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Encyclopedia > Second Battle of Ypres
Second Battle of Ypres
Part of the Western Front of World War I

The Second Battle of Ypres by Richard Jack, 146 x 234½ in., at the Canadian War Museum.
Date Thursday 22 April - 25 May 1915
Location Ypres, Belgium
Result Indecisive
Combatants
Flag of Belgium Belgium
Flag of Canada Canada
Flag of France France
  • Flag of France Colonial forces

Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom
Image File history File links Gnome-globe. ... Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Combatants Belgium British Empire Australia[1] Canada[2] India[3] Newfoundland[4] New Zealand[5] South Africa[6] United Kingdom France and French Overseas Empire Portugal[7] United States Germany Commanders No unified command until 1918, then Ferdinand Foch Moltke → Falkenhayn → Hindenburg and Ludendorff → Hindenburg and Groener Casualties ~4,800... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Image File history File links The_Second_Battle_of_Ypres. ... The Canadian War Museum in Ottawa, Ontario. ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Geography Country Belgium Community Flemish Community Region Flemish Region Province West Flanders Arrondissement Ypres Coordinates , , Area 130. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belgium_(civil). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Canada-1868-Red. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ...

Flag of German Empire German Empire
Commanders
Flag of the United Kingdom Horace Smith-Dorrien[1]
Flag of France Henri Gabriel Putz[2]
Flag of Belgium A.-L.-T. de Ceuninck[3]
Flag of German Empire Albrecht of Württemberg[4]
Strength
8 infantry divisions[5] 7 infantry divisions
Casualties
70,000 dead, wounded, or missing 35,000 dead, wounded, or missing

