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Encyclopedia > Second Congo War
Second Congo War

Civilians waiting to cross the DRC-Rwanda border (2001)
Date August 2, 1998–July 2003
Location Democratic Republic of the Congo
Result Withdrawal of Uganda and Rwanda; peace deal with internal combatants
Combatants
Democratic Republic of the Congo,
Namibia,
Zimbabwe,
Angola,
Chad,
Mai-Mai,
Hutu-aligned forces
Uganda,
Rwanda,
Burundi,
Movement for the Liberation of Congo
Congolese Rally for Democracy
Tutsi-aligned forces
Commanders
Laurent-Désiré Kabila (Congo),
Joseph Kabila (Congo),
Flag of Namibia Sam Nujoma
Flag of Zimbabwe Robert Mugabe
Flag of Angola José Eduardo dos Santos
Flag of Chad Idriss Déby
Padiri (Mai-Mai),
Dunia (Mai-Mai)
Flag of Rwanda Paul Kagame (Rwanda),
Flag of Uganda Yoweri Museveni (Uganda),
Ernest Wamba dia Wamba (RCD)
Jean-Pierre Bemba (MLC)
Strength
Mai-Mai: 20-30,000 militia,
Hutu Interahamwe: 20,000+
RCD: Unknown,
Rwanda: 8,000+[1]
Casualties
Civilians killed: 3,500,000+

The Second Congo War was a conflict that took place largely in the territory of Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire). The war began in 1998 and officially ended in 2003 when a Transitional Government took power. The widest interstate war in modern African history, it directly involved eight African nations, as well as about 20 armed groups, and earned the epithet of "Africa's World War" and the "Great War of Africa." An estimated 3.8 million people died, mostly from starvation and disease brought about by one of the deadliest conflicts since World War II. Millions more were displaced from their homes or sought asylum in neighboring countries. [1] Photo taken 2001 during the visit of US Rep. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Congo_Kinshasa_1997. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Namibia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Zimbabwe. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Angola. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Chad. ... Mai-Mai, also known as Mayi-Mayi, is a general term referring to a broad variety of Congolese militia groups active in the Second Congo War currently taking place in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). ... The Hutu are a Central African ethnic group, living mainly in Rwanda and Burundi. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Uganda. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Rwanda. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Burundi. ... Image File history File linksMetadata MLC.jpg‎ File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Second Congo War Movement for the Liberation of Congo Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner... The Movement for the Liberation of Congo (French: Mouvement pour la Liberation du Congo) is a political party in Democratic Republic of the Congo. ... The Congolese Rally for Democracy, sometimes Rally for Congolese Democracy, was a rebel group operating in the eastern region of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). ... The Tutsi are one of three native peoples of the nations of Rwanda and Burundi in central Africa, the other two being the Twa and the Hutu. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Congo_Kinshasa_1997. ... Laurent-Désiré Kabila Laurent-Désiré Kabila (November 27, 1939 – January 18, 2001) was President of the Democratic Republic of the Congo from May 1997, when he overthrew Mobutu Sese Seko until his assassination in January 2001. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Congo_Kinshasa_1997. ... Joseph Kabila Kabange (born June 4, 1971), known commonly as Joseph Kabila, became president of the Democratic Republic of the Congo after the assassination of his father Laurent-Désiré Kabila in January 2001. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Namibia. ... President Sam Nujoma Samuel Daniel Shafiishuna Nujoma (born May 12, 1929) was the first President of Namibia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Zimbabwe. ... Robert Gabriel Mugabe KCB (born February 21, 1924) is a Zimbabwean politician. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Angola. ... José Eduardo dos Santos (born August 28, 1942 in Luanda) is the current President, Head of Government, and Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of Angola. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Chad. ... Lieutenant General Idriss Déby Itno (born in Fada in 1952) is the President of Chad and the head of the Patriotic Salvation Movement. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Rwanda. ... Paul Kagame (born October 23, 1957) is the current President of Rwanda and the founder of the Rwandan Patriotic Front. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Uganda. ... Yoweri Kaguta Museveni (born c. ... Ernest Wamba dia Wamba (born 1942) is a Senator, as well as the vice president of the Senate Permanent Commission on Legal and Administrative Matters, of the transitional administration of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC, formerly Zaire). Previously, he was Chairman of the Kisangani faction of the rebel... The Congolese Rally for Democracy, sometimes Rally for Congolese Democracy, was a rebel group operating in the eastern region of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). ... Jean-Pierre Bemba (4 November 1962) is one of four vice-presidents in the transitional government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. ... The Congolese Rally for Democracy, sometimes Rally for Congolese Democracy, was a rebel group operating in the eastern region of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). ... 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Transitional Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo Stub: In 2001 President Luarent Kabila was assasinated and his son Joseph Kabila was named head of state. ... Look up war in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The following is an outline of African history, followed by a list of articles about the history of particular places in Africa. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa. ... An epithet (Greek - επιθετον and Latin - epitheton; literally meaning imposed) is a descriptive word or phrase. ... A death toll is the number of dead as a result of war, violence, accident, natural disaster, extreme weather, or disease. ... Combatants Allied Powers Axis Powers Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000,000 Total dead: 50,000,000 Military dead: 8,000,000 Civilian dead: 4,000,000 Total dead 12,000,000 World War II (abbreviated WWII), or the Second World War, was a worldwide conflict... Power lines leading to a trash dump hover just overhead in El Carpio, a Nicaraguan refugee camp in Costa Rica Under international law, a refugee is a person who is outside his/her country of nationality or habitual residence; has a well-founded fear of persecution because of his/her... A refugee is a person seeking asylum in a foreign country in order to escape persecution, war, terrorism, extreme poverty, famines, and natural disaster. ...


Despite a formal end to the war in July 2003 and an agreement by the former belligerents to create a government of national unity, the state remains weak and much of the eastern region continues to suffer from violent conflict. In 2004, an estimated 1,000 people died every day from violence and disruptions to basic social services and food supply. Sporadic outbreaks of fighting continue to lead to large scale forced migration. Forced migration refers to the coerced movement of a person or persons away from their home or home region. ...

Contents

Origin of the Second Congo War

Colonial era

Congo has had a troubled history since it was ruled as a colonial possession until 1908 by King Léopold II of Belgium as the Congo Free State and afterwards by Belgium (see Belgian Congo). Even by the standards of late 19th-century colonialism, the rule by King Léopold II is generally regarded as being arbitrary and brutal. Because of its mineral wealth, and the ongoing effects of the colonial period, Congo has been a state that has had tremendous trouble since transitioning to self-rule in 1960. 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... King Léopold II His Majesty King Léopold II of the Belgians (Louis Philippe Marie Victor) (April 9, 1835–December 17, 1909), succeeded his father, Léopold I of Belgium, to the Belgian throne in 1865 and remained king until his death. ... Flag Capital Boma Government Monarchy Ruler and owner Leopold II of Belgium Historical era New Imperialism  - Established 1885  - Annexation by Belgium 15 November, 1908 The Congo Free State was a corporate state privately owned by King Leopold II of Belgium (not in his role as monarch) that included the entire... Capital Léopoldville Government Protectorate Created 1908 Dissolved 1960 Official language(s) French, Dutch The Belgian Congo was the formal title of present-day Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) between King Léopold IIs formal relinquishment of personal control over the state to Belgium on 15 November 1908... Pith helmet of the Second French Empire. ... Self rule is used to described a people or group being able to exercise all of the necessary functions of power without intervention from any authority which they cannot themselves alter. ... 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1960 calendar). ...


