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Encyclopedia > Sebastião de Melo, Marquis of Pombal


Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo, Marquis of Pombal (in Portuguese, Marquês de Pombal), (13 May 169915 May 1782) was a Portuguese statesman. He was the Prime Minister to King Joseph I of Portugal throughout his reign. Pombal is notable for his swift and competent leadership in the aftermath of the 1755 Lisbon earthquake. In addition, he implemented sweeping economic policy in Portugal to regulate commercial activity and standartization in quality throughout the country. Marquis of Pombal The Marquis showing the reconstruction of Lisbon in the background File links The following pages link to this file: Sebastião de Melo, Marquis of Pombal ... Marquis of Pombal The Marquis showing the reconstruction of Lisbon in the background File links The following pages link to this file: Sebastião de Melo, Marquis of Pombal ... May 13 is the 133rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (134th in leap years). ... Events January 26 - Treaty of Karlowitz signed March 30 - the tenth Sikh Master, Guru Gobind Singh created the Khalsa. ... May 15 is the 135th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (136th in leap years). ... 1782 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... The term statesman is a respectful term used to refer to diplomats, politicians, and other notable figures of state. ... A prime minister is the leading member of the cabinet of the top level government in a parliamentary system of government of a country, alternatively A prime minister is an official in a presidential system or semi-presidential system whose duty is to execute the directives of the President and... For the head of state, see Monarch. ... Joseph I (Portuguese José), the Reformer (Port. ... This 1755 copper engraving shows the ruins of Lisbon in flames and a tsunami overwhelming the ships in the harbor. ... Economics (deriving from the Greek words οίκω [oeko], house, and νέμω [nemo], distribute) is the social science that studies the allocation of scarce resources through measurable variables. ... This article is about the business concept; Commerce is also the name of several places in the United States. ... A country, a land, or a state, is a geographical area that connotes an independent political entity, with its own government, administration, laws, often a constitution, police, military, tax rules, and population, who are one anothers countrymen. ...


Sebastião de Melo was born in Lisbon, the son of Manuel de Carvalho e Ataíde, a country squire, with properties in the Leiria region. During his youthful years, he studied at the University of Coimbra and then served briefly in the army. Afterward, he moved to Lisbon, and eloped with Teresa de Mendonça e Almada (1689-1737) the niece of the Count of Arcos Sebastião. The marriage was a turbulent one, as his wife had married de Melo against her family's wishes. The in-laws made life unbearable for the young couple; and so the newlyweds retired to de Melo's properties near Pombal. Lisbon (in Portuguese, Lisboa) is the capital and largest city of Portugal. ... Leiria is a city in Portugal . ... The University of Coimbra (Universidade de Coimbra) is a Portuguese state university with administrative and financial autonomy in Coimbra, a city of central Portugal. ... A nations army is its military, or more specifically, all of its land forces. ... Lisbon (in Portuguese, Lisboa) is the capital and largest city of Portugal. ... Marriage is a relationship and bond, most commonly between a man and a woman, that plays a key role in the definition of many families. ...


