détat, or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. ... May Coup (Polish: Przewrót majowy or zamach majowy) was a coup detat successfully carried out in Poland by Józef PiÅ‚sudski between May 12 and May 14, 1926. ... Flag of the Chief of State (1919-1927) Sanacja was a coalition political movement of the Second Polish Republic in the inter war years. ... Roman Dmowski Roman Dmowski (b. ... December 4 is the 338th day of the year (339th on leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Endecja (from abbreviaton (ND) of its Polish name, Narodowa Demokracja (National Democrats), also known as National Movement (Ruch Narodowy)) was a Polish right-wing political movement most active from middle of the 19th century to the end of the Second Polish Republic in 1939. ... November 16 is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 45 days remaining. ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link is to a full 1930 calendar). ... July 25 is the 206th day (207th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 159 days remaining. ... 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will take you to a full 1932 calendar). ... The Soviet-Polish Non-Aggression Pact (Polish: , Russian: ) was an international treaty of non-aggression signed in 1932 by representatives of Poland and the USSR. The pact was unilaterally broken by the Soviet Union on September 17, 1939, during the Nazi and Soviet invasion of Poland. ... January 26 is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... The German-Polish Non-Aggression Pact (German: , Polish: ) was an international treaty between Nazi Germany and the Second Polish Republic signed on January 26, 1934. ... April 14 is the 104th day of the year (105 in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 261 days remaining. ... 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Obóz Narodowo-Radykalny (National Radical Camp, ONR) was a Polish nationalist nazis political party, formed on May 14, 1934 mostly by the youth radicals who left the Narodowa Demokracja movement. ... April 23 is the 113th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (114th in leap years). ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The April Constitution of Poland ( Polish Ustawa konstytucyjna 23 IV 1935) was the general law passed by the act of the Polish Sejm on April 23, 1935. ... May 12 is the 132nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (133rd in leap years). ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Gdynia (IPA: , German: (until 1939 and after 1945) / Gotenhafen (1939-1945); Kashubian: ) is a city in the Pomeranian Voivodeship of Poland and an important seaport at GdaÅ„sk Bay on the south coast of the Baltic Sea. ... Centralny Okręg Przemysłowy (Polish for Central Industrial Region, abbreviated COP) was one of the biggest economic projects of the Second Polish Republic. ... Eugeniusz Kwiatkowski (30 December 1888 - 22 August 1974), was a Polish politician and economist. ... February 2 is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Zaolzie (Czech Záolší (Zaolží), Slezsko zaolÅ¡anské, Polish Zaolzie, ÅšlÄ…sk zaolziaÅ„ski meaning Trans-Olza river) was the area disputed between Poland and Czechoslovakia West of Cieszyn with approximately 906 km² and 258,000 inhabitants. ... January 2 is the second day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... March 31 is the 90th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (91st in Leap years), with 275 days remaining. ... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... August 23 is the 235th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (236th in leap years), with 130 days remaining. ... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... A non-aggression pact is an international treaty between two or more states, agreeing to avoid war or armed conflict between them even if they find themselves fighting third countries, or even if one is fighting allies of the other. ... Molotov (lower left), Ribbentrop (in black) and Stalin (far right) The Molotov-Ribbentrop pact, also known as the Hitler-Stalin pact or Ribbentrop-Molotov pact or Nazi-Soviet pact and formally known as the Treaty of Nonaggression between Germany and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, was in theory a... A military alliance is an agreement between two, or more, countries; related to wartime planning, commitments, or contingencies; such agreements can be both defensive and offensive. ... August 25 is the 237th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (238th in leap years), with 128 days remaining. ... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (730x810, 414 KB) Coat of Arms of Piast dynasty The eagle was cropped from some {{Polishsymbol}} coat of arms made by Halibutt in Blender and GIMP Based on the excellent French Wikipédia:Projet/Blasons and help from w:User:Snargle... The Kingdom of Poland of the first Piasts was the Polish state in the years between the coronation of BolesÅ‚aw I the Brave in 1025 and the death of BolesÅ‚aw III the Wrymouth in 1138. ... The Kingdom of Poland during period of fragmentation was the Polish state in the years between the death of BolesÅ‚aw III the Wrymouth in 1138 and the coronation of WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw I the Elbow-high in 1320. ... The Kingdom of Poland of the later Piasts was the Polish state in the years between the coronation of WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw I the Elbow-high in 1320 and the death of Kazimierz III the Great in 1370. ... The Kingdom of Poland of the Jagiellons was the Polish state in the years between the death of Casimir III in 1370 and the Union of Lublin in 1569. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Galicia (Ukrainian: Галичина (Halychyna), Polish: Galicja, German: Galizien, Slovak: Halič, Romanian: Galiţia, Hungarian: Gácsország) is the name of a region of Central Europe. ... Location Official languages Polish Established church Roman Catholic Capital Warsaw Largest City Warsaw Head of state Duke of Warsaw Area about 155,000 km² Population about 4. ... Kingdom of Poland 1815-31 The Congress Poland is an unofficial term for the Kingdom of Poland (1815-1831), a political entity that was created out of the Duchy of Warsaw at the Congress of Vienna in 1815, when European powers reorganised Europe following the Napoleonic wars. ... The Free City of Kraków (Polish: Wolne Miasto Kraków), also known as Republic of Kraków (Rzeczpospolita Krakowska), was a city-state created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 and controlled by its three neighbors, Russia, Prussia and Austria until 1846. ... Grand Duchy of PoznaÅ„ (Polish: Wielkie KsiÄ™stwo PoznaÅ„skie, German: Großherzogtum Posen) was an autonomous province of the Kingdom of Prussia in the Polish lands commonly known as Great Poland between the years 1815-1848. ... The Kingdom of Poland, also informally called Regency Kingdom of Poland (Polish: ), was the state proclaimed by the Act of November 5 issued by Imperial Germany and Austria-Hungary. ... Polish Secret State (also known as Polish Underground State; Polish Polskie Państwo Podziemne) is a term coined by Jan Karski in his book Story of a Secret State; it is used to refer to all underground resistance organizations in Poland during World War II, both military and civilian. ... The Peoples Republic of Poland or Polish Peoples Republic (Polish: Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa, PRL) was the official name of Poland from 1952 to 1989, during its period of rule by the Communist party, officially called the Polish United Workers Party (Polska Zjednoczona Partia Robotnicza, or PZPR). ... Motto: none1 Anthem: DÄ…browskis Mazurka (Polish: ) Map showing the location of Poland (dark orange) within the EU ( legend). ... // Interwar Poland Poland in the interbellum PiÅ‚sudskis first task was to reunite the Polish regions that had assumed various economic and political identities since the partition in the late eighteenth century, and especially since the advent of political parties. ...