Regime of Mobutu

History of DR Congo
Flag of Zaire (1971–1997) Flag of Congo Kinshasa (1963–1966)
Flag of Congo Kinshasa (1997–2006) Flag of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (since 2006)
v  d  e

In 1960, a democratic election resulted in the victory of the leftist Patrice Lumumba. This would be the only free election until those held in 2006. Lumumba served as Prime Minister alongside the other top candidate as president. Lumumba was first illegally "fired" by the president, then murdered in the presence of officials of the secessionist province of Katanga [2] in a coup backed by the CIA and Belgium [citation needed].[2] By 1965, Mobutu had established himself as the dictator of the nation, backed by Western powers intent on arresting the spread of Soviet influence after civil war broke out in Angola. In the early 1990s the economy of Zaire was under tremendous pressure because of the long commodities depression and Mobutu's efforts to retain power. While he advanced the sense of nationalism, he also created a cult of personality and a nation that was described by international agencies as a "basket case" [citation needed]. Mobutu looted the resources of the Congo to increase his personal wealth so shamelessly that the term "Kleptocracy" was essentially invented to describe his rule.[3] In 1991 Mobutu was forced to make concessions to some of the opposition leaders, but the state of finances remained precarious and the army continued to deteriorate. By 1995, his hold on power was tenuous: salaries were not being paid to public officials and members of the army, violence was endemic, and corruption was routine. // Early history Main article: Early Congolese history The area now known as the Democratic Republic of the Congo was populated as early as 10,000 years ago and settled in the 7th and 8th centuries A.D. by Bantus from present-day Nigeria. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Zaire. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Congo_Kinshasa_1963. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Congo_Kinshasa_1997. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Democratic_Republic_of_the_Congo. ... Early Congolese History starts with waves of Bantu migrations from 2000 BC to 500 AD moving into the area now known as the Democratic Republic of the Congo. ... Colonisation of the Congo refers to the period from Henry Morton Stanleys first exploration of the Congo (1867) until its annexation as a personal possession of King Léopold II of Belgium (1885). ... Flag Capital Boma Government Monarchy Ruler and owner Leopold II of Belgium Historical era New Imperialism  - Established 1885  - Annexation by Belgium 15 November, 1908 The Congo Free State was a corporate state privately owned by King Leopold II of Belgium (not in his role as monarch) that included the entire... Capital Léopoldville Government Protectorate Created 1908 Dissolved 1960 Official language(s) French, Dutch The Belgian Congo was the formal title of present-day Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) between King Léopold IIs formal relinquishment of personal control over the state to Belgium on 15 November 1908... Combatants Congo  UN troops Katanga  Belgium Mercenaries The Congo Crisis (1960-1965) was a period of turmoil in the First Republic of the Congo that began with national independence from Belgium and ended with the seizing of power by Joseph Mobutu. ... Combatants AFDL, Uganda, Rwanda Zaire Commanders Laurent-Désiré Kabila Mobutu Sésé Seko Casualties Civilians killed: 200,000+ The First Congo War was a conflict from late 1996 to 1997 in which Zairean President Mobutu Sésé Seko was overthrown by rebel forces backed by foreign powers such as... Transitional Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo Stub: In 2001 President Luarent Kabila was assasinated and his son Joseph Kabila was named head of state. ... Patrice Lumumba as the Prime Minister of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, 1960 Patrice Émery Lumumba (2 July 1925 – 17 January 1961) was an African anti-colonial leader and the first legally elected Prime Minister of the Democratic Republic of the Congo after he helped to win its independence... General elections were held in the Democratic Republic of the Congo on July 30, 2006, the first multiparty elections in the country in 46 years. ... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... This article is 150 kilobytes or more in size. ... Billboard of Joseph Stalin. ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


With the end of the Cold War, outside powers disengaged from sub-Saharan Africa. They left nations to deal with the after effects of the conflict between the superpowers and colonialism, as well as the internal conflicts between local groups. When the United States withdrew its backing of Mobutu, rebels and rival nations correctly felt that he would be easier to overthrow while deprived of outside support. For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... A geographical map of Africa, showing the ecological break that defines the sub-Saharan area A political map showing national divisions in relation to the ecological break Sub-Saharan Africa or is the term used to describe those countries of the African continent that are not considered part of political... An American B-2 bomber in flight. ...


The 1994 Rwandan Genocide, and related violence in Burundi, precipitated a crisis in the eastern part of the nation: hundreds of thousands of members of the Hutu ethnic group fled both countries into Zaire in the Great Lakes refugee crisis. The resulting refugee camps quickly became dominated by the Interahamwe Hutu militias that had carried out much of the genocide, supported by Hutu members of the former Rwanda military. 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by United Nations. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this section may require cleanup. ... The Hutu are a Central African ethnic group, living mainly in Rwanda and Burundi. ... Refugee camp in Zaire, 1994 The Great Lakes refugee crisis is the common name for the situation beginning with the exodus in April 1994 of over two million Rwandans to neighboring countries of the Great Lakes region of Africa in the aftermath of the Rwandan Genocide. ... The Interahamwe (Kinyarwanda meaning Those Who Stand Together or Those Who Fight Together) was the most important of the militias formed by the Hutu ethnic majority of Rwanda and, together with the smaller Impuzamugambi, was responsible for over 800,000 deaths in the Rwandan Genocide of 1994. ... Look up Genocide in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The Rwandans and Ugandans began to funnel weapons and money to the anti-Sese Seko Alliance of Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Congo (ADFLC) under Laurent-Désiré Kabila. The Alliance of Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Congo-Zaire (AFDL) was a coalition of Congolese dissidents, disgruntled minority groups and nations that toppled President Mobutu Sese Seko and brought Laurent Kabila to power in the First Congo War (1996-1997). ... Laurent-Désiré Kabila Laurent-Désiré Kabila (November 27, 1939 – January 18, 2001) was President of the Democratic Republic of the Congo from May 1997, when he overthrew Mobutu Sese Seko until his assassination in January 2001. ...


First Congo War

The First Congo War began in 1996 as Rwanda grew increasingly concerned that members of these militias, who were carrying out cross-border raids, were planning an invasion. The new Tutsi-dominated government of Rwanda protested this violation of their territorial integrity and began to give arms to the ethnically Tutsi Banyamulenge of eastern Zaire. This intervention was vigorously denounced by the government of Zaire under dictator Mobutu Sese Seko, but he did not have any military capability to oppose, and little political capital to spend. Combatants AFDL, Uganda, Rwanda Zaire Commanders Laurent-Désiré Kabila Mobutu Sésé Seko Casualties Civilians killed: 200,000+ The First Congo War was a conflict from late 1996 to 1997 in which Zairean President Mobutu Sésé Seko was overthrown by rebel forces backed by foreign powers such as... The Tutsi are one of three native peoples of the nations of Rwanda and Burundi in central Africa, the other two being the Twa and the Hutu. ... The Banyamulenge are a group of Tutsi living in the eastern region of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). ... This article concerns places that serve as centers of government and politics. ...


Kabila's March to Kinshasa

With active support from Rwanda, Uganda and Angola, Kabila's forces moved methodically down the river, encountering only light resistance from the crumbling regime based in Kinshasa. The bulk of his fighters were Tutsis and many were veterans from conflicts in the Lakes region of Africa. Kabila himself had credibility because he had been a longtime political opponent of Mobutu, and was a follower of Patrice Lumumba, the first Prime Minister of the independent Congo who was murdered and overthrown from power by a combination of internal and external forces, to be replaced by the then Lt.-Gen. Mobutu. Kabila had declared himself a Marxist and an admirer of Mao Zedong. He had been waging armed rebellion in eastern Zaire for nearly two decades, though, according to Che Guevara's account of the conflict, he was an uncommitted and uninspirational leader.[4] Map of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, from [1]. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Map of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, from [1]. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Kinshasa (formerly Léopoldville or, before 1960, also Leopoldstad) is the capital and largest city of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. ... Mobutu Sese Seko Nkuku Ngbendu wa za Banga (October 14, 1930 – September 7, 1997), known commonly as Mobutu, or Joseph Mobutu-Sese Seko, born Joseph-Désiré Mobutu, was the President of Zaire (now the Democratic Republic of the Congo) for 32 years (1965–1997). ... Patrice Lumumba as the Prime Minister of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, 1960 Patrice Émery Lumumba (2 July 1925 – 17 January 1961) was an African anti-colonial leader and the first legally elected Prime Minister of the Democratic Republic of the Congo after he helped to win its independence... Lieutenant General is a military rank used in many countries. ... Marxism is the political practice and social theory based on the works of Karl Marx, a 19th century philosopher, economist, journalist, and revolutionary, along with Friedrich Engels. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Ernesto Guevara de la Serna (June 14, 1928 – October 9, 1967), commonly known as Che Guevara or El Che, was an Argentine-born Marxist revolutionary, political figure, and leader of Cuban and internationalist guerrillas. ...