The Second Battle of Ypres was the first time Germany used poison gas on a large scale on the Western Front in World War I and the first time a former colonial force (Canadians) pushed back a major European power (Germans) on European soil, which occurred in the battle of St. Julien-Kitcheners' Wood. Image File history File links Imperial-India-Blue-Ensign. ... Anthem God Save The Queen/King British India, circa 1860 Capital Calcutta (1858-1912), New Delhi (1912-1947) Language(s) Hindi, Urdu, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1877-1901 Victoria  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - January-December 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_German_Empire. ... For German colonial territories, see German Colonial Empire. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... General Sir Horace Lockwood Smith-Dorrien General Sir Horace Lockwood Smith-Dorrien (May 26, 1858–August 12, 1930) was a British soldier and commander of the British II Corps of the BEF during the Great War. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belgium_(civil). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_German_Empire. ... Duke Albrecht of Würtemberg (1865-1939) was a commander of the German Army in World War I in Belgium. ... Combatants Belgium British Empire Australia[1] Canada[2] India[3] Newfoundland[4] New Zealand[5] South Africa[6] United Kingdom France and French Overseas Empire Portugal[7] United States Germany Commanders No unified command until 1918, then Ferdinand Foch Moltke → Falkenhayn → Hindenburg and Ludendorff → Hindenburg and Groener Casualties ~4,800... The Battle of the Frontiers was a series of battles fought along the eastern frontier of France and in southern Belgium shortly after the outbreak of the First World War. ... The Battle of Liège was the opening battle of the German invasion into Belgium, and the first battle of World War I. The siege of the city lasted from August 5 until the 16th when the final fort surrendered. ... This article or section is incomplete and may require expansion and/or cleanup. ... The Great Retreat covers the slow retreat by the Allies to the River Marne after their defeat by the Germans at Battle of Mons on 23 August. ... Course of the Race to the Sea showing dates of encounters and highlighting the significant battles. ... The Battles of Neuve Chapelle and Artois was a battle in the First World War. ... Combatants France United Kingdom German Empire Commanders Joseph Joffre Unknown Strength 9 French & British divisions (initial) Unknown Casualties 100,000 French 11,000 British 75,000 A battle on the Western Front of World War I, the First Battle of Artois was fought at the same time as the Second... The Battle of Hill 70 took place took place near the French city of Lens on 15 August and 16 August 1917 and was fought between the Canadian Corps under the command of Gen. ... Combatants France United Kingdom German Empire Commanders Auguste Dubail John French Crown Prince Rupprecht Strength French Tenth Army 6 British Divisions German Sixth Army Casualties 48,000 French 50,000 British 20,000 German A battle on the Western Front of World War I, the Second Battle of Artois is... The Battle of Loos was one of the major British offensives mounted on the Western Front in 1915 during World War I. The battle was the British component of the combined Anglo-French offensive known as the Second Battle of Artois. ... Combatants  France  German Empire Commanders Philippe Pétain Robert Nivelle Erich von Falkenhayn Strength About 30,000 on 21 February 1916 About 150,000 on 21 February 1916 Casualties 378,000; of whom 120,000 died. ... The Battle of Hulluch was a conflict in World War One, April 27-29, 1916, involving the 16th Division of the British Armys 19th Corps. ... Combatants British Empire Australia Canada New Zealand Newfoundland South Africa United Kingdom France German Empire Commanders Douglas Haig Joseph Joffre Max von Gallwitz Fritz von Below Strength 13 British & 11 French divisions (initial) 51 British and 48 French divisions (final) 10. ... The Battle of Arras took place from 9 April to 16 May 1917. ... Combatants Canada United Kingdom German Empire Commanders Julian Byng Arthur Currie Ludwig von Falkenhausen Strength 200,000 Unknown Casualties 3,598 dead, 7,004 wounded[1][2] 20,000 dead or wounded, 4,000 captured The Battle of Vimy Ridge was one of the opening battles in a larger British... Combatants France German Empire Commanders Robert Nivelle Charles Mangin François Anthoine Mazel von Boehm Fritz von Below Strength 1. ... The Battle of Messines was launched on June 7, 1917 by British General Herbert Plumers second army, which included the 16th (Irish) Division and the 36th (Ulster) Division, near the villages of Mesen (in French Messines, as it was on most maps at that time) and Wytschaete. ... Passchendaele village, before and after the Battle of Passchendaele The Battle of Passchendaele, otherwise known as the Third Battle of Ypres, was one of the major battles of World War I, fought by British, ANZAC, and Canadian soldiers against the German army near Ypres ( Ieper in Flemish) in West Flanders... -1... This article is about the First World War. ... British and Portuguese captured by German forces in the Flanders region (1918) British 55th (West Lancashire) Division troops blinded by tear gas during the battle, 10 April 1918. ... The Third Battle of the Aisne was a German offensive during World War I that focused on capturing the Chemin des Dames Ridge before the American Expeditionary Force could arrive in France. ... Combatants United States France British Empire German Empire Commanders John J. Pershing James Harbord Crown Prince Wilhelm Strength 2 U.S. divisions French 6th Army (elements) British IX Corps (elements) 5 German divisions (elements) Casualties 9,777 unknown The Battle of Belleau Wood was a battle of the first World... Combatants  France  United Kingdom  United States  German Empire Casualties 168,000 The Second Battle of the Marne, or Battle of Reims, was a major World War I battle fought from July 15 to August 5, 1918, near the Marne River. ... The Battle of Chateau Thierry was fought on July 18, 1918. ... Combatants Australia  United States German Empire Commanders John Monash Casualties 976 KIA, 338 WIA 2000 KIA, 1600 POW The Battle of Hamel (4 July 1918) was a planned attack launched by the Australian Corps of the Australian Imperial Force against German positions in the town of Hamel in northern France... Combatants Belgium British Empire France United States of America German Empire Commanders King Albert I Ferdinand Foch Douglas Haig Philippe Petain John Pershing Erich Ludendorff Casualties 411,636 British 531,000 French 127,000+ American 785,733 The Hundred Days Offensive was the final offensive in World War I by... Early detection of chemical agents Sociopolitical climate of chemical warfare While the study of chemicals and their military uses was widespread in China, the use of toxic materials has historically been viewed with mixed emotions and some disdain in the West (especially when the enemy were doing it). ... Combatants Belgium British Empire Australia[1] Canada[2] India[3] Newfoundland[4] New Zealand[5] South Africa[6] United Kingdom France and French Overseas Empire Portugal[7] United States Germany Commanders No unified command until 1918, then Ferdinand Foch Moltke → Falkenhayn → Hindenburg and Ludendorff → Hindenburg and Groener Casualties ~4,800... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


The Second Battle of Ypres consisted of four separate engagements: Geography Country Belgium Community Flemish Community Region Flemish Region Province West Flanders Arrondissement Ypres Coordinates , , Area 130. ...