The beginnings

Occupied by German and Austro-Hungarian armies in the summer of 1915, the formerly Russian-ruled part of what was considered Poland was proclaimed an independent kingdom by the occupying powers on November 5, 1916, with a governing Council of State and (from October 15, 1917) a Regency Council (Rada Regencyjna Królestwa Polskiego) to administer the country under German auspices pending the election of a king. Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... November 5 is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 56 days remaining. ... Year 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... October 15 is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years). ... Year 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ...


Shortly before the end of World War I, on October 7, 1918, the Regency Council dissolved the Council of State and announced its intention to restore Polish independence. With the notable exception of the Marxist-oriented Social Democratic Party of the Kingdom of Poland and Lithuania (SDKPiL), most political parties supported this move. On October 23 the Council appointed a new government under Józef Swierzynski and began conscription into the Polish Army. Combatants Allied Powers: Russian Empire France British Empire Italy United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary German Empire Ottoman Empire Bulgaria Commanders Nicholas II Aleksei Brusilov Georges Clemenceau Joseph Joffre Ferdinand Foch Herbert Henry Asquith Douglas Haig John Jellicoe Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna Armando Diaz Woodrow Wilson John Pershing Franz... October 7 is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Marxism refers to the philosophy and social theory based on Karl Marxs work on one hand, and to the political practice based on Marxist theory on the other hand (namely, parts of the First International during Marxs time, communist parties and later states). ... October 23 is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Polish Army (Polish Wojsko Polskie) is the name applied to the military forces of Poland. ...

Second Polish Republic 1921-1939
Second Polish Republic 1921-1939

On November 5, in Lublin, the first Soviet of Delegates was created. On November 6 the Communists announced the creation of a Republic of Tarnobrzeg. The same day, a Provisional People's Government of the Republic of Poland was created under the Socialist, Ignacy Daszynski. Download high resolution version (2000x1534, 341 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (2000x1534, 341 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... November 5 is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 56 days remaining. ... For other uses, see Lublin (disambiguation). ... A soviet (Russian: сове́т) originally was a workers local council in late Imperial Russia. ... November 6 is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 55 days remaining. ... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization, based upon common ownership of the means of production. ... Ignacy Daszynski (1866-1936) was a Polish politician. ...


On November 10, Józef Piłsudski, newly freed from imprisonment by the German authorities at Magdeburg, returned to Warsaw. Next day, due to his popularity and support from most political parties, the Regency Council appointed Piłsudski Commander in Chief of the Polish Armed Forces. On November 14 the Council dissolved itself and transferred all its authority to Piłsudski as Chief of State (Naczelnik Państwa). November 10 is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 51 days remaining. ... Office Chief of State, Marshal of Poland Term of office from November 14, 1918 until December 9, 1922 Profession Polish Leader Political party none, see Sanacja for details Spouse Maria PiÅ‚sudska Aleksandra PiÅ‚sudska Date of birth December 5, 1867 Place of birth Zułów, in todays Lithuania... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Warsaw (Polish: , , in full The Capital City of Warsaw, Polish: Miasto StoÅ‚eczne Warszawa) is the capital of Poland, its largest city, and a gamma world city. ... Regency Council: Ostrowski, Kakowski, Lubomirski The Regency Council of the Kingdom of Poland (Polish: Rada Regencyjna Królestwa Polskiego) was highest authority (king) in Kingdom of Poland during World War I, formed in September 1917. ... November 14 is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 47 days remaining until the end of the year. ...