Kabila's army began a slow movement westward in December 1996 near the end of the Great Lakes refugee crisis, taking control of border towns and mines and solidifying control. There were reports of massacres and brutal repression by the rebel army. A UN human rights investigator published statements from witnesses claiming that the ADFLC engaged in massacres, and that as many as 60,000 civilians were killed by the advancing army (a claim strenuously denied by the ADFLC). Roberto Garreton stated that his investigation in Goma turned up allegations of disappearances, torture and killings. He quoted Moese Nyarugabo, an aide to Mobutu as saying that killings and disappearances should be expected in wartime. Refugee camp in Zaire, 1994 The Great Lakes refugee crisis is the common name for the situation beginning with the exodus in April 1994 of over two million Rwandans to neighboring countries of the Great Lakes region of Africa in the aftermath of the Rwandan Genocide. ... Goma is a large city in the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo. ...


In March 1997, Kabila's forces launched an offensive, and demanded the government surrender. On March 27th it was reported that the rebels took Kasenga. These reports were dismissed by the government, which would begin a long pattern of false statements from the Defense Minister as to the progress and conduct of the war.


Talks were proposed in late March, and on April 2, a new Prime Minister was installed: Etienne Tshisekedi, a long time rival of Mobutu. Kabila, by this point in rough control of one quarter of the country, dismissed this as irrelevant, and warned Tshisekedi that he would have no part in a new government if he accepted the post. Etienne Tshisekedi is the leader of the Union for Democracy and Social Progress (UDPS), a political party in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. ...


Throughout the month of April the ADFLC made consistent progress down the river, and by May were on the outskirts of Kinshasa. On May 16, 1997, the multinational army headed by Kabila battled to secure Lubumbashi airport after peace talks broke down and Mobutu fled the country. (He died on September 7, 1997 in Morocco). After securing victory, Kabila controlled Kinshasa. He proclaimed himself President on the same day and immediately ordered a violent crackdown to restore order. He then began an attempt at reorganization of the nation. May 16 is the 136th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (137th in leap years). ... 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Location Location in the Congo Government Province Katanga Mayor Floribert Kaseba Geographical characteristics Area     City 747 km²     Land   747 km² Population     City (2001) 1,139,064     Density   1,525/km² Time zone DRC2 (UTC+2) Lubumbashi (formerly Elisabethville) is ranked as the second largest city in the Democratic Republic of... September 7 is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years). ... 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Kinshasa (formerly Léopoldville or, before 1960, also Leopoldstad) is the capital and largest city of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. ...


Unwelcome "support"

When Kabila gained control of the capital in May 1997, he faced substantial obstacles to governing the country that he renamed "the Democratic Republic of Congo" (DRC). Beyond political jostling among various groups to gain power and an enormous external debt, his foreign backers proved unwilling to leave when asked. The conspicuous Rwandan presence in the capital also rankled many Congolese, who were beginning to see Kabila as a pawn of foreign powers.


Tensions reached new heights on 14 July 1998, when Kabila dismissed his Rwandan chief of staff, James Kabare, and replaced him with a native Congolese. Apparently Kabila felt that he had solidified his Congolese political base enough to put some distance between himself and the nations who had put him into power. Although the move chilled what was already a troubled relationship with Rwanda, he softened the blow by making Kabare the military advisor to his successor. July 14 is the 195th day (196th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 170 days remaining. ... 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean. ... James Kabare was the Tutsi chief military strategist in Laurent-Désiré Kabilas rebel Alliance of Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Congo (ADFL) during the 1996/1997 stage of the Second Congo War (including the capture of Kinshasa). ...


Two weeks later Kabila abandoned such diplomatic steps. He thanked Rwanda for their help, and ordered all Rwandan and Ugandan military forces to leave the country. Within 24 hours Rwandan military advisors living in Kinshasa were unceremoniously flown out. The people most alarmed by this order were the Banyamulenge of eastern Congo. Their tensions with neighboring ethnic groups had been a contributing factor in the genesis of the First Congo War and they were also utilized by Rwanda to affect events across the border in the DRC. The Banyamulenge would again prove to be the spark of another conflagration. The Banyamulenge are a group of Tutsi living in the eastern region of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). ... Combatants AFDL, Uganda, Rwanda Zaire Commanders Laurent-Désiré Kabila Mobutu Sésé Seko Casualties Civilians killed: 200,000+ The First Congo War was a conflict from late 1996 to 1997 in which Zairean President Mobutu Sésé Seko was overthrown by rebel forces backed by foreign powers such as...


Course of the war

The initial rebel offensive threatened the Kabila government in a matter of weeks. The government was only saved through the rapid intervention of a number of other African states. For a time it looked that, as the rebel forces were forced back, an escalation in the conflict to a conventional war between multiple national armies loomed. Such an outcome was avoided as battle lines stabilized in 1999. Since then the conflict has primarily been fought by irregular proxy forces with little change in the territories held by the various parties. Irregular soldiers in Beauharnois, Quebec, 19th century Irregular military refers to any non-standard military. ...


Rebel push for Kinshasa

On 2 August 1998, the Banyamulenge in the town of Goma erupted into mutiny. Rwanda offered immediate assistance to the Banyamulenge and early in August a well-armed rebel group, the Rally for Congolese Democracy (RCD), composed primarily of Banyamulenge and backed by Rwanda and Uganda had emerged. This group quickly came to dominate the resource-rich eastern provinces and based its operations in the city of Goma. The RCD quickly took control of the towns of Bukavu and Uvira in the Kivus. The Tutsi-led Rwandan government allied with Uganda, and Burundi also retaliated, occupying a portion of northeastern Congo. To help remove the occupying Rwandans, President Kabila enlisted the aid of the Hutu militants in eastern Congo and began to agitate public opinion against the Tutsis, resulting in several public lynchings in the streets of Kinshasa. On 12 August a loyalist army major broadcast a message urging resistance from a radio station in Bunia in eastern Congo: "People must bring a machete, a spear, an arrow, a hoe, spades, rakes, nails, truncheons, electric irons, barbed wire, stones, and the like, in order, dear listeners, to kill the Rwandan Tutsis."[5] August 2 is the 214th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (215th in leap years), with 151 days remaining. ... 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean. ... Goma is a large city in the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo. ... Mutiny is the act of conspiring to disobey an order that a group of similarly-situated individuals (typically members of the military; or the crew of any ship, even if they are civilians) is legally obliged to obey. ... The Rally for Congolese Democracy (RCD) is a Congolese rebel group operating in the western part of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). ... Goma is a large city in the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo. ... August 12 is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... A radio station is an audio (sound) broadcasting service, traditionally broadcast through the air as radio waves (a form of electromagnetic radiation) from a transmitter to an antenna and a thus to a receiving device. ... Bunia is the district headquarters of Ituri district of Orientale Province. ...


