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Encyclopedia > Seawater
Annual mean sea surface salinity for the World Ocean. Data from the World Ocean Atlas 2001.
Annual mean sea surface salinity for the World Ocean. Data from the World Ocean Atlas 2001.
Sea water in the Straits of Malacca. Taken from onboard the SuperStar Virgo
Sea water in the Straits of Malacca. Taken from onboard the SuperStar Virgo

Seawater is water from a sea or ocean. On average, seawater in the world's oceans has a salinity of ~3.5%, or 35 parts per thousand. This means that every 1 kg of seawater has approximately 35 grams of salts (mostly, but not entirely, sodium chloride) dissolved in it. The average density of seawater at the surface of the ocean is 1.025 g/mL; seawater is denser than fresh water (which reaches a maximum density of 1.000 g/mL at a temperature of 4°C) because of the added weight of the salts and electrostriction.[1] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1563x1075, 299 KB) Summary Annual mean sea surface salinity from the World Ocean Atlas 2001. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1563x1075, 299 KB) Summary Annual mean sea surface salinity from the World Ocean Atlas 2001. ... Annual mean sea surface salinity for the World Ocean. ... The term World Ocean refers to the interconnected system of the planet Earths marine waters. ... The World Ocean Atlas (WOA) is a data product of the Ocean Climate Laboratory of the National Oceanographic Data Center (USA). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 586 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Image of sea water. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 586 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Image of sea water. ... The Straits of Malacca is a narrow stretch of water between Peninsular Malaysia (West Malaysia) and the Indonesian island of Sumatra. ... SuperStar Virgo is a cruise ship operated by Star Cruises of Asia. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Sea as seen from jetty in Frankston, Australia Look up maritime in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Animated map exhibiting the worlds oceanic waters. ... Annual mean sea surface salinity for the World Ocean. ... KG, Kg or kg may indicate: A Kampfgeschwader, a bomber squadron of the former German Luftwaffe Basketball Player Kevin Garnett An abbreviation for kilogram (always kg) Knight of the Garter, a British decoration Kommanditgesellschaft, German version of a limited partnership Kongo language (ISO 639 alpha-2) An abbreviation for konig... Mounds of salt, Salar de Uyuni, Bolivia. ... BIC pen cap, about 1 gram. ... The litre or liter (U.S. spelling, see spelling differences) is a unit of volume. ... For the village on the Isle of Wight, see Freshwater, Isle of Wight. ... Electrostriction is a property of all electrical non-conductors, or dielectrics, that produces a relatively slight change of shape, or mechanical deformation, under the application of an electric field. ...

Contents

Salinity

Elemental composition of Earth's ocean water (by mass)
Element Percent Element Percent
Oxygen 85.84 Sulfur 0.091
Hydrogen 10.82 Calcium 0.04
Chlorine 1.94 Potassium 0.04
Sodium 1.08 Bromine 0.0067
Magnesium 0.1292 Carbon 0.0028
Main article: Salinity

Although the vast majority of seawater has a salinity of between 3.1 and 3.8%, seawater is not uniformly saline throughout the world. Where mixing occurs with fresh water runoff from river mouths or near melting glaciers, seawater can be substantially less saline. The most saline open sea is the Red Sea, where high rates of evaporation, low precipitation and river inflow, and confined circulation result in the formation of unusually salty seawater. The salinity in isolated seas and salt-water lakes (for example, the Dead Sea) can be considerably greater. General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... General Name, Symbol, Number sulfur, S, 16 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 16, 3, p Appearance lemon yellow Standard atomic weight 32. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... General Name, Symbol, Number calcium, Ca, 20 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 40. ... General Name, Symbol, Number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ... General Name, Symbol, Number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... General Name, Symbol, Number sodium, Na, 11 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 3, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 22. ... General Name, Symbol, Number bromine, Br, 35 Chemical series halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 4, p Appearance gas/liquid: red-brown solid: metallic luster Atomic mass 79. ... General Name, Symbol, Number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 24. ... General Name, Symbol, Number carbon, C, 6 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 14, 2, p Appearance black (graphite) colorless (diamond) Standard atomic weight 12. ... Annual mean sea surface salinity for the World Ocean. ... Location of the Red Sea The Red Sea is an inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The Dead Sea (Hebrew: ), (Arabic: ), is the Earths lowest point not covered by water or ice, at 418 m (1,371 feet) below sea level and falling,[2] and the deepest hypersaline lake in the world, at 330 m (1,083 feet) deep. ...


The density of surface seawater ranges from about 1020 to 1029 kg·m-3, depending on the temperature and salinity. Deep in the ocean, under high pressure, seawater can reach a density of 1050 kg·m-3 or higher. Seawater pH is limited to the range 7.5 to 8.4. The speed of sound in seawater is about 1500 m·s-1, and varies with water temperature and pressure. In physics, density is mass m per unit volume V. For the common case of a homogeneous substance, it is expressed as: where, in SI units: ρ (rho) is the density of the substance, measured in kg·m-3 m is the mass of the substance, measured in kg V is... The correct title of this article is . ... The speed of sound is a term used to describe the speed of sound waves passing through an elastic medium. ...