Centers of government that were created in Galicia (formerly Austrian-ruled southern Poland) included a National Council of the Principality of Cieszyn (created on November 19??) and a Polish Liquidation Committee (created on October 28). Soon afterward, conflict broke out in Lviv (Polish Lwów) between forces of the Military Committee of Ukrainians and the Polish "Eagles" of Lwów. Coat-of-arms of Galicia or Galicja Galicia (Ukrainian: , Polish: , German: , Hungarian: , Czech: , Turkish: ) is an historical region in East Central Europe, currently divided between Poland and Ukraine. ... Polish Liquidation Committee (full name in Polish: ) was a temporary Polish government body in Galicia after the end of World War I. Created on October 28, 1918 with seat in Kraków, the Committee was headed by Wincenty Witos and Ignacy DaszyÅ„ski. ... October 28 is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 64 days remaining. ... Motto: Semper fidelis Location Map of Ukraine with Lviv. ... Lwów Eagles - Defenders of the Cemetery, oil on canvas, 1926, 90 x 120 cm, Polish Military Museum in Warsaw, painted by Wojciech Kossak. ...


After consultation with Pilsudski, Daszynski's government dissolved itself and a new government was created under Jedrzej Moraczewski. Jedrzej Moraczewski (1879-1944) was a Polish politician who served as second Prime Minister of Poland, from November 1918 to January 1919. ...

Soldiers of the Army of Greater Poland, 1919
Soldiers of the Army of Greater Poland, 1919
Polish soldiers displaying captured Soviet battle flags after the Battle of Warsaw.
Polish soldiers displaying captured Soviet battle flags after the Battle of Warsaw.

Polish Soliders of Great Polands Army. ... Polish Soliders of Great Polands Army. ... Voivodship wielkopolskie since 1999 Coat of Arms for voivodship wielkopolskie Greater Poland (also Great Poland; Polish: , German: Großpolen, Latin: Polonia Maior) is a historical region of west-central Poland. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Battle of Warsaw (sometimes referred to as the Miracle at the Vistula, Polish Cud nad Wisłą) was the decisive battle of the Polish-Soviet War, the war that began soon after the end of World War I in 1918 and lasted until the Treaty of Riga in 1921. ...

World War II

German soldiers destroying Polish border checkpoint on 1 September
German soldiers destroying Polish border checkpoint on 1 September

The beginning of the Second World War put an end to the Second Polish Republic. The "Invasion of Poland" campaign began 1 September 1939, one week after the signing of the secret Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, and ended 6 October 1939, with Germany and the Soviet Union occupying the entirety of Poland. Poland did not surrender, but continued as Polish Government in Exile and the Polish Secret State. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... Combatants Poland Germany, Soviet Union, Slovakia Commanders Edward Rydz-ÅšmigÅ‚y Fedor von Bock (Army Group North), Gerd von Rundstedt (Army Group South), Mikhail Kovalov (Belorussian Front), Semyon Timoshenko (Ukrainian Front), Ferdinand ÄŒatloÅ¡ (Field Army Bernolak) Strength 39 divisions, 16 brigades, 4,300 guns, 880 tanks, 400 aircraft, Total: 950... The Government of the Polish Republic in Exile was the government of Poland after the country had been occupied by Germany and the Soviet Union during September-October 1939. ... Polish Secret State (also known as Polish Underground State; Polish Polskie Państwo Podziemne) is a term coined by Jan Karski in his book Story of a Secret State; it is used to refer to all underground resistance organizations in Poland during World War II, both military and civilian. ...


Politics and government

Chief of State

Office Chief of State, Marshal of Poland Term of office from November 14, 1918 until December 9, 1922 Profession Polish Leader Political party none, see Sanacja for details Spouse Maria Piłsudska Aleksandra Piłsudska Date of birth December 5, 1867 Place of birth Zułów, in todays Lithuania... November 22 is the 326th day (327th on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... December 9 is the 343rd day (344th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar). ...

Presidents

Term of office from December 9, 1922, until December 16, 1922 Profession Engineer, university professor Political party nonpartisan Spouse Date of birth March 17, 1865 Place of birth Telsze (in todays Lithuania) Date of death December 16, 1922 Place of death Warsaw, Poland Gabriel Narutowicz, born on March 17... December 9 is the 343rd day (344th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar). ... December 16 is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar). ... Term of office from December 20, 1922 until May 14, 1926 Profession university professor Political party PSL Piast Date of birth March 15, 1869 Place of birth Kalisz, Poland Date of death April 9, 1953 Place of death Gołąbki near Warsaw, Poland Stanislaw Wojciechowski was born on March 15... December 20 is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar). ... May 14 is the 134th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (135th in leap years). ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar). ... Office Term of office from June 1, 1926, until September 30, 1939 Profession Professor of chemistry Political party none (until 1892, Proletariat) Spouse Maria, née Dobrzańska Date of birth December 1, 1867 Place of birth Mierzanów, Poland Date of death October 2, 1946 Place of death Versoix... June 1 is the 152nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (153rd in leap years), with 213 days remaining. ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar). ... September 30 is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Bolesław Wieniawa-Długoszowski (1881 - 1942) was a Polish General and man of letters. ... October 1 is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ...