The Rwandan government also claimed a substantial part of eastern Congo as "historically Rwandan". The Rwandans alleged that Kabila was organizing a genocide against their Tutsi brethren in the Kivu region. The degree to which Rwandan intervention was motivated by a desire to protect the Banyamulenge, as opposed to using them as a smokescreen for its own regional aspirations, remains in question. Look up Genocide in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


In a bold move, RCD rebels hijacked a plane and flew it to the government base of Kitona on the Atlantic coast, where other mutinous government soldiers joined them. More towns in the east and around Kitona fell in rapid succession as the combined RCD, Rwandan and Ugandan soldiers overwhelmed the government forces amid a flurry of ineffectual diplomatic efforts by various African nations. By 13 August, less than two weeks after the revolt began, the rebels held the Inga hydroelectric station that provided power to Kinshasa as well as the port of Matadi through which most of the Kinshasa's food passed. The diamond center of Kisangani fell into rebel hands on 23 August and forces advancing from the east had begun to threaten Kinshasa by late August. Uganda, while retaining joint support of the RCD with Rwanda, also created a rebel group that it supported exclusively, the Movement for the Liberation of Congo (MLC). Hijackers inside flightdeck of TWA Flight 847 Aircraft hijacking (also known as skyjacking and aircraft piracy) is the take-over of an aircraft, by a person or group, usually armed. ... Kitona is a town of about 4000 persons in the Bas-Congo province of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. ... August 13 is the 225th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (226th in leap years), with 140 days remaining. ... Hydraulic turbine and electrical generator. ... Kisangani, formerly Stanleyville, (population 500,000) is a city in the Democratic Republic of the Congo in Central Africa. ... August 23 is the 235th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (236th in leap years), with 130 days remaining. ... The Movement for the Liberation of Congo (French: Mouvement pour la Liberation du Congo) is a political party in Democratic Republic of the Congo. ...


Despite the movement of the front lines, fighting continued throughout the country. Even as rebel forces advanced on Kinshasa, government forces continued to battle for control of towns in the east of the country. The Hutu militants with which Kabila was cooperating were also a significant force in the east. Nevertheless, the fall of the capital and Kabila, who had spent the previous weeks desperately seeking support from various African nations and Cuba, seemed increasingly certain.


Kabila gains regional support

The rebel offensive was abruptly reversed as Kabila's efforts at diplomacy bore fruit. The first to respond were fellow members of the Southern African Development Community (SADC). While officially the SADC members are bound to a mutual defense treaty in the case of outside aggression, many member nations took a neutral stance to the conflict. However, Namibia, Zimbabwe and Angola all quickly threw their support behind the Kabila government after a meeting in the Zimbabwean capital of Harare on 19 August. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Harare (pronounced , formerly Salisbury) is the capital city of Zimbabwe. ... August 19 is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ...

Angola
Caught up in its own 25-year-old war against UNITA rebels, Angola wished to eliminate the UNITA operation in southern Congo which imported weapons while exporting diamonds out of Angola. This is the same reason it participated in the First Congo War to overthrow the hostile Mobutu government. Angola had no confidence that a new president would be better than Kabila, and feared that continued fighting would lead to a power vacuum that could only help UNITA.
Zimbabwe
President Robert Mugabe was the most ardent supporter of intervention on Kabila's behalf, and was lured by Congo's rich natural resources and a desire to increase his own power and prestige in Africa. Kabila and Mugabe had signed a US$200 million contract involving corporations owned by Mugabe and his family, and there were several reports in 1998 of numerous mining contracts being negotiated with companies under the control of the Mugabe family. Mugabe had resented being displaced by South African Nelson Mandela as the premiere statesman of southern Africa and the war was also a chance to confront another prominent African president, Yoweri Museveni of Uganda. As the head of the SADC's Organ on Politics, Defence and Security Mugabe believed he could reclaim his position as southern Africa's premiere statesmen by aiding Kabila.
Namibia
President Sam Nujoma had interests in Congo similar to that of Mugabe, with several family members deeply involved in Congolese mining. Namibia itself has little issues of natural interest at stake in the DRC and the Namibian intervention was greeted with dismay and outrage by citizens and opposition politicians.

Several more nations joined the conflict for Kabila in the following weeks: The União Nacional para a Independência Total de Angola (UNITA) is an Angolan political faction. ... Combatants AFDL, Uganda, Rwanda Zaire Commanders Laurent-Désiré Kabila Mobutu Sésé Seko Casualties Civilians killed: 200,000+ The First Congo War was a conflict from late 1996 to 1997 in which Zairean President Mobutu Sésé Seko was overthrown by rebel forces backed by foreign powers such as... A power vacuum is an expression for a political situation that can occur when a government has no identifiable central authority. ... Robert Gabriel Mugabe KCB (born February 21, 1924) is a Zimbabwean politician. ... Mandela redirects here. ... Yoweri Kaguta Museveni (born c. ... President Sam Nujoma Samuel Daniel Shafiishuna Nujoma (born May 12, 1929) was the first President of Namibia. ...

Chad
Kabila had originally discounted the possibility of support from Francophone Africa but after a summit meeting in Libreville, Gabon on 24 September, Chad agreed to send one thousand troops. France had encouraged Chad to join as a means of regaining influence in a region where the French had retreated in disgrace after the 1994 Rwandan genocide.[6]
Libya
The government of Muammar al-Qaddafi provided the planes transporting the soldiers from Chad. Qaddafi may have seen a way to profit financially, but is also likely to have been strongly influenced by a desire to break out the international isolation imposed on him by the United States after the 1988 Pan Am Flight 103 bombing over Lockerbie, Scotland.
Sudan
Unconfirmed reports in September indicated that Sudanese government forces were fighting rebels in Orientale province close to the Sudanese and Ugandan borders. However, Sudan did not establish a significant military presence inside the DRC, though it continued to offer extensive support to three Ugandan rebel groups—the Lord's Resistance Army, the Uganda National Rescue Front II and the Allied Democratic Forces—in retaliation for Ugandan support for the Sudan People's Liberation Army.[7]

A multisided war thus began. In September 1998, Zimbabwean forces flown into Kinshasa held off a rebel advance that reached the outskirts of the capital city while Angolan units attacked northward from its borders and eastward from the Angolan territory of Cabinda, against the besieging rebel forces. This intervention by various nations saved the Kabila government, and pushed the rebel front lines away from the capital. However, it was unable to defeat the rebel forces, and the advance threatened to escalate into direct conflict with the national armies of Uganda and Rwanda. The Francophonie is an international organisation of French-speaking countries and governments. ... Libreville (population 578,156 January 1, 2005) is the capital and largest city of Gabon. ... September 24 is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this section may require cleanup. ... Muammar Abu Minyar al-Qaddafi 1 — pronounced Gaddafi — (Arabic: معمر القذافي ) (born c. ... Pan Am Flight 103 was Pan American World Airways third daily scheduled transatlantic flight from Londons Heathrow International Airport to New Yorks John F. Kennedy International Airport. ... Lockerbie Town Hall, 2006. ... Motto: (Latin) No one provokes me with impunity1 Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official language(s) English, Gaelic, Scots2 Government  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - UK Prime Minister Tony Blair MP  - First Minister Jack McConnell MSP Unification    - by Kenneth I 843  Area    - Total 78,772 km... Orientale (formerly Haute-Zaire) is a province of the Democratic Republic of Congo. ... The Lords Resistance Army (LRA)[1], formed in 1987, is a rebel paramilitary group operating mainly in northern Uganda. ... The Uganda National Rescue Front (UNRF), refers to two former armed rebel groups in Ugandas West Nile sub-region that first opposed, then became incorporated into the Ugandan government. ... The Allied Democratic Forces (ADF)is a rebel group opposed to the Democratic Republic of the Congo. ... SPLA/M emblem Sudan Peoples Liberation Army/Movement (SPLA/M) is a member of the National Democratic Alliance (NDA), the main opposition group in Sudan. ... Cabinda is a territory, ocupied by Angola. ... Escalation is the phenomenon of something getting worse step by step, for example a quarrel, or, notably, military presence and nuclear armament during the Cold War. ...


