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Encyclopedia > Second Battle of Kharkov
Second Battle of Kharkov
Part of World War II

The Eastern Front at the time of the Second Battle of Kharkov
Date: 12 May 1942 - 28 May, 1942
Location: Kharkov region, USSR
Result: Strategic German victory
Combatants
Germany Soviet Union
Commanders
Fedor von Bock,
Friedrich Paulus
Semyon Timoshenko
Strength
300,000 men,
1000 tanks,
1500 aircraft
640,000 men,
1200 tanks,
1000 aircraft
Casualties
20,000 killed, wounded or captured 207,057 killed, wounded or captured,
652 tanks,
1,646 guns,
3,278 mortars,
57,626 horses
Axis-Soviet War
BarbarossaFinland 1941-44Leningrad and Baltics 1941-1944Crimea and CaucasusMoscow1st Rzhev-Vyazma2nd KharkovStalingradVelikiye Luki – 2nd Rzhev-Sychevka – Kursk2nd SmolenskDnieper – 2nd Kiev – Korsun – Hube's Pocket – Bagration – Lvov-Sandomierz – Balkans 1944Hungary 1944-1945 – Vistula-Oder – Königsberg – BerlinPragueManchuria 1945

The Second Battle of Kharkov was a battle fought from 12 May to 28 May 1942, on the Eastern Front during World War II. After a successful winter counteroffensive that repulsed German troops from Moscow but also depleted Red Army's reserves, the Kharkov offensive was a new Soviet attempt to expand upon their strategic initiative. Combatants Allies: Poland, British Commonwealth, France/Free France, Soviet Union, United States, China, and others Axis Powers: Germany, Italy, Japan, and others Casualties Military dead: 17 million Civilian dead: 33 million Total dead: 50 million Military dead: 8 million Civilian dead: 4 million Total dead: 12 million World War II... Download high resolution version (1201x921, 197 KB)Eastern Front (WWII), 1941-12-05 to 1942-05-07 Drawn by User:Gdr File links The following pages link to this file: Eastern Front (World War II) Talk:Eastern Front (World War II) Battle of Moscow Second Battle of Kharkov User:Gdr... The Eastern Front of World War II was the theatre of war covering the conflict in central and eastern European regions from June 1941 to May 1945. ... May 12 is the 132nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (133rd in leap years). ... This article is about the year. ... May 28 is the 148th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (149th in leap years). ... Kharkov (rus: Ха́рьков) or Kharkiv (ukr: Ха́рків) is the second largest city in Ukraine, a center of Kharkivska oblast. It is situated in the northeast of the country and has a population of two million. ... Generalfeldmarschall Fedor von Bock Fedor von Bock (December 3, 1880 - May 4, 1945) was a German field marshal during World War II. He was born in Küstrin, Germany. ... Field Marshall Friedrich Paulus Friedrich Wilhelm Ernst Paulus (September 23, 1890, Breitenau – February 1, 1957, Dresden) was a German general, later promoted to field marshal, during World War II. Paulus was the son of a schoolteacher. ... Marshal of the Soviet Union Semyon Timoshenko Semyon Konstantinovich Timoshenko (Russian: Семён Константинович Тимошенко) (February 6 O.S (February 18 N.S.), 1895-March 31, 1970), Soviet military commander, was the senior professional officer of the Red Army at the beginning of the German invasion of the Soviet Union in... The Eastern Front of World War II was the theatre of war covering the conflict in central and eastern European regions from June 1941 to May 1945. ... Combatants Axis Powers Soviet Union Commanders Supreme commander: Adolf Hitler Supreme commander: Josef Stalin Strength ~ 3. ... Combatants Axis Powers, Spanish Blue Division Soviet Union Commanders Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb Georg von Kuechler Kliment Voroshilov Georgy Zhukov Strength 725,000 930,000 Casualties Unknown 300,000 military, 16,470 civilians from bombings and estimated 1 million civilians from starvation The Siege of Leningrad (Russian: блокада Ленинграда) was the German... Combatants Germany, Romania Soviet Union Commanders Erich von Manstein Filipp Oktyabrskiy, Ivan Petrov Strength 350,000+ 106,000 Casualties at least 100,000 killed, wounded or captured. ... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Fedor von Bock Georgi Zhukov Strength ~ 1,500,000 ~ 1,500,000 Casualties 250,000 700,000 The Battle of Moscow refers to the defense of the Soviet capital of Moscow and the subsequent counter-offensive against the German army, between October 1941 and January... The formation of the Rzhev salient during the winter of 1941-1942. ... Combatants Axis Powers Soviet Union Commanders Erich von Manstein Friedrich Paulus Hermann Hoth Georgy Zhukov Vasily Chuikov Aleksandr Vasilevsky Strength German Sixth Army German Fourth Panzer Army Romanian Third Army Romanian Fourth Army Hungarian Second Army Italian Eighth Army 500,000 Germans Unknown number Reinforcements Unknown number Axis-allies Stalingrad... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Kurt von der Chevallerie M. A. Purkayev Strength ~20,000 (on 19 Nov) 100,000 (on 19 Nov) Casualties 17,000 killed or wounded, 3,000 captured 30,000 killed or wounded Situation after the initial Soviet advance. ... The eastern front at the time of the Second Rzhev-Sychevka Offensive. ... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Erich von Manstein, Günther von Kluge, Walther Model Georgy Zhukov, Konstantin Rokossovsky, Nikolai Vatutin Strength 800,000 infantry, 2,700 tanks, 2,000 aircraft 1,300,000 infantry, 3,600 tanks, 2,400 aircraft Casualties 500,000 dead, wounded, or captured 500 tanks 200... Combatants Axis Soviet Union Commanders Günther von Kluge Andrei Yeremenko Vasily Sokolovsky Strength 850,000 men 8,800 guns 500 tanks 700 planes[1] 1,253,000 men 20,640 guns 1,430 tanks 1,100 planes[2] Casualties (Soviet est. ... Combatants Axis Soviet Union Commanders Erich von Manstein Rokossovsky, Konev Strength 1,250,000 men 12,600 guns 2,100 tanks 2,000 planes 2,650,000 men 51,000 guns 2,400 tanks 2,850 planes Casualties Low est. ... The 1943 Battle of Kiev resulted in a Soviet victory, forcing the German invaders of the Soviet Union to retreat further. ... Korsun Pocket, also known as the Cherkassy Pocket, was the name of the large pocket of German troops between the towns of Korsun and Cherkassy on the lower Dnepr River in the Southern Ukraine, during World War II. In January of 1944, the encroaching Soviet Red Army executed a pincer... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Erich von Manstein (Army Group South) Hans-Valentin Hube (First Panzer Army) Georgi Zhukov Nikolai Vatutin (1st Ukrainian Front) Ivan Koniev (2nd Ukrainian Front) Strength 200,000 500,000 Casualties  ?  ? 357 tanks The Battle of the Kamenets-Podolsky Pocket, also known as Hubes Pocket... Combatants Axis Soviet Union Commanders Ernst Busch Konstantin Rokossovski Georgy Zhukov Aleksandr Vasilevsky Strength 800,000 1,700,000 Casualties (Soviet est. ... The Lvov-Sandomierz Operation was the general attack by Soviet forces to clear the Germans from Ukraine. ... Combatants Red Army Wehrmacht Heeresgruppe Südukraine, Romanian Army Commanders Marshal Semyon Timoshenko Generaloberst Friessner Strength 1,341,200, 1,874 tanks and assault guns ca. ... Combatants Wehrmacht i. ... Combatants Axis Soviet Union Commanders General Otto von Lasch Marshal Vasilevsky Marshal Rokossovsky Strength 130,000 250,000 Casualties 50,000 60,000 The Battle of Königsberg was the last battle of the East Prussian Operation. ... Combatants Nazi Germany Soviet Union (incl. ... The Eastern Front at the time of the Prague Offensive. ... Operation August Storm was the code name for the Soviet invasion of Japanese occupied Manchuria, Korea and southern Sakhalin Island during World War II. The Soviets agreed at the Yalta Conference to enter the war against Japan within 3 months of the end of the war in Europe. ... May 12 is the 132nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (133rd in leap years). ... May 28 is the 148th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (149th in leap years). ... This article is about the year. ... The Eastern Front of World War II was the theatre of war covering the conflict in central and eastern European regions from June 1941 to May 1945. ... Combatants Allies: Poland, British Commonwealth, France/Free France, Soviet Union, United States, China, and others Axis Powers: Germany, Italy, Japan, and others Casualties Military dead: 17 million Civilian dead: 33 million Total dead: 50 million Military dead: 8 million Civilian dead: 4 million Total dead: 12 million World War II...