In 1738, Sebastião de Melo received his first public appointment as the Portuguese Ambassador in London. In 1745 de Melo served as the Portuguese Ambassador in Vienna. The Consort Queen of Portugal, Archduchess Maria Anna of Austria, was fond of de Melo; and after his first wife died, she arranged the widowed de Melo's second marriage to the daughter of the Austrian Field Marshal Leopold Josef, Count von Daun. King John V of Portugal, however, was not pleased and recalled de Melo to Portugal in 1749. John V died the following year and his son, Joseph I of Portugal was crowned. In contrast to his father, Joseph I was fond of de Melo, and with the Queen Mother's approval, he appointed de Melo as Minister of Foreign Affairs. As the King's confidence in de Melo increased, the King entrusted him with more control of the state. Events January 1 - Bouvet Island is discovered by French explorer Jean-Baptiste Charles Bouvet de Lozier. ... For other uses, see Ambassador (disambiguation). ... London is the capital city of the United Kingdom and of England. ... Events May 11 - War of Austrian Succession: Battle of Fontenoy - At Fontenoy, French forces defeat an Anglo-Dutch-Hanoverian army including the Black Watch June 4 – Frederick the Great destroys Austrian army at Hohenfriedberg August 19 - Beginning of the 45 Jacobite Rising at Glenfinnan September 12 - Francis I is elected... Vienna (German: Wien [viːn]) is the capital of Austria, and also one of Austrias nine federal states (Bundesland Wien). ... A consort is somebodys spouse, usually a royalty. ... The word Queen may have many meanings: Political A queen regnant is a female monarch. ... Leopold Josef, count von Daun (or Dhaun) (September 24, 1705 - February 5, 1766), prince of Thiano, Austrian field marshal, was born at Vienna. ... John V (Portuguese João) (1689-1750), king of Portugal, was born at Lisbon on October 22 1689, and succeeded his father Peter II of Portugal in December 1706, being proclaimed on January 1, 1707. ... Events While in debtors prison, John Cleland writes Fanny Hill (Memoirs of a Woman of Pleasure). ... A father is the male parent of a child. ... The term Queen Mother is a title often held by the mother of a reigning monarch. ...


By 1755, Sebastião de Melo was made Prime Minister. Impressed by English economic success he had witnessed while Ambassador, he successfully implemented similar economic policies in Portugal. He abolished slavery in the Portuguese colonies in India; reorganized the army and the navy; restructured the University of Coimbra, and ended discrimination against different Christian sects in Portugal. 1755 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... The word economy can refer to any of several things: The economy of the world — see world economy The economy of a country — see economics and economic system Economy is financial soundness or affordability. ... The University of Coimbra (Universidade de Coimbra) is a Portuguese state university with administrative and financial autonomy in Coimbra, a city of central Portugal. ... The term Christian means belonging to Christ and is derived from the Greek noun Χριστός Khristós which means anointed one, which is itself a translation of the Hebrew word Moshiach (Hebrew: משיח, also written Messiah), (and in Arabic it is pronounced Maseeh مسيح). ... A sect is a small religious group that has branched off of a larger established religion. ...


But Sebastião de Melo's greatest reforms were economic and financial, with the creation of several companies and guilds to regulate every commercial activity. He demarcated the region for production of Port to insure the wine's quality, and his was the first attempt to control wine quality and production in Europe. He ruled with a strong hand by imposing strict law upon all classes of Portugese society from the high nobility to the poorest working class, along with a widespread review of the country's tax system. These reforms gained him enemies in the upper classes, especially among the high nobility, who despised him as a social upstart. A glass of tawny port. ... A tax is an involuntary fee paid by individuals or businesses to a state, or to functional equivalents of a state, including tribes, secessionist movements or revolutionary movements. ...


Disaster fell upon Portugal in the morning of November 1, 1755, when Lisbon was struck by a violent earthquake with an estimated magnitude of 9 on the Richter scale (see 1755 Lisbon earthquake). The city was razed to the ground by the earthquake and the ensuing tsunami and fires. Sebastião de Melo survived by a stroke of luck and then immediately embarked on rebuilding the city, with his famous quote: What now? we bury the dead and feed the living. Despite the calamity, Lisbon suffered no epidemics and within less than one year was already being rebuilt. The new downtown of Lisbon was designed to resist subsequent earthquakes. Architectural models were built for tests, and the effects of an earthquake was simulated by marching troops around the models. The buildings and big squares of the Pombaline Downtown of Lisbon still remain as one of Lisbon's tourist attractions: They represent the world's first quake-proof buildings. Sebastião de Melo also made an important contribution to the study of seismology by designing an inquiry that was sent to every parish in the country. The questionnaire asked whether dogs or other animals behave strangely prior to the earthquake? Was there a noticable difference in the rise or fall of the water level rise in wells? How many buildings were destroyed and what kind of destruction occurred? With these answers modern Portuguese scientists have been able to reconstruct the event with precision. November 1 is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 60 days remaining. ... 1755 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... The Richter magnitude test scale (or more correctly local magnitude ML scale) assigns a single number to quantify the size of an earthquake. ... This 1755 copper engraving shows the ruins of Lisbon in flames and a tsunami overwhelming the ships in the harbor. ... The tsunami that struck Malé in the Maldives on December 26, 2004. ... Seismology (from the Greek seismos = earthquake and logos = word) is the scientific study of earthquakes and the movement of waves through the Earth. ...


