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Encyclopedia > Second Great Awakening
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The Second Great Awakening  (18001830s) was the second great religious revival in United States  history and consisted of renewed personal salvation experienced in revival meetings. Major leaders included Charles Grandison Finney, Lyman Beecher, Barton Stone, Peter Cartwright, and James B. Finley. It also encouraged an eager effervescent evangelicalism that later reappeared in American life in causes dealing with prison reform, temperance, women's suffrage, and the crusade to abolish slavery. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The Great Awakenings refer to several periods of dramatic religious revival in Anglo-American religious history. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The First Great Awakening is the name sometimes given to a period of heightened religious activity, primarily in the northeastern US during the 1730s and 1740s. ... The Third Great Awakening was a period in American history from 1886 to 1908. ... The Fourth Great Awakening is a religious awakening that some scholars believe took place in the United States in the late 1960s and early 1970s. ... // ON MAY 5 1853 MR.FADER HAD SEX WITH A MAN NAME MR WIEN THEN THEY HAD SON NAMEDMRS COTURE AND MR MANOOGIAN WENT INTO MRS HASKELLS OFFICE NAKED AND DANCED AROUND AND MASTERBATED ON HER CHEST AND SHE LICKED IT OFF THEN THEY HAD ORAL SEEX WITH NAPLOEAN OF... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution 1830 (MDCCCXXX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... See also: Charles G. Finney, 20th Century American author Charles Grandison Finney (August 29, 1792 – August 16, 1875), often called Americas foremost revivalist, was a major leader of the Second Great Awakening in America, which had a great impact on the social history of the United States. ... Lyman Beecher (October 12, 1775 – January 10, 1863) was a Presbyterian clergyman, temperance movement leader, and the father of several noted leaders, including Harriet Beecher Stowe, Henry Ward Beecher, Charles Beecher, Edward Beecher, Isabella Beecher Hooker, and Catharine Beecher, and a leader of the Second Great Awakening of the United... Barton W. Stone was born on December, 24 1772 to John and Mary Stone in Port Tobacco, Maryland. ... Peter Cartwright (exhorter) was a hellfire and brimstone preacher born in Amherst County, Virginia. ...

Contents

Spread of Revivals

In New England, the renewed interest in religion inspired a wave of social activism. In western New York, the spirit of revival encouraged the emergence of new Restorationist and other denominations, especially the Mormons and the Holiness movement. In the West especially—at Cane Ridge, Kentucky and in Tennessee—the revival strengthened the Methodists and the Baptists and introduced into America a new form of religious expression—the Scottish camp meeting.[1] This article is about the region in the United States of America. ... “NY” redirects here. ... Restorationism is not a single religious movement, but a wave of comparably motivated movements that arose in the eastern United States and Canada in the early 19th century in the wake of the Second Great Awakening. ... The term Mormon is a colloquial name, most-often used to refer to members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church). ... The Holiness movement is composed of people who believe and propagate the belief that the carnal nature of man can be cleansed through faith and by the power of the Holy Spirit if one has had his sins forgiven through faith in Jesus. ... The Western United States, also referred to as the American West or simply The West, traditionally refers to the region constituting the westernmost states of the United States (see geographical terminology section for further discussion of these terms). ... Cane Ridge, Kentucky, was the site, in 1801, of a large camp meeting which drew thousands of people and had a lasting influence as one of the landmark events of the Second Great Awakening. ... Official language(s) English Capital Nashville Largest city Memphis Largest metro area Nashville Area  Ranked 36th  - Total 42,169 sq mi (109,247 km²)  - Width 120 miles (195 km)  - Length 440 miles (710 km)  - % water 2. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      For school of ancient Greek medicine... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Coptic Orthodox Pope · Roman Catholic Pope Archbishop of Canterbury · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Baptist... A watercolor painting of a camp meeting circa 1839 (New Bedford Whaling Museum). ...


The Congregationalists in Florida, Kansas, and Hawaii set up missionary societies, to evangelize the West. Members of these societies acted as apostles for the faith and as educators, exponents of Eastern urban culture. Publication and education societies promoted Christian education; most notable among them was the American Bible Society, founded in 1816. Social activism inspired by the revival gave rise to abolition groups as well as the Society for the Promotion of Temperance, and began efforts to reform prisons and care for the handicapped and mentally ill. They believed in the perfectibility of people and were highly moralistic in their endeavors. The American Bible Society (ABS) is a group, founded in 1816, that publishes, distributes, and translates the Bible. ... The American Society for the Promotion of Temperance, was created in 1826. ...