On 12 May 1942, Soviet forces under the command of Marshal Semyon Timoshenko launched an offensive into the German Sixth Army, from a salient established during the Winter counteroffensive. After initial promising signs, the offensive was stopped cold by German counterattacks. Critical errors of several staff officers and of Stalin himself, who failed to accurately estimate Wehrmacht's potential and overestimated their own newly trained forces, led to a successful German pincer attack around advancing Soviet troops, cutting them off from the rest of the front. May 12 is the 132nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (133rd in leap years). ... This article is about the year. ... Marshal of the Soviet Union Semyon Timoshenko Semyon Konstantinovich Timoshenko (Russian: Семён Константинович Тимошенко) (February 6 O.S (February 18 N.S.), 1895-March 31, 1970), Soviet military commander, was the senior professional officer of the Red Army at the beginning of the German invasion of the Soviet Union in... Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვილი; see Other names section) (December 21, 1879[1] – March 5, 1953) was a Bolshevik revolutionary and leader of the Soviet Union. ...


This bloody 17-day battle which resulted in the loss of over 200,000 Red Army personnel along with several hundred tanks. In the end, it would award Friedrich Paulus his first field victory and open the path for the eventual operations which led to the Operation Blue and Battle of Stalingrad, throwing the Red Army in another series of defeats and retreats. Operation Blue(German: Fall Blau) was the German Wehrmachts codename for the 1942 summer offensive. ... Combatants Axis Powers Soviet Union Commanders Erich von Manstein Friedrich Paulus Hermann Hoth Georgy Zhukov Vasily Chuikov Aleksandr Vasilevsky Strength German Sixth Army German Fourth Panzer Army Romanian Third Army Romanian Fourth Army Hungarian Second Army Italian Eighth Army 500,000 Germans Unknown number Reinforcements Unknown number Axis-allies Stalingrad...

Contents


Background

General situation on the Eastern Front

By late February 1942 the Soviet winter counteroffensive, which had pushed the Germans from the gates of Moscow and recaptured Rostov in the south, had petered out, leaving both sides licking their wounds. Stalin was convinced that the Germans were on their deathbed, and would collapse by spring or summer 1942, as he said in his speech of 7 November, 1941.[1] So he decided to exploit this conceived weakness within the German military on the Eastern Front by launching a renewed offensive during the spring. Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Fedor von Bock Georgi Zhukov Strength ~ 1,500,000 ~ 1,500,000 Casualties 250,000 700,000 The Battle of Moscow refers to the defense of the Soviet capital of Moscow and the subsequent counter-offensive against the German army, between October 1941 and January... Government Russia District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Mayor Yuri Luzhkov Geographical characteristics Area  - City 1,081 km² Population  - City (2005)    - Density 10,415,400   8537. ... Rostov (Russian: Росто́в; Old Norse: Rostofa) is one of the oldest towns in Russia and an important tourist centre of the so called Golden ring. ... (Russian: Ио́сиф Виссарио́нович Ста́лин, Iosif Vissarionovich Stalin; December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953), also spelled Josef Stalin, was the leader (Premier) of the Soviet Union from the mid-1920s to his death in 1953 and General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet... November 7 is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 54 days remaining. ... The Eastern Front of World War II was the theatre of war covering the conflict in central and eastern European regions from June 1941 to May 1945. ...

Stalin's speech in Moscow, November 6, 1941 during which his stated that the German army would collapse during 1942.
Stalin's speech in Moscow, November 6, 1941 during which his stated that the German army would collapse during 1942.