Prime ministers

Jędrzej Moraczewski (1879-1944) was a Polish politician who served as second Prime Minister of Poland, from November 1918 to January 1919. ... November 18 is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Year 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... January 16 is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Ignacy Jan Paderewski Ignacy Jan Paderewski (November 6, 1860 – June 29, 1941) was a Polish pianist, composer, diplomat and politician, the third Prime Minister of Poland. ... January 18 is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... November 27 is the 331st day (332nd on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Leopold Skulski (1878-after 1939) was prime minister of Poland from 1919 to 1920. ... December 13 is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... June 9 is the 160th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (161st in leap years), with 205 days remaining. ... Year 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... Władysław Grabski Władysław Grabski (July 7, 1874 - March 3, 1938) was a Polish politician, economist and Prime Minister of Poland. ... June 27 is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 187 days remaining. ... Year 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... July 24 is the 205th day (206th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 160 days remaining. ... Year 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... Wincenty Witos Wincenty Witos (1874 - 1945) was an actvist of the Polish Peasant Party (PSL) from 1895 and leader of Piast faction from 1913. ... July 24 is the 205th day (206th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 160 days remaining. ... Year 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... September 13 is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years). ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for full calendar). ... Antoni Ponikowski (1878-1949) was a Polish politician who served as prime minister from 1921 to 1922. ... September 19 is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years). ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for full calendar). ... March 5 is the 64th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (65th in leap years). ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar). ... Antoni Ponikowski (1878-1949) was a Polish politician who served as prime minister from 1921 to 1922. ... March 10 is the 69th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (70th in leap years). ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar). ... June 6 is the 157th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (158th in leap years), with 208 days remaining // 1508 - Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor, is defeated in Friulia by Venetian forces; he is forced to sign a three-year truce and cede several territories to Venice 1513... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar). ... Artur Śliwiński (1877-1953) was the Prime Minister of Poland from June 26-July 16 of 1922. ... June 28 is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 186 days remaining. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar). ... July 7 is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 177 days remaining. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar). ... Wojciech Korfaty in 1905 Wojciech Korfanty (20 April 1873-17 August 1939) was a Polish nationalist activist, journalist and politician, serving as member of the German Reichstag and the Prussian Landtag, later in the Polish Sejm. ... July 14 is the 195th day (196th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 170 days remaining. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar). ... July 31 is the 212th day (213th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 153 days remaining. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar). ... Julian Ignacy Nowak (1865-1946) was a Polish politician who served as prime minister during 1922. ... July 31 is the 212th day (213th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 153 days remaining. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar). ... December 14 is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar). ... Władysław Eugeniusz Sikorski Coat of arms of Kopaszyna, (May 20, 1881 – July 4, 1943; pronounced ) was a Polish military and political leader. ... December 16 is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar). ... May 26 is the 146th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (147th in leap years). ... 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Wincenty Witos Wincenty Witos (1874 - 1945) was an actvist of the Polish Peasant Party (PSL) from 1895 and leader of Piast faction from 1913. ... May 28 is the 148th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (149th in leap years). ... 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... December 14 is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Władysław Grabski Władysław Grabski (July 7, 1874 - March 3, 1938) was a Polish politician, economist and Prime Minister of Poland. ... December 19 is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... November 14 is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 47 days remaining until the end of the year. ... 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... Aleksander Skrzynski (1882-1931) was a Polish politician who served as prime minister from 1925 to 1926. ... November 20 is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... May 5 is the 125th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (126th in leap years). ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar). ... Wincenty Witos Wincenty Witos (1874 - 1945) was an actvist of the Polish Peasant Party (PSL) from 1895 and leader of Piast faction from 1913. ... May 10 is the 130th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (131st in leap years). ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar). ... May 14 is the 134th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (135th in leap years). ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar). ... Kazimierz Bartel ( 1882- 1941), was a Polish mathematician and politician; Prime Minister of Poland,1926-1930. ... May 15 is the 135th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (136th in leap years). ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar). ... June 4 is the 155th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (156th in leap years), with 210 days remaining. ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar). ... Kazimierz Bartel ( 1882- 1941), was a Polish mathematician and politician; Prime Minister of Poland,1926-1930. ... June 8 is the 159th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (160th in leap years), with 206 days remaining. ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar). ... September 24 is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar). ... Kazimierz Bartel ( 1882- 1941), was a Polish mathematician and politician; Prime Minister of Poland,1926-1930. ... September 27 is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar). ... September 30 is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar). ... Office Chief of State, Marshal of Poland Term of office from November 14, 1918 until December 9, 1922 Profession Polish Leader Political party none, see Sanacja for details Spouse Maria Piłsudska Aleksandra Piłsudska Date of birth December 5, 1867 Place of birth Zułów, in todays Lithuania... October 2 is the 275th day (276th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 90 days remaining. ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar). ... June 27 is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 187 days remaining. ... Year 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar). ... Kazimierz Bartel ( 1882- 1941), was a Polish mathematician and politician; Prime Minister of Poland,1926-1930. ... June 27 is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 187 days remaining. ... Year 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar). ... April 13 is the 103rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (104th in leap years). ... 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Kazimierz Switalski Col. ... April 14 is the 104th day of the year (105 in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 261 days remaining. ... 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... December 7 is the 341st day (342nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Kazimierz Bartel ( 1882- 1941), was a Polish mathematician and politician; Prime Minister of Poland,1926-1930. ... December 29 is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 2 days remaining. ... 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... March 15 is the 74th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (75th in Leap years). ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link is to a full 1930 calendar). ... Walery Sławek (1879-1939) was a Polish politician who three times served as Prime Minister of Poland in the early 1930s. ... March 29 is the 88th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (89th in leap years). ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link is to a full 1930 calendar). ... August 23 is the 235th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (236th in leap years), with 130 days remaining. ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link is to a full 1930 calendar). ... Office Chief of State, Marshal of Poland Term of office from November 14, 1918 until December 9, 1922 Profession Polish Leader Political party none, see Sanacja for details Spouse Maria Piłsudska Aleksandra Piłsudska Date of birth December 5, 1867 Place of birth Zułów, in todays Lithuania... August 25 is the 237th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (238th in leap years), with 128 days remaining. ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link is to a full 1930 calendar). ... December 4 is the 338th day of the year (339th on leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link is to a full 1930 calendar). ... Walery Sławek (1879-1939) was a Polish politician who three times served as Prime Minister of Poland in the early 1930s. ... December 4 is the 338th day of the year (339th on leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link is to a full 1930 calendar). ... May 26 is the 146th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (147th in leap years). ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link is to a full 1931 calendar). ... Aleksander Prystor (1874-1941) was a Polish politician who served as Prime Minister of Poland from 1931 to 1933. ... May 27 is the 147th day (148th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 218 days remaining. ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link is to a full 1931 calendar). ... May 9 is the 129th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (130th in leap years). ... Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... Janusz Jędrzejewicz (1885-1951) - was a Polish politician and teacher, one of the leaders of Sanacja and a Prime Minister of Poland (1933-1934). ... May 10 is the 130th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (131st in leap years). ... Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... May 13 is the 133rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (134th in leap years). ... 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Leon Kozłowski (1892-1944) was a Polish archaeologist and politician who served as Prime Minister of Poland from 1934 to 1935. ... May 15 is the 135th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (136th in leap years). ... 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... March 28 is the 87th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (88th in leap years). ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Walery Sławek (1879-1939) was a Polish politician who three times served as Prime Minister of Poland in the early 1930s. ... March 28 is the 87th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (88th in leap years). ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... October 12 is the 285th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (286th in leap years). ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Marian Zyndram-Kościałkowski (1892-1946) was a Polish politician who served as President of Warsaw in 1934 and Prime Minister of Poland from 1935 to 1936. ... October 13 is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... May 15 is the 135th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (136th in leap years). ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Felicjan Sławoj Składkowski Felicjan Sławoj Składkowski (1885-1962) was a Polish general and a politician who served as the last Prime Minister of Poland before World War II, who read medicine at the Jagiellonian University. ... May 15 is the 135th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (136th in leap years). ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... September 30 is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ...

