FACTOID # 27: If you're itching to live in a trailer park, hitch up your home and head to South Carolina, where a whopping 18% of residences are mobile homes.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Secessionist movements of Canada

Throughout the history of Canada, there have been movements seeking secession from Canada.

Contents


Movements seeking independence from Canada

Quebec

Quebec Sovereignism seeks independence from Canada for the province of Quebec. This movement often seeks what has been termed "sovereignty-association": sovereignty for Quebec within an economic association/union with the rest of Canada. Since the Quiet Revolution, the available options – all of which have been somewhat ambiguous – have persistently garnered support from Quebecers. Quebec The Quebec sovereignty movement is a movement calling for the attainment of sovereignty for Quebec, a province of the country of Canada. ... Motto: Je me souviens (French: I remember) Official languages French Capital Quebec City Largest city Montreal Lieutenant-Governor Lise Thibault Premier Jean Charest (PLQ) Parliamentary representation  - House seat  - Senate seats 75 24 Area Total  â€¢ Land  â€¢ Water    (% of total)  Ranked 1st 1,542,056 km² 1,183,128 km² 176,928... Jean Lesage, Daniel Johnson Sr. ...


The sovereignty movement has spawned a variety of organizations, most notably the Parti Québécois, a social democratic political party at the provincial level of government in Quebec that has governed the province for various periods since 1976, and the Bloc Québécois, which currently controls 51 of Quebec's 75 seats in the Canadian House of Commons, and which promotes Quebec sovereignty and Quebec's interests at the federal level of government. The Parti Québécois or PQ is a political party that advocates national sovereignty for Quebec from Canada, as well as social democratic policies and has traditionally had support from the labour movement though unlike other social democratic parties it has no formal ties with labour. ... Social democracy is a political ideology emerging in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from supporters of Marxism who believed that the transition to a socialist society could be achieved through democratic evolutionary rather than revolutionary means. ... A political party is an organization that seeks to attain political power within a government, usually by participating in electoral campaigns. ... The Bloc Québécois is a federal political party in Canada that is devoted to the promotion of sovereignty for Quebec. ... The House of Commons (French: Chambre des communes) is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the Sovereign (represented by the Governor General) and the Senate. ...


The Front de Liberation du Quebec was a terrorist organization in the 1960s and early 1970s that used violence to promote independence for Quebec. The Front de Libération du Québec (Quebec Liberation Front), commonly known as the FLQ, was a separatist group founded in the 1960s and based primarily in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. ...


See also:

Since the Quiet Revolution, sovereignist sentiments have been stoked somewhat by the patriation of the Canadian constitution in 1982 (without Quebec's consent) and by numerous failed attempts at constitutional reform (which have sought to address Quebec's "distinct society", et al.). Two provincial referenda, in 1980 and 1995, rejected proposals for sovereignty with majorities of 60% and 50.6% respectively. Given the narrow federalist victory in 1995, a reference was made by the Chrétien government to the Supreme Court of Canada in 1998 regarding the legality of a unilateral secession of Quebec; this resulted in the passage of the Clarity Act in 2000. The Union populaire was a federal political party in Canada that nominated candidates in the 1979 and 1980 federal elections. ... The Parti nationaliste du Québec was a minor political party in Canada. ... The Ralliement national was political party that advocated the political independence of Quebec from Canada in the 1960s. ... Pierre Bourgault speaks as leader of the Rassemblement pour lIndépendance Nationale. ... The Parti indépendantiste was a provincial party Québec, Canada, founded by Denis Monière in 1985. ... The Mouvement Souveraineté-Association (MSA, or Movement for Sovereignty-Association) was formed on November 19, 1967 by René Lévesque to promote the concept of sovereignty-association between Quebec and the rest of Canada. ... The logo of the Saint-Jean-Baptiste Society. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Canada Act 1982 The Canada Act 1982 is an Act of Parliament passed by the British Parliament that severed all remaining constitutional and legislative ties between the United Kingdom and Canada, in a process referred to as patriation. It contains the text... Distinct society (in French la société distincte) was a political neologism used during a constitutional debate in Canada, in the second half of the 1980s and in the early 1990s. ... A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... Jean Chrétien (born January 11, 1934), was the twentieth Prime Minister of Canada, serving from November 4, 1993 to December 12, 2003. ... The Supreme Court Building in Ottawa The Supreme Court of Canada (French: Cour suprême du Canada) is highest court of Canada and is the final court of appeal for all litigants in the Canadian justice system. ... Holding Quebec cannot secede from Canada unilaterally; however, a clear vote to secede in a referendum should lead to negotiations between Quebec and Canada for secession. ... Lucien Bouchard and Jean Chrétien divided. ...