Compositional differences from fresh water

Seawater is more enriched in dissolved ions of all types than fresh water.[2] However, the ratios of various solutes differ dramatically. For instance, although seawater is ~2.8 times more enriched with bicarbonate than river water based on molarity, the percentage of bicarbonate in seawater as a ratio of all dissolved ions is far lower than in river water; bicarbonate ions constitute 48% of river water solutes, but only 0.41% of all seawater ions.[3][4] Differences like these are due to the varying residence times of seawater solutes; sodium and chlorine have very long residence times, while calcium (vital for carbonate formation) tends to precipitate out much more quickly.[5] ... In inorganic chemistry, a bicarbonate (IUPAC-recommended nomenclature: hydrogencarbonate) is an intermediate form in the deprotonation of carbonic acid. ... This page refers to concentration in the chemical sense. ... The percent sign. ... A residence time is the average time a substance spends within a specified region of space, such as a reservoir. ... General Name, Symbol, Number calcium, Ca, 20 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 40. ... In organic chemistry, a carbonate is a salt of carbonic acid. ...


Geochemical explanations

Chemical composition of sea salt
Chemical composition of sea salt
Total Molar Composition of Seawater (Salinity = 35)[1]
Component Concentration (mol . kg-1)
H2O 53.6
Cl- 0.546
Na+ 0.469
Mg2+ 0.0528
SO42- 0.0282
Ca2+ 0.0103
K+ 0.0102
CT 0.00206
Br- 0.000844
BT 0.000416
Sr2+ 0.000091
F- 0.000068

Scientific theories behind the origins of sea salt started with Sir Edmond Halley in 1715, who proposed that salt and other minerals were carried into the sea by rivers, having been leached out of the ground by rainfall runoff. Upon reaching the ocean, these salts would be retained and concentrated as the process of evaporation (see Hydrologic cycle) removed the water. Halley noted that of the small number of lakes in the world without ocean outlets (such as the Dead Sea and the Caspian Sea, see endorheic basin), most have high salt content. Halley termed this process "continental weathering". Image File history File links Sea_salt-e_hg. ... Image File history File links Sea_salt-e_hg. ... “HOH” redirects here. ... The chloride ion is formed when the element chlorine picks up one electron to form an anion (negatively-charged ion) Cl−. The salts of hydrochloric acid HCl contain chloride ions and can also be called chlorides. ... General Name, Symbol, Number sodium, Na, 11 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 3, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 22. ... General Name, Symbol, Number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 24. ... In inorganic chemistry, a sulfate (IUPAC-recommended spelling; also sulphate in British English) is a salt of sulfuric acid. ... General Name, Symbol, Number calcium, Ca, 20 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 40. ... General Name, Symbol, Number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... The total inorganic carbon (CT, or TIC)is the sum of inorganic carbon species in a solution. ... A bromide is a phrase, or person who uses phrases, which have been used and repeated so many times as to become either insincere in their meaning, or seem like an attempt at trying to explain the obvious. ... The total boron (BT) is the sum of boron species in a solution. ... General Name, Symbol, Number strontium, Sr, 38 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 5, s Appearance silvery white metallic Atomic mass 87. ... Fluoride is the ionic form of fluorine. ... Edmond Halley. ... The water cycle—technically known as the hydrologic cycle—is the circulation of water within the earths hydrosphere, involving changes in the physical state of water between liquid, solid, and gas phases. ... The Dead Sea (Hebrew: ), (Arabic: ), is the Earths lowest point not covered by water or ice, at 418 m (1,371 feet) below sea level and falling,[2] and the deepest hypersaline lake in the world, at 330 m (1,083 feet) deep. ... The Caspian Sea (Russian: Каспийское море; Kazakh: Каспий теңізі; Turkmen: Hazar deňizi; Azeri: XÉ™zÉ™r dÉ™nizi; Persian: دریای خزر Daryā-ye Khazar) is the largest lake on Earth by area[2], with a surface area of 371,000 square kilometers (143,244 sq mi) and a volume of 78,200 cubic kilometers (18... The shores of Lake Hart, an endorheic desert lake in South Australia In geography, an endorheic basin—also called a terminal or closed basin—is a watershed from which there is no outflow of water, either on the surface as rivers, or underground by flow or diffusion through rock or...