Economy

After regaining her independence Poland was faced with major economic difficulties. Within the borders of the Republic were the remnants of three different economic systems, with three different currencies and with little or no direct infrastructural links. The situation was so bad that neighboring industrial centers lacked direct railroad links because they had been parts of different occupying nations. On top of this was the massive destruction left after both World War I and the Polish Soviet War. There was also a great economic disparity between the eastern and western parts of the country, with the western half being much more developed and prosperous. Frequent border closures and tariff wars (especially with Nazi Germany) also had negative economic impacts on Poland. Combatants Allied Powers: Russian Empire France British Empire Italy United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary German Empire Ottoman Empire Bulgaria Commanders Nicholas II Aleksei Brusilov Georges Clemenceau Joseph Joffre Ferdinand Foch Herbert Henry Asquith Douglas Haig John Jellicoe Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna Armando Diaz Woodrow Wilson John Pershing Franz... Combatants Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic Second Polish Republic Commanders Mikhail Tukhachevsky Semyon Budyonny Joseph Stalin Józef Piłsudski Edward Rydz-Śmigły Strength 950,000 combatants 5,000,000 reserves 360,000 combatants 738,000 reserves Casualties Unknown, dead estimated at 100,000–150,000 Unknown, dead estimated...


Despite these problems Poland managed in the interwar period to achieve a state of economic prosperity on par with Western Europe. In 1924 economic minister Wladyslaw Grabski introduced the zloty as a single common currency for Poland, which remained one of the most stable currencies of Central Europe. The currency helped Poland to bring under control the massive hyperinflation, the only country in Europe which was able to do this without foreign loans or aide[citation needed]. 1924 (MCMXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Categories: People stubs | Prime Ministers of Poland | 1874 births | 1938 deaths ... Złoty. ...


The basis of Poland's relative prosperity were the economic development plans which oversaw the building of two key infrastructural elements. The first was the establishment of the Gdynia seaport, which allowed Poland to completely bypass Gdansk (which was under heavy Nazi pressure to boycott Polish coal exports). The second was the creation of a central industrial district, named the 'COP' (Centralny Okreg Przemyslowy). Unfortunately these developments were interrupted and largely destroyed by the German invasion and the start of World War II. [1] Combatants Major Allied powers: United Kingdom France Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Major Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Charles de Gaulle Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian...


Demographics

Poland has traditionally been a nation of many nations, with large Jewish and Ukrainian minorities. This was especially true after she regained her independence in the wake of World War I, in 1918. The census of that year allocates 30.8% of the population in the minority.[2] This was further exacerbated with the Polish victory in the Polish Soviet War, and the large territorial gains made by Poland as a consequence. In 1931 the census showed that 66% of the population was Polish, 15% were Ukrainians, 9% Jews, 5% Belarussians, and 2,5% Germans. [3] Combatants Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic Second Polish Republic Commanders Mikhail Tukhachevsky Semyon Budyonny Joseph Stalin Józef Piłsudski Edward Rydz-Śmigły Strength 950,000 combatants 5,000,000 reserves 360,000 combatants 738,000 reserves Casualties Unknown, dead estimated at 100,000–150,000 Unknown, dead estimated...


Poland was also a nation of many religions. In 1921 16,057,229 Poles (approx. 62.5%) were Roman Catholic, 3,031,057 Poles(approx. 11.8%) were Eastern Catholics, 2,815,817 (approx. 10.95%) were Greek Orthodox, 2,771,949 (approx. 10.8%) were Jewish, and 940,232 (approx. 3.7%) were Protestants. [3] By 1931 Poland had the second largest Jewish population in the world, with one-fifth of all the world's Jews residing within Poland's borders (approx. 3,136,000).[2] Norman Davies gives the results of Polish 1931 national census as follows[4] Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for full calendar). ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link is to a full 1931 calendar). ... For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... Prof. ... 1870 US Census for New York City A census is the process of obtaining information about every member of a population (not necessarily a human population). ...

  • Poles, 68.9% of the population
  • Ukrainians, 13.9%
  • Jews, 8.7%
  • Belarusians, 3.1%
  • Germans, 2.3%

Population

Ludność
Census date Population Percentage of
rural population
Population density
(per km²)
30 September 1921 27,177,000 75,4% 69,9
9 December 1931 32,107,000 72,6% 82,6
31 December 1938 34,849,000 70% 89,7
Largest cities in early 1939:
  1. Warszawa – 1,289,000
  2. Łódź – 672,000
  3. Lwów – 318,000
  4. Poznań – 272,000
  5. Kraków – 259,000
  6. Wilno – 209,000
  7. Bydgoszcz – 141,000
  8. Częstochowa – 138,000
  9. Katowice – 134,000
  10. Sosnowiec – 130,000
  11. Lublin – 122,000
  12. Gdynia – 120,000
  13. Chorzow – 110,000
  14. Białystok – 107,000