Western Canada

The Métis, under the leadership of Louis Riel staged the Red River Rebellion in Manitoba against Canada in 1870, and the North-West Rebellion in Saskatchewan in 1885. At the time, this part of the West was relatively independent, culturally distinct, and facing the stress of dealing with aggressive colonization by Anglophones from Ontario. The Métis (pronounced MAY tee, IPA: , in French or , in Métis ) are one of three recognized Aboriginal peoples in Canada. ... Louis Riel Louis David Riel (October 22, 1844 – November 16, 1885), was a Canadian politician, a founder of the province of Manitoba, and leader of the Métis people of the Canadian prairies. ... The Métis provisional government The Red River Rebellion of 1869 – 1870 is the term most often used to describe the actions of a provisional government established by Métis leader Louis Riel in 1869 at the Red River Settlement in what is now the Canadian province of Manitoba. ... The Battle of Batoche begins The North-West Rebellion (or North-West Resistance or the Saskatchewan Rebellion) of 1885 was a brief and unsuccessful attempt by the Métis people of Saskatchewan to establish their own sovereign nation independent of the Dominion of Canada. ... Western Canada is a geographic region of Canada, also known as simply the West, generally considered to be west of the province of Ontario. ... An anglophone is someone who speaks English natively or by adoption. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Official languages English (French has some legal status) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Lieutenant-Governor James K. Bartleman Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Parliamentary representation  - House seat  - Senate seats 106 24 Area Total  â€¢ Land  â€¢ Water    (% of total)  Ranked...


Numerous political parties in the western provinces, believing there to be no other solution for stemming apparent "Western alienation" by Central Canada, have sought independence from Canada. These movements are strongest in Alberta and British Columbia; lesser ones exist in Saskatchewan and Manitoba. These movements at times have also assumed that Canada's northern territories — Yukon, Northwest Territories, and Nunavut — would also be a part of a new Western Canadian union. These parties have achieved only low to modest success; such parties include the Western Canada Concept and the Western Independence Party. Central Canada is a term used to refer to the two largest and most populous provinces in Eastern Canada: Ontario and Quebec. ... Motto: Fortis et Liber (Latin: Strong and free) Official languages English Capital Edmonton Largest city Calgary Lieutenant-Governor Norman Kwong Premier Ralph Klein (PC) Parliamentary representation  - House seat  - Senate seats 28 6 Area Total  â€¢ Land  â€¢ Water    (% of total)  Ranked 6th (provinces and territories) 661,848 km² 642,317 km² 19... Motto: Splendor Sine Occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Official languages none stated in law; English is de facto Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Lieutenant-Governor Iona Campagnolo Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Parliamentary representation  - House seat  - Senate seats 36 6 Area Total  â€¢ Land  â€¢ Water    (% of total)  Ranked 5th 944,735... Motto: Multis E Gentibus Vires (Latin: From many peoples, strength) Official languages English (but legally required to provide some services in French) Capital Regina Largest city Saskatoon Lieutenant-Governor Lynda M. Haverstock Premier Lorne Calvert (NDP) Parliamentary representation  - House seat  - Senate seats 14 6 Area Total  â€¢ Land  â€¢ Water    (% of total... Motto: Gloriosus et Liber (Latin: Glorious and free) Official languages English (some French services are provided, but French does not have official status at the provincial level) Capital Winnipeg Largest city Winnipeg Lieutenant-Governor John Harvard Premier Gary Doer (NDP) Parliamentary representation  - House seat  - Senate seats 14 6 Area Total... Motto: none Official languages {{{OfficialLang}}} Capital Whitehorse Largest city Whitehorse Commissioner Geraldine Van Bibber Premier Dennis Fentie (Yukon Party) Parliamentary representation  - House seat  - Senate seats 1 1 Area Total  â€¢ Land  â€¢ Water    (% of total)  Ranked 9th 482,443 km² 474,391 km² 8,052 km² (1. ... Motto: None Official languages Dene Suline, Cree, Dogrib, English, French, Gwichin, Inuktitut, Slavey Capital Yellowknife Largest city Yellowknife Commissioner Tony Whitford Premier Joe Handley (Consensus government - no party affiliations) Parliamentary representation  - House seat  - Senate seats 1 1 Area Total  â€¢ Land  â€¢ Water    (% of total)  Ranked 3rd 1,346,106 km... Motto: Nunavut Sannginivut (Inuktitut: Nunavut our strength or Our land our strength) Official languages Inuktitut, Inuinnaqtun, English, French Capital Iqaluit Largest city Iqaluit Commissioner Ann Meekitjuk Hanson Premier Paul Okalik (independent) Parliamentary representation  - House seat  - Senate seats 1 Nancy Karetak-Lindell 1 Willie Adams Area Total  â€¢ Land  â€¢ Water    (% of total... The Western Canada Concept was a Western Canadian political party founded in 1980 to promote the separation of the provinces of Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta and British Columbia and the Yukon and Northwest Territories from Canada in order to create a new nation. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Western Canada Independence Party. ...