The scene of the battles was the Ypres salient where the Allied line which followed the canal bulged eastward around the town of Ypres, Belgium. North of the salient were the Belgians; covering the northern part of the salient itself were two French divisions (one Metropolitan and one Algerian) The eastern part of the salient was defended by one Canadian division and two UK divisions. is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 133rd day of the year (134th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Ypres Salient is the area around Ypres in Belgium which was the scene of some of the biggest battles in World War I. In military terms, a salient is a battlefield feature that projects into enemy territory. ... Geography Country Belgium Community Flemish Community Region Flemish Region Province West Flanders Arrondissement Ypres Coordinates , , Area 130. ...


In total during the battles, the British Commonwealth forces were the II and V Corps of the Second Army made up of the 1st, 2nd and 3rd Cavalry divisions, and the 4th, 27th, 28th, 50th, Lahore and 1st Canadian Divisions.[6] A number of nations have had a Second Army British Second Army German Second Army Soviet Second Army Turkish Second Army U.S. Second Army This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The 1st Cavalry Division was a British Army First World War and Second World War formation formed in 1939 from Yeomanry Regiments. ... The 4th Infantry Division has been a regular British Army division since World War I, including during the Second World War. ... The British 27th Division was a First World War regular army infantry division formed in late 1914 by combining various units that had been acting as garrisons about the British Empire. ... The 28th Division was a regular British Army formation in World War I . ... The British 50th (Northumbrian) Division was a first-line Territorial Force division. ... The Canadian Corps - 1st Canadian Division – World War I Formed in August of 1914, the 1st Canadian Division was initially made up from Provisional Battalions that were named after their Province of origin but these Provisional titles were dropped before the Division arrived in Britain on October 14, 1914. ...

Contents

The Battle of Gravenstafel (22nd - 23rd April)

Gas attack on Gravenstafel

At around 17:00 (5:00 pm) on 22 April 1915, the German Army released one hundred and sixty eight tons of chlorine gas over a 6.5 km (4 mile) front on the part of the line held by French Territorial and colonial Moroccan and Algerian troops of the French 45th and 78th divisions.[7] This was the first gas attack in military history.[8] Approximately 6,000 French and colonial troops died within ten minutes, primarily from asphyxiation subsequent to tissue damage in the lungs. Many more were blinded.[9] The chlorine gas, being denser than air, quickly filled the trenches, forcing the troops to climb out into heavy enemy fire. is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The German Army (Deutsches Heer) was the name given the combined armed forces of the German Empire, also known as the Imperial Army (Reichsheer) or Imperial German Army. ... General Name, Symbol, Number chlorine, Cl, 17 Series halogens Group, Period, Block 17 (VIIA), 3, p Density, Hardness 3. ... The French Colonial Forces or Troupes Coloniales is a general designation for the military forces that garrisoned and were largely recruited from the French colonial empire from the late 17th century until 1960. ... Asphyxia is a condition of severely deficient supply of oxygen to the body. ... Trench warfare is a form of war in which both opposing armies have static lines of defense. ...


With the survivors abandoning their positions en masse,[10] a 4 mile gap was left in the front line. However, the German High Command had not foreseen the effectiveness of their new weapon, and so had not put any reserves ready in the area.[11] With the coming of darkness and the lack of follow up troops the German forces did not exploit the gap, and the Canadian Division reinforced the gap and held that part of the line against further gas attacks until 3 May 1915 at a cost of 6000 wounded or dead. is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


One thousand of these "original" troops were killed and 4,975 were wounded from an initial strength of 10,000.[citation needed]


Kitcheners' Wood

The name of this oak plantation derived from the French name, Bois-de-Cuisinères, a reference to the fact that French soldiers housed their field kitchens there, and not in reference as is sometimes thought to the British general officer of the same name. (Thus the name of the feature is "Kitcheners' " with the apostrophe after the "s", indicating the plural possessive.) Species See List of Quercus species The term oak can be used as part of the common name of any of several hundred species of trees and shrubs in the genus Quercus (from Latin oak tree), and some related genera, notably Cyclobalanopsis and Lithocarpus. ... For other uses of the word Kitchener please see Kitchener (disambiguation) Map of Waterloo Regional Municipality, Ontario with Kitchener in red. ...


