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Encyclopedia > Second French Empire
Le Second Empire français
France
Second French Empire

1852 – 1870
Flag Coat of arms
Flag Coat of arms
Map of the French Second Empire
Capital Paris
Language(s) French
Government Monarchy
Emperor
 - 1852-1870 Napoleon III
Legislature Parliament
 - Upper house Senate
 - Lower house Corps législatif
History
 - French coup of 1851 December 2 1851
 - Established 1852
 - Disestablished September 4, 1870
Currency French Franc

The Second French Empire or Second Empire was the imperial Bonapartist regime of Napoleon III from 1852 to 1870, between the Second Republic and the Third Republic, in France. This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The French Third Republic, (in French, La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe République) (1870/75-10 July 1940) was the governing body of France between the Second French Empire and the Vichy Regime. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Armoiries-Empire. ... Flag Ratio: 2:3 The national flag of France (Vexillological symbol: , known in French as drapeau tricolore, drapeau bleu-blanc-rouge, drapeau français, rarely, le tricolore and, in military parlance, les couleurs) is a tricolour featuring three vertical bands coloured blue (hoist side), white, and red. ... The current coat of arms of France has been a symbol of France since 1953, although it does not have any legal status as an official coat of arms. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Throughout the world there are many cities that were once national capitals but no longer have that status because the country ceased to exist, the capital was moved, or the capital city was renamed. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) The Eiffel Tower in Paris, as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ... “Kingdom” redirects here. ... Coronation of Louis VIII and Blanche of Castile at Reims in 1223; a miniature from the Grandes Chroniques de France, painted in the 1450s, kept at the National Library of France The monarchs of France ruled, first as kings and later as emperors, from the middle ages to 1848. ... Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte (April 20, 1808 - January 9, 1873) was the son of King Louis Bonaparte and Queen Hortense de Beauharnais; both monarchs of the French puppet state, the Kingdom of Holland. ... A legislature is a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to adopt laws. ... The Parlement of France is bicameral, and consists of the National Assembly (Assemblée Nationale) and the Senate (Sénat). ... The Senate (in French : le Sénat) is the upper house of the Parliament of France. ... The Corps législatif was a part of the French legislature during the French Revolution and beyond. ... The Coup dÉtat of 2 December 1851 was the coup détat staged by Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte, President of the French Republic, who was successful by this means in dissolving the French National Assembly without having the constitutional right to do so. ... is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... ISO 4217 Code FRF User(s) Monaco, Andorra, France except New Caledonia, French Polynesia, and Wallis and Futuna ERM Since 13 March 1979 Fixed rate since 31 December 1998 Replaced by €, non cash 1 January 1999 Replaced by €, cash 1 January 2002 € = 6. ... In French political history, Bonapartists were monarchists who desired a French Empire under the House of Bonaparte, the Corsican family of Napoleon Bonaparte (Napoleon I of France) and his nephew Louis (Napoleon III of France). ... Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte (April 20, 1808 - January 9, 1873) was the son of King Louis Bonaparte and Queen Hortense de Beauharnais; both monarchs of the French puppet state, the Kingdom of Holland. ... 1852 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... The French Third Republic, (in French, La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe République) (1870/75-10 July 1940) was the governing body of France between the Second French Empire and the Vichy Regime. ...

Contents

Rule of Napoleon III

Napoléon III.

Although the machinery of government was almost the same under the Second Empire as it had been under the First, its founding principles were different. The function of the Empire, as Emperor Napoleon III often repeated, was to guide the people internally towards justice and externally towards perpetual peace. Holding his power by universal suffrage, and having frequently, from his prison or in exile, reproached previous oligarchical governments with neglecting social questions, he set out to solve them by organising a system of government based on the principles of the "Napoleonic Idea", i.e. of the emperor, the elect of the people as the representative of the democracy, and as such supreme; and of himself, the representative of the great Napoleon I of France, "who had sprung armed from the French Revolution like Minerva from the head of Jove," as the guardian of the social gains of the revolutionary period. File links The following pages link to this file: Napoleon III of France ... File links The following pages link to this file: Napoleon III of France ... Map of the First French Empire in 1811, with the Empire in dark blue and satellite states in light blue Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1804 - 1814/1815 Napoleon I  - 1814/1815 Napoleon II Legislature Parliament  - Upper house Senate  - Lower house Corps législatif Historical era Napoleonic... J.L. Urban, statue of Lady Justice at court building in Olomouc, Czech Republic Justice concerns the proper ordering of things and persons within a society. ... A peace dove, widely known as a symbol for peace, featuring an olive branch in the doves beak. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Oligarchy (Greek , Oligarkhía) is a form of government where political power effectively rests with a small, elite segment of society (whether distinguished by wealth, family or military prowess). ... Napoléon I, Emperor of the French (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, changed his name to Napoléon Bonaparte)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... Head of Minerva by Elihu Vedder, 1896 For other uses, see Minerva (disambiguation). ... In Roman mythology, Jupiter (sometimes shortened to Jove) held the same role as Zeus in the Greek pantheon. ...