Stalin's ultimate decision found heated resistance from his top advisors, including Chief of the Red Army General Staff, General Boris Shaposhnikov, General Aleksandr Vasilevsky and General Georgy Zhukov, all of whom argued for a more defensive posture. As Vasilevsky recalls, "Yes, we were hoping for [German reserves to run out], but the reality was more harsh than that".[1] Although, according to Zhukov, Stalin did believe that the Germans were able to carry out operations simultaneously along two strategic axes, Stalin was sure that the opening of spring offensives along the entire front would destabilize the German Army before it had a chance to effectively begin what could be a mortal offensive blow on Moscow.[2] Despite the caution argued by his generals, Stalin's final decision was to catch the Germans by surprise through the conduct of "local offensives".[3] Image File history File links Mayakovskaya_Old_1. ... Image File history File links Mayakovskaya_Old_1. ... The short forms Red Army and RKKA refer to the Workers and Peasants Red Army, (in Russian: Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия - Raboche-Krestyanskaya Krasnaya Armiya), the armed forces first organized by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918. ... Marshal of the Soviet Union Boris Shaposhnikov (with Joseph Stalin, 1935) Boris Mikhailovitch Shaposhnikov (Russian: Борис Михайлович Шапошников) (October 2, 1882 - March 26, 1945), Soviet military commander, was born at Zlatoust, near Chelyabinsk in the Urals. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Marshal of the Soviet Union Georgy Zhukov Georgy Konstantinovich Zhukov, GCB (Russian: ) (December 1 [O.S. November 19] 1896–June 18, 1974), Soviet military commander and politician, is considered by many to be one of the most successful field commanders of World War II. // Prewar career Born into a peasant...


By the end of the spring 1942, the Red Army was still inferior to the Wehrmacht both in terms of numerical strength and of equipment quality, despite a heavy reinforcement campaign during winter and spring 1942, with considerable artillery, tanks and aviation reinforcements. Overall, the Red Army deployed on the Eastern Front 5,600,000 men, 3900 tanks, 44,900 guns and 2200 planes. This figure has to be compared with Wehrmacht's 6,200,000 army (incuding 810,000 allied troops), 3229 tanks, 57,000 guns and 3395 planes. Therefore, the Red Army's strength was still inferior in everything except tanks, which quality was inferior to those manufactured by German industries.[4]


Choosing the strategy

Marshal of the Soviet Union Aleksandr Vasilevsky, Chief of General Staff during the Second Battle of Kharkov
Marshal of the Soviet Union Aleksandr Vasilevsky, Chief of General Staff during the Second Battle of Kharkov

After the final conclusion to the winter offensive, both STAVKA (the Soviet Armed Forces Command) and Stalin believed that the eventual German offensives would aim for Moscow, with a major offensive to the south as well, mirroring the previous year's Operation Barbarossa and Operation Typhoon. Although Soviet high command had argued that Germans had been defeated at Moscow, the seventy divisions which faced the axis remained a threat to Soviet security in the sector. Furthermore, Stalin and most subordinate generals and front commanders genuinely believed that the principal effort would be a German offensive towards Moscow.[5][6] However, emboldened by the winter's success Stalin offered that local offensives in the area would only work to wear down German forces, consequently weakening German efforts to successfully mount another operation to take Moscow. Although at first he had agreed to prepare the Red Army for an "active strategic defense", he later gave orders for the planning of seven local offensives, stretching from the Baltic Sea to the Black Sea. One specific area was Kharkov, and action here was originally ordered for March.[7] File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The rank of Marshal of the Soviet Union (Russian: Marshal Sovietskogo Soyuza [Маршал Советского Союза]) was in practice the highest military rank of the Soviet Union. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... A General Staff is a group of professional military officers who act in a staff or administrative role under the command of a general officer. ... Stavka is an abbreviation for Shtab vierhovnogo komandovania, or General Headquarters of armed forces in late Imperial Russia and in the Soviet Union. ... A General Staff is a group of professional military officers who act in a staff or administrative role under the command of a general officer. ... Combatants Axis Powers Soviet Union Commanders Supreme commander: Adolf Hitler Supreme commander: Josef Stalin Strength ~ 3. ... The eastern front at the time of Operation Typhoon. ...


Early that month, the Soviet high command issued orders to Southwestern Direction headquarters for an attack in the region, after the victories at Rostov and the Donbas Region. Fighting erupted that month as Marshal Semyon Timoshenko and Lt. General Kirill Moskalenko penetrated German positions along the Northern Donets River, east of Kharkov. Heavy fighting continued into April, with Moskalenko successfully crossing the river and establishing a tenuous bridgehead, while in the south the Soviet 6th Army had limited success defending against German forces, who managed to keep a bridgehead of their own, on the east bank of the river.[7] Catching the attention of Stalin it would set the pace for the succession of events which would form a prelude to the eventual Second Battle of Kharkov. By 15 March Soviet commanders introduced preliminary plans for a campaign around Kharkov, envisioning a heavy buildup of reserves. On 20 March Timoshenko himself held a conference in Kupiansk to discuss the upcoming offensive, and a subsequent report to Moscow, prepared by Timoshenko's chief of staff Lt. General Bagramian, managed to sum up the conference, although arguably leaving several key intelligence features out. The build up of Soviet forces in the region continued well into the beginning of May, and final details were hammered out between Stalin, General Staff and the leadership of the Southwestern Front led by Timoshenko, throughout March and April, with one of the final STAVKA directives issued on 17 April.[7] Rostov (Russian: Росто́в; Old Norse: Rostofa) is one of the oldest towns in Russia and an important tourist centre of the so called Golden ring. ... Categories: Stub | Regions of Ukraine | Ukrainian historical regions ... Marshal of the Soviet Union Semyon Timoshenko Semyon Konstantinovich Timoshenko (Russian: Семён Константинович Тимошенко) (February 6 O.S (February 18 N.S.), 1895-March 31, 1970), Soviet military commander, was the senior professional officer of the Red Army at the beginning of the German invasion of the Soviet Union in... Kirill Semenovich Moskalenko (May 11, 1902–June 17, 1985) Marshal of the Soviet Union, Commander in Chief Strategic Missile Forces, Inspector General Ministry of Defense, born in village of Grishino, near Donetsk in Ukraine. ... The Donets River starts in Central Russia upland, north of Belgorod, in the Russian Federation. ... March 15 is the 74th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (75th in Leap years). ... March 20 is the 79th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (80th in Leap years). ... Marshal of the Soviet Union Ivan Bagramian Ivan Khristoforovich Bagramian (Russian: Иван Христофорович Баграмян) (December 2, 1897 - September 21, 1982), Soviet military commander, was born the son of an Armenian railway worker, near Yelizavetpol (later Kirovabad, now Gyandzha in Azerbaijan), then part of the Russian Empire. ... April 17 is the 107th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (108th in leap years). ...


Preparing the offensive

Soviet order of battle

Enlarge
Soviet tank officers plan operations, while gathered around a T-34 Model 1941.

By 11 May 1942, the Red Army was able to allocate six armies under two fronts, amongst other units. Under the command of the Southwestern Front fought the 21st Army, the 28th Army, the 38th Army, and the 6th Army. By 11 May the 21st Tank Corps had been successfully moved into the region along with the 23rd Tank Corps, providing 269 additional tanks. There were also three independent rifle divisions and a single rifle regiment, from the 270th Rifle Division, concentrated in the area and supported by the 2nd Cavalry Corps in Bogdanovka. The Southern Front boasted the 57th Army and the 9th Army, along with a remaining 30 rifle divisions a single rifle brigade, and the substantial reinforcements of the 24th Tank Corps, the 5th Cavalry Corps and three Guards Rifle Divisions. At its height, the Southern Front could operate eleven guns or mortars per kilometer of front.[8][9] Image File history File linksMetadata T-34(172sd)_2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata T-34(172sd)_2. ... May 11 is the 131st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (132nd in leap years). ... This article is about the year. ... May 11 is the 131st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (132nd in leap years). ...


The regrouping of forces in the sector ran into the rasputitsa, which turned much of the soil into mud and postponed several developments and inherently made reinforcing the Southern and Southwestern Front take longer than expected. There was also severe criticism from senior Soviet representatives who blamed front commanders for poor management of forces, their inability to stage offensives and for their armchair generalship, as Vasilevsky points out in his memoirs.[10] Because the regrouping was done so haphazardly, the Germans received limited warning of Soviet movements to their direct forefront. Moskalenko, commander of the 38th Army, places the blame on the fact that the fronts did not forge a plan previous to the decision to regroup, and thus demonstrated what would be a poor display of front management.[11] He commented afterwards that it was no surprise that the "German-Fascist command divined our plans".[12] The rasputitsa (Russian: распу́тица) is the twice annual flooding of Belarus, western Russia and the Ukraine. ...


Soviet leadership and manpower

Enlarge
Semyon Timoshenko, commander-in-chief of the Southwestern Front, who led the Second Battle of Kharkov.

The primary leadership allotted to the battle was served by Marshal Semyon Timoshenko, a veteran of World War I and the Russian Civil War. Although Timoshenko had limited success at Smolensk a year earlier, his attempts would ultimately lead to the ultimate defeat at said battle.[13] He was later able to orchestrate the victory at Rostov during the winter counterattacks, and enjoyed limited success during the spring offensive at Kharkov, previous to the actual battle.[14] Overseeing the actions of the army was Military Commissar Nikita Khrushchev. Image File history File links Semyon_Konstantinovich_Timoshenko_(1895-1970),_Soviet_military_commander. ... Image File history File links Semyon_Konstantinovich_Timoshenko_(1895-1970),_Soviet_military_commander. ... Marshal of the Soviet Union Semyon Timoshenko Semyon Konstantinovich Timoshenko (Russian: Семён Константинович Тимошенко) (February 6 O.S (February 18 N.S.), 1895-March 31, 1970), Soviet military commander, was the senior professional officer of the Red Army at the beginning of the German invasion of the Soviet Union in... The Southwestern Front is a geographical area where armies are engaged in conflict The Soviet Southwestern Front was one of the Soviet Fronts in WWII. This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Marshal of the Soviet Union Semyon Timoshenko Semyon Konstantinovich Timoshenko (Russian: Семён Константинович Тимошенко) (February 6 O.S (February 18 N.S.), 1895-March 31, 1970), Soviet military commander, was the senior professional officer of the Red Army at the beginning of the German invasion of the Soviet Union in... Combatants Allies: Serbia, Russia, France, Romania, Belgium, British Empire, United States, Italy, and others Central Powers: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Ottoman Empire Casualties Military dead: 5 million Civilian deaths: 3 million Total of dead: 8 million Military dead: 4 million Civilian deaths: 3 million Total dead: 7 million The First... The Russian Civil War was fought from 1918 to 1922. ... The eastern front at the time of the Battle of Smolensk. ... (Russian: , Nikita Sergeevič Hruščëv; surname commonly romanized as Khrushchev, IPA: ; April 17, 1894 – September 11, 1971) was the leader of the Soviet Union after the death of Joseph Stalin. ...


However, the standard Soviet soldier suffered from being rather green. With the Soviet debacle of the previous year, ameliorated only by the barest victory at Moscow, most of the original manpower the Red Army could count on had been killed, wounded or imprisoned by the Germans, with casualties of almost 1,000,000 only from battle of Moscow.[15] Therefore, an average soldier in the Red Army at that time was only recentrly conscripted and had little to no combat experience. Coupled with the lack of trained soldiers the Red Army also began to suffer from poor logistics and a lack of supplies, as a major of former Soviet industrial areas were now under German control. Therefore, the doctrine favored at that time was "temporary stategic defense".[16]


The General Chief of Staff, Mashal Vasilevsky, recognizes himself that the Soviet Army of 1942 was not prepared to conduct major offensive operations against the well-trained German Army, simply because the Red Army at that time failed to have the necessary quantitative and qualitative advantage over the Wehrmacht, and because leadership, both in command and junior officer level, was still being rebuilt after the stinging defeats in 1941.[17] The notion, however, is largely retrospective and is an analysis on Soviet conduct during their strategic offensives in 1942, and even beyond, such as Operation Mars in October 1942, and Târgul Frumos in May 1944. Operation Mars, or 2nd Rzhev-Sychevka Offensive was a World War II strategic offensive launched in November-December of 1942 by Soviet forces against a German salient in the vicinity of Moscow. ... The Battle of Târgul Frumos (May 2-4, 1944) was fought at IaÅŸi, Romania between Nazi Germany and its Romanian allies on one side and the Soviet Red Army. ...


German preparations

Friedrich Paulus, commander of the 6th German Army, who faced the Soviet offensive.
Friedrich Paulus, commander of the 6th German Army, who faced the Soviet offensive.
Eastern front in May 1942. The Izium salient is pictured in red.
Eastern front in May 1942. The Izium salient is pictured in red.

Unbeknownst to the Soviets, however, the German 6th Army, under the newly appointed General Paulus, had been issued orders for Operation Friderikus, on 30 April 1942.[18] This operation called for a concerted effort to crush the Soviet armies within the Izium Salient (name given to a salient south of Kharkov created during Soviet Winter counteroffensive), captured during the Soviet early spring offensives in March and April. This task was given to the German Sixth Army, and the final directive issued on 30 April declared a "probable start" on 18 May. Image File history File linksMetadata Friedrich_Paulus. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Friedrich_Paulus. ... Field Marshall Friedrich Paulus Friedrich Wilhelm Ernst Paulus (September 23, 1890, Breitenau – February 1, 1957, Dresden) was a German general, later promoted to field marshal, during World War II. Paulus was the son of a schoolteacher. ... Image File history File links Izium_Salient_in_1942. ... Image File history File links Izium_Salient_in_1942. ... April 30 is the 120th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (121st in leap years), with 245 days remaining. ... This article is about the year. ... April 30 is the 120th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (121st in leap years), with 245 days remaining. ... May 18 is the 138th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (139th in leap years). ...


The Germans had also undergone a massive effort to reinforce Army Group South, transferred to the control of Field Marshall Fedor von Bock, former commander of Army Group Center during Operation Barbarossa and Operation Typhoon. On 5 April 1942, Hitler issued Directive Number 41, which pinpointed the south as the major area of operations for the German strategic summer campaign of the year, and at the expense of the other fronts the divisions of Army Group South were brought to full strength by late April and early May. The strategic objective was illustrated after the victories of Erich von Manstein and his 11th Army in the Crimea. The centerpiece objective remained the Caucasus and its oil fields, and as a secondary objective, the city of Stalingrad.[5] Army Group South (Heeresgruppe Süd in German) was a German Army Group during World War II. Germany used two army groups to invade Poland in 1939: Army Group North and Army Group South. ... Generalfeldmarschall Fedor von Bock Fedor von Bock (December 3, 1880 - May 4, 1945) was a German field marshal during World War II. He was born in Küstrin, Germany. ... Army Group Centre (Heeresgruppe Mitte in German) was one of three German army formations assigned to the invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941, code-named Operation Barbarossa. ... April 5 is the 95th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (96th in leap years). ... This article is about the year. ... Adolf Hitler Adolf Hitler (April 20, 1889 – April 30, 1945, standard German pronunciation in the IPA) was the Führer (leader) of the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazi Party) and of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945. ... Generalfeldmarschall Erich von Manstein Erich von Manstein (November 24, 1887-June 10, 1973) was a lifelong professional soldier who rose to become one of the most prominent commanders of Nazi Germanys Armed Forces (Wehrmacht) during World War II; he attained the rank of Field Marshal (Generalfeldmarschall), although he was... Motto: Процветание в единстве - Prosperity in unity Anthem: Нивы и горы твои волшебны, Родина - Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Capital Simferopol Largest cities Simferopol, Eupatoria, Kerch, Theodosia, Yalta Official language Ukrainian. ... The Entholinguistic patchwork of the modern Caucasus - CIA map The Caucasus, a region bordering Asia Minor, is located between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea which includes the Caucasus Mountains and surrounding lowlands. ... Stalingrad is the former name of two cities: Volgograd, Russia Karviná-Nové Město, near Ostrava, Czech Republic Other uses: The Battle of Stalingrad (a major turning-point of World War II and arguably the bloodiest battle in human history) Stalingrad (German film set during the above battle) Stalingrad (metro station...


The introduction of Operation Friderikus in April provided the further incentive to bolster total forces in the area of the German Sixth Army under the command of General Paulus. Therefore, unknown to the Soviets, the German Army was also undergoing a major regrouping effort in the area directly mapped as the center of operations for the upcoming offensive around Kharkov. It was on 10 May when Paulus submitted his final draft plans for Operation Friderikus, Paulus was fearing a Russian attack. By then, the German army directly opposite Timoshenko was fully prepared for combat duties in their eventual operation towards the Caucasus.[7] May 10 is the 130th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (131st in leap years). ...


The battle

First days

Map of the Kharkov offensive and German encirclement.
Map of the Kharkov offensive and German encirclement.

The offensive began at 6:30 in the morning, 12 May 1942, led by a concentrated one hour artillery strike, and a final twenty minute air attack upon German positions. The ground offensive began with a dual pincer movement from the Volchansk and Barvenkovo salients, beginning at 7:30 in the morning. The Soviet forces faced massive resistance from the opposing German defenses, which were slowly knocked out by concentrated air raids and artillery strikes, along with coordinated ground assaults against fortified positions.[19] The fighting was so fierce that the Soviets inched forward their second echelon formations, preparing to throw them into combat as well. Fighting was particularly atrocious near the Russian village of Nepokrytaia, where the Germans launched three local counterattacks. By day's end the greatest penetration by Soviet forces was ten kilometers. Soviet command of the field, documented by General Moskalenko, caught the movement of several German reserve units and finally caught on that his forces were up against two German divisions, not the expected single division, indicating that the Red Army had conducted poor reconnaissance and intelligence-gathering prior to the initiation of the battle.[20] In fact, a captured diary of a dead German general alluded to the fact that the Germans had very possibly known in advance about the pending Soviet operations in the region.[21] The day also saw, after much persuasion on Paulus' part, the release of three German infantry divisions and a single Panzer division for use in the defense of Kharkov. For the most part, the Soviet advance was poor, achieving notable success only on the left flank, with the other advances continuing rather slowly and suffering minor setbacks. Bock had warned Paulus not to counter-attack immediately without air support, although this was later reconsidered when several Soviet tank brigades broke through General Walther Heitz's VIII Corps in the Volchansk sector, which was only 12 miles away from Kharkov, a grave threat to the Germans.[22] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (940x710, 90 KB) Summary Map of 1942 Kharkov offensive By Grafikm (AutoGRAF) Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (940x710, 90 KB) Summary Map of 1942 Kharkov offensive By Grafikm (AutoGRAF) Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version... May 12 is the 132nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (133rd in leap years). ... This article is about the year. ...


Initial Soviet success

The first 72 hours saw a battering of the German Sixth Army, with 16 battalions destroyed, fighting in the heavy rain and mud. Paulus called for a series of holding actions, although the Germans still performed localized counter-attacks.[23] Although by 14 May the Red Army had made impressive gains, German actions in certain areas had taken their toll, and several shaken Soviet divisions were forced to withdraw from their attacks. Only Soviet tanks, held in reserve, were able to put a stop to the German counter-attacks, with much loss of life. Much to the chagrin of Timoshenko, German losses were only estimated to be minimal; for example, only 35-70 tanks were estimated to have been knocked out in the 3rd and 23rd Panzer Divisions.[24] German close air support also began to take its toll, forcing units such as the Soviet 38th Army on the defensive. On 14 May the Germans continued to pound Soviet positions in the north in localized offensives and by then the Luftwaffe had gained air superiority over the Kharkov sector, forcing Timoshenko to move his own air assets forward in order to effectively counter the bolstered German aircraft, some of which were under the command of the Fourth Air Fleet, General Wolfram von Richthofen's command. Nonetheless, the Soviets pushed on, disengaging from several minor battles and changing the direction of their thrusts. However, in the face of continued German resistance and localized German counter-attacks the Soviet attack ebbed, especially when combined with the invariably heavy air raids. By the end of the day the 28th Army could no longer operate in an offensive manner against German positions.[24] May 14 is the 134th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (135th in leap years). ... May 14 is the 134th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (135th in leap years). ... The Deutsche Luftwaffe or (German: air force, literally Air Arm or Air Weapon, IPA: [luftvafÉ™]) is the commonly used term for the German air force. ... Wolfram von Richthofen was a distant cousin of the late Manfred von Richthofen and one of only a few select officers in the Luftwaffe to have attained the highest rank of Generalfeldmarschall. ...

German Panzer knocked out during the offensive. (David M. Glantz, Kharkov 1942)
German Panzer knocked out during the offensive. (David M. Glantz, Kharkov 1942)

Ironically, the Soviet southern pincer had not suffered as terribly as had the shock groups in the north. In fact, they achieved spectacular success the first three days of combat, with far reaching penetration of German positions.[25] Although intensive fighting also marked the battles in the south, the Soviets routed several key German battalions, including many made up of personnel of foreign decent, including some Hungarian units. The success of the Southern Shock group, however, has been attributed to the fact that the early penetrations in the north had directed German reserves there, thus limiting the amount of troops thrown into defensive positions in the south. But, by 14 May, Hitler had briefed German General Ewald von Kleist and ordered his 1st Panzer Army to grab the initiative in a bold counter-offensive, setting the pace for the final launching of Operation Friderikus.[23] Image File history File linksMetadata Kharkov1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Kharkov1. ... PzKpfw V-D, a Panther tank   Panzer? is German for armour. ... May 14 is the 134th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (135th in leap years). ... Ewald von Kleist Ewald von Kleist Paul Ludwig Ewald von Kleist (August 8, 1881, Braunfels an der Lahn - ca. ...


Soviet continuation of the offensive

15 May and 16 May saw another attempted Soviet offensive in the north, meeting the same resistance they had met the three first days of the battle. Much to the chagrin of Soviet forces, German bastions continued to hold out against Soviet assaults. The major contribution to Soviet frustration in the battle was the lack of heavy guns, which ultimately would not allow the attacking Red Army units to effectively wipe out resistance in heavily defended positions. One of the biggest examples of this was the defense of Ternovaia, where defending German units absolutely refused to surrender after excessive pummeling from the Red Army.[26] The fighting was so harsh that after advancing an average of five kilometers, the offensive stopped for the day in the north. The next day saw a renewal of the Soviet attack which was largely blocked by counter-attacks of German tanks, and the tired Soviet divisions could simply not hold their own against the concerted attacks from the opposition. The south, however, achieved success, much like the earlier days of the battle, although Soviet forces began to face heavier air strikes from German combat aircraft.[27] The Germans, on the other hand, had spent the day fighting holding actions in both sectors, launching small counter-attacks to whittle away at Soviet offensive potential, while continuously moving up reinforcements arriving from the south, including several aircraft squadrons transferred from the Crimea. Poor decisions by the 150th Rifle Division, which had successfully crossed the Barvenkovo River, played a major part in the poor exploitation of the tactical successes of the southern shock group.[28] May 15 is the 135th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (136th in leap years). ... May 16 is the 136th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (137th in leap years). ...


Wehrmacht counterattacks

On 17 May the initiative of the battle was successfully transferred to the Germans as Kleist's 1st Panzer Army began a double headed counter-attack on the Barvenkovo bridgehead. Aided greatly by air support, Kleist was able to crush Soviet positions and advanced up to ten kilometers in the first day of the attack, leaving the Soviet forces shocked. Many of the Soviet units were sent to the rear that night to be refitted, while others were moved forward to reinforce tenuous positions across the front. That same day Timoshenko reported the move to Moscow, and asked for reinforcements and described the day's failures. Vasilevsky's attempts to gain approval for a general withdrawal were put down by Stalin.[29] May 17 is the 137th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (138th in leap years). ...


On 18 May, the situation worsened and the STAVKA suggested once more to stop the offensive and to order the 9th Army to break out of the salient. Timonshenko and Khrutchev claimed that the danger coming from Wehrmacht's Kramatorsk group was exaggerated, and Stalin refused the withdrawal again.[30] May 18 is the 138th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (139th in leap years). ... Stavka is an abbreviation for Shtab vierhovnogo komandovania, or General Headquarters of armed forces in late Imperial Russia and in the Soviet Union. ...


On 19 May Paulus, on orders from Bock, had already began a general offensive in the north in an attempt to encircle the remaining Soviet forces in the Izium salient. Only then Stalin authorized his to stop the offensive and fend off German flanking forces. However, it was already too late.[30] Quickly, the Germans achieved considerable success against Soviet defensive positions. The day of 20 May saw much of the same, with the German forces closing in from the rear. More German divisions were put into the battle that day, shattering several Soviet counterparts, allowing the Germans to inch forward. Although Timoshenko's forces successfully regrouped on 21 May, he ordered a withdrawal of Army Group Kotenko by the end of 22 May, while he prepared an attack for 23 May, to be orchestrated by the 9th and 57th Armies. Although the Soviets desperately attempted to fend off advancing German soldiers and launched local counter-attacks to relieve several surrounded units, they generally failed. By the end of 24 May Soviet forces opposite of Kharkov had been successfully surrounded by German formations, which had been able to transfer several more divisions to the front, increasing the pressure put on the Soviet flanks and finally forcing them to collapse.[30] May 19 is the 139th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (140th in leap years). ... May 20 is the 140th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (141st in leap years). ... May 21 is the 141st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (142nd in leap years). ... May 22 is the 142nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (143rd in leap years). ... May 23 is the 143rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (144th in leap years). ... May 24 is the 144th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (145th in leap years). ...


Soviet collapse

Soviet Prisoners of War (David M. Glantz, Kharkov 1942)
Soviet Prisoners of War (David M. Glantz, Kharkov 1942)

25 May saw the first major Soviet attempt to break the encirclement, and German Major General Lanz describes the gruesome attacks, made en masse. By 26 May the surviving Red Army soldiers were forced into crowded positions in an area roughly fifteen square kilometers in size. Soviet attempts to break into the German encirclement from the East were continuously blocked using tenacious defensive maneuvers and German air power. In the face of determined German operations, Timoshenko ordered the official halt of all Soviet offensive maneuvers on 28 May, while attacks to break out of the encirclement continued until 30 May. Nonetheless, less than one man in ten managed to breakout of the "Barvenkovo mousetrap".[22] Beevor puts Soviet losses in terms of prisoners as 240,000[22] (with the bulk of their armor), while Glantz states a total of around 207,000 (both killed and captured).[8] The latter has generally been accepted as the most impartial figure, although true casualties are not readily available. Both tend to agree on a low German casualty count, with the most formative rounding being at 20,000 German dead, wounded and missing.[31] Regardless of the casualties, Kharkov would be a major Soviet setback and it would put an end to the astonishing successes of the Red Army during the Winter Counteroffensive, and the smaller offensives of the spring. Image File history File linksMetadata Kharkov2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Kharkov2. ... May 25 is the 145th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (146th in leap years). ... May 26 is the 146th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (147th in leap years). ... May 28 is the 148th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (149th in leap years). ... May 30 is the 150th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (151st in leap years). ...


Conclusions

Many authors have attempted to pinpoint the reasons for the debacle of the Second Battle of Kharkov. Several Soviet generals have placed the blame on the inability of STAVKA and Stalin to appreciate Wehrmacht's military power, on the Eastern Front, after their defeats in the winter of 1941-1942 and in the spring of 1942. On the subject, Zhukov sums up in his memoirs that the failure of this operation was quite predictable, since the offensive was organized very ineptly, the risk of exposing the left flank of the Izium salient to German counterattacks being obvious on a map.[32] Still according to Zhukov, the main reason for the stinging Soviet defeat lay in the mistakes made by Stalin, who underestimated the danger coming from German armies in the south-western sector (as opposed to Moscow sector) and failed to take steps to concentrate any substantial strategic reserves there to meet any potential German threat. Futhermore, Stalin ignored a sensible advice provided by his own General Chief of Staff, who recommended to organize a strong defense in the south-western sector, in order to be able to repulse any Wehrmacht attack.[32] Stavka is an abbreviation for Shtab vierhovnogo komandovania, or General Headquarters of armed forces in late Imperial Russia and in the Soviet Union. ... Marshal of the Soviet Union Georgi Zhukov Georgy Konstantinovich Zhukov (Russian: Гео́ргий Константи́нович Жу́ков) (December 1, 1896 - June 18, 1974), Soviet military commander and politician, considered by many as one of the most successful field commanders of World War II. Prewar career Born into a peasant family in Strelkovka, Kaluga... The term Chief of Staff can refer to: The White House Chief of Staff, the highest-ranking member of the Executive Office of the President of the United States. ...

Kirill Moskalenko, commander of the 38th Army during the battle, who described in his memoirs the Soviet failure near Kharkov.
Kirill Moskalenko, commander of the 38th Army during the battle, who described in his memoirs the Soviet failure near Kharkov.

Additionally, the subordinate Soviet generals (especially South-Western Front generals) were just as willing to continue their own winter successes, and much like the German generals, under-appreciated the strength of their enemies, as pointed out a posteriori by the commander of the 38th Army, Kirill Moskalenko.[33] The Soviet winter counteroffensive weakened the Wehrmacht, but did not destroy it. As Moskalenko recalls, quoting an anonymous soldier, "these fascists woke up after they hibernated".[34] Marshal of the Soviet Union Kirill Moskalenko File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Marshal of the Soviet Union Kirill Moskalenko File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Kirill Semenovich Moskalenko (May 11, 1902–June 17, 1985) Marshal of the Soviet Union, Commander in Chief Strategic Missile Forces, Inspector General Ministry of Defense, born in village of Grishino, near Donetsk in Ukraine. ... Kirill Semenovich Moskalenko (May 11, 1902–June 17, 1985) Marshal of the Soviet Union, Commander in Chief Strategic Missile Forces, Inspector General Ministry of Defense, born in village of Grishino, near Donetsk in Ukraine. ...


Besides, Stalin's willingness to expend recently-conscripted armies, who were poorly-trained and poorly-supplied, illustrated a misconception of realities, both in the capabilities of the Red Army and the subordinate arms of the armed forces, and in the abilities of the Germans to defend themselves and successfully launch a counter-offensive.[35] The latter would prove especially true in the subsequent Operation Blue, which would lead to the Battle of Stalingrad, though this would be the battle in which Paulus would meet his demise as a German army commander during World War II. Operation Blue(German: Fall Blau) was the German Wehrmachts codename for the 1942 summer offensive. ... Combatants Axis Powers Soviet Union Commanders Erich von Manstein Friedrich Paulus Hermann Hoth Georgy Zhukov Vasily Chuikov Aleksandr Vasilevsky Strength German Sixth Army German Fourth Panzer Army Romanian Third Army Romanian Fourth Army Hungarian Second Army Italian Eighth Army 500,000 Germans Unknown number Reinforcements Unknown number Axis-allies Stalingrad... Combatants Allies: Poland, British Commonwealth, France/Free France, Soviet Union, United States, China, and others Axis Powers: Germany, Italy, Japan, and others Casualties Military dead: 17 million Civilian dead: 33 million Total dead: 50 million Military dead: 8 million Civilian dead: 4 million Total dead: 12 million World War II...


However, Kharkov had also shown the potential of the Soviet armies to successfully conduct an offensive. This battle can be seen as one of the first major cases in which the Soviets attempted to pre-empt a German summer offensive. This would later unfold and grow as STAVKA planned and conducted Operation Mars, Operation Uranus and Operation Saturn. Although only two of the three were true victories, it still offers concise and telling evidence of the ability of the Soviets to reverse the war in their favor. This would finalize itself after the Battle of Kursk in July 1943. And the Second Battle of Kharkov also had a positive effect on Stalin, who started to trust his commanders and his Chief of Staff more and more (letting him having the last word in naming front commanders for instance).[36] After the great purge in 1937, after failing to anticipate the war in 1941 and underestimating German military power in 1942, Stalin finally fully trusted his military.[37] On the other hand, Hitler experienced increasing distrust towards his own officers, and finally dismissed Franz Halder, his Chief of Staff, in September 1942. Operation Mars, or 2nd Rzhev-Sychevka Offensive was a World War II strategic offensive launched in November-December of 1942 by Soviet forces against a German salient in the vicinity of Moscow. ... The eastern front at the time of Operation Uranus. ... Soviet advances during Operations Uranus, Mars and Saturn. ... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Erich von Manstein, Günther von Kluge, Walther Model Georgy Zhukov, Konstantin Rokossovsky, Nikolai Vatutin Strength 800,000 infantry, 2,700 tanks, 2,000 aircraft 1,300,000 infantry, 3,600 tanks, 2,400 aircraft Casualties 500,000 dead, wounded, or captured 500 tanks 200... The Great Purge (Russian: ) is the name given to campaigns of political repression and persecution in the Soviet Union during the late 1930s. ... Field Marshal Wilhelm Keitel, Adolf Hitler, a General Staff officer and General Alfred Jacob NOT Franz Halder Franz Ritter von Halder (June 30, 1884- April 2, 1972) was a German General and the head of the Army General Staff from 1938 until September 1942, when he was dismissed after frequent...


Within the context of the Second Battle of Kharkov itself, the failure of the Red Army to properly regroup during the prelude to the battle and the ability of the Germans to effectively collect intelligence on Soviet movements would play an important role in the battle. Poor Soviet performance in the north and equally poor intelligence-gathering at the hands of STAVKA and front headquarters, would also eventually spell doom for the offensive. Nonetheless, despite this poor performance, it underscored a dedicated evolution of tactics within the Red Army,[31] which although not perfect, would win them the war.


Notes

  1. ^ a b Marshal A.M. Vasilevsky, The matter of my whole life, Moscow, Politizdat, 1978, p. 184.
  2. ^ Zhukov, Memoires, Moscow, Olma-Press, 2002, pp. 58-59
  3. ^ Glantz, David M., The Battle for Leningrad: 1941-1944. PP. 149-150. (Despite the title of the book the relevant source does explicitly mention that this applied to the entire front as a whole).
  4. ^ Zhukov, p. 57
  5. ^ a b Zhukov, p. 59
  6. ^ Vasilevsky, p. 189
  7. ^ a b c d Glants, David M., Kharkov 1942: Anatomy of a Military Disaster. PP. 21-37.
  8. ^ a b Glants, David M., Kharkov 1942: Anatomy of a Military Disaster, pp. 40 and following.
  9. ^ K.S. Moskalenko, On South-Western direction, Moscow, Science, 1969, p. 188
  10. ^ Vasilevsky, p.193-194
  11. ^ Moskalenko, pp. 193-199
  12. ^ Glants, David M., Kharkov 1942: Anatomy of a Military Disaster. p. 34.
  13. ^ Vasilevsky, p. 131-136
  14. ^ A.P. Shickman, Actors of national history, Biographic encyclopedia (entry Timoshenko), Moscow, 1997.
  15. ^ John Erickson, Barbarossa: The Axis and the Allies, Edinburgh Univ. Press, 1998, Table 12.4.
  16. ^ Vasilevsky, p. 186-187
  17. ^ Vasilevsky, p. 187-190
  18. ^ Beevor, Antony, Stalingrad: The Fateful Siege. PP.63-64.
  19. ^ Moskalenko, p.191
  20. ^ Moskalenko, p.197
  21. ^ Moskalenko, p.192
  22. ^ a b c Beevor, p.67
  23. ^ a b Beevor, p.65
  24. ^ a b Moskalenko, pp. 193-196
  25. ^ Moskalenko, p. 196-197
  26. ^ Moskalenko, pp.195
  27. ^ Moskalenko, pp. 193-194
  28. ^ Glants, David M., Kharkov 1942: Anatomy of a Military Disaster, pp. 35-39
  29. ^ Zhukov, p. 63
  30. ^ a b c Zhukov, p.64
  31. ^ a b Moskalenko, p.218
  32. ^ a b Zhukov, p. 64-65
  33. ^ Moskalenko, p.213
  34. ^ Moskalenko, p. 198
  35. ^ Moskalenko, p.214
  36. ^ Vasilevsky, p.204
  37. ^ Zhukov, p.90

References

  • Beevor, Antony. Stalingrad: The Fateful Siege. Viking; New York City: 1998. ISBN 0-670-87095-1
  • Glantz, David M. Kharkov 1942: Anatomy of a Military Disaster. Sarpedon; New York City: 1998. ISBN 1-885119-54-2
  • John Erickson, Barbarossa: The Axis and the Allies, Edinburgh Univ. Press, 1998
  • Marshal A.M. Vasilevsky, The matter of my whole life, Moscow, Politizdat, 1978
  • Marshal G.K. Zhukov, Memoirs, Moscow, Olma-Press, 2002
  • Marshal K.S. Moskalenko (Commander of the 38th Army), On South-Western direction, Moscow, Science, 1969

  Results from FactBites:
 
Second Battle of Kharkov - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3697 words)
In fact, prior to Operation Uranus, during the Battle of Stalingrad, the Red Army didn't have the necessary amounts of anti-tank ordnance and rocket artillery, while the crews of their own tanks, and even their artillery were just as poorly trained as their compatriots in the infantry.
On 17 May the initiative of the battle was successfully transferred to the Germans as Kleist's 1st Panzer Army began a double headed counter-attack on the Barvenkovo bridgehead.
Within the context of the Second Battle of Kharkov itself, the faults of the Red Army to properly regroup during the prelude to the battle and the ability of the Germans to effectively collect intelligence on Soviet movements would play an important role in the battle.
Battle of Kharkov - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (179 words)
Four battles of World War II around the city of Kharkov in Soviet Ukraine (modern Kharkiv in Ukraine) are known as the Battle of Kharkov:
Soviet forces attempted to retake it in the Second Battle of Kharkov, May 1942, but were cut off and destroyed.
Soviet forces retook the city after the Battle of Stalingrad but were driven out again in the Third Battle of Kharkov in February 1943.
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