Following the earthquake, Joseph I gave his Prime Minister even more power, and Sebastião de Melo became a powerful, progressive dictator. As his power grew, his enemies increased in number, and bitter disputes with the high nobility became frequent. In 1758 Joseph I was wounded in an attempted assassination. The Tavora family and the Duke of Aveiro were implicated and executed after a quick trial. The Jesuits were expelled from the country and their assets confiscated by the crown. Sebastião de Melo showed no mercy and prosecuted every person involved, even women and children. This was the final stroke that broke the power of the aristocracy and ensured the victory of the Minister against his enemies. Based upon his swift resolve, Joseph I made his loyal minister Count of Oeiras in 1759. 1758 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... The Tavora affair was a political scandal of the 18th century Portuguese court. ... The Society of Jesus (Latin: Societas Iesu), commonly known as the Jesuits, is a Roman Catholic religious order. ... 1759 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...


Following the Tavora affair, the new Count of Oeiras knew no opposition. Made Marquis of Pombal in 1770, he effectively ruled Portugal until Joseph I's death in 1779. His successor, Queen Maria I of Portugal, disliked the Marquis. Maria I never forgave him the ruthlessness showed against the Tavora family and redrew all his political offices. The queen also issued one of the world's first restraining orders and ordered that the Marquis should not be closer than 20 miles from her presence. If she would travel near his estates, he was compelled to remove himself from his house to fulfil the royal decree. Maria I is reported to have had tantrums at the slightest reference to her father's former Prime Minister. 1770 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1779 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Maria I Francisca, (English: Mary I), the Piteous (Port. ...


The Marquis of Pombal built a palatial villa at Oeiras, with formal Frenchgardens enlivened with traditional Portuguese glazed tile walls. There were waterfalls and waterworks set within vineyards. He died peacefully on his estate at Pombal in 1782. Today, Lisbon's most important square and busiest underground station is named Marquês de Pombal in his honor. There is an imposing statue of the Marquês de Pombal in the square, as well. The quintessential medieval European palace: Palais de la Cité, in Paris, the royal palace of France. ... A villa was originally a Roman country house built for the upper class. ... Part of a garden in Bristol, England A flower bed in the gardens of Bristol Zoo, England. ... Mission, or barrel, roof tiles A tile is a small, manufactured piece of hard-wearing material such as clay or stone used for covering roofs, floors, and walls, or other objects such as tabletops. ... A wall is a usually solid structure that defines and sometimes protects space. ... Tower Fall in Yellowstone National Park A waterfall is usually a geological formation resulting from water, often in the form of a stream, flowing over an erosion-resistant rock formation that forms a sudden break in elevation. ... Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo, Marquis of Pombal (in Portuguese, Marquês de Pombal), (13 May 1699 – 15 May 1782) was a Portuguese statesman. ... 1782 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...


External links

  • Catholic Encyclopedia (http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/12224b.htm): a 1908 official Catholic view
  • Encyclopædia Britannica: (http://www.1911encyclopedia.org/P/PO/POMBAL_SEBASTIAO_JOSE_DE_CAR_VALHO_E_MELLO_MARQUESS_OF.htm) Pombal

Further reading

  • Cheke, Marcus Dictator of Portugal: A Life of the Marquis of Pombal, 1699–1782 (1938, reprinted 1969) is the standard biography in English.
  • Alden, Dauril, Royal Government in Colonial Brazil with Special Reference to the Administration of the Marquis of Lavradio, Viceroy, 1769-1779,

University of California Press, 1968; Pombal's colonial policy.


 
 

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