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Encyclopedia > Seat belt
A three-point seat belt.
A three-point seat belt.

A seat belt, sometimes called a safety belt, is a safety harness designed to secure the occupant of a vehicle against harmful movement that may result from a collision or a sudden stop. As part of an overall occupant restraint system, seat belts are intended to reduce injuries by stopping the wearer from hitting hard interior elements of the vehicle or other passengers (the so-called second impact) and by preventing the passenger from being thrown from the vehicle. The Seatbelts , also known as SEATBELTS) is a Japanese blues/jazz band led by composer and instrumentalist Yoko Kanno. ... Image File history File links Seatbelt. ... A safety harness is an apparatus designed to protect a person working at an altitude from falling. ... The Trikke is a Human Powered Vehicle (HPV) Automobiles are among the most commonly used engine powered vehicles. ... For other uses, see Collision (disambiguation). ... Injury is damage or harm caused to the structure or function of the body caused by an outside agent or force, which may be physical or chemical. ... The Second Impact (also known as Second Collision and Human Collision) in a safety context is the impact suffered by a vehicle occupant between his body and wathever stops it from moving inside the vehicle in case of crash. ...

Contents

Types of seat belts

Three point seat belt, Citroen BX
Three point seat belt, Citroen BX
  • Lap: Adjustable strap that goes over the waist. Used frequently in older cars, now uncommon except in some rear middle seats. Passenger aircraft seats also use lap seat belts.
  • Sash: Adjustable strap that goes over the shoulder. Used mainly in the 1960s, but of limited benefit because it is very easy to slip out of in a collision.
  • Lap and Sash: Combination of the two above (two separate belts). Mainly used in the 1960s and 1970s and still today in small aircraft. Generally superseded by three-point design.
  • Three-point: Similar to the lap and sash, but one single continuous length of webbing. Both three-point and lap-and-sash belts help spread out the energy of the moving body in a collision over the chest, pelvis, and shoulders. Until the 1980s three-point belts were commonly available only in the front seats of cars, the back seats having only lap belts. Evidence of the potential for lap belts to cause separation of the lumbar vertebrae and the sometimes associated paralysis, or "seat belt