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Encyclopedia > Second Balkan War
Second Balkan War
Part of Balkan Wars
Date June 16, 1913 - July 18, 1913
Location Balkan Peninsula
Result Bulgarian defeat, Treaty of Bucharest, 1913
Combatants
Bulgaria Flag of Greece Greece
Flag of Serbia Serbia
Flag of Montenegro Montenegro
Romania
Ottoman flag Ottoman Empire
Commanders
Mihail Savov,
Nikola Ivanov,
Vasil Kutinchev,
Radko Dimitriev
Flag of Greece King Constantine,
Flag of Serbia Radomir Putnik,
Crown Prince Ferdinand,
Alexandru Averescu
Strength
500,000 men Serbia 220,000 men, Romania 300,000 men, Greece 150,000 men, Montenegro 12,000 men

The Second Balkan War was fought in 1913 between Bulgaria on one side and its First Balkan War allies Greece and Serbia on the other side, with Romania and the Ottoman Empire intervening against Bulgaria. The outcome turned Serbia, an ally of the Russian Empire, into an important regional power, alarming Austria-Hungary and thereby indirectly providing an important cause for World War I. Combatants  Ottoman Empire Balkan League: Bulgaria Greece Serbia Montenegro Commanders Ottoman Empire: Nizam PaÅŸa, Zeki PaÅŸa, Esat PaÅŸa, Abdullah PaÅŸa, Ali Rıza PaÅŸa Bulgaria: Vladimir Vazov, Vasil Kutinchev, Nikola Ivanov, Radko Dimitriev Greece:Crown Prince Constantine, Panagiotis Danglis, Pavlos Kountouriotis Serbia:Radomir Putnik, Petar... is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 199th day of the year (200th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Balkans is the historic and geographic name used to describe southeastern Europe (see the Definitions and boundaries section below). ... The Treaty of Bucharest was concluded on August 10, 1913, by the delegates of Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia, Montenegro, and Greece. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bulgaria_(1878-1944). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece_(1828-1978). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Anthem: Bože Pravde [[Image:|250px|center|Location of the Kingdom of Serbia]] Capital Belgrade Largest city Belgrade Serbian Government Monarchy  - King Milan (1882-1889)  - King Aleksandar (1889-1903)  - King Peter I (1903-1918) Proclamation March 6, 1882 Area  - Total  km² ([[List of countries and outlying territories by area|]])  sq... Image File history File links Flag_of_Montenegro_(1941-1944). ... Flag Anthem: Ubavoj nam Crnoj Gori, Onamo, namo! The Kingdom of Montenegro in 1913 Capital Cetinje Language(s) Serbian Religion Eastern Orthodox Government Monarchy King Nicholas I Historical era World War I  - Established 28 August, 1910  - Disestablished 26 November, 1918 Currency Montenegrin perper The Kingdom of Montenegro (Serbian: Краљевина Црнe Горe... File links The following pages link to this file: Axis Powers Flag of Romania Categories: Flag images ... Image File history File links Ottoman_Flag. ... Ottoman redirects here. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bulgaria_(1878-1944). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bulgaria_(1878-1944). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bulgaria_(1878-1944). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bulgaria_(1878-1944). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece_(1828-1978). ... Constantine I, King of the Hellenes (Greek: Κωνσταντίνος A, Βασιλεύς των Ελλήνων) (2 August 1868 - 11 January 1923) ruled Greece from 1913-1917 and from 1920-1922. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Marshal Radomir Putnik Radomir Putnik, also known as Vojvoda Putnik, (Радомир Путник - Војвода Путник) (born January 24, 1847 in Kragujevac, died May 17, 1917) was a Serbian Field Marshal and Chief of General Staff in the Balkan Wars and the First World War, and took part in all wars that Serbia waged from 1876... File links The following pages link to this file: Axis Powers Flag of Romania Categories: Flag images ... Ferdinand of Romania Ferdinand or Ferdinand I (August 24, 1865-July 20, 1927) was the king of Romania from October 10, 1914 until his death Born in Sigmaringen in southwestern Germany, Prince Ferdinand of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen became heir to the throne of his childless uncle, King Carol I of Romania... File links The following pages link to this file: Axis Powers Flag of Romania Categories: Flag images ... Alexandru Averescu on horseback Alexander Avescu Alexandru Averescu (14 November 1859, born in Babele, near Ismail, now in Ukraine - 1938) was a Romanian army general and commander of the Romanian Army during World War I, often being credited with Romanias victory in this war. ... Combatants Greece Bulgaria Commanders King Constantine I General Ivanov Strength ca. ... Combatants Kingdom of Serbia Kingdom of Montenegro Kingdom of Bulgaria Commanders Field Marshal Putnik General Petar Bojović Prince Aleksandar KaraÄ‘orÄ‘ević General Živojin MiÅ¡ić General Savov General Ivanov General Kočevski Strength ca. ... The battle of Kalimansti was fought between the Serbian army and Bulgarian army during the Second Balkan War. ... The Battle of Kresna Gorge was fought between the Greeks and the Bulgarians during the Second Balkan War. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Combatants  Ottoman Empire Balkan League: Bulgaria Greece Montenegro Serbia Commanders Nazim Pasha, Zekki Pasha, Essad Pasha, Abdullah Pasha, Ali Rizah Pasha Vasil Kutinchev, Nikola Ivanov, Radko Dimitriev Crown Prince Constantine, Panagiotis Danglis, Pavlos Kountouriotis King Nicholas I, Prince Danilo Petrović, Mitar Martinović, Janko Vukotić Radomir Putnik, Petar Bojović, Stepa Stepanovi... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... Ottoman redirects here. ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ...