The anti-parliamentary French Constitution of 1852 instituted by Napoleon III on January 14, 1852 was largely a repetition of that of the year 1848. All executive power was entrusted to the emperor, who, as head of state, was solely responsible to the people. The people of the Empire, lacking democratic rights, had to rely on the benevolence of the emperor rather than on the benevolence of politicians. He was to nominate the members of the council of state, whose duty it was to prepare the laws, and of the senate, a body permanently established as a constituent part of the empire. One innovation was made, namely, that the Legislative Body was elected by universal suffrage, but it had no right of initiative, all laws being proposed by the executive power. This new political change was rapidly followed by the same consequence as had attended that of Brumaire. On December 2, 1852, France, still under the effect of the "Napoleonic virus", and the fear of anarchy, conferred almost unanimously by a plebiscite the supreme power, with the title of emperor, upon Napoleon III. The French Constitution of 1852 was enacted on January 14, 1852 by Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte (Napoleon III). ... is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1852 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... An emperor is a (male) monarch, usually the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. ... Queen Elizabeth II, is the Head of State of 16 countries including: the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, Jamaica, New Zealand and the Bahamas, as well as crown colonies and overseas territories of the United Kingdom. ... Democracy is a form of government under which the power to alter the laws and structures of government lies, ultimately, with the citizenry. ... A senate is a deliberative body, often the upper house or chamber of a legislature. ... A legislature is a governmental deliberative body with the power to adopt laws. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Universal suffrage (also general suffrage or common suffrage) consists of the extension of the right to vote to all adults, without distinction as to race, sex, belief, intelligence, or economic or social status. ... Brumaire is the name of the second month in the French Revolutionary Calendar. ... December 2 is the 336th day of the year (337th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... In the realist theory of International Relations, the anarchical system that all states find themselves in is the lack of clear organisation of states into a hieracical order that is found within states. ... A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... An emperor is a (male) monarch, usually the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. ...


Napoleon III soon proved that social justice did not mean liberty. He acted in such a way that the principles of 1848 which he had preserved became a mere sham. He paralysed all those active national forces which create public spirit, such as parliament, universal suffrage, the press, education and associations. The Legislative Body was not allowed to elect its own president or to regulate its own procedure, or to propose a law or an amendment, or to vote on the budget in detail, or to make its deliberations public. Similarly, universal suffrage was supervised and controlled by means of official candidature, by forbidding free speech and action in electoral matters to the Opposition, and by a skilful adjustment of the electoral districts in such a way as to overwhelm the Liberal vote in the mass of the rural population. The press was subjected to a system of cautionnements, i.e. "caution money", deposited as a guarantee of good behaviour, and avertissements, i.e. requests by the authorities to cease publication of certain articles, under pain of suspension or suppression; while books were subject to a censorship. Liberty is generally considered a concept of political philosophy and identifies the condition in which an individual has immunity from the arbitrary exercise of authority. ... // Observations of liberals As 1848 began, liberals in France awaited the death of King Louis Philippe, expecting a new revolution after his death. ... A parliament is a legislature, especially in those countries whose system of government is based on the Westminster system modelled after that of the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see News (disambiguation). ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Look up budget in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Freedom of speech is the right to freely say what one pleases, as well as the related right to hear what others have stated. ... Look up liberal on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Liberal may refer to: Politics: Liberalism American liberalism, a political trend in the USA Political progressivism, a political ideology that is for change, often associated with liberal movements Liberty, the condition of being free from control or restrictions Liberal Party, members of... Censorship is defined as the removal and withholding of information from the public by a controlling group or body. ...


In order to counteract the opposition of individuals, a surveillance of suspects was instituted. Felice Orsini's attack on the emperor in 1858, though purely Italian in its motive, served as a pretext for increasing the severity of this régime by the law of general security (sûreté générale) which authorised the internment, exile or deportation of any suspect without trial. In the same way public instruction was strictly supervised, the teaching of philosophy was suppressed in the lycées, and the disciplinary powers of the administration were increased. Felice Orsini (1819 - March 13, 1858) was an Italian revolutionary who tried to assassinate Napoleon III. Felice Orsini was born at Meldola in Romagna. ... 1858 (MDCCCLVIII) is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The word regime (occasionally spelled régime, particularly in older texts) refers to any system of control, or more specifically a system of government. ... Exile (band) may refer to: Exile - The American country music band Exile - The Japanese pop music band Category: ... Deportation is the expelling of someone from a country. ... The philosopher Socrates about to take poison hemlock as ordered by the court. ... In France, secondary education is divided into two schools: the collège (IPA: ) (somewhat comparable to U.S. junior high school) for the first four years directly following primary school; the lycée (IPA: ) (comparable to a U.S. high school) for the next three years. ...


For seven years France had no democratic life. The Empire governed by a series of plebiscites. Up to 1857 the Opposition did not exist; from then till 1860 it was reduced to five members: Darimon, Emile Ollivier, Hénon, Jules Favre and Ernest Picard. The royalists waited inactive after the new and unsuccessful attempt made at Frohsdorf in 1853, by a combination of the legitimists and Orleanists, to re-create a living monarchy out of the ruin of two royal families. A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... 1857 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ... Émile Ollivier, French statesman Olivier Émile Ollivier (July 2, 1825 - August 20, 1913) was a French statesman. ... Jules Claude Gabriel Favre (March 21, 1809 - January 20, 1880) was a French statesman. ... Louis Joseph Ernest Picard (December 24, 1821 - May 13, 1877) was a French politician. ... Lanzenkirchen is a town in Lower Austria, Austria. ... 1853 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Legitimists are those Royalists in France who believe that the King of France and Navarre must be chosen according to the simple application of the Salic Law. ... Orleanists comprised a French political faction or party which arose out of the Revolution, and ceased to have a separate existence shortly after the establishment of the Third Republic in 1872. ...