Halley's theory is partly correct. In addition, sodium was leached out of the ocean floor when the oceans first formed. The presence of the other dominant ion of salt, chloride, results from "outgassing" of chloride (as hydrochloric acid) with other gases from Earth's interior via volcanos and hydrothermal vents. The sodium and chloride ions subsequently became the most abundant constituents of sea salt. General Name, Symbol, Number sodium, Na, 11 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 3, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 22. ... The chemical compound hydrochloric acid is the aqueous (water-based) solution of hydrogen chloride gas (HCl). ... For other uses, see Volcano (disambiguation). ... A hydrothermal vent A hydrothermal vent is a fissure in a planets surface from which geothermally heated water issues. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Ocean salinity has been stable for billions of years, most likely as a consequence of a chemical/tectonic system which removes as much salt as is deposited; for instance, sodium and chloride sinks include evaporite deposits, pore water burial, and reactions with seafloor basalts[6] Since the ocean's creation, sodium is no longer leached out of the ocean floor, but instead is captured in sedimentary layers covering the bed of the ocean. One theory is that plate tectonics result in salt being forced under the continental land masses, where it is again slowly leached to the surface. A sample of evaporite material Evaporites (IPA: ) are water-soluble, mineral sediments that result from the evaporation of bodies of surficial water. ...


Potability

Even on a ship or island in the middle of the ocean, there can be a "shortage of water" meaning, of course, a shortage of fresh water. This is described famously by a line from Samuel Taylor Coleridge's The Rime of the Ancient Mariner: Italian Full rigged ship Amerigo Vespucci in New York Harbor, 1976 A ship is a large watercraft capable of deep water navigation. ... For the village on the Isle of Wight, see Freshwater, Isle of Wight. ... Samuel Taylor Coleridge (October 21, 1772 – July 25, 1834) (pronounced ) was an English poet, critic, and philosopher who was, along with his friend William Wordsworth, one of the founders of the Romantic Movement in England and one of the Lake Poets. ... One of a set of engraved metal plate illustrations by Gustave Doré. The Rime of the Ancient Mariner is a poem written by the English poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge in 1797–1799 and published in the first edition of Lyrical Ballads (1798). ...

"Water, water, every where
Nor any drop to drink."

Seawater can be turned into drinkable (potable) water by one of a number of desalination processes, or by diluting it with fresh water to reduce the salinity. Almost all ocean-going vessels create fresh water from seawater with reverse osmosis. Drinking water This article focuses on water as we experience it every day. ... Shevchenko BN350 desalination unit situated on the shore of the Caspian Sea. ... Reverse osmosis is a separation process that uses pressure to force a solvent through a membrane that retains the solute on one side and allows the pure solvent to pass to the other side. ...


Otherwise, seawater should not be drunk because of its high dissolved mineral content. In the long run, more water must be expended to eliminate these minerals (through excretion in urine) than is gained from drinking the seawater itself.[citation needed] Excretion is the process of eliminating waste products of metabolism and other materials that are of no use. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


Temporary/emergency potability

However, with extreme precautions taken to avoid perspiration and water loss and to retain minerals temporarily in the system, experiments have shown that even exhausting physical activity can continue for extended periods while drinking just over a litre (a quart) of seawater per day (sipped in small amounts) as one's only drinking water supply. Ocean rowing adventurers report fairly reliably that they plan to do this or actually do this as routine practice, but that kidney damage will result from drinking more than that amount. Silver citrate and rain catch can be used to assist in the dilution and fixing of minerals to make it less dangerous, but in general, it requires significant medical expertise to determine the effects of ingestion. Ocean rowing is the sport of rowing across oceans. ... It has been suggested that Renal anomalies and Renal plasma threshold be merged into this article or section. ...


In the only known experiment of ocean rowing across the Atlantic using only plain untreated seawater as the drinking water supply, the subject and experimenter was a British doctor. The experiment did however prove that many people had died of thirst at sea unnecessarily.


See also

For the village on the Isle of Wight, see Freshwater, Isle of Wight. ... Annual mean sea surface salinity for the World Ocean. ... An icebreaker navigates through young (1 year old) sea ice Sea ice is formed from ocean water that freezes. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ...

References:

  1. ^ http://duedall.fit.edu/ocn1010eng/jan27sp.htm
  2. ^ http://www.waterencyclopedia.com/Mi-Oc/Ocean-Chemical-Processes.html Thomson Gale, "Ocean Chemical Processes". Retrieved 12/2/06.
  3. ^ Gale.
  4. ^ Paul R. Pinet, Invitation to Oceanography, (St. Paul: West Publishing Company, 1996), pp. 126, 134.
  5. ^ Pinet, p. 135.
  6. ^ Pinet, 133.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Applications: Seawater (413 words)
Seawater systems are used by many industries such as shipping, offshore oil and gas production, power plants and coastal industrial plants.
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Seawater - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (666 words)
Seawater is water from a sea or ocean.
Seawater pH is limited to the range 7.5 to 8.4.
Seawater can be turned into drinkable (potable) water by one of a number of desalination processes, or by diluting it with fresh water to reduce the salinity.
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