Contents

Background - The First Balkan War

During the First Balkan War, the Balkan League (Serbia, Montenegro, Greece, and Bulgaria) succeeded in conquering the European provinces of the Ottoman Empire (Albania, Macedonia and Thrace), leaving the Ottomans with only the Chatalja and Gallipoli peninsulas. The Treaty of London, signed on 30 May 1913, which ended the war, acknowledged the Balkan states' gains west of the Enos-Medea line and created an independent Albania. Combatants  Ottoman Empire Balkan League: Bulgaria Greece Montenegro Serbia Commanders Nazim Pasha, Zekki Pasha, Essad Pasha, Abdullah Pasha, Ali Rizah Pasha Vasil Kutinchev, Nikola Ivanov, Radko Dimitriev Crown Prince Constantine, Panagiotis Danglis, Pavlos Kountouriotis King Nicholas I, Prince Danilo Petrović, Mitar Martinović, Janko Vukotić Radomir Putnik, Petar Bojović, Stepa Stepanovi... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... This article is about the country in Europe. ... Ottoman redirects here. ... Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak  Thrace (Bulgarian: , Greek: , Attic Greek: ThrāíkÄ“ or ThrēíkÄ“, Latin: , Turkish: ) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. ... The Treaty of London was convened in May 1913 to deal with territorial adjustments arising out of the conclusion of the First Balkan War. ... is the 150th day of the year (151st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Enez is a district of Edirne Province, Turkey, as well as the name of the center-town of the district. ... Kıyıköy is a town of the district of Vize in Kırklareli Province in northwestern Turkey. ...


However, the treaty did not satisfy anyone. The Balkan states had made no preliminary agreement on the partition of the conquered territories, especially with regards to Macedonia, and the London Conference simply recognized the status quo, whereby the territories went to the occupying power. Bulgaria felt that their territorial rewards from the war, particularly in Macedonia, were insufficient, and laid claim to the important city of Salonika, where a Bulgarian regiment was already stationed. Greece and Serbia were already displeased at being forced to evacuate Albania, and responded to the perceived Bulgarian threat by entering into negotiations, ostensibly aimed at preventing Bulgarian expansion. They settled their mutual differences and signed a military alliance on May 1, 1913, followed by a treaty of "mutual friendship and protection" on May 19/June 1, 1913. A further dispute of Bulgaria was with Romania, over the latter's claim on the Bulgarian fortress of Silistria on the Danube river, as the price for their neutrality in the First Balkan war. The White Tower The Arch of Galerius Map showing the Thessaloníki prefecture Thessaloníki (Θεσσαλονίκη) is the second-largest city of Greece and is the principal city and the capital of the Greek region of Macedonia. ... Silistra (a. ... This article is about the Danube River. ...


Russian arbitration, provided for in the 1912 Serbo-Bulgarian treaty, was progressing slowly, as Russia didn't wish to lose either of its Slavic allies in the Balkans. During the negotiations, skirmishing continued in Macedonia, mainly between Serbian and Bulgarian troops. On June 16, the Bulgarian high command, without notifying the government, ordered Bulgarian troops to attack Serbian and Greek positions, and declarations of war ensued. Distribution of Slavic people by language The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in Europe, where they constitute roughly a third of the population. ...