In November 1998 a new Ugandan-backed rebel group, the Movement for the Liberation of Congo was reported in the north of the country. On 6 November, President Paul Kagame admitted for the first time that Rwandan forces were assisting the RCD rebels for security reasons, apparently after a request by Nelson Mandela to advance peace talks. On 18 January 1999, Rwanda, Uganda, Angola, Namibia and Zimbabwe agreed on a ceasefire at a summit at Windhoek, Namibia but the RCD was not invited. Fighting thus continued. The Movement for the Liberation of Congo (French: Mouvement pour la Liberation du Congo) is a political party in Democratic Republic of the Congo. ... November 6 is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 55 days remaining. ... Paul Kagame (born October 23, 1957) is the current President of Rwanda and the founder of the Rwandan Patriotic Front. ... Mandela redirects here. ... January 18 is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... Windhoek, Namibia Windhoek (pronounced Vind hook or German «Windhuk») is the capital of Namibia. ...


Outside of Africa, most states remained neutral, but urged an end to the violence. Non-African states were extremely reluctant to send troops to the region. A number of Western mining and diamond companies, most notably from the United States, Canada, and Israel, supported the Kabila government in exchange for business deals. These actions attracted substantial criticism from human rights groups.


Lusaka peace agreement

Estimate of territory held by factions in June 2003
Estimate of territory held by factions in June 2003

On 5 April 1999, tensions within the RCD about the dominance of the Banyamulenge reached a peak when RCD leader Ernest Wamba dia Wamba moved his base from Goma to Uganda-controlled Kisangani. A further sign of a break occurred when Museveni of Uganda and Kabila signed a ceasefire accord on 18 April in Sirte, Libya following the mediation of Libyan President Muammar Gaddafi, and both the RCD and Rwanda refused to take part. On 16 May, Wamba was ousted as head of the RCD in favor of a pro-Rwanda figure. Seven days later the various factions of the RCD clashed over control of Kisangani. On 8 June rebel factions met to try and create a common front against Kabila. Despite these efforts, the creation by Uganda of the new province of Ituri sparked the ethnic clash of the Ituri conflict, sometimes referred to as a "war within a war". Public domain map (http://www. ... Public domain map (http://www. ... April 5 is the 95th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (96th in leap years). ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... Ernest Wamba dia Wamba (born 1942) is a Senator, as well as the vice president of the Senate Permanent Commission on Legal and Administrative Matters, of the transitional administration of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC, formerly Zaire). Previously, he was Chairman of the Kisangani faction of the rebel... April 18 is the 108th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (109th in leap years). ... This article is about the municipality of Libya. ... Colonel Muammar al-Qaddafi Muammar Abu Minyar al-Qaddafi 1 (Arabic: معمر القذافي Mu`ammar al-Qadhdhāfī) (born 1942), leader of Libya since 1970 and a controversial Arab statesman. ... May 16 is the 136th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (137th in leap years). ... June 8 is the 159th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (160th in leap years), with 206 days remaining. ... Ituri is a region located in the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). ... Combatants Lendu tribe, Nationalist and Integrationist Front (FNI) Hema tribe, Uganda, Union of Congolese Patriots, RCD-K Commanders Etienne Lona (FNI) James Kazini (UDPF) Casualties Civilians killed: 60,000 (estimation as of Nov. ...


Nevertheless, the diplomatic circumstances contributed to the first cease-fire of the war. In July 1999, the Lusaka Ceasefire Agreement was signed by the six warring countries (Democratic Republic of Congo, Angola, Namibia, Zimbabwe, Rwanda, and Uganda) and, on 1 August, the MLC. The RCD refused to sign. Under the agreement, forces from all sides, under a Joint Military Commission, would cooperate in tracking, disarming and documenting all armed groups in the Congo, especially those forces identified with the 1994 Rwandan genocide. Few provisions were made to actually disarm the militias. 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... August 1 is the 213th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (214th in leap years), with 152 days remaining. ...


The United Nations Security Council deployed about 90 liaison personnel in August 1999 to support the cease-fire. However, in the following months all sides accused the others of repeatedly breaking the cease-fire, and it became clear that small incidents could trigger attacks. The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... A session of the Security Council in progress The United Nations Security Council is the most powerful organ of the United Nations. ... This article should be translated from material at fr:Liaison. ... An armistice is the effective end of a war, when the warring parties agree to stop fighting. ...


The tension between Uganda and Rwanda reached a breaking point in early August as units of the Uganda People’s Defense Force and the Rwandan Patriotic Army clashed in Kisangani. In November, government-controlled television in Kinshasa claimed that Kabila's army had been rebuilt and was now prepared to fulfill its "mission to liberate" the country. Rwandan forces launched a large offensive and approached Kinshasa before being repelled. The Uganda Peoples Defence Force (UPDF), previously the National Resistance Army, constitutes the armed forces of Uganda. ... The Rwandan Patriotic Army (RPA) is the national army of Rwanda. ...


By February 24, 2000, the UN authorized a force of 5,537 troops, the United Nations Organization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (known by the French acronym, MONUC), to monitor the cease-fire. However, fighting continued between rebels and government forces, and between Rwandan and Ugandan forces. Numerous clashes and offensives occurred throughout the country, most notably heavy fighting between Uganda and Rwanda in Kisangani in May and June 2000. On 9 August 2000, a government offensive in Equateur Province was stopped along the Ubangui River near Libenge by MLC forces. Despite the failure of military operations, diplomatic efforts made bilaterally or through the United Nations, African Union and Southern African Development Community failed to make any headway. February 24 is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... This article is about the year 2000. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Backronym and Apronym (Discuss) Acronyms and initialisms are abbreviations, such as NATO, laser, and ABC, written as the initial letter or letters of words, and pronounced on the basis of this abbreviated written form. ... MONUC is a French acronym for Mission de l Organisation des Nations unies en République démocratique du Congo, in English: Mission of the United Nations (UN) in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). ... August 9 is the 221st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (222nd in leap years), with 144 days remaining. ... This article is about the year 2000. ... The Ubangi River (also spelled Oubangi, ) is a major tributary of the Congo River in Central Africa. ... Libenge is a town in Congo (DRC). ... Anthem: Let Us All Unite and Celebrate Together Capital Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Membership 53 member states Official languages The languages of Africa, as well as Arabic, English, French, and Portuguese Formation - As Organisation of African Unity - As AU - May 25, 1963 - July 9, 2002 Chairman of the African Union John... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Kabila's assassination

In January 2001, Laurent Kabila was assassinated by one of his bodyguards. It is unknown who ordered the killing but most feel Kabila's allies were to blame as they were tired of his duplicity, in particular his failure to implement a detailed timetable for the introduction of a new democratic constitution leading to free and fair elections. Angolan troops were highly visible at Kabila's funeral cortege in Kinshasa. However, the smoothness of the transfer of power has led to questions of Western involvement. Jack Ruby murdered the assassin, Lee Harvey Oswald, in a very public manner. ...

A Congolese soldier with a PK machine gun near the Rwandan border, 2001
A Congolese soldier with a PK machine gun near the Rwandan border, 2001

By unanimous vote of the Congolese parliament, his son, Joseph Kabila, was sworn in as president to replace him. This was largely as a result of Robert Mugabe's backing and that fact that most parliamentarians had been handpicked by the elder Kabila. In February, the new president met Rwandan President Paul Kagame in the United States. Rwanda, Uganda, and the rebels agreed to a UN pullout plan. Uganda and Rwanda began pulling troops back from the front line. Download high resolution version (500x722, 164 KB)Photo taken 2001 during the visit of US Rep. ... Download high resolution version (500x722, 164 KB)Photo taken 2001 during the visit of US Rep. ... The PK is a 7. ... Joseph Kabila Kabange (born June 4, 1971), known commonly as Joseph Kabila, became president of the Democratic Republic of the Congo after the assassination of his father Laurent-Désiré Kabila in January 2001. ... Paul Kagame (born October 23, 1957) is the current President of Rwanda and the founder of the Rwandan Patriotic Front. ...


The Washington Post favorably contrasted Joseph Kabila—Western educated and English-speaking—with his father. Here was someone who made diplomats "hope that things have changed", whereas "Laurent Kabila stood as the major impediment to a peaceful settlement of the war launched in August 1998 to unseat him" The Lusaka peace deal "remained unfulfilled largely because he kept staging new offensives while blocking deployment of UN peacekeepers in government-held territory." An analyst from the London-based Economist Intelligence Unit is quoted saying "The only obstruction had been Kabila because the [Lusaka] accord called for the government's democratic transition and that was a threat to his power." ...


