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Encyclopedia > Second Fitna
Civil Wars of the Early Caliphates
Ridda warsFirst Fitna – Ibn al-Zubair's revolt – Kharijite RevoltSecond FitnaBerber RevoltZaidi RevoltAbassid Revolt
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Islam
The Ridda wars were a set of military campaigns against apostasy in Arabia during 632 and 633 AD, following the death of Muhammad. ... The First Fitna, 656–661 CE, followed the assassination of the caliph Uthman ibn Affan, continued during the brief caliphate of Ali ibn Abu Talib, and was ended, on the whole, by Muawiyas assumption of the caliphate. ... Ibn al-Zubairs revolt was directed against Yazid I following the Battle of Karbala. ... Kharijites were members of an Islamic sect in late 7th and early 8th century AD, concentrated in todays southern Iraq. ... The Great Berber Revolt of 122—25/740—43 took place during the reign of the Umayyad Caliph Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik and marked the first successful secession from the caliphate. ... Zayd ibn Ali (d. ... Combatants Abbasids Umayyad Caliphate Commanders Abu al-Abbas al-Saffah Marwan II The Battle of the Zab took place on the banks of the Great Zab river in what is now Iraq on January 25, 750. ... For other uses, including people named Islam, see Islam (disambiguation). ...

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The following list consists of concepts that are derived from both Islam and Arab tradition, which are expressed as words in the Arabic language. ...

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The Second Fitna, or Second Islamic civil war, was a period of general political and military disorder that afflicted the Islamic world during the early Umayyad dynasty, following the death of the caliph Muawiya I. There seems to be a lack of solid consensus on the exact range of years that define the condflict, with different historians dating the Second Fitna differently. Some see the end of Muawiwa I's reign in 680 AD as marking the beginning of the period, while the year 683 (following the death of Muawiya's son the caliph Yazid I) is cited by others. Similarly, the end is variously dated from 685 (after the ascension of caliph Abd al-Malik) to 692 (following the death of Ibn al-Zubair and the termination of his revolt). The dates 683-685 seem to be the most commonly used. Fitna is an Arabic word for civil war, disagreement, division within Islam. ... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... Caliph is the term or title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam. ... Muawiyah I (602 - May 6, 680), early Muslim leader and founder of the great Umayyad Dynasty of caliphs. ... Yazid Ibn Muawiyah Ibn Abu Sufyan (645 - 683) (Arabic: يزيد بن معاوية بن أبي سفيان) was the sixth Sunni Caliph and the second of the Umayyad dynasty. ... Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan (Arabic: عبد الملك بن مروان ) (646 - 705) was an Umayyad caliph. ... Ibn al-Zubairs revolt was directed against Yazid I following the Battle of Karbala. ...


The Second Fitna was a time of complexity in the Islamic world, involving a number of different occurrences that were seemingly not directly connected with one another. A brief sketch of the major events of the period may be given as follows, however.


The caliph Muawiya I was succeeded upon his death in 680 by his son, Yazid I. Yazid's first opposition came from supporters of Husayn bin Ali, who was the grandson of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and the son of the former caliph Ali ibn Abi Talib, who had been assassinated. Husayn and many of his closest supporters were killed by Yazid's troops at the Battle of Karbela. This battle is often cited as the definitive break between the Shi'a and Sunni forms of Islam, and it is still commemorated each year in Shi'a Islam on the Day of Ashura. Muawiyah I (602 - May 6, 680), early Muslim leader and founder of the great Umayyad Dynasty of caliphs. ... Yazid Ibn Muawiyah Ibn Abu Sufyan (645 - 683) (Arabic: يزيد بن معاوية بن أبي سفيان) was the sixth Sunni Caliph and the second of the Umayyad dynasty. ... Imaginary portrait of Husayn ibn Ali, by contemporary Iranian artist. ... Muhammad (Arabic ; also Mohammed, Mohamet, and other variants[1] [2] [3]) 570-632 C.E.,[4] was an Arab religious and political leader who preached a religion he called Islam. ... Ali ibn Abu Talib (Arabic: علي بن أبي طالب translit: ‘Alī ibn Abu Ṭālib Persian: علی پسر ابو طالب) ‎ (599 – 661) is an early Islamic leader. ... The Battle of Karbala took place on October 10, 680, in Iraq. ... Shia Islam, also Shiite Islam or Shiism (Arabic: ‎ , translit: ; is the second largest denomination of the religion of Islam. ... Sunni Muslims are the largest denomination of Islam. ... For the mythical demon in Hindu and Buddhist mythology, see Asura For the Canaanite and Ugaritic mother-goddess, see Asherah. ...