At Kitcheners' Wood, the 10th Battalion (Calgary Highlanders) of the 2nd Canadian Brigade Group (CBG) was ordered to counter-attack; they formed up after 23:00 (11pm) on the night of 22 April. The 16th Battalion (Canadian Scottish) of the 3rd CBG arrived as they were forming, tasked to support the advance. Both battalions had over 800 men at the start line (today called a "line of departure") and formed up in waves of two companies each. The order to advance was given at 23:46 (11:46pm). The leading waves of the 10th Bn covered half the distance from the start line to the Wood, running into a strong hedge interlaced with wire. No reconnaissance had been done prior and the battalion was forced to break through the obstacle with rifle butts, bringing down fire from alerted German machinegunners about 200 yards distant. Both battalions charged the last 200 yards to the wood, throwing the Germans out, and suffering more than 75 percent casualties. The Calgary Highlanders is a Land Force reserve infantry regiment, headquartered at Mewata Armouries in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Canadian Gaelic (Gaelic: Gàidhlig Canadanach, locally just Gaelic or The Gaelic) is the dialect of Scots Gaelic that has been spoken continuously for more than 200 years on Cape Breton Island and in isolated enclaves on the Nova Scotia mainland. ... Mixed reconnaissance patrol of the Polish Home Army and the Soviet Red Army during Operation Tempest, 1944 Reconnaissance is the military term for the active gathering of information about an enemy, or other conditions, by physical observation. ...


After the war, Marshal Ferdinand Foch, the Allied Supreme Commander, remarked that the "greatest act of the war" had been the assault on Kitcheners' Wood by the 10th and 16th Battalions.[12] Ferdinand Foch OM GCB (October 2, 1851 – March 20, 1929) was a French soldier, military theorist, and writer credited with possessing the most original and subtle mind in the French Army in the early 20th century. ...


The Battle of St Julien (24th April - 4th May)

On the morning of 24 April, 1915, the Germans released another cloud of chlorine gas, this time directly towards the re-formed Canadian lines just west of the village of St. Julien. On seeing the approach of the greenish-grey gas cloud, word was passed among the Canadian troops to urinate on their handkerchiefs and place these over their noses and mouths.[13] [14]

Francis Alexander Carron Scrimger, V.C., M.D. Capt. Scrimger, with the 2nd Canadian Field Ambulance, may have passed the order to use urine to counteract the gas, but there is some doubt (see note 10). Capt. Scrimger won a Victoria Cross for other actions on 25 April.
Francis Alexander Carron Scrimger, V.C., M.D. Capt. Scrimger, with the 2nd Canadian Field Ambulance, may have passed the order to use urine to counteract the gas, but there is some doubt (see note 10). Capt. Scrimger won a Victoria Cross for other actions on 25 April.[15] [16]

The village of St. Julien was occupied by German troops after their attack initiated with gas broke the Canadian line there. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 486 × 600 pixels Full resolution (1400 × 1727 pixel, file size: 476 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Web site copyrights original content only. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 486 × 600 pixels Full resolution (1400 × 1727 pixel, file size: 476 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Web site copyrights original content only. ... Francis Alexander Caron Scrimger was a Canadian recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces. ... For other uses, see Victoria Cross (disambiguation). ...


The following day the York and Durham Brigade units of the Northumberland Division counterattacked failing to secure their objectives but establishing a new line close to the village. The third day the Northumberland Brigade attacked again, briefly taking part of the village but forced back with the loss of more than 1,900 men and 40 officers - two thirds of its strength.[17]


The Battle of Frezenberg (8th - 13th May)

The battle began the 8th of May when German forces attempted to break Allied lines held by the 27th and 28th divisions. On the 10th of May the Germans released another gas cloud but made little progress. The battle ended after six days of fighting with a German advance of 1000 yards.