In April 2001, a UN panel of experts investigated the illegal exploitation of diamonds, cobalt, coltan, gold and other lucrative resources in the Congo. The report accused Rwanda, Uganda and Zimbabwe of systematically exploiting Congolese resources and recommended the Security Council impose sanctions. 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Coltan is the colloquial African name for (columbite-tantalite), a metallic ore comprising Niobium and Tantalum. ... General Name, Symbol, Number gold, Au, 79 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 6, d Appearance metallic yellow Atomic mass 196. ... Sanctions is the plural of sanction (see also penalty). ...


Despite frequent accusations of misdeeds in the Congo, the Rwandan government continued to receive substantially more international aid than went to the vastly larger Congo. Rwandan President Paul Kagame was also still respected internationally for his leadership in ending the Rwandan Genocide and for his efforts to rebuild and reunite Rwanda. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this section may require cleanup. ...


Nominal peace

A number of attempts to end the violence were made, but these were not successful. In 2002 Rwanda's situation began to worsen. Many members of the RCD either gave up fighting or decided to join Kabila's government. Moreover, the Banyamulenge, the backbone of Rwanda's militia forces, became increasingly tired of control from Kigali and the unending conflict. A number of them mutinied, leading to violent clashes between them and Rwandan forces. At the same time the western Congo was becoming increasingly secure under the younger Kabila. International aid was resumed as inflation was brought under control. The Banyamulenge are a group of Tutsi living in the eastern region of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). ... Kigali, population 851,024 (2005), is the capital and largest city of Rwanda. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Development aid. ...


The Sun City Agreement was formalized on April 19, 2002. It was a framework for providing the Congo with a unified, multipartite government and democratic elections; however, critics noted that there were no stipulations regarding the unification of the army, which weakened the effectiveness of the agreement. There have been several reported breaches of the Sun City agreement, but it has seen a reduction in the fighting. The Sun City Agreement was an agreement that was signed between some of the warring parties in the Second Congo War on 19 April 2002 at the luxury South African casino resort of Sun City, as a result of the Inter-Congolese dialogue (ICD). ... April 19 is the 109th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (110th in leap years). ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ...


On 30 July 2002, Rwanda and the Democratic Republic of Congo signed a peace deal after five days of talks in Pretoria, South Africa. The talks centered on two issues. One was the withdrawal of the estimated 20,000 Rwandan soldiers in the Congo. The other was the rounding up of the ex-Rwandan soldiers and the dismantling of the Hutu extremist militia known as Interahamwe, which took part in Rwanda's 1994 genocide and continues to operate out of eastern Congo. Rwanda had previously refused to withdraw until the Hutu militias were dealt with. July 30 is the 211th day (212th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 154 days remaining. ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... City motto: Praestantia Praevaleat Pretoria (May Pretoria Be Pre-eminent In Excellence) Province Gauteng Area  - % water 1,644 km² 0. ... The Interahamwe (Kinyarwanda meaning Those Who Stand Together or Those Who Fight Together) was the most important of the militias formed by the Hutu ethnic majority of Rwanda and, together with the smaller Impuzamugambi, was responsible for over 800,000 deaths in the Rwandan Genocide of 1994. ...


Signed on 6 September 2002, the Luanda Agreement formalized peace between Congo and Uganda. The treaty aimed to get Uganda to withdraw their troops from Bunia and to improve the relationship between the two countries, but implementation proved troublesome. Eleven days later the first Rwandan soldiers were withdrawn from the eastern DRC. On 5 October, Rwanda announced the completion of its withdrawal; MONUC confirmed the departure of over 20,000 Rwandan soldiers. September 6 is the 249th day of the year (250th in leap years). ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... Bunia is the district headquarters of Ituri district of Orientale Province. ... October 5 is the 278th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (279th in Leap years). ... MONUC is a French acronym for Mission de l Organisation des Nations unies en République démocratique du Congo, in English: Mission of the United Nations (UN) in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). ...


On 21 October the UN published its Expert Panel's Report of the pillage of natural resources by armed groups. Both Rwanda and Uganda rejected accusations that senior political and military figures were involved in illicit trafficking of plundered resources. October 21 is the 294th day of the year (295th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 71 days remaining. ...


On 17 December 2002, the Congolese parties of the Inter Congolese Dialogue, namely: the national government, the MLC, the RCD, the RCD-ML, the RCD-N, the domestic political opposition, representatives of civil society and the Mai Mai, signed the Global and All-Inclusive Agreement. The Agreement described a plan for transitional governance that should have resulted in legislative and presidential election within two years of its signing and marked the formal end of the Second Congo War. December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ...


Transitional government

On 18 July 2003, the Transitional Government came into being as specified in the Global and All-Inclusive Agreement out of the warring parties. The Agreement obliges the parties to carry out a plan to reunify the country, disarm and integrate the warring parties and hold elections. There have been numerous problems, resulting in continued instability in much of the country and a delay in the scheduled national elections from June 2005 to July 2006. Transitional Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo Stub: In 2001 President Luarent Kabila was assasinated and his son Joseph Kabila was named head of state. ... July 18 is the 199th day (200th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 166 days remaining. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Transitional Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo Stub: In 2001 President Luarent Kabila was assasinated and his son Joseph Kabila was named head of state. ...


The main cause for the continued weakness of the Transitional Government is the refusal by the former warring parties to give up power to a centralized and neutral national administration. All belligerents maintain administrative and military command-and-control structures separate from that of the Transitional Government. A high level of official corruption siphoning money away from civil servants, soldiers and infrastructure projects causes further instability. In the military: The exercise of authority and direction by a properly designated commander over assigned and attached forces in the accomplishment of the mission. ...


The fragility of the state has allowed continued violence and human rights abuses in the east. There are three significant centers of conflict: North and South Kivu, where a weakened FDLR continues to threaten the populace; Ituri, where MONUC has proved unable to contain the numerous militia and groups driving the Ituri conflict; and northern Katanga, where Mai-Mai created by Laurent Kabila slipped out of the control of Kinshasa. Ituri is a region located in the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). ... Combatants Lendu tribe, Nationalist and Integrationist Front (FNI) Hema tribe, Uganda, Union of Congolese Patriots, RCD-K Commanders Etienne Lona (FNI) James Kazini (UDPF) Casualties Civilians killed: 60,000 (estimation as of Nov. ... Capital Lubumbashi Created June 1960 Dissolved January 1963 Demonym Katangan Currency Katanga franc Katanga is the southern province of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, regional capital Lubumbashi (formerly Elizabethville). ...


Factions in the Congo conflict

The many armed groups in the conflict may be divided into four broad categories. Given the fluid nature of the war, there have been numerous exceptions and caveats, and groups within a single category have violently clashed in the past over resources and territory.

Rwandan Patriotic Front-aligned forces 
Included the national armies of the Tutsi-dominated governments of Rwanda and Burundi, the militia groups created by the ethnic Tutsi Banyamulenge residing in the DRC and the Banyamulenge-dominated Rally for Congolese Democracy (RCD) rebel forces based in Goma. Tutsi-aligned forces inside the DRC are most active in North and South Kivu provinces, and have territory extending westward toward Kinshasa. Goals include protecting the national security of Rwanda and Burundi, defending Tutsis in the DRC, checking the influence of Uganda and exploiting natural resources.
President Yoweri Museveni of Uganda in Washington D.C
President Yoweri Museveni of Uganda in Washington D.C
Extremist Hutu-aligned forces 
Included Rwandan Hutus responsible for the 1994 genocide, Burundian rebels seeking to overthrow the government, Congolese Hutus and affiliated Mai-Mai militias. The major Hutu group currently is the Forces Démocratiques de la Libération du Rwanda (FDLR) operating in the Kivus. Goals include expelling foreign Tutsi forces, ethnic cleansing of the Banyamulenge, overthrowing the governments of Rwanda and Burundi, and gaining control of resources.
Uganda-aligned forces 
Included Uganda's national army and various Uganda-backed rebel groups, such as the Movement for the Liberation of Congo, in control of much of the northeast and central north of the DRC. Stated goals include protecting the borders of Uganda from invasion by DRC-based armed groups such as the Allied Democratic Forces and People's Redemption Army, which may not exist, and destroying rebel bases in the DRC; Uganda had previously claimed that the Kabila government had failed to take action. The United Nations has named Uganda as one country that illegally extracted natural resources.
Kinshasa-aligned forces  
Included the Congolese national army, various antiforeigner Mai-Mai groups, and allied nations such as Zimbabwe, Angola, Chad, Sudan and Namibia. They control the east and south of the DRC. The main goal is the creation of a strong state in control of its territory and borders, and thus regaining control of the natural resources.