Bulgaria hoped to acquire all of Bulgarian Macedonia and dominate the Balkans, as envisaged in the Treaty of San Stefano, while Serbia and Greece hoped to take larger portions of Macedonia and prevent Bulgarian hegemony. Borders of Bulgaria according to the Treaty of San Stefano of March 3rd, 1878 The Treaty of San Stefano was a treaty between Russia and the Ottoman Empire at the conclusion of the Russo-Turkish War, 1877-78. ...


Forces

The Bulgarian army had 500,000 men into five armies, deployed over 500 km front from the Danube river on the North, to the Aegean Sea on the South. The Serbian army accounted for 230,000 men into three armies, its main force deployed on the Macedonian front along the Vardar river and Skopije. The Greek army had 120,000 men, mainly around Salonica. Montenegro sent one division (12,000 men) on the Macedonian front. Romania mobilized 500,000 men, allocated in five corps. Turkey entered the war with an army of 255,000 men.


The Beginning of the Second Balkan War

Bulgarian dead in the Balkan Wars
Bulgarian dead in the Balkan Wars

The main Bulgarian attack was planned against the Serbs with their 1st, 3rd, 4th and 5th Armies, while the 2nd Army was tasked with an attack towards Greek positions towards Salonika. The Bulgarians were outnumbered on the Greek front and the low level fighting soon turned into Greek attack all along the line on 19 June. The Bulgarian forces immediately withdrew from their positions north of Salonika (except the isolated Salonika garrison which was quickly overrun) to defensive positions between Kilkis and Struma river. The plan was to quickly destroy the Serbian army in central Macedonia by concentrated attack; it did not succeed and the Bulgarians were stopped.[citation needed] This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... The White Tower The Arch of Galerius Map showing the Thessaloníki prefecture Thessaloníki (Θεσσαλονίκη) is the second-largest city of Greece and is the principal city and the capital of the Greek region of Macedonia. ... Coordinates 40°59′ N 22°52′ E Country Greece Periphery Central Macedonia Prefecture Kilkis Province Kilkis Population 24,812 source (2001) Area 306. ... Struma was a ship chartered to carry Jewish refugees from Romania to British-controlled Palestine. ...


Battle of Kilkis-Lahana

The Bulgarian 2nd Army in southern Macedonia commanded by General Ivanov held a line from Lake Doiran (a key battlefield for British troops three years later) south east to Lakes Langaza (modern Lake Koronia) and Beshik (modern Lake Volvi), then across to the port of Kavala on the Aegean. The army had been in place since May, and had fought at the siege of Adrianople in the First Balkan War. Bulgarians claim that their troops were overextended and that they numbered no more than 40,000 men in two weak divisions. Many of the gaps were filled with recruits from the local population.[citation needed] The Greeks estimated their opponents at at least 80,000 men.[citation needed] The Greek army, commanded by King Constantine I, had nine divisions and a cavalry division (120,000 men)[citation needed], outnumbering the Bulgarian forces, which were however heavily fortified. Lake Koronia (Greek: Λίμνη Κορώνεια), also Lake Koroneia is a lake in the heart of the prefecture of Thessaloniki in the basin of Mygdonia in the Lagkada province. ... Bolbe (He Bolbe limne, Greek: Λίμνη Βόλβη, modern: Limni Volvi) was the name of a lake in Mygdonia, located at no great distance from the Aegean Sea. ... Edirne is a city in (Thrace), the westernmost part of Turkey, close to the borders with Greece and Bulgaria. ... Combatants  Ottoman Empire Balkan League: Bulgaria Greece Montenegro Serbia Commanders Nazim Pasha, Zekki Pasha, Essad Pasha, Abdullah Pasha, Ali Rizah Pasha Vasil Kutinchev, Nikola Ivanov, Radko Dimitriev Crown Prince Constantine, Panagiotis Danglis, Pavlos Kountouriotis King Nicholas I, Prince Danilo Petrović, Mitar Martinović, Janko Vukotić Radomir Putnik, Petar Bojović, Stepa Stepanovi... Constantine I, King of the Hellenes (Greek: Κωνσταντίνος A, Βασιλεύς των Ελλήνων) (2 August 1868 - 11 January 1923) ruled Greece from 1913-1917 and from 1920-1922. ...