History

History of France
Ancient times
  Prehistoric France
  Celtic Gaul
  Roman Gaul
  The Franks
    Merovingians (481–751)
France in the Middle Ages
  Carolingians (751–987)
  Direct Capetians (987–1328)
  Valois (direct) (1328–1498)
Early Modern France (1492–1792)
  Valois-Orléans (1498–1515)
  Valois-Angoulême (1515–1589)
  House of Bourbon (1589–1792)
France in the 19th & 20th centuries
  First Republic (1792–1804)
    National Convention (1792–1795)
    Directory (1795–1799)
    Consulate (1799–1804)
  First Empire (1804–1814)
  Restoration (1814–1830)
  July Monarchy (1830–1848)
  Second Republic (1848–1852)
  Second Empire (1852–1870)
  Third Republic (1870–1940)
  Vichy France (1940–1944)
  Provisional Government (1944–1946)
  Fourth Republic (1946–1958)
  Fifth Republic (1958–present)
Topical
  Historical French provinces
  Economic history
  Demographic history
  Military history
  Colonial history
  Art history
  Literary history
  French culture
Timeline of French history
French Portal
This box: view  talk  edit

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The History of France has been divided into a series of separate historical articles navigable through the list to the right. ... “Ancient” redirects here. ... Prehistoric France is the period in the human occupation (including early hominins) of the geographical area covered by present-day France which extended through prehistory and ended in the Iron Age with the Celtic La Tène culture. // France includes Olduwan (Abbevillian) and Acheulean sites from early or non-modern... Map of Gaul circa 58 BC Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given, in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... Gaul in the Roman Empire Roman Gaul consisted of an area of provincial rule in what would become modern day France, Belgium, Luxembourg, and western Germany. ... This article is about the Frankish people and society. ... There are other articles with similar names; see Merovingian (disambiguation). ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Also see: France in the Middle Ages. ... The House of Capet includes any of the direct descendants of Robert the Strong. ... The Valois Dynasty succeeded the Capetian Dynasty as rulers of France from 1328-1589. ... Early Modern France is the portion of French history that falls in the early modern period from the end of the 15th century to the end of the 18th century (or from the French Renaissance to the eve of the French Revolution). ... The Valois Dynasty succeeded the Capetian Dynasty as rulers of France from 1328-1589. ... The Valois Dynasty succeeded the Capetian Dynasty as rulers of France from 1328-1589. ... Also see:  Early Modern France The House of Bourbon is an important European royal house. ... The History of France from 1789 to 1914 (the long 19th century) extends from the French Revolution to World War I and includes the periods of the First French Empire, the Restoration under Louis XVIII and Charles X (1814–1830), the July Monarchy under Louis Philippe dOrléans (1830... The History of France from 1914 to the present, includes the later years of the Third French Republic (1871-1941), the Vichy Regime (1940-1944), the years after Libération (1944-1946), the French Fourth Republic (1946-1958) and the French Fifth Republic (since 1958) and also includes World War... Motto: (Liberty, equality, brotherhood, or death!) Anthem: La Marseillaise (unofficial) Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Republic Various  - 1792-1795 National Convention (rule by legislature)  - 1794-1799 Directory  - 1799-1804 First Consul Napoleon Bonaparte Legislature National Convention French Directory French Consulate History  - Storming of the Bastille/French Revolution 14 July... This article is about a legislative body and constitutional convention during the French Revolution. ... Executive Directory (in French Directoire exécutif), commonly known as the Directory (or Directoire) held executive power in France from November 2, 1795 until November 10, 1799: following the Convention and preceding the Consulate. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Map of the First French Empire in 1811, with the Empire in dark blue and satellite states in light blue Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1804 - 1814/1815 Napoleon I  - 1814/1815 Napoleon II Legislature Parliament  - Upper house Senate  - Lower house Corps législatif Historical era Napoleonic... Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy King  - 1814-1824 Louis XVIII  - 1824-1830 Charles X Legislature Parliament History  - Bourbon Restoration 1814  - July Revolution 21 January, 1830 Currency French Franc Following the ousting of Napoleon I of France in 1814, the Allies restored the Bourbon Dynasty to the French throne. ... The July Monarchy was established in France with the reign of Louis Philippe of France. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... The French Third Republic, (in French, La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe République) (1870/75-10 July 1940) was the governing body of France between the Second French Empire and the Vichy Regime. ... Motto Travail, famille, patrie French: Unoccupied zone of Vichy France (until November 1942) Capital Vichy Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholic Government Dictatorship Chief of state  - 1940 — 1944 Henri Philippe Pétain President of the Council  - 1940 — 1942 Philippe Pétain  - 1942 — 1944 Pierre Laval Legislature National Assembly Historical era... The Provisional Government of the French Republic was an interim government which governed France from 1944 to 1946. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The Kingdom of France was organized into provinces until March 4, 1790, when the establishment of the département system superseded provinces. ... This is a history of the economy of France. ... This image has an uncertain copyright status and is pending deletion. ... Henry IV at the Battle of Ivry, by Peter Paul Rubens. ... France had colonial possessions, in various forms, from the beginning of the 17th century until the 1960s. ... The visual and plastic arts of France have had an unprecedented diversity -- from the Gothic cathedral of Chartres to Georges de la Tours night scenes to Monets Waterlilies and finally to Duchamps radical Fontaine -- and have exerted an unparalleled influence on world cultural production. ... French literature is, generally speaking, literature written in the French language, particularly by citizens of France; it may also refer to literature written by people living in France who speak other traditional non-French languages. ... Masterpiece painting by Eugène Delacroix called Liberty Leading the People portrays the July Revolution using the stylistic views of Romanticism. ... This is a timeline of French history. ...

The December 2, 1851 coup d'état

Main article: French coup of 1851

On December 2, 1851, Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte, who had been elected President of the Republic, staged a coup d'état by dissolving the National Assembly without having the constitutional right to do so. He thus became sole ruler of France, and re-established universal suffrage, previously abolished by the Assembly. His decisions and the extension of his mandate for 10 years were popularly endorsed by referendum, as was the re-establishment of the Empire from 2 December 1852. He thus became "Napoléon III, Emperor of the French", while the popular referendum became a distinct sign of bonapartism, which Charles de Gaulle would later use. The Coup dÉtat of 2 December 1851 was the coup détat staged by Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte, President of the French Republic, who was successful by this means in dissolving the French National Assembly without having the constitutional right to do so. ... December 2 is the 336th day of the year (337th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1851 (MDCCCLI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... The Coup dÉtat of 2 December 1851 was the coup détat staged by Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte, President of the French Republic, who was successful by this means in dissolving the French National Assembly without having the constitutional right to do so. ... The Palais Bourbon, front The French National Assembly (French: Assemblée nationale) is one of the two houses of the bicameral Parliament of France under the Fifth Republic. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita, originally a decree of the Concilium Plebis) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... In French political history, Bonapartists were monarchists who desired a French Empire under the House of Bonaparte, the Corsican family of Napoleon Bonaparte (Napoleon I of France) and his nephew Louis (Napoleon III of France). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Decline

Napoleon III's joy was at its height after the Crimean War owing to the signature of a peace which excluded Russia from the Black Sea, and to the birth of Eugene Bonaparte, which ensured the continuation of his dynasty, thought that the time had arrived to make a beginning in applying his system. Combatants Allies: Second French Empire British Empire Ottoman Empire Kingdom of Sardinia Russian Empire Bulgarian volunteers Casualties 90,000 French 35,000 Turkish 17,500 British 2,194 Sardinian killed, wounded and died of disease ~134,000 killed, wounded and died of disease The Crimean War (1853–1856) was fought... NASA satellite image of the Black Sea Map of the Black Sea The Black Sea is an inland sea between southeastern Europe and Anatolia that is actually a distant arm of the Atlantic Ocean by way of the Mediterranean Sea. ... Napoleon Eugene Louis John Joseph, (March 16, 1856 - June 1, 1879), Prince Imperial, was the only child of Emperor Napoleon III of France and his wife the Empress Eugénie. ...


He then led France to war with Austria over Italy. France was victorious, and gained Savoy and Nice, but the unification of Italy outraged French Catholics, who had been the leading supporters of the Empire. A keen Catholic opposition sprang up, voiced in Louis Veuillot's paper the Univers, and was not silenced even by the Syrian expedition (1860) in favour of the Catholic Maronites, who were being persecuted by the Druzes. On the other hand, the commercial treaty with the United Kingdom which was signed in January 1860, and which ratified the free trade policy of Richard Cobden and Michel Chevalier, had brought upon French industry the sudden shock of foreign competition. Thus both Catholics and protectionists made the discovery that moral absolutism may be an excellent thing when it serves their ambitions or interests, but a bad thing when it is exercised at their expense. Combatants Image:Second-empire. ... Flag of Savoy This article is about the historical region of Savoy. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Louis Veuillot (October 11, 1813 - March 7, 1883) was a French journalist and man of letters. ... Maronites (Marunoye ܡܪܘܢܝܐܶ; in Syriac, Mâruniyya مارونية in Arabic) are members of an Eastern Catholic Church in full communion with the Pope of Rome. ... Religions Druzism Scriptures Languages Arabic, Hebrew The Druze (Arabic: درزي, derzī or durzī, plural دروز, durūz; Hebrew: , Druzim; also transliterated Druz or Druse) are a Middle Eastern religious community whose traditional religion began as an offshoot of the Ismaili sect of Islam, but is unique in its incorporation of Gnostic, neo... The Cobden-Chevalier Treaty was a Free Trade treaty signed between the United Kingdom and France on 23 January, 1860. ... Free trade is an economic concept referring to the selling of products between countries without tariffs or other trade barriers. ... Richard Cobden Richard Cobden (June 3, 1804 – April 2, 1865) was a British manufacturer and Radical and Liberal statesman, associated with John Bright in the formation of the Anti-Corn Law League. ... Michel Chevalier (born January 13, 1806 in Limoges; died November 18, 1879 in Montpellier) was a French politician, economist and Manchester liberal. ... Moral absolutism is the belief that there are absolute standards against which moral questions can be judged, and that certain actions are right or wrong, devoid of the context of the act. ...


But Napoleon, in order to restore the prestige of the Empire before the newly-awakened hostility of public opinion, tried to gain from the Left the support which he had lost from the Right. After the return from Italy the general amnesty of August 16, 1859 had marked the evolution of the absolutist empire towards the liberal, and later parliamentary empire, which was to last for ten years. Public Opinion is a book on media and democracy by Walter Lippmann. ... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1859 (MDCCCLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Freedom of the press

Napoleon began by removing the gag which was keeping the country in silence. On November 24, 1860, he granted to the Chambers the right to vote an address annually in answer to the speech from the throne, and to the press the right of reporting parliamentary debates. He counted on the latter concession to hold in check the growing Catholic opposition, which was becoming more and more alarmed by the policy of laissez-faire practised by the emperor in Italy. is the 328th day of the year (329th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ... Laissez-faire is short for laissez faire, laissez passer, a French phrase meaning to let things alone, let them pass. First used by the eighteenth century Physiocrats as an injunction against government interference with trade, it is now used as a synonym for strict free market economics. ...


The government majority already showed some signs of independence. The right of voting on the budget by sections, granted by the emperor in 1861, was a new weapon given to his adversaries. Everything conspired in their favour: the anxiety of those candid friends who were calling attention to the defective budget; the commercial crisis, aggravated by the American Civil War; and above all, the restless spirit of the emperor, who had annoyed his opponents in 1860 by insisting on an alliance with the United Kingdom in order forcibly to open the Chinese ports for trade, in 1863 by his ill-fated attempt of a military intervention in Mexico to set up a Latin empire in favour of the archduke Maximilian of Austria, and from 1861 to 1863 by embarking on colonising experiments in Cochin China and Annam. Similar inconsistencies occurred in the emperor's European policies. The support which he had given to the Italian cause had aroused the eager hopes of other nations. The proclamation of the kingdom of Italy on February 18, 1861 after the rapid annexation of Tuscany and the kingdom of Naples had proved the danger of half-measures. But when a concession, however narrow, had been made to the liberty of one nation, it could hardly be refused to the no less legitimate aspirations of the rest. Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... Combatants Second Mexican Empire Second French Empire United Kingdom Spain Austria-Hungary Belgium Republic of Mexico Strength 38,493 French soldiers, 7000 Austro-Hungarian volunteers, 2000 Belgian volunteers ~80,000 Casualties 6,654 French killed and wounded 12,000 Mexican killed and wounded Emperor Maximilian Napoleon III of France Ju... Scholars debate about what exactly constitutes an empire (from the Latin imperium, denoting military command within the ancient Roman government). ... Maximilian I, Emperor of Mexico, (July 6, 1832 - June 19, 1867) was a member of Austrias Imperial Habsburg family. ... Cochin China (also known as Cochinchina or in French, Cochinchine) was the southernmost part of Vietnam beside Cambodia. ... Annam, literally meaning Pacified South, is a region of central Vietnam that fell under Chinese rule in 111 BC as Annan (安南). Known locally as Trung Bộ, meaning Central Boundary, it was formerly a kingdom the size of Sweden with its capital at Huế. It had been seized by the French... February 18 is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link with display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar) // January 1 - Benito Juárez captures Mexico City January 2 - Friedrich Wilhelm IV of Prussia dies and is succeeded by... Tuscany (Italian: ) is one of the 20 Regions of Italy. ... Location of the city of Naples (red dot) within Italy. ...


In 1863 these "new rights" again clamoured loudly for recognition: in Poland, in Schleswig and Holstein, in Italy, now indeed united, but with neither frontiers nor capital, and in the Danubian principalities. In order to extricate himself from the Polish impasse, the emperor again had recourse to his expedient - always fruitless because always inopportune - of a congress. He was again unsuccessful: England refused even to admit the principle of a congress, while Austria, Prussia and Russia gave their adhesion only on conditions which rendered it futile, i.e. they reserved the vital questions of Venetia and Poland. The region of Schleswig (former English name: Sleswick, Danish: Sønderjylland or Slesvig, Low German: Sleswig, North Frisian: Slaswik or Sleesweg) covers the area about 60 km north and 70 km south of the border between Germany and Denmark. ... Holstein (Hol-shtayn) (Low German: Holsteen, Danish: Holsten, Latin and historical English: Holsatia) is the southern part of Schleswig-Holstein in Germany, between the rivers Elbe and Eider. ... The Danube (ancient Danuvius, Iranian *dānu, meaning river or stream, ancient Greek Istros) is the longest river in the European Union and Europes second longest river. ... Look up Congress in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The Union libérale

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Thus Napoleon had yet again to disappoint the hopes of Italy, let Poland be crushed, and allow Germany to triumph over Denmark in the Schleswig-Holstein question. These inconsistencies resulted in a combination of the opposition parties, Catholic, Liberal and Republican, in the Union libérale. The elections of May-June 1863 gained the Opposition forty seats and a leader, Adolphe Thiers, who at once urgently gave voice to its demand for "the necessary liberties". Map of Gaul circa 58 BC Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given, in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... This article is about the Frankish people and society. ... Main articles: France in the Middle Ages and Early Modern France The Valois Dynasty succeeded the Capetian Dynasty as rulers of France from 1328-1589. ... Also see:  Early Modern France The House of Bourbon is an important European royal house. ... Motto: (Liberty, equality, brotherhood, or death!) Anthem: La Marseillaise (unofficial) Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Republic Various  - 1792-1795 National Convention (rule by legislature)  - 1794-1799 Directory  - 1799-1804 First Consul Napoleon Bonaparte Legislature National Convention French Directory French Consulate History  - Storming of the Bastille/French Revolution 14 July... Map of the First French Empire in 1811, with the Empire in dark blue and satellite states in light blue Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1804 - 1814/1815 Napoleon I  - 1814/1815 Napoleon II Legislature Parliament  - Upper house Senate  - Lower house Corps législatif Historical era Napoleonic... Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy King  - 1814-1824 Louis XVIII  - 1824-1830 Charles X Legislature Parliament History  - Bourbon Restoration 1814  - July Revolution 21 January, 1830 Currency French Franc Following the ousting of Napoleon I of France in 1814, the Allies restored the Bourbon Dynasty to the French throne. ... Duke of Orléans is one of the most important titles in the French peerage, dating back at least to the 14th century. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... The French Third Republic, (in French, La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe République) (1870/75-10 July 1940) was the governing body of France between the Second French Empire and the Vichy Regime. ... Motto Travail, famille, patrie French: Unoccupied zone of Vichy France (until November 1942) Capital Vichy Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholic Government Dictatorship Chief of state  - 1940 — 1944 Henri Philippe Pétain President of the Council  - 1940 — 1942 Philippe Pétain  - 1942 — 1944 Pierre Laval Legislature National Assembly Historical era... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Schleswig-Holstein is the northernmost of the 16 Bundesländer in Germany. ... A caricature of Adolphe Thiers charging on the Paris Commune, published in Le Père Duchêne illustré Louis Adolphe Thiers (April 16, 1797–September 3, 1877) was a French statesman and historian. ...


It would have been difficult for the emperor to mistake the importance of this manifestation of French opinion, and in view of his international failures, impossible to repress it. The sacrifice of Persigny minister of the interior, who was responsible for the elections, the substitution for the ministers without portfolio of a sort of presidency of the council filled by Eugène Rouher, the "Vice-Emperor", and the nomination of Jean Victor Duruy, an anti-clerical, as minister of public instruction, in reply to those attacks of the Church which were to culminate in the Syllabus of 1864, all indicated a distinct rapprochement between the emperor and the Left. Jean Gilbert Victor Fialin, duc de Persigny (February 11, 1808 - January 11, 1872), French statesman, was born at Saint-German Lespinasse (Loire), the son of a receiver of taxes. ... Eugène Rouher (November 30, 1814 - February 3, 1884) was a French statesman. ... Jean Victor Duruy (September 11, 1811 - November 25, 1894) was a French historian and statesman. ...


But though the opposition represented by Thiers was rather constitutional than dynastic, there was another and irreconcilable opposition, that of the amnestied or voluntarily exiled republicans, of whom Victor Hugo was the eloquent mouthpiece. Thus those who had formerly constituted the governing classes were again showing signs of their ambition to govern. There appeared to be some risk that this movement among the bourgeoisie might spread to the people. As Antaeus recruited his strength by touching the earth, so Napoleon believed that he would consolidate his menaced power by again turning to the labouring masses, by whom that power had been established. Victor-Marie Hugo (pronounced in French) (26 February 1802 — 22 May 1885) was a French poet, novelist, playwright, essayist, visual artist, statesman, human rights campaigner, and perhaps the most influential exponent of the Romantic movement in France. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Hercules and Antaeus. ...


Assured of support, the emperor, through Rouher, a supporter of the absolutist régime, refused all fresh claims on the part of the Liberals. He was aided by the cessation of the industrial crisis as the American Civil War came to an end, by the apparent closing of the Roman question by the convention of September 15, which guaranteed to the papal states the protection of Italy, and finally by the treaty of October 30, 1864, which temporarily put an end to the crisis of the Schleswig-Holstein question. Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Coat of arms Map of the Papal States; the reddish area was annexed to the Kingdom of Italy in 1860, the rest (grey) in 1870. ... October 30 is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 62 days remaining. ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ...


Rise of Prussia

Things went badly, however, when Prussia defeated Austria in the Austro-Prussian War of 1866 and emerged as the dominant power in Germany. Confidence in the excellence of imperial régime vanished. Thiers and Jules Favre as representatives of the Opposition denounced the blunders of 1866. Emile Ollivier split the official majority by the amendment of the 45, and made it understood that a reconciliation with the Empire would be impossible until the emperor granted entire liberty. The recall of French troops from Rome, in accordance with the convention of 1864, led to further attacks by the Ultramontane party, who were alarmed for the papacy. Napoleon III felt the necessity for developing "the great act of 1860" by the decree January 19, 1867. In spite of Rouher, by a secret agreement with Ollivier, the right of interpellation was restored to the Chambers. Reforms in press supervision and the right of holding meetings were promised. In vain did Rouher try to meet the Liberal opposition by organising a party for the defence of the Empire, the Union dynastique. The rapid succession of international reverses prevented him from effecting anything. Motto Suum cuique Latin: To each his own Prussia at its peak, as leading state of the German Empire Capital Königsberg, later Berlin Government Duke1  - 1525–68 Albert I (first)  - 1688–1701 Frederick III (last) King1  - 1701–13 Frederick I (first)  - 1888–1918 William II (last) Prime Minister1,2... Combatants Austria, Saxony, Bavaria, Baden, Württemberg, Hanover and some minor German States (formerly as the German Confederation) Prussia, Italy, and some minor German States Strength 600,000 Austrians and German allies 500,000 Prussians and German allies 300,000 Italians Casualties 20,000 dead or wounded 37,000 dead... 1866 (MDCCCLXVI) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Ultramontanism literally alludes to a policy supporting those dwelling beyond the mountains (ultra montes), that is beyond the Alps - generally referring to the Pope in Rome. ... January 19 is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Cunt BAg Twat Fuk suck my penis ring 0778851865!!!!!!Year 1867 (MDCCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


The emperor was abandoned by men and disappointed by events. He had hoped that, though by granting the freedom of the press and authorising meetings, he had conceded the right of speech, he would retain the right of action; but he had played into the hands of his enemies. Victor Hugo's Châtiments, Rochefort's Lanterne, the subscription for the monument to Baudin, the deputy killed at the barricades in 1851, followed by Léon Gambetta's speech against the Empire on the occasion of the trial of Delescluze, soon showed that the republican party was irreconcilable. Victor-Marie Hugo (pronounced in French) (26 February 1802 — 22 May 1885) was a French poet, novelist, playwright, essayist, visual artist, statesman, human rights campaigner, and perhaps the most influential exponent of the Romantic movement in France. ... Victor Henri Rochefort, Marquis de Rochefort-LuCay (January 30, 1830 - 1913), French politician, was born in Paris. ... Nicolas Baudin Nicolas-Thomas Baudin (February 17, 1754 - September 16, 1803) was a French explorer. ... Painting of Léon Gambetta by Léon Bonnat Léon Gambetta (April 2, 1838 - December 31, 1882), French statesman, was born at Cahors. ... Louis Charles Delescluze (October 2, 1809 - May, 1871) was a French journalist. ...


Mobilization of the working classes

On the other hand, the Ultramontane party were becoming discontented, while the industries formerly protected were dissatisfied with free trade reform. The working classes had abandoned their political neutrality. Disregarding Pierre-Joseph Proudhon's impassioned attack on communism, they had gradually been won over by the collectivist theories of Karl Marx and the revolutionary theories of Mikhail Bakunin, as set forth at the congresses of the International. At these Labour congresses, the fame of which was only increased by the fact that they were forbidden, it had been affirmed that the social emancipation of the worker was inseparable from his political emancipation. The union between the internationalists and the republican bourgeois became an accomplished fact. Free trade is an economic concept referring to the selling of products between countries without tariffs or other trade barriers. ... Pierre Joseph Proudhon. ... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ... Collectivism, in general, is a term used to describe a theoretical or practical emphasis on the group, as opposed to (and seen by many of its opponents to be at the expense of) the individual. ... Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818 – March 14, 1883) was a German philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary. ... For the character on the TV series Lost, see Mikhail Bakunin Mikhail Alexandrovich Bakunin (Russian — Михаил Александрович Бакунин, Michel Bakunin — on the grave in Bern), (May 18 (30 N.S.), 1814–June 19 (July 1 N.S.), 1876) was a well-known Russian revolutionary, and often considered one of the “fathers of modern... The International Workingmens Association (IWA), sometimes called the First International, was an international socialist organization which aimed at uniting a variety of different left-wing political groups and trade union organizations that were based on the working class and class struggle. ...


The Empire, taken by surprise, sought to curb both the middle classes and the labouring classes, and forced them both into revolutionary actions. There were multiple strikes. The elections of May 1869, which took place during these disturbances, inflicted upon the Empire a serious moral defeat. In spite of the revival by the government of the cry of the "red terror", Ollivier, the advocate of conciliation, was rejected by Paris, while 40 irreconcilables and 116 members of the Third Party were elected. Concessions had to be made to these, so by the senatus-consulte of September 8, 1869 a parliamentary monarchy was substituted for personal government. On January 2, 1870 Ollivier was placed at the head of the first homogeneous, united and responsible ministry. September 8 is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1869 (MDCCCLXIX) is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... “Kingdom” redirects here. ... is the 2nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Plebiscite of 1870

But the republican party, unlike the country, which hailed this reconciliation of liberty and order, refused to be content with the liberties they had won; they refused all compromise, declaring themselves more than ever decided upon the overthrow of the Empire. The murder of the journalist Victor Noir by Pierre Bonaparte, a member of the imperial family, gave the revolutionaries their long desired opportunity (January 10). But the émeute ended in a failure, and the emperor was able to answer the personal threats against him by the overwhelming victory of the plebiscite of May 8, 1870. Victor Noir, (July 30, 1848 – January 10, 1870), was a French journalist. ... Pierre Napoleon Bonaparte (October 11, 1815 - April 7, 1881) was the son of Lucien Bonaparte and nephew of Emperor Napoleon. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


This success, which should have consolidated the Empire, determined its downfall. It was thought that a diplomatic success would make the country forget liberty in favour of glory. It was in vain that after the parliamentary revolution of January 2, 1870, Comte Daru revived, through Lord Clarendon, Count Beust's plan of disarmament after the Battle of Königgratz. He met with a refusal from Prussia and from the imperial entourage. The Empress Eugénie was credited with the remark, "If there is no war, my son will never be emperor." Pierre Antoine Noël Bruno, comte Daru (January 12, 1767 - September 5, 1829), French soldier and statesman, was born at Montpellier. ... The title Earl of Clarendon was created in 1776 for Thomas Villiers. ... In the Battle of Königgrätz or Battle of Sadowa of July 3, 1866, the Austro-Prussian War was decided in favor of Prussia. ...


End of the Empire

The rise of neighbouring Prussia during the 1860's caused a great deal of unease within the National Assembly, culminating in the July Crisis of 1870. On July 15th, the government of Emile Ollivier declared war on Prussia, nominally over the Hohenzollern candidature for the throne of Spain, the pretext for France to declare war in order to satisfy France's increasing unease and desire to halt Prussian expansion in Europe. During July and August of 1870, the Imperial French Army suffered a series of defeats which culminated in the Battle of Sedan. At Sedan, the remnants of the French field army, and Napoleon III himself, surrendered to the Prussians on September 1st. News of Sedan reached Paris on September 4th. The National Assembly was invaded by a mob and during the afternoon of September 4th, Parisian deputies formed a new government. At the Hôtel de Ville, Republican deputy Léon Gambetta declared the fall of the Empire and the establishment of the Third Republic. Empress Eugénie fled the Tuileries for Great Britain, effectively ending the Empire, which was officially declared defunct and replaced with the Government of National Defence. Motto Suum cuique Latin: To each his own Prussia at its peak, as leading state of the German Empire Capital Königsberg, later Berlin Government Duke1  - 1525–68 Albert I (first)  - 1688–1701 Frederick III (last) King1  - 1701–13 Frederick I (first)  - 1888–1918 William II (last) Prime Minister1,2... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      The National Assembly is either a legislature, or the lower house of a bicameral legislature in some countries. ... 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Émile Ollivier, French statesman Olivier Émile Ollivier (July 2, 1825 - August 20, 1913) was a French statesman. ... The House of Hohenzollern is a German dynasty of electors, kings, and emperors of Prussia, Germany, and Romania. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Combatants Second French Empire North German Confederation allied with south German states (later German Empire) Commanders Napoleon III Otto Von Bismarck, Helmuth von Moltke the Elder Strength 400,000 at the beginning of the war 1,200,000 Casualties 150,000 dead or wounded 284,000 captured 350,000 civilian... Combatants Prussia Bavaria France Commanders Wilhelm I Helmuth von Moltke Napoleon III Patrice MacMahon Auguste-Alexandre Ducrot Strength 200,000 774 cannon 120,000 564 cannon Casualties 2,320 dead 5,980 wounded 700 missing (9,000 total) 3,000 dead 14,000 wounded 21,000 captured 82,000 surrendered... Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte (April 20, 1808 - January 9, 1873) was the son of King Louis Bonaparte and Queen Hortense de Beauharnais; both monarchs of the French puppet state, the Kingdom of Holland. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) The Eiffel Tower in Paris, as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ... // Parisian is a moderate to upscale U.S. chain of department stores, based in Birmingham, Alabama known for its superior level of personalized service and limited distribution of specialty brands such as Juicy Couture, Karen Kane, BCBG Max Azria, Garfield & Marks, Tahari, Jig Saw, 7 For All Mankind, Diesel, Paper... The Hôtel de Ville houses the office of the Mayor of Paris. ... Painting of Léon Gambetta by Léon Bonnat Léon Gambetta (April 2, 1838 - December 31, 1882), French statesman, was born at Cahors. ... The French Third Republic, (in French, La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe République) (1870/75-10 July 1940) was the governing body of France between the Second French Empire and the Vichy Regime. ... Up to 1871 the Tuileries Palace was a palace in Paris, France, on the right bank of the River Seine. ... La Gouvernement de la Défense Nationale, or The Government of National Defence, was the official Government of the Third Republic of France from September 4th 1870 to February 13th 1871. ...


See also

  • Saint-Simon

Henri de Saint-Simon Claude Henri de Rouvroy, comte de Saint-Simon, often referred to as Henri de Saint-Simon (October 17, 1760 – May 19, 1825), the founder of French socialism, was born in Paris. ...

Sources

This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain. Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...


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