1870 US Census for New York City A census is the process of obtaining information about every member of a population (not necessarily a human population). ... Rural area in Dalarna, Sweden Qichun, a rural town in Hubei province, China Rural areas (also referred to as the country, countryside) are sparsely settled places away from the influence of large cities. ... A square metre (US spelling: square meter) is by definition the area enclosed by a square with sides each 1 metre long. ... September 30 is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for full calendar). ... December 9 is the 343rd day (344th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link is to a full 1931 calendar). ... December 31 is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Warszawa can refer to: Warsaw, capital city of Poland Warszawa, a song written by David Bowie and Brian Eno off the album Low. ... Łódź ((?)) is Polands second largest city (population 776,297 in 2004). ... Motto: Semper fidelis Oblast Lviv Oblast Municipal government City council (Львівська міська рада) Mayor City chairman Lyubomyr Bunyak Area 171,01 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 808,900 ? 4786/km² Founded City rights 13th century 1353 Latitude Longitude 49°51′ N 24°01′ E Area code +0322 Car plates  ? Twin towns Corning, Freiburg... PoznaÅ„ ( ; full official name: The Capital City of PoznaÅ„, Latin: , German: , Yiddish: פּױזן Poyzn) is a city in west-central Poland with over 578,900 inhabitants (2002). ... Wawel Hill. ... Vilnius Old Town Vilnius (sometimes Vilna; Polish Wilno, Belarusian Вільня, Russian Вильнюс, see also Cities alternative names) is the capital city of Lithuania. ... Bydgoszcz ( ; German: ; Latin: Bydgostia) is a city in northern Poland, on the Brda and Vistula rivers, with a population of 369,151 (2004). ... CzÄ™stochowa ( , German: ) is a city in south Poland on the Warta River with 248,894 inhabitants (2004). ... Panorama of Katowice at night Katowice (pronunciation: [] (Czech: Katovice, German: Kattowitz) is an important city of the historical region of Upper Silesia in southern Poland on the KÅ‚odnica and Rawa rivers. ... Motto: none Voivodship Silesian Municipal government Rada Miejska Sosnowiec Mayor Kazimierz Górski Area 91,2 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 231 540 2. ... For other uses, see Lublin (disambiguation). ... Gdynia (IPA: , German: (until 1939 and after 1945) / Gotenhafen (1939-1945); Kashubian: ) is a city in the Pomeranian Voivodeship of Poland and an important seaport at GdaÅ„sk Bay on the south coast of the Baltic Sea. ... Motto: none Voivodship Silesian Municipal government Urząd Miasta Chorz w Mayor Marek Kopel Area 33,5 km Population  - city  - urban  - density 117 430 - 2856/km Founded City rights - - Latitude Longitude 50 18 N 57 E Area code +48 32 Car plates SH Twin towns - Municipal Website Chorz w... BiaÅ‚ystok (pronounced: , Belarusian: , Lithuanian: , Yiddish ביאַליסטאָק) is the largest city (pop. ...

Administrative division and geography

The administrative division of the Second Republic was based on the three tier system. On the lowest rung were the gminy, which were little more than local town and village governments. These were then grouped together into powiaty which were then arranged into wojewodstwa.

Polish voivodeships 1922-1939
Polish voivodeships 1922-1939
Polish voivodeships in the interbellum
(data as per April 1, 1937)
car plates
(since 1937)
Voivodeship
Separate city
Capital Area
in 1000 km² (1930)
Population
in 1000 (1931)
00-19 City of Warsaw Warsaw 0,14 1179,5
85-89 warszawskie Warsaw 31,7 2460,9
20-24 białostockie Białystok 26,0 1263,3
25-29 kieleckie Kielce 22,2 2671,0
30-34 krakowskie Kraków 17,6 2300,1
35-39 lubelskie Lublin 26,6 2116,2
40-44 lwowskie Lwów 28,4 3126,3
45-49 łódzkie Łódź 20,4 2650,1
50-54 nowogródzkie Nowogródek 23,0 1057,2
55-59 poleskie Brześć nad Bugiem 36,7 1132,2
60-64 pomorskie Toruń 25,7 1884,4
65-69 poznańskie Poznań 28,1 2339,6
70-74 stanisławowskie Stanisławów 16,9 1480,3
75-79 ? śląskie Katowice 5,1 1533,5
80-84 tarnopolskie Tarnopol 16,5 1600,4
90-94 wileńskie Wilno 29,0 1276,0
95-99 wołyńskie Łuck 35,7 2085,6