The Battle of Bellewaarde (24th - 25th May)

On the 24th of May the Germans released a gas attack on a 4.5 mile front. British troops were able to defend against initial German attacks but eventually they were forced to retreat to the north and south. Failed British counterattacks forced a British retreat 1000 yards northwards. Upon the end of the battle the Ypres salient was 3 miles deep.


Aftermath

By the end of the battle the size of the Ypres Salient had been reduced such that Ypres itself was closer to the line. In time it would be reduced by shelling until virutally nothing would remain standing.

Ruins of Ypres market square.
Ruins of Ypres market square.

The surprise use of poison gas was not a historical first (poison gas had already been used on the Eastern Front) but did come as a tactical surprise to the Allies. After Second Ypres, both sides developed more sophisticated gas weapons, and countermeasures, and never again was the use of gas either a surprise, nor especially effective. The British quickly developed their own gas attacks using them for the first time at the Battle of Loos in late September. Development of gas protection was instituted and the first examples of the PH helmet issued in July 1915. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (848x558, 83 KB) Summary This image by the International News Service is titled The Red Ruins of Ypres. The caption reads: Ypres, the British soldiers Wipers, was the scene of much of the bloodiest fighting of the war. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (848x558, 83 KB) Summary This image by the International News Service is titled The Red Ruins of Ypres. The caption reads: Ypres, the British soldiers Wipers, was the scene of much of the bloodiest fighting of the war. ... The Battle of Loos was one of the major British offensives mounted on the Western Front in 1915 during World War I. The battle was the British component of the combined Anglo-French offensive known as the Second Battle of Artois. ... The Phenate Hexane (PH) Helmet was an early type of gas mask issued by the British Army in the First World War, to protect troops against Chlorine, Phosgene, and tear gases. ...


The Canadian Division was forced to absorb several thousand replacements shortly afterwards, but had presented a mostly favourable image to their allies and the world. Another Canadian Division would take to the field in late 1915, joined eventually by a third and fourth. The battle also blooded many commanders, singling out some for praise, such as brigade commander Arthur Currie, and others for criticism, such as Garnet Hughes. General Sir Arthur William Currie General Sir Arthur William Currie, GCMG, KCB (December 5, 1875 – November 30, 1933) was the first Canadian commander of the Canadian Expeditionary Force (a corps of four divisions) on the Western Front during World War I. Currie was among the most successful generals of the... Major-General Garnet Hughes was a Canadian military officer during World War I. Hughes was the son of Sir Sam Hughes, a Canadian politician and Minister of the Militia during the war. ...


The inadequacies of training and doctrine in the early CEF was made obvious by the antique tactics used at Kitcheners' Wood and St. Julien, though tactics in the British Colonial armies would be slow to evolve. At Second Ypres, the smallest tactical unit in the infantry was a company; by 1917 it would be the section. The Canadians would be employed offensively later in 1915, but not successfully. Standard NATO code for a friendly infantry company. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ...


A Third Battle of Ypres, more commonly known as Passchendaele was fought in the autumn of 1917. The battle would be marked by Canadian tactical successes as a result of many innovations in organization, training and tactics in both the infantry and artillery. Passchendaele village, before and after the Battle of Passchendaele The Battle of Passchendaele, otherwise known as the Third Battle of Ypres, was one of the major battles of World War I, fought by British, ANZAC, and Canadian soldiers against the German army near Ypres (Ieper in Flemish) in West Flanders... For the village, see Passendale. ...


Canadian honour

After the war, Second Ypres and St. Julien were granted as Battle Honours, but to the dismay of the units that fought there, Kitcheners' Wood was not. The custom has been to award, to those units who took part, the right to display the name of a particular battle, campaign or war. ...