1839 Methodist camp meeting
1839 Methodist camp meeting

The Methodists and Baptists made enormous gains; to a lesser extent the Presbyterians gained members. Among the new denominations that were formed, and which in the 21st century still proclaim their roots in the Second Great Awakening are the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ), the Cumberland Presbyterian Church, Latter Day Saint movement, and the Seventh-day Adventist Church. This cultural phenomenon also contributed to growth in non-denominational churches such as the Churches of Christ, as many sought the concepts of New Testament Christianity in preference to the later doctrines and practices developed in Catholocism, Orthodoxy, and various Protestant traditions. Image File history File links 1839-meth. ... Image File history File links 1839-meth. ... The Christian Church (Disciples of Christ), often abbreviated as the Disciples of Christ or Christian Church, is a denomination of Christian Restorationism that grew out of the Restoration Movement founded by Thomas Campbell and Alexander Campbell of Pennsylvania and West Virginia (then Virginia) and Barton W. Stone of Kentucky. ... Replica of the log house in Dickson County, Tenn. ... The Latter Day Saint movement (a subset of Restorationism) is a group of religious denominations and adherents who follow at least some of the teachings and revelations of Joseph Smith, Jr. ... The Seventh-day Adventist (abbreviated Adventist[1]) Church is a Christian denomination which is distinguished by its observance of Saturday, the seventh day of the week, as the Sabbath. ... The Churches of Christ discussed in this article are not part of the United Church of Christ; the Disciples of Christ; the International Churches of Christ; the Church of Christ, Scientist (Christian Science); the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints or any other denomination within the Latter Day...


Appalachian

In the Appalachian region, the revival used and promoted the camp meeting, and took on characteristics similar to the First Great Awakening of the previous century. The camp meeting was a religious service of several days' length with multiple preachers. Settlers in thinly populated areas looked to the camp meeting as a refuge from the lonely life on the frontier. The sheer exhilaration of participating in a religious revival with hundreds and perhaps thousands of people inspired the dancing, shouting, and singing associated with these events. More important than the social life was the profound impact on the individual's self esteem — shattered by a sense of guilt, then restored by a sense of personal salvation. Most of the converts joined small local churches, which thereby grew rapidly. The First Great Awakening is the name sometimes given to a period of heightened religious activity, primarily in the northeastern US during the 1730s and 1740s. ...


One of the early camp meetings took place in July 1800 at Creedance Clearwater Church in southwestern Kentucky. A much larger gathering was held at Cane Ridge, Kentucky, in 1801, attracting perhaps as many as 20,000 people. Numerous Presbyterian, Baptist and Methodist ministers participated in the services. This event helped stamp the revival as a major mode of church expansion for denominations such as the Methodists and Baptists. Cane Ridge was also instrumental in fostering what became known as the Restoration Movement and the non-denominational type churches that were committed to the original Christianity of the New Testament (particularly the Christian Church, Disciples of Christ, and the Church of Christ). Presbyterianism is a form of church government which is most prevalent within the Reformed branch of Protestant Western Christianity. ... Alternate meanings: see Church of Christ (disambiguation). ...


Long (2002) notes that since the 1980s, scholars have connected American religious camp meetings, formerly thought to have their roots only in the American frontier experience, to Scottish holy fairs of the 17th-18th centuries. Long (2002) examines the sacramental theology in the communion sermons of James McGready given in Kentucky during the first decade of the 19th century. McGready's sermons demonstrate adherence to reformed theology, a Calvinist understanding of salvation, and a sacramental emphasis. A central theme of McGready's sermons stressed the believer meeting Christ at the communion table.