The ethnic violence between Hutu- and Tutsi-aligned forces has been a driving impetus for much of the conflict, with people on both sides fearing their annihilation as a race. The Kinshasa- and Hutu-aligned forces enjoyed close relations as their interests in expelling the armies and proxy forces of Uganda and Rwanda dovetail. While the Uganda- and Rwanda-aligned forces worked closely together to gain territory at the expense of Kinshasa, competition over access to resources created a fissure in their relationship. There were reports that Uganda permitted Kinshasa to send arms to the Hutu FDLR via territory held by Uganda-backed rebels as Uganda, Kinshasa and the Hutus are all seeking, in varying degrees, to check the influence of Rwanda and its affiliates. The Rwandan Patriotic Front (also translated as: Rwandese Patriotic Front; or referred to as: Patriotic Front of Rwanda) abbreviated as RPF (also often referred to as FPR from French: Front patriotique rwandais) is the current ruling political party of Rwanda, led by President Paul Kagame. ... The Banyamulenge are a group of Tutsi living in the eastern region of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). ... The Rally for Congolese Democracy (RCD) is a Congolese rebel group operating in the western part of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). ... President Yoweri Kaguta Museveni of Uganda at the White House. ... President Yoweri Kaguta Museveni of Uganda at the White House. ... Yoweri Kaguta Museveni (born c. ... The Hutu are a Central African ethnic group, living mainly in Rwanda and Burundi. ... Mai-Mai, also known as Mayi-Mayi, is a general term referring to a broad variety of Congolese militia groups active in the Second Congo War currently taking place in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). ... Ethnic cleansing refers to various policies or practices aimed at the displacement of an ethnic group from a particular territory. ... The Uganda Peoples Defense Force (UPDF)--previously the National Resistance Army--constitutes the armed forces of Uganda. ... The Movement for the Liberation of Congo (French: Mouvement pour la Liberation du Congo) is a political party in Democratic Republic of the Congo. ... The Allied Democratic Forces (ADF)is a rebel group opposed to the Democratic Republic of the Congo. ... Peoples Redemption Army (PRA) is a rebel group, allegedly based in the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), founded by renegade Ugandan army officers and consisting of around 2,000 Ugandan rebels. ... Kinshasa (formerly Léopoldville or, before 1960, also Leopoldstad) is the capital and largest city of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. ...


Nature of the conflict

The Congo war has largely been one without large battles or clearly defined front lines. While significant numbers of trained soldiers from national armies have been involved, the rulers of those nations have been extremely loath to risk their forces in open combat. The equipment and training of the national armies represents a major investment for the poor states of the region and losses would be difficult to replace. The vast area of Congo dwarfs the armed groups, so military units have been based around strategically important strongholds such as ports, airfields, mining centers and the few passable roads, rather than guarding strictly defined areas of control. A front line is a line of confrontation in an armed conflict, most often a war. ... Seaport, a painting by Claude Lorrain, 1638 The Port of Wellington at night. ... An aerial view of Incheon International Airport, a large airport. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


As a result, the war has largely been fought by loosely organized militia groups. These untrained and undisciplined forces have greatly contributed to the violence of the conflict by frequent looting, rape and ethnic cleansing. It has also made peace far harder to enforce as the militias continue operating despite cease-fires between their patrons. These uncontrolled militias and their government allies have killed many Congolese. Many more have died from disease and starvation brought about by the chaos in the region. Lexington Minuteman representing militia minuteman John Parker Militia is the activity of one or more citizens organized to provide defense or paramilitary service, or those engaged in such activity. ... Ethnic cleansing refers to various policies or practices aimed at the displacement of an ethnic group from a particular territory. ... It has been suggested that Refractory disease be merged into this article or section. ... A female child during the Nigerian-Biafran war of the late 1960s, shown suffering the effects of severe hunger and malnutrition. ...


Much of the conflict has focused on gaining control of the abundant natural resources of the Congo. The African Great Lakes states have largely paid their military expenses by extracting minerals, diamonds, and timber from the eastern Congo. These efforts have been directed by officers from the Rwandan and Ugandan armies who have grown wealthy as a result. Over time, the Rwandan national army has become far less interested in hunting down those responsible for the genocide and more concerned with protecting their sphere of control in eastern Congo. The occupying forces have levied high taxes on the local population and confiscated almost all of the livestock and much of the food in the region. The Great Lakes and the East African coastline as seen from space. ... This article is about the gemstone. ... Timber in storage for later processing at a sawmill Timber is a term used to describe wood, either standing or that has been processed for use—from the time trees are felled, to its end product as a material suitable for industrial use—as structural material for construction or wood...


Competition for control of resources between the anti-Kabila forces has also resulted in conflict. In 1999, Ugandan and Rwandan troops clashed in the city of Kisangani. The RCD also split into two factions, greatly weakening the anti-Kabila rebel forces and limiting their operation to the eastern portion of the country. However, the forces loyal to and allied with Kabila were too depleted and exhausted to take advantage of this. 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... Kisangani, formerly Stanleyville, (population 500,000) is a city in the Democratic Republic of the Congo in Central Africa. ...


Effects

The conflict has had wide ranging effects. The war has served to destroy the economy of an already-poor region as foreign investors have fled and resources have been devoted to fighting the war. Much of the already scant infrastructure in the Congo has been destroyed. The continuation and escalation of ethnic hatreds that fuelled the Rwandan genocide and quickly spilled over into Congo have made the postcolonial ethnic division of the region even more concrete and intractable. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this section may require cleanup. ...

An organization of rape survivors in South Kivu
An organization of rape survivors in South Kivu

Rape has been used as a weapon of war throughout the conflict. In October 2004 the human rights group Amnesty International reported that 40,000 cases of rape had been reported over the previous six years, the majority occurring in South Kivu. This is an incomplete count as the humanitarian and international organizations compiling the figures do not have access to much of the conflict area and only women who have reported for treatment are included. The actual number of women raped is thus assumed to be much higher. All armed parties in the conflict are guilty of rape, though the militia and various insurgent groups have been most culpable. Of particular medical concern is the abnormally high proportion of women suffering vaginal fistulae, usually as a result of being gang raped. The endemic nature of rape in the conflict has, beyond the physical and psychological trauma to the individual women, contributed to the spread of sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV, in the region. Rape has been used as a weapon of war in both the First Congo War and Second Congo War. ... Rape has been used as a weapon of war in both the First Congo War and Second Congo War. ... Sud-Kivu is a province of the Democratic Republic of Congo. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... Amnesty International symbol Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a non-governmental organization (NGO) comprising a worldwide movement of people who campaign for internationally recognized human rights.[1] Essentially it compares actual practices of human rights with internationally accepted standards and demands compliance where these have not... Sud-Kivu is a province of the Democratic Republic of Congo. ... In medicine, a fistula (pl. ... For the domesticated crop plant called rape, see rapeseed. ... Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) — also known as sexually transmissible diseases, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), venereal diseases (VD), or infrequently, social disease — are diseases or infections that have a significant probability of transmission between humans by means of sexual contact, vaginal intercourse, oral sex, or anal sex. ... Human immunodeficiency virus or HIV is a retrovirus that causes Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), a condition in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections. ...