The Alberta Independence Party promoted independence for the province of Alberta either on its own, or in union with the other western provinces in the 1990s, but is now defunct. The Separation Party of Alberta nominated candidates in the 2004 Alberta provincial election. The Alberta Independence Party (AIP) was a provincial party founded in Alberta, Canada, in 2000/1. ... The Separation Party of Alberta, also known as the Alberta Huttonite Brethren is a totallly undemocratic political party that advocates the secession of Alberta from Canada. ... Alberta riding map showing the winning parties and their vote percentage in each won riding. ...


In the early 1980s in Saskatchewan, the Unionest Party advocated the western provinces join the United States. Motto: Multis E Gentibus Vires (Latin: From many peoples, strength) Official languages English (but legally required to provide some services in French) Capital Regina Largest city Saskatoon Lieutenant-Governor Lynda M. Haverstock Premier Lorne Calvert (NDP) Parliamentary representation  - House seat  - Senate seats 14 6 Area Total  â€¢ Land  â€¢ Water    (% of total... The Unionest Party was a provincial political party in Saskatchewan, Canada, in the early 1980s, that advocated union between the four western provinces of Canada (British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba) and the United States. ...


A poll by the Western Standard conducted from June 29, 2005 to July 5, 2005 finds 35.6% of residents of the four provinces think "Western Canadians should begin to explore the idea of forming their own country."[1] The Western Standard bills itself as Western Canadas only national news magazine and is printed 24 times a year. ...


See also: Alberta separatism. Alberta separatism is a movement that advances the concept of the province of Alberta seceding from Canada to form an independent nation. ...


Nova Scotia

Shortly after the Confederation of three British colonies (Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and the Province of Canada) to form the Dominion of Canada in 1867, opponents of Confederation in Nova Scotia began promoting the withdrawal of that province from the new confederation. The Anti-Confederation Party won 18 of the 19 Nova Scotia seats in the new Canadian House of Commons in the 1867 general election, and 36 of the 38 seats in the Nova Scotia legislature, but did not succeed in achieving independence for Nova Scotia. Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit (Latin: One defends and the other conquers) Official languages None Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Lieutenant-Governor Myra Freeman Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Parliamentary representation  - House seat  - Senate seats 11 10 Area Total  â€¢ Land  â€¢ Water    (% of total)  Ranked 12th 55,283 km² 53,338... Motto: Spem reduxit (Hope restored) Official languages English, French Capital Fredericton Largest city Saint John Lieutenant-Governor Herménégilde Chiasson Premier Bernard Lord (PC) Parliamentary representation  - House seat  - Senate seats 10 10 Area Total  â€¢ Land  â€¢ Water    (% of total)  Ranked 11th 72 908 km² 71 450 km² 1 458 km... Note: for information about Canadas present-day provinces, see Provinces and territories of Canada. ... A Dominion is a wholly self-governing or virtually self-governing state of the British Empire or Commonwealth of Nations, particularly one which reached that stage of constitutional development in the late 19th and early 20th centuries such as Canada, Australia and New Zealand. ... Anti-Confederation was the name used by several parties in what is now Atlantic Canada by movements opposed to Canadian confederation. ... The House of Commons (French: Chambre des communes) is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the Sovereign (represented by the Governor General) and the Senate. ... The Canadian parliament after the 1867 election The 1867 federal election, which proved how much canada sucks ended on September 20th, was the first election for the new . ...