Prominent figures


The great revival quickly spread throughout Kentucky, Tennessee and southern Ohio. Each denomination had assets that allowed it to thrive on the frontier. The Methodists had an efficient organization that depended on ministers known as circuit riders, who sought out people in remote frontier locations. The circuit riders came from among the common people, which helped them establish a rapport with the frontier families they hoped to convert. Lyman Beecher (October 12, 1775 – January 10, 1863) was a Presbyterian clergyman, temperance movement leader, and the father of several noted leaders, including Harriet Beecher Stowe, Henry Ward Beecher, Charles Beecher, Edward Beecher, Isabella Beecher Hooker, and Catharine Beecher, and a leader of the Second Great Awakening of the United... Alexander Campbell is one of the most prevalent personal names in Scotland and among Scottish emigrant populations. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Peter Cartwright (1785-1873) was a 19th century hellfire and brimstone preacher born in Amherst County, Virginia,United States. ... Lorenzo Dow (October 16, 1777–February 2, 1834) was an eccentric minister whose infamy, influence and travels throughout the country led to many thousands of U.S. children of the early 19th century to be named after him. ... Timothy Dwight is the name of two presidents of Yale University Timothy Dwight IV (1752-1817) -- President of Yale University from 1795-1817. ... See also: Charles G. Finney, 20th Century American author Charles Grandison Finney (August 29, 1792 – August 16, 1875), often called Americas foremost revivalist, was a major leader of the Second Great Awakening in America, which had a great impact on the social history of the United States. ... Joseph Smith, Jr. ... Barton W. Stone was born on December, 24 1772 to John and Mary Stone in Port Tobacco, Maryland. ... Nathaniel William Taylor (1786-1858) was an influential Protestant Theologian of the early 19th century, whose major contribution to the Christian faith (and to American religious history) was to modify historical Calvinism in order to fit into the religious revivialism of the time (The Second Great Awakening). ... Official language(s) None Capital Columbus Largest city Columbus Largest metro area Cleveland Area  Ranked 34th  - Total 44,825 sq mi (116,096 km²)  - Width 220 miles (355 km)  - Length 220 miles (355 km)  - % water 8. ... A circuit rider is a concept from the history of American Methodism. ...


The Second Great Awakening exercised a profound impact on American religious history. The numerical strength of the Baptists and Methodists rose relative to that of the denominations dominant in the colonial period—the Anglicans, Presbyterians, Congregationalists, and Reformed. Efforts to apply Christian teaching to the resolution of social problems presaged the Social Gospel of the late 19th century. The United States was becoming a more culturally diverse nation in the early to mid-19th century, and the growing differences within American Protestantism reflected and contributed to this diversity. The Awakening influenced numerous reform movements, especially abolitionists. The term Anglican describes those people and churches following the religious traditions of the Church of England, especially following the Reformation. ... Congregational churches are Protestant Christian churches practicing congregationalist church governance, in which each congregation independently and autonomously runs its own affairs. ... -1... The Social Gospel movement is a Protestant Christian intellectual movement that was most prominent in the late 19th century and early 20th century. ... This article is about the abolition of slavery. ...


Political Implications

In the midst of shifts in theology and church polity, American Christians took it upon themselves to reform society during this period. Known commonly as antebellum reform, this phenomenon includes reforms in temperance, women's rights, abolitionism, and a multitude of other questions and problems faced by society. For other uses, see Polity (disambiguation). ... Temperance may refer to: Temperance (virtue) Temperance movement Temperance (Tarot card) Temperance (band) See also Astrud Gilberto, for the album Temperance This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The term women’s rights typically refers to freedoms inherently possessed by women and girls of all ages, which may be institutionalized or ignored and/or illegitimately suppressed by law or custom in a particular society. ... This English poster depicting the horrific conditions on slave ships was influential in mobilizing public opinion against slavery. ...


Historian Robert H. Abzug stresses the understanding common among participants of reform as being a part of God's plan. As a result, individual Christians contemplated their roles in society in purifying the world through the individuals to whom they could bring salvation.


See also

The Burned-Over District was a name given by evangelist Charles Grandison Finney to an area in western New York State in the United States of America. ... The Red River Meeting House was the site of the first religious camp meeting in the United States and the start of the Second Great Awakening in June 1800. ... A cartoon from Australia ca. ... This English poster depicting the horrific conditions on slave ships was influential in mobilizing public opinion against slavery. ...