Download high resolution version (562x614, 14 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Second Polish Republic Voivodships of Poland Centralny Okreg Przemyslowy Categories: GFDL images ... Download high resolution version (562x614, 14 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Second Polish Republic Voivodships of Poland Centralny Okreg Przemyslowy Categories: GFDL images ... April 1 is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 274 days remaining. ... Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... A license plate, licence plate, number plate or registration plate (often referred to simply as a plate, or colloquially tag) is a small metal or plastic plate attached to a motor vehicle for official identification purposes. ... Warsaw (Polish: , , in full The Capital City of Warsaw, Polish: Miasto StoÅ‚eczne Warszawa) is the capital of Poland, its largest city, and a gamma world city. ... Warszawa Voivodeship (Polish: ) was a unit of administrative division and local government in Poland in years 1975-1998, superseded by Masovian Voivodeship. ... Warsaw (Polish: , , in full The Capital City of Warsaw, Polish: Miasto StoÅ‚eczne Warszawa) is the capital of Poland, its largest city, and a gamma world city. ... BiaÅ‚ystok Voivodeship, 1975. ... BiaÅ‚ystok (pronounced: , Belarusian: , Lithuanian: , Yiddish ביאַליסטאָק) is the largest city (pop. ... Kielce Voivodeship (1) (Polish: województwo kieleckie) - a unit of administrative division and local government in Poland in years 1975-1998, superseded by ÅšwiÄ™tokrzyskie Voivodeship. ... Kielce ( ) is a city in central Poland with 202,609 inhabitants (2006). ... Kraków Voivodeship refers to several historical Voivodeships of Poland. ... Wawel Hill. ... Lublin Voivodeship Coat of Arms Potockis Palace in MiÄ™dzyrzec Podlaski Old chapel Krzna river Lublin Voivodeship (Polish: województwo lubelskie) is an administrative region, or voivodeship, of eastern Poland. ... For other uses, see Lublin (disambiguation). ... Lwow Voivodeship (Polish: ) was an administrative unit of interwar Poland (1918-1939). ... Motto: Semper fidelis Oblast Lviv Oblast Municipal government City council (Львівська міська рада) Mayor City chairman Lyubomyr Bunyak Area 171,01 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 808,900 ? 4786/km² Founded City rights 13th century 1353 Latitude Longitude 49°51′ N 24°01′ E Area code +0322 Car plates  ? Twin towns Corning, Freiburg... Łódź Voivodeship Coat of Arms of Łódź Voivodeship Flag of Łódź Voivodeship Łódź Voivodeship (1) (Polish: województwo łódzkie) is an administrative region of central Poland created January 1, 1999, out of the former Łódź (2), Sieradz, Piotrków Trybunalski, Skierniewice and part of PÅ‚ock voivodeships, pursuant to the... Łódź ((?)) is Polands second largest city (population 776,297 in 2004). ... . Nowogródek Voivodeship (Polish: , Belarusian: ) was an unit of administrative division of Grand Duchy of Lithuania (from 1569 - Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth) and Poland between 15th century and 1795 and then between 1919 and 1939, with the capital in the town of Navahrudak. ... Navahradak (Нава́градак in Belarusian; Polish: Nowogródek; Russian: Novogrudok, Lithuanian: Naugardukas) is a Belarusian city with an old history, the first capital of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. ... Polesie Voivodeship (Polish: , Belarusian: ) was an administrative unit of interwar Poland (1918-1939). ... For a city in France, see Brest, France. ... Pomerania Voivodeship (Polish: województwo pomorskie) is an administrative region or voivodeship in northern Poland within the historic region of Eastern Pomerania. ... ToruÅ„ (?· i; German: ; Kashubian: , see also other names) is a city in northern Poland, on the Vistula river. ... Map as of 1975 // PoznaÅ„ Voivodeship (1) 1975-1998 PoznaÅ„ Voivodeship 1975-1998 (Polish: województwo poznaÅ„skie) was a unit of administrative division and local government in Poland in years 1975-1998, superseded by Greater Poland Voivodeship. ... PoznaÅ„ ( ; full official name: The Capital City of PoznaÅ„, Latin: , German: , Yiddish: פּױזן Poyzn) is a city in west-central Poland with over 578,900 inhabitants (2002). ... StanisÅ‚awów Voivodeship (Polish: ; Ukrainian: ) was an administrative unit of interwar Poland (1918-1939). ... Ivano-Frankivsk (Ukrainian: ; before 1962 Станиславів, Stanyslaviv; Polish: StanisÅ‚awów 14th century - 1939; Russian: ; German: Stanislau (before World War I); Yiddish: סטאַניסלוו/Stanislev) is a city in Ukraine. ... Capital city Katowice Area 12,294 km² Population (2004)  - Density 4,830,000 392. ... Panorama of Katowice at night Katowice (pronunciation: [] (Czech: Katovice, German: Kattowitz) is an important city of the historical region of Upper Silesia in southern Poland on the KÅ‚odnica and Rawa rivers. ... Tarnopol Voivodeship Tarnopol Voivodeship bis 17 September 1939 A voivodeship of Poland 1920-1939 Capital: Tarnopol Main cities: Brody, Brzezany, Buczacz, Czortków, Zloczów Area: 16,500 km² Population: Totals 1,600,406 Poles 789,114 (49. ... Ternopil (Тернопіль in Ukrainian, Tarnopol in Polish, Ternopol in Russian) is a city in Western Ukraine, located at the banks of the Seret river. ... Wilno Voivodeship The Wilno Voivodeship (Polish: , Lithuanian: , Belarusian: ) (or Vilnius Voivodeship) was the capital voivodeship of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania from 15th century and later the capital Voivodeship of Lithuanian part in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth until the partitions of Poland in 1795. ... Vilnius Old Town Vilnius (sometimes Vilna; Polish Wilno, Belarusian Вільня, Russian Вильнюс, see also Cities alternative names) is the capital city of Lithuania. ... Volhynian Voivodeship (Polish: Wojewodztwo Wolynskie) was an administrative unit of interwar Poland (1918-1939) as well as of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... Lutsk (Ukrainian: Луцьк) is the capital of the Volyn Oblast, Ukraine. ...


On April 1, 1938, borders of several western Voivodeships changed considerably. For more information, see Territorial changes of Polish Voivodeships on April 1, 1938. On April 1, 1938, borders of several western and central Voivodeships changed considerably. ...


References

  1. ^ , Atlas Historii Polski, Demart Sp, 2004, ISBN 83-89239-89-2
  2. ^ a b Joseph Marcus, Social and Political History of the Jews in Poland, 1919-1939, Mouton Publishing, 1983, ISBN 90-279-3239-5, Google Books, p. 17
  3. ^ a b , Powszechny Spis Ludnosci r. 1921
  4. ^ Norman Davies, God's Playground, Columbia University Press, 2005, ISBN 0-231-12819-3, Google Print, p.299

 
 

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