Manitoba

In January-February 1868, a small group of settlers declared a Republic of Caledonia, later the Republic of Manitoba, at Portage-la-Prairie in Hudson's Bay Company land that was to be incorporated into Canada. These settlers aimed to use this declaration to obtain favourable terms (for themselves) for the entry of the area into Confederation. The declaration was not recognized by Canadian or British authorities, and the republic soon collapsed. The Hudsons Bay Company (HBC. TSX: HBC) is the oldest commercial corporation in North America and is one of the oldest in the world. ...


Ontario

In 1996, an anonymous person [Hirudinea06@hotmail.com] posted a webpage for an Ontario Independence League. Though the webpage still exists the organisation is defunct. External link: Ontario Independence League


British Columbia and Yukon

There is an ongoing movement in BC, along with similar movements in Oregon, Washington, and California, to create Cascadia, a West Coast nation including the current Mexican states of Baja California Sur and Baja California, the current U.S. states of California, Oregon, Washington, and Alaska, the Canadian province of British Columbia, and the Canadian territory of Yukon. One of the many proposed flags of Cascadia, a blue-white-green tricolor with a Douglas fir in the center Cascadia is a geological, ecological and climatic region of North America. ... The United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos or Mexico) comprises 31 states (estados) and one federal district (Distrito Federal), which contains the capital, Mexico City. ... Baja California Sur is one of the 31 States of Mexico, occupying the part of the Baja California Peninsula south of the 28th parallel. ... Baja California is the northernmost state of Mexico. ... A state of the United States (U.S. state) is any one of the fifty states, four of which officially favor the term commonwealth which, along with the District of Columbia, form the United States of America. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  - Total   - Width   - Length    - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 3rd 158,302 sq mi  410,000 km² 250 miles  402. ... Official language(s) None Capital Salem Largest city Portland Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 9th 255,026 km² 420 km 580 km 2. ... Official language(s) None Capital Olympia Largest city Seattle Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 18th 184,824 km² 385 km 580 km 6. ... Official language(s) English Capital Juneau Largest city Anchorage Area  - Total   - Width   - Length    - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 1st 663,267 sq mi  1,717,854 km² 808 miles  1,300 km 1,479 miles  2,380 km 13. ... Motto: Splendor Sine Occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Official languages none stated in law; English is de facto Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Lieutenant-Governor Iona Campagnolo Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Parliamentary representation  - House seat  - Senate seats 36 6 Area Total  â€¢ Land  â€¢ Water    (% of total)  Ranked 5th 944,735... Motto: none Official languages {{{OfficialLang}}} Capital Whitehorse Largest city Whitehorse Commissioner Geraldine Van Bibber Premier Dennis Fentie (Yukon Party) Parliamentary representation  - House seat  - Senate seats 1 1 Area Total  â€¢ Land  â€¢ Water    (% of total)  Ranked 9th 482,443 km² 474,391 km² 8,052 km² (1. ...


While Yukon lacks a formal separatist movement or party, there is an element of dissatsfaction in the Territory as well as evidenced by ongoing polls by TrendLines. However as anticipation of a Conservative gov't in Ottawa built, the number of Yukoners that would be in favour of secession (if it included BC & Alberta) has steadily dropped from a high of 18% in August 2005 to a mere 8% by January 2006. An updated graph of survey results may be seen at their website.


Other movements

Republic of Madawaska

Main article: Republic of Madawaska The Republic of Madawaska occupies the northwest corner of Madawaska County, New Brunswick (also known as the New Brunswick Panhandle), and lies partially in adjacent areas of Quebec and Aroostook County in the American state of Maine. ...


The Republic of Madawaska occupies the northwest corner of New Brunswick, and lies partially in Quebec and the American state of Maine. The origins of the republic lie in the 1783 Treaty of Versailles, which established the border between the United States of America and the British North American colonies. The Madawaska region remained in dispute between Britain and the US until 1842. Motto: Spem reduxit (Hope restored) Official languages English, French Capital Fredericton Largest city Saint John Lieutenant-Governor Herménégilde Chiasson Premier Bernard Lord (PC) Parliamentary representation  - House seat  - Senate seats 10 10 Area Total  â€¢ Land  â€¢ Water    (% of total)  Ranked 11th 72 908 km² 71 450 km² 1 458 km... Motto: Je me souviens (French: I remember) Official languages French Capital Quebec City Largest city Montreal Lieutenant-Governor Lise Thibault Premier Jean Charest (PLQ) Parliamentary representation  - House seat  - Senate seats 75 24 Area Total  â€¢ Land  â€¢ Water    (% of total)  Ranked 1st 1,542,056 km² 1,183,128 km² 176,928... Official language(s) None Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 39th 86,542 km² 305 km 515 km 13. ... It has been suggested that Irreconcilables be merged into this article or section. ...