Further reading

  • Abzug, Robert H. "Cosmos Crumbling: American Reform and the Religious Imagination" (1994) (ISBN 0-195-04568-8)
  • Ahlstrom, Sydney. A Religious History of the American People (1972) (ISBN 0-385-11164-9)
  • Birdsall Richard D. "The Second Great Awakening and the New England Social Order." Church History 39 (1970): 345-64.
  • Bratt, James D. "Religious Anti-revivalism in Antebellum America." Journal of the Early Republic (2004) 24(1): 65-106. ISSN 0275-1275 Fulltext: in Ebsco. Examines oppositional literature of the antirevivalists, namely, the doubters and critics. The article includes an appendix of selected revivalist critiques.
  • Brown, Kenneth O. Holy Ground; a Study on the American Camp Meeting. Garland Publishing, Inc., 1992.
  • Brown, Kenneth O. Holy Ground, Too, the Camp Meeting Family Tree. Hazleton: Holiness Archives, 1997.
  • Bruce, Dickson D., Jr. And They All Sang Hallelujah: Plain Folk Camp-Meeting Religion, 1800–1845 University of Tennessee Press, 1974.
  • Butler Jon. "Enthusiasm Described and Decried: The Great Awakening as Interpretative Fiction." Journal of American History 69 (1982): 305-25. online in JSTOR
  • Butler Jon. Awash in a Sea of Faith: Christianizing the American People. 1990.
  • Carwardine, Richard J. Evangelicals and Politics in Antebellum America. Yale University Press, 1993.
  • Carwardine, Richard J. "The Second Great Awakening in the Urban Centers: An Examination of Methodism and the 'New Measures,'" Journal of American History 59 (1972): 327-340. online in JSTOR
  • Joseph A. Conforti; Jonathan Edwards, Religious Tradition and American Culture University of North Carolina Press. 1995.
  • Cross, Whitney, R. The Burned-Over District: The Social and Intellectual History of Enthusiastic Religion in Western New York, 1800–1850 1950.
  • Foster, Charles I. An Errand of Mercy: The Evangelical United Front, 1790–1837 University of North Carolina Press, 1960.
  • Clifford S. Griffin. "Religious Benevolence as Social Control, 1815-1860," The Mississippi Valley Historical Review, Vol. 44, No. 3. (Dec., 1957), pp. 423-444. in JSTOR
  • Hambrick-Stowe, Charles. Charles G. Finney and the Spirit of American Evangelicalism. Wm B. Eerdmans, 1996.
  • Hankins, Barry. The Second Great Awakening and the Transcendentalists. Greenwood, 2004. 200 pp.
  • Hatch Nathan O. The Democratization of American Christianity 1989.
  • Charles A. Johnson, "The Frontier Camp Meeting: Contemporary and Historical Appraisals, 1805-1840" The Mississippi Valley Historical Review, Vol. 37, No. 1. (Jun., 1950), pp. 91-110. in JSTOR
  • Long, Kimberly Bracken. "The Communion Sermons of James Mcgready: Sacramental Theology and Scots-irish Piety on the Kentucky Frontier." Journal of Presbyterian History 2002 80(1): 3-16. Issn: 0022-3883
  • Loveland Anne C. Southern Evangelicals and the Social Order, 1800-1860. 1980
  • Marsden George M. The Evangelical Mind and the New School Presbyterian Experience: A Case Study of Thought and Theology in Nineteenth-Century America. 1970.
  • McLoughlin William G. Modern Revivalism 1959.
  • McLoughlin William G. Revivals, Awakenings, and Reform: An Essay on Religion and Social Change in America, 1607-1977 1978.
  • Noll; Mark A. ed. God and Mammon: Protestants, Money, and the Market, 1790-1860 Oxford University Press. 2002.
  • Walter Brownlow Posey, The Baptist Church in the Lower Mississippi Valley, 1776-1845 University at Kentucky Press, 1957
  • Roth Randolph A. The Democratic Dilemma: Religion, Reform, and the Social Order in the Connecticut River Valley of Vermont, 1791-1850. 1987
  • Shiels Richard D. "The Second Great Awakening in Connecticut: Critique of the Traditional Interpretation." Church History 49 (1980): 401-15.
  • Smith, Timothy L. Revivalism and Social Reform: American Protestantism on the Eve of the Civil War 1957

Footnotes

  1. ^ On Scottish influences see Long (2002) and Elizabeth Semancik, "Backcountry Religious Ways" at [1]

  Results from FactBites:
 
From Revolution to Reconstruction: Outlines: American History (1994): Chapter Four: The Second Great Awakening (13/13) (746 words)
This second great religious revival in American history consisted of several kinds of activity, distinguished by locale and expression of religious commitment.
In contrast to the Great Awakening of the 1730s, the revivals in the East were notable for the absence of hysteria and open emotion.
The great revival quickly spread throughout Kentucky, Tennessee and southern Ohio, with the Methodists and the Baptists its prime beneficiaries.
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