The commanding officer of the Canadian Scottish Regiment (Princess Mary's) which perpetuate the 16th Battalion (Canadian Scottish) CEF, organized a lobby to have a dress distinction awarded for the part the 10th and 16th Battalions played at Kitcheners' Wood, which was never recognized with a Battle Honour. In the 1930s a distinctive brass shoulder title was awarded. In the case of the Canadian Scottish, the title consisted of a brass acorn and oak leaf over a red felt backing surrounded by the title CANADIAN SCOTTISH. The Calgary Highlanders and Winnipeg Light Infantry, both of whom perpetuated the 10th Battalion (Canadians) CEF, were also awarded distinctive shoulder badges, though their pattern consisted only of a brass badge with the initials of the regiment directly on the oakleaf. The WLI were absorbed into the Royal Winnipeg Rifles in 1955 and the WLI badge fell out of use. The acorn and oak leaf are symbolic of the heavy oak trees of Kitcheners' Wood which were a significant obstacle to infantrymen in 1915. Photos taken two years later showed that the forest was eventually obliterated during the fighting. Tradition in the Canadian Army has been that metal shoulder badges consist only of letters or numerals, with only a few exceptions. The use of honorary distinctions is common, however, in the British Army, such as the addition of the Sphinx to regimental badges. The Canadian Scottish Regiment (Princess Marys) is an infantry regiment of the Canadian Armed Forces based in British Columbia. ... The Calgary Highlanders are a Land Force Reserve Infantry Regiment, headquartered at Mewata Armoury in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. ... The Royal Winnipeg Rifles are a reserve infantry regiment of the Canadian Armed Forces. ... The Royal Winnipeg Rifles are a reserve infantry regiment of the Canadian Armed Forces. ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... For other uses, see Sphinx (disambiguation). ...


It was during the Second Battle of Ypres that Lieutenant Colonel John McCrae M.D. of Guelph, Ontario, Canada wrote the memorable poem In Flanders Fields in the voice for those who perished in the war. Published in Punch Magazine December 8, 1918, it is still recited today, especially on Remembrance Day and Memorial Day. [18][19] In the U.S. Army, Air Force and Marine Corps, a lieutenant colonel is a commissioned officer superior to a major and inferior to a colonel. ... Lieutenant Colonel John Alexander McCrae Lieutenant Colonel John Alexander McCrae, MD (November 30, 1872 – January 28, 1918) was a Canadian poet, physician, author, artist and soldier during World War I and a surgeon during the battle of Ypres. ... Nickname: Motto: Faith, Fidelity and Progress Coordinates: , Country Canada Province Ontario County Wellington County City Wards There are 6 Wards Founded April 23, 1827 Incorporated April 23, 1879 Government  - Mayor Karen Farbridge (elected November 2006)  - Governing Body Guelph City Council  - MPs Brenda Chamberlain (LPC)  - MPPs Liz Sandals (OLP) Area  - City... A small portion of In Flanders Fields appeared alongside McCraes portrait on a Canadian stamp of 1968, issued to commemorate a half-century since his death. ... Punch was a British weekly magazine of humour and satire published from 1841 to 1992 and from 1996 to 2002. ... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Armistice Day Celebrations in Toronto, Canada - 1918 Armistice Day is the anniversary of the official end of World War I, November 11, 1918. ... Memorial Day is a United States federal holiday that is observed on the last Monday of May (observed this year on 2007-05-28). ...


See also

World War I Portal

Image File history File links Portal. ... Combatants United Kingdom France German Empire Commanders John French Ferdinand Foch Erich von Falkenhayn Strength UK: 7 infantry divisions, 3 cavalry divisions France: ? Fourth and Sixth Armies Casualties UK: 58,000 France: 50,000 130,000 The First Battle of Ypres, also called the Battle of Flanders, was the last... A poison gas attack in World War I. The use of poison gas was a major military innovation of the First World War. ... The War Memorial at St. ... Passchendaele village, before and after the Battle of Passchendaele The Battle of Passchendaele, otherwise known as the Third Battle of Ypres, was one of the major battles of World War I, fought by British, ANZAC, and Canadian soldiers against the German army near Ypres (Ieper in Flemish) in West Flanders...

Notes

  1. ^ General Sir Horace Lockwood Smith-Dorrien commanded II Corps, British Expeditionary Force at the beginning of the battle. He was replaced by Lieutenant-General Herbert Charles Onslow Plumer (officially) on 6 May 1915.[1]
  2. ^ Général Putz commanded the Détachement d'Armée de Belgique (formerly the French 8th Army).[2]
  3. ^ Général-Major Armand-Léopold-Théodore de Ceuninck commanded the 6th Division, Belgian Army. [3] [4]
  4. ^ General-Oberst Albrecht Maria Alexander Philipp Joseph of Württemberg commanded the 4th German Army.[5]
  5. ^ 2 French divisions and 6 British, Canadian, and Newfoundland divisions.
  6. ^ Order of battle
  7. ^ Love, 1996.
  8. ^ Hobbes, Nicholas (2003). Essential Militaria. Atlantic Books. ISBN 978-1843542292. 
  9. ^ Chlorine gas forms hydrochloric (muriatic) acid when combined with water, destroying moist tissues such as lungs and eyes. See here for reaction of chlorine with water.
  10. ^ No one blamed the French and Algerian survivors for abandoning their trenches. Field Marshal Sir John French, Commander-in-Chief of the British Army, wrote:

    ...I wish particularly to repudiate any idea of attaching the least blame to the French Division for this unfortunate incident. After all the examples our gallant Allies have shown of dogged and tenacious courage in the many trying situations in which they have been placed throughout the course of this campaign it is quite superfluous for me to dwell on this aspect of the incident, and I would only express my firm conviction that, if any troops in the world had been able to hold their trenches in the face of such a treacherous and altogether unexpected onslaught, the French Division would have stood firm. Herbert Onslow Plumer, 1st Viscount Plumer (1857–1932) was a British colonial official and soldier. ... is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... General Name, Symbol, Number chlorine, Cl, 17 Series halogens Group, Period, Block 17 (VIIA), 3, p Density, Hardness 3. ... R-phrases , S-phrases , , Flash point Non-flammable. ... The Earl of Ypres John Denton Pinkstone French, 1st Earl of Ypres, KP, GCB, OM, GCVO, KCMG, PC (28 September 1852–22 May 1925) was a British Field Marshal, the first commander of the British Expeditionary Force (BEF) in World War I. Biography Born in Ripple in Kent, the son...

    (Extract from The London Gazette, No. 29225, 10th July 1915, as reported here and here .)
  11. ^ General von Falkenhayn, Chief of German General Staff, apparently classified the attack as localised, and ordered the German 4th Army not to take distant objectives. (From the German Army Official History of the War (Der Weltkrieg 1914 bis 1918: Sommer und Herbst 1915, 8. Band, p. 41), as cited here.
  12. ^ VAC Canada
  13. ^ It remains unclear who passed the order to urinate on the handkerchiefs. The order is attributed to [Capt. F.A.C. Scrimger], a medical officer by one modern source, Legion Magazine published by the Royal Canadian Legion. However, memoirs of two individuals at the battle do not recount this episode (see Nasmith, 1917, and Scott, 1922)
  14. ^ Whoever passed the order, the chemistry was valid. The urea in urine would react with chlorine, forming dichlorourea and effectively neutralizing it. See Chattaway (1908).
  15. ^ Howell, 1938, p. 280.
  16. ^ (Legion Magazine online)
  17. ^ [6]
  18. ^ John McCrae (from Historica)
  19. ^ John McCrae (from the Canadian Encyclopedia)

Erich von Falkenhayn Chief of the General Staff Erich von Falkenhayn (11 November 1861 - 8 April 1922) was a German soldier and Chief of the General Staff during World War I. Falkenhayn was a career soldier. ... Urea is an organic compound with the chemical formula (NH2)2CO. Urea is also known as carbamide, especially in the recommended International Nonproprietary Names (rINN) in use in Europe. ... General Name, symbol, number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series halogens Group, period, block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ...

References

  • Chattaway, F.D. (1908). The Action of Chlorine upon Urea Whereby a Dichloro Urea is Produced. Proc. Roy. Soc. London. Ser. A, 81:381-388.[7]
  • Howell, W.B. (1938). Colonel F.A.C. Scrimger, V.C. Can. Med. Assoc. J. 38: 279–281.[9]
  • Legion Magazine online.[10]
  • Love, D. (1996). The Second Battle of Ypres, Apr-1915. Sabretasche (Vol 26, No 4).[11]
  • Nasmith, G.G. (1917). On the Fringe of the Great Fight. McClelland, Goodchild & Stewart, Toronto.[12]
  • Scott, F.G. (1922). The Great War as I Saw It. Goodchild Publishers, Toronto.[13]

Francis Alexander Caron Scrimger was a Canadian recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Second Battle of Ypres - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1138 words)
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