Republic of Rathnelly

The Rathnelly neighbourhood in Toronto made headlines in 1967, while celebrating Canada's 100th birthday. During the celebrations, Rathnelly residents playfully declared themselves as a republic independent of Canada. To mark their independence, the "Republic of Rathnelly" elected a queen, organized a parade, and issued Republic of Rathnelly passports to everyone in the neighbourhood. The new nation conscripted all 8-14-year-old citizens to form a militia, known as the Rathnelly Irregulars, and armed them with 1,000 helium balloons (the Rathnelly "air farce"). The "Republic of Rathnelly" continues to hold annual street parties. Rathnelly is a neighbourhood in Toronto, Canada. ... Template:Hide = Motto: Template:Unhide = Diversity Our Strength Established: March 6, 1834 Area: East to West: 43 km North to South: 21 km629. ...


Kingdom of the Saguenay

The Saguenay region is on both shores of the Saguenay river in Quebec. When the first European discoverers (Jacques Cartier, and others) sailed up the St. Lawrence River, they came upon a very important fjord flowing into the St. Lawrence, and called it the Saguenay River. It was believed that it would be an important route of penetration into the continent. The expression "Royaume du Saguenay" or "Saguenay kingdom" came from the decree of the King of France that the area drained by the Saguenay would remain his personal domain, and that new settlement would not be authorized. The name Kingdom of Saguenay (French: Royaume du Saguenay) has its origin in an Algonquin legend learned by the French during French colonisation in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. ... Motto: Je me souviens (French: I remember) Official languages French Capital Quebec City Largest city Montreal Lieutenant-Governor Lise Thibault Premier Jean Charest (PLQ) Parliamentary representation  - House seat  - Senate seats 75 24 Area Total  â€¢ Land  â€¢ Water    (% of total)  Ranked 1st 1,542,056 km² 1,183,128 km² 176,928... Portrait of Jacques Cartier by Théophile Hamel, ca. ... The Saint Lawrence River (French fleuve Saint-Laurent) is a large west-to-east flowing river in the middle latitudes of North America, connecting the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean. ...


An apocryphal explanation for the origin of the name is that the name "Kingdom of Saguenay" takes its origin in a legend from the beginning of the French colonization in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. This explanation states that, according to the Algonkian Indians, there was a kingdom of white blond men rich of gold and furs in the north in a place they called Saguenay. French explorers looked for this kingdom in vain. Some people believe that Algonkian oral tradition referred to an ancient Viking settlement, possibly the community at L'Anse aux Meadows. Viking colonisation site at LAnse-aux-Meadows Viking colonisation site at LAnse-aux-Meadows LAnse aux Meadows (from the French LAnse-aux-Méduses (Jellyfish Cove)) is a site on the northernmost tip of the island of Newfoundland, in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, where the remains...


While the people of the region tend to be more strongly in favour of Quebec Sovereignism than those in other parts of the province, there is no such thing as a Saguenean nationalism. Quebec The Quebec sovereignty movement is a movement calling for the attainment of sovereignty for Quebec, a province of the country of Canada. ...


Kingdom of L'Anse-Saint-Jean

A millennial tourist-attracting project involved the town of L'Anse-Saint-Jean, Quebec, "declaring" itself an independent monarchy. The project, which enjoyed a certain amount of media coverage, was cheerfully admitted to be tongue-in-cheek. A millennium is a period of time, equal to one thousand years (from Latin mille, thousand, and annum, year). ... LAnse-Saint-Jean is a small town, population 1269 (2001) in the Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean region of Quebec, Canada. ...


Secession from a province

See: Proposals for new Canadian provinces and territories Since Canadian Confederation in 1867, there have been several Proposals for new Canadian provinces and territories. ...


See also


 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m