At Kilkis the Bulgarians had constructed strong defences, including captured Ottoman guns which dominated the plain below. On 3 July the Greek 4th, 2nd and 5th divisions attacked across the plain in rushes supported by artillery. They suffered heavy casualties but by the following day had carried the trenches. Meanwhile on the Bulgarian left the Greek 7th Division had captured Nigrita and the 1st and 6th divisions Lahana. On the Bulgarian right Evzoni captured Gevgelija and the heights of Matsikovo. As a consequence the Bulgarian line of retreat through Doiran was threatened and Ivanov's army began a desperate retreat which at times threatened to become a rout. Reinforcements in the form of the 14th Division came too late and joined the retreat towards Strumica and the Bulgarian border. The Greeks captured Doiran on 5 July but were unable to cut off the Bulgarian retreat through Struma pass. On 11 July the Greeks joined up with the Serbs and then pushed on up the Struma River until they reached Kresna Gorge on 24 July. At this point the exhausted Greeks had overstretched their supply lines, and were forced to halt and were surrounded. Only the beginning of peace negotiation saved the Greek army from a complete disaster. Coordinates 40°59′ N 22°52′ E Country Greece Periphery Central Macedonia Prefecture Kilkis Province Kilkis Population 24,812 source (2001) Area 306. ... Nigrita (Greek: Νιγρίτα) is a town and a municipality situated almost between the Strymonian plain of the Strymon river and the Vertiskos mountains featuring the mountaintop Trani Rachi to the southwest. ... Gevgelija on the map of Republic of Macedonia Coat of arms of Gevgelija Gevgelija (Macedonian: Гевгелија, Greek: Γευγελή, Yevyelí) is a town with a population of 20,362 located in the very southeast of the Republic of Macedonia along the banks of the Vardar River, situated at the countrys main border... Combatants Great Britain, Greece Bulgaria Commanders George Milne Vladimir Vazov Strength - English: 4 divisions, Greeks: 2 divisions - 9-th Infantry division, with parts of 11-th Infantry division and the Mountain Division (Total: 34,500) Casualties English: 47,000 Greeks: 12,000 494 The Battle of Doiran was fought from... Struma was a ship chartered to carry Jewish refugees from Romania to British-controlled Palestine. ... The Struma (Bulgarian: Струма, Greek: Strimonis, Turkish: Karasu (meaning black water in Turkish)) is a river in Bulgaria and Greece. ... The Kresna Gorge is a spectacular steep valley in South-Western Bulgaria. ...


The Bulgarians suffered some 7,000 casualties at Kilkis.[citation needed] A further 6,000 were taken prisoner together with 130 guns.[citation needed] The Greeks also suffered heavily with 8,700 casualties.[citation needed] It was the greatest Greek success in both Balkan wars.


Bregalnica, Kalimantsi and Kresna Gorge

On the front in central Macedonia the Serbs pushed Bulgarian forces eastwards at the battle of Bregalnica (30 June - 9 July). Meanwhile on the north the Bulgarians started to advance towards Serbian town of Pirot (near the Serbian - Bulgarian border) and forced Serbian Command to send reinforcements to the 2nd Army defending Pirot and Nis. This enabled Bulgarians to stop the Serbian offensive in Macedonia at Kalimantsi on 18 July. Combatants Kingdom of Serbia Kingdom of Montenegro Kingdom of Bulgaria Commanders Field Marshal Putnik General Petar Bojović Prince Aleksandar KaraÄ‘orÄ‘ević General Živojin MiÅ¡ić General Savov General Ivanov General Kočevski Strength ca. ... Pirot (Пирот) is a city located in Serbia and Montenegro at 43. ... Nis may refer to NiÅ¡, a city in Serbia and Montenegro miscapitalized NIS This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... The battle of Kalimansti was fought between the Serbian army and Bulgarian army during the Second Balkan War. ...


After the situation on the Serbian front calmed down, the Bulgarians shifted their 1st Army to support the 2nd Army facing the Greeks in the excellent defensive position of Kresna Gorge. King Constantine rejected his government's proposal for an armistice, seeking a decisive victory on the battlefield. The Kresna Gorge is a spectacular steep valley in South-Western Bulgaria. ... Constantine I, King of the Hellenes (Greek: Κωνσταντίνος A, Βασιλεύς των Ελλήνων) (2 August 1868 - 11 January 1923) ruled Greece from 1913-1917 and from 1920-1922. ...