Deaths resulting from the war are estimated at 3.8 million from surveys conducted by the International Rescue Committee. The vast majority of these deaths (80%–90%) resulted from easily preventable diseases and malnourishment resulting from the disruption of health service, agriculture and infrastructure, and from refugee displacement. The 2004 IRC report also includes death toll estimates of 3.4 million and 4.4 million, a range resulting from changes in basic assumptions in the model.


Effects within the DRC include the displacement of some 3.4 million people, as well as the impoverishment of hundreds of thousands. The majority of the displaced are from the eastern section of the country. Nearly two million others have been displaced in the neighboring countries of Burundi, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda.


The war has also raised questions about sub-Saharan Africa as a whole. The increase in democratization and the end of apartheid in South Africa raised great hope for the region in the post Cold War world. Some saw the prospect of an "African Renaissance." The seemingly unending violence in the Congo has dashed many of these hopes and damaged the reputations of a number of statesmen who were once seen as reformers. Fondation chirezi, in the African Great Lakes region, is a local NGO seeking to build a 'nonkilling society'. Its seminar reports identify the complexity and urgency of the issue. A geographical map of Africa, showing the ecological break that defines the sub-Saharan area A political map showing national divisions in relation to the ecological break Sub-Saharan Africa or is the term used to describe those countries of the African continent that are not considered part of political... Democracy (literally rule by the people, from the Greek δημοκρατία-demokratia demos, people, and kratos, rule) is a form of government. ... A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... The African Renaissance is a concept popularized by South African President Thabo Mbeki in which the African people and nations are called upon to solve the many problems troubling the African continent. ... Fondation Chirezi (FOCHI) is a local non-governmental organisation established in the African Great Lakes Region by Floribert Kazingufu Kasirusiru (Flory Zozo). ... The Great Lakes and the East African coastline as seen from space. ...


The devastating effects on the economy and social institutions have led to serious impacts on the wildlife of the region. In September 2005, a survey reported by the World Wide Fund for Nature showed that the population of hippopotamuses in Virunga National Park's Lake Edward has plummeted to less than 900 individuals from an estimated 29,000 thirty years previously. [3] The decline is attributed to poaching for meat as well as the teeth, which are used to produce illegal ivory. Additionally, about half of the world's 700 wild mountain gorillas live in the same park. Various species of deer are commonly seen wildlife across the Americas and Eurasia. ... 2005 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December- → Deaths in September September 28 : Constance Baker Motley September 25 : M. Scott Peck September 25 : Don Adams September 20 : Simon Wiesenthal September 14 : Robert Wise September 10 : Hermann Bondi September 8 : Donald Horne September 7 : Moussa Arafat... The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) is an international non-governmental organisation for the conservation, research and restoration of the natural environment, formerly named the World Wildlife Fund, which remains its official name in the United States and Canada. ... Binomial name Hippopotamus amphibius Linnaeus, 1758 The Hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius), from the Greek ‘ιπποπόταμος (hippopotamos, hippos meaning horse and potamos meaning river), is a large, plant-eating African mammal, one of only two extant, and three or four recently extinct, species in the family Hippopotamidae. ... The Virunga National Park lies in the Virunga Mountains of the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo, bordering Volcans National Park in Rwanda and Rwenzori National Park in Uganda. ... Lake Edward can be seen on this map of Uganda Lake Edward is one of the Great Lakes of Africa. ... For other uses, see Poaching (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Trinomial name Gorilla berengei berengei Matschie, 1914 The Mountain Gorilla (Gorilla beringei beringei) is one of two subspecies of Eastern Gorillas. ...


On December 19, 2005, the United Nations International Court of Justice ruled that the DRC's sovereignty had been violated by Uganda, and that Uganda had looted billions of dollars worth of resources. The DRC government has asked for $10 billion in compensation. On July 30, 2006, first elections were held in DR Congo, after approval of a new constitution with democracy. A second round of election was held on October 30, 2006. The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... The International Court of Justice (known colloquially as the World Court or ICJ; French: ) is the primary judicial organ of the United Nations. ...


Glossary of armed groups

The Mission of the United Nations in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), abbreviated MONUC (a French acronym for Mission de l Organisation des Nations Unies en République démocratique du Congo) is a United Nations peacekeeping force established on February 24, 2000, by Resolution 1291 of the United...

Notes and references

  1. ^ "Africa's great war", The Economist, 2002-07-04.
  2. ^ Frederick Cooper, Africa Since 1940
  3. ^ Penguin Atlas of African History
  4. ^ Ernesto "Che" Guevara, The African Dream
  5. ^ Hate messages on East Congolese radio, BBC News, 12 August 1998
  6. ^ Congo At War: A Briefing of the Internal and External Players in the Central African Conflict, International Crisis Group, 17 November 1998
  7. ^ 1999 World Report: Sudan, Human Rights Watch, 1999

For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... For the United States holiday, the Fourth of July, see Independence Day (United States). ... The current BBC News logo BBC News and Current Affairs is a major arm of the BBC responsible for the corporations newsgathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... August 12 is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean. ... The International Crisis Group is an international, non-profit, non-governmental organization whose mission is to prevent and resolve deadly conflicts through field-based analysis and high-level advocacy. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean. ... Human Rights Watch Banner Human Rights Watch is a United States-based international non-government organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights. ...

External links

Reports and articles (chronological)

... Amnesty International symbol Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a non-governmental organization (NGO) comprising a worldwide movement of people who campaign for internationally recognized human rights.[1] Essentially it compares actual practices of human rights with internationally accepted standards and demands compliance where these have not... October 26 is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 66 days remaining. ... Human Rights Watch Banner Human Rights Watch is a United States-based international non-government organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights. ... March 7 is the 66th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (67th in leap years). ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The current BBC News logo BBC News and Current Affairs is a major arm of the BBC responsible for the corporations newsgathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... January 5 is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Johann Hari (born 1979) is a British journalist and writer. ... May 6 is the 126th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (127th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... The Independent is a British compact newspaper published by Tony OReillys Independent News & Media. ...

Maps

Further reading

  • Berkeley, Bill. (2001) The Graves Are Not Yet Full: Race, Tribe, and Power in the Heart of Africa Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-00642-6. A narrative approach illustrating how political figures manipulate large groups into violence. Not focused on the current Congo conflict, but useful in understanding "ethnic conflict" generally in Africa.
  • Clark, John F. (2002) The African Stakes in the Congo War New York: Palgrave McMillan. ISBN 1-4039-6723-7. The only book dealing specifically with the current war uses a political science approach to understanding motivations and power struggles, but is not an account of specific incidents and individuals.
  • Edgerton, Robert G. (2002) The Troubled Heart of Africa: A History of the Congo St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-30486-2. There is a modicum of information on the troubles since 1996 in the latter sections.
  • Gondola, Ch. Didier. (2002) The History of Congo, Greenwood Press, ISBN 0-313-31696-1. Covers events up to January 2002.


  Results from FactBites:
 
Second Congo War - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (6543 words)
The Second Congo War was a conflict that took place largely in the territory of Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire).
Congo has had a troubled history since it was ruled as a colonial possession until 1908 by King Léopold II of Belgium as the Congo Free State and afterwards by Belgium (see Belgian Congo).
One was the withdrawal of the estimated 20,000 Rwandan soldiers in the Congo.
Democratic Republic of the Congo - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4443 words)
The Congo territory was acquired formally by Leopold at the Conference of Berlin in 1885.
The Belgian Congo, which was also rich in uranium deposits, supplied the uranium that was used by the USA to build the atomic bombs that destroyed the Japanese towns of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, at the end of World War II.
The Congo is situated at the heart of the west-central portion of sub-Saharan Africa and is bounded by (Clockwise from the west) Angola, the Republic of Congo, the Central African Republic, the Sudan, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Tanzania across Lake Tanganyika, and Zambia.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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