Following these occurrences, Yazid faced a second revolt from Ibn al-Zubair, who was the son of a rebel who had revolted against the caliph Ali at the Battle of Bassorah. Zubair's rebellion was seen by many as an attempt to return to the pristine values of the the early Islamic community, and his revolt was welcomed by a number of parties that were unhappy with Umayyad rule for various reasons. Following the sudden death of Yazid and his infant son Muawiyah II in 683, Zubair gained widespread recognition as caliph, but he was isolated in the Hejaz region when Kharijite rebels established an independent state in central Arabia in 684. Ali ibn Abu Talib (Arabic: علي بن أبي طالب translit: ‘Alī ibn Abu Ṭālib Persian: علی پسر ابو طالب) ‎ (599 – 661) is an early Islamic leader. ... Combatants Rashidun Caliphate Rebel Arabs Commanders Ali Aisha bint Abu Bakr Strength About 10,000 About 20,000 Casualties About 5,000 About 5,000 The Battle of Bassorah, Battle of the Camel, or Battle of Jamal was a battle that took place at Basra, Iraq in 655 between forces... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Western Province (Saudi Arabia). ... Kharijites (Arabic خوارج, literally Those who Go Out [1]) is a general term embracing a variety of Islamic sects which, while initially accepting the caliphate of Ali, later rejected him. ... The Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula is a mainly desert peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia and an important part of the greater Middle East. ...


Other Kharijite uprisings followed in Iraq and Iran, while Shiites revolted in Kufah to avenge the death of Husayn and to promote another of Ali's sons as a candidate for caliph. Eventually, order was restored by Syrian forces supporting Umayyad Abd al-Malik, who claimed the title of caliph in 685. He was able to defeat all of his various rivals, and he killed Ibn al-Zubair in 692, bringing this period of exceptional turbulence to a close. Kharijites (Arabic خوارج, literally Those who Go Out [1]) is a general term embracing a variety of Islamic sects which, while initially accepting the caliphate of Ali, later rejected him. ... Shia Islam, also Shiite Islam or Shiism (Arabic: ‎ , translit: ; is the second largest denomination of the religion of Islam. ... Kufa (الكوفة al-Kufa in Arabic) is a city in Iraq, about 170 km south of Baghdad, and 10 km northeast of Najaf. ... Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan (Arabic: عبد الملك بن مروان ) (646 - 705) was an Umayyad caliph. ...


See also

Fitna is an Arabic word for civil war, disagreement, division within Islam. ... The Battle of Karbala took place on October 10, 680, in Iraq. ... Ibn al-Zubairs revolt was directed against Yazid I following the Battle of Karbala. ... Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan (Arabic: عبد الملك بن مروان ) (646 - 705) was an Umayyad caliph. ...

References

  • Karen Armstrong: Islam: A Short History. New York, NY, USA: The Modern Library, 2002, 2004 ISBN 0-8129-6618-X

      Results from FactBites:
     
    Fitna: Information from Answers.com (412 words)
    It is often used to refer to civil war, disagreement and division within Islam and specifically alludes to a time involving trials of faith, similar to the Tribulation in Christian eschatology.
    The Second Fitna, or Second Islamic civil war, is usually identified as the 683–685 CE conflict among the Umayyads for control of the caliphate.
    According to Orientalist Gilles Kepel, "fitna is sometimes translated by sedition, that is the fact that the Muslim community is fragmented because it has lost sense of proportions and realities, of maslaha, and that it is therefore delivered to the demons of extremism and is going towards its fall.
    Second Fitna - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (548 words)
    Second Fitna Berber Revolt – Zaidi RevoltAbassid Revolt
    The Second Fitna, or Second Islamic civil war, was a period of general political and military disorder that afflicted the Islamic world during the early Umayyad dynasty, following the death of the first Umayyad caliph Muawiyah I.
    The Second Fitna was a time of complexity in the Islamic world, involving a number of different occurrences that were seemingly not directly connected with one another.
      More results at FactBites »

     
     

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