On 29 July the consolidated Bulgarian army launched attacks on both flanks pushing the Greeks down the Struma and Mesta River valleys. Constantine's army faced annihilation and pleaded for support from the Serbs. The Serbs were in no position to offer help after their defeat at Kalimantsi and Constantine was obliged to ask his government to seek an armistice. The Greeks had sustained about 10,000 casualties in the previous ten days of fighting. The Bulgarian government was equally desirous of peace and the Greek army was saved from destruction. Struma was a ship chartered to carry Jewish refugees from Romania to British-controlled Palestine. ... Mesta (Bulgarian: Места) or Nestos (Greek: Νέστος) is a river in Bulgaria and Greece. ... Constantine I, King of the Hellenes (Greek: Κωνσταντίνος A, Βασιλεύς των Ελλήνων) (2 August 1868 - 11 January 1923) ruled Greece from 1913-1917 and from 1920-1922. ... The battle of Kalimansti was fought between the Serbian army and Bulgarian army during the Second Balkan War. ... Constantine I, King of the Hellenes (Greek: Κωνσταντίνος A, Βασιλεύς των Ελλήνων) (2 August 1868 - 11 January 1923) ruled Greece from 1913-1917 and from 1920-1922. ...

Battles of the Second Balkan War
Name Defending Commander Attacking Commander Date Victor
Kilkis-Lahanas Bulgaria Nikola Ivanov Greece Constantine I 19-21 June 1913 (O.S.) Greece
Doiran Bulgaria Nikola Ivanov Greece Constantine I 22-23 June 1913 (O.S.) Greece
Bregalnica Serbia Bulgaria 17-25 June 1913 (O.S.) Serbia
Battle of Kalimantsi Bulgaria Serbia 15-18 July 1913 (O.S.) Bulgaria
Battle of Kresna Gorge Bulgaria Greece Constantine I 8-18 July 1913 (O.S.) stalemate(Bulgaria)

Combatants Greece Bulgaria Commanders King Constantine I General Ivanov Strength ca. ... Constantine I, King of the Hellenes (Greek: Κωνσταντίνος A, Βασιλεύς των Ελλήνων) (2 August 1868 - 11 January 1923) ruled Greece from 1913-1917 and from 1920-1922. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Constantine I, King of the Hellenes (Greek: Κωνσταντίνος A, Βασιλεύς των Ελλήνων) (2 August 1868 - 11 January 1923) ruled Greece from 1913-1917 and from 1920-1922. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Combatants Kingdom of Serbia Kingdom of Montenegro Kingdom of Bulgaria Commanders Field Marshal Putnik General Petar Bojović Prince Aleksandar Karađorđević General Živojin Mišić General Savov General Ivanov General Kočevski Strength ca. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The battle of Kalimansti was fought between the Serbian army and Bulgarian army during the Second Balkan War. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Battle of Kresna Gorge was fought between the Greeks and the Bulgarians during the Second Balkan War. ... Constantine I, King of the Hellenes (Greek: Κωνσταντίνος A, Βασιλεύς των Ελλήνων) (2 August 1868 - 11 January 1923) ruled Greece from 1913-1917 and from 1920-1922. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...

End of the War

Despite stabilising the front in Macedonia, the Bulgarian government's acceptance of an armistice was driven by events far from Macedonia. Romania invaded on 27 June/10 July, occupying the undefended Southern Dobruja and marching through Northern Bulgaria to threaten Sofia. The Ottoman Empire also took advantage of the situation to recover some of their former possessions in Thrace including Adrianople (which the Bulgarians abandoned on 23 July without firing a shot).[citation needed] Ottoman troops marched into Yambol. Because Bulgarian troops had all been allocated to the front with Serbia and Greece, the Ottoman and Romanian armies suffered no combat casualties, although both suffered heavily from a cholera outbreak.[citation needed] Southern Dobruja (Южна Добруджа, Yuzhna Dobrudzha in Bulgarian, Dobrogea de sud or Cadrilater in Romanian) is an area of north-eastern Bulgaria comprising the administrative districts named for its two principal cities of Dobrich and Silistra. ... This article is about the capital of Bulgaria. ... Ottoman redirects here. ... Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak  Thrace (Bulgarian: , Greek: , Attic Greek: ThrāíkÄ“ or ThrēíkÄ“, Latin: , Turkish: ) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. ... Edirne is a city in (Thrace), the westernmost part of Turkey, close to the borders with Greece and Bulgaria. ... Yambol (Bulgarian: Ямбол, also transliterated as Jambol) is the principal town in Yambol Province, Bulgaria, located on the Tunzha River. ... Cholera (or Asiatic cholera or epidemic cholera) is an extreme diarrheal disease caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. ...


A general armistice was agreed on 18/31 July, 1913, and the territorial spoils agreed in the treaties of Bucharest and Constantinople. Bulgaria lost most of the territories gained in the First Balkan War including the southern Dobrudja (to Romania), most of Macedonia, and Eastern Thrace (to the Ottomans), while retaining Western Thrace, its Aegean outlet, with the port of Dedeagach. Serbia made gains in northern Macedonia, while Greece gained the region's southern half, including the coveted prizes of Salonika and Kavala.[citation needed] Five peace treaties were signed in Bucharest: Treaty of Bucharest, 1812 - May 28, 1812, at the end of the Russian-Turkish war, Romania loses Bessarabia Treaty of Bucharest, 1886 - March 3, 1886, at the end of the war between Serbia and Bulgaria Treaty of Bucharest, 1913 - August 10, 1913, at... The Τreaty of Constantinople was the product of the Constantinople Conference which opened in February 1832 with the participation of the Great Powers (Great Britain, France and Russia on the one hand and the Ottoman Empire on the other. ... Combatants  Ottoman Empire Balkan League: Bulgaria Greece Montenegro Serbia Commanders Nazim Pasha, Zekki Pasha, Essad Pasha, Abdullah Pasha, Ali Rizah Pasha Vasil Kutinchev, Nikola Ivanov, Radko Dimitriev Crown Prince Constantine, Panagiotis Danglis, Pavlos Kountouriotis King Nicholas I, Prince Danilo Petrović, Mitar Martinović, Janko Vukotić Radomir Putnik, Petar Bojović, Stepa Stepanovi... Dobruja or sometimes Dobrudja (Dobrogea in Romanian, Dobrudzha in Bulgarian, Dobruca in Turkish) is the territory between the lower Danube river and the Black Sea, which includes the Danube Delta and the Romanian sea-shore. ... Prominent issues in Greek foreign policy include a dispute over the name of the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, the enduring Cyprus problem, Greek-Turkish differences over the Aegean, and relations with the USA. The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Greek refusal to recognize the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia... Ottoman redirects here. ... Western or Greek Thrace (Greek Δυτική ή Ελληνική Θράκη,Turkish Batı Trakya) is the part of Thrace located between the rivers Nestos and Evros in northeastern Greece. ... Alexandroupoli (also Alexandroupolis, Greek: Αλεξανδρούπολη - Alexandroúpoli, Turkish: DedeaÄŸaç) is a city of Greece and the capital of the Evros Prefecture in Thrace. ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... This article is about the region of Greece. ... The White Tower The Arch of Galerius Map showing the Thessaloníki prefecture Thessaloníki (Θεσσαλονίκη) is the second-largest city of Greece and is the principal city and the capital of the Greek region of Macedonia. ... Kavala (also seen as Kavála, Kavalla, (Greek) (2001 pop. ...


The boundary settlements of the Treaties of Bucharest and Constantinople were only temporary; ten months later the fighting was renewed with the start of the First World War. Five peace treaties were signed in Bucharest: Treaty of Bucharest, 1812 - May 28, 1812, at the end of the Russian-Turkish war, Romania loses Bessarabia Treaty of Bucharest, 1886 - March 3, 1886, at the end of the war between Serbia and Bulgaria Treaty of Bucharest, 1913 - August 10, 1913, at... The Τreaty of Constantinople was the product of the Constantinople Conference which opened in February 1832 with the participation of the Great Powers (Great Britain, France and Russia on the one hand and the Ottoman Empire on the other. ... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ...


Notes

Image File history File links Question_book-3. ...

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Balkan Wars - LoveToKnow 1911 (12426 words)
For the objective of the war was Macedonia, as von der Goltz had foreseen in 1909 when he increased both the present and the potential strength of the Turkish forces allotted to that theatre.
The Turkish war having again been brought to a conclusion by a general armistice, a few days after the fall of Adrianople, peace negotiations were resumed in London, and in these negotiations the settlement of peace as far as Turkey was concerned was, it may be said, the least of many preoccupations.
The origin of the war, as between Bulgaria and Serbia, lay in the non-observance by Bulgaria of the original treaty stipulation that she should aid the Serbian campaign in Macedonia with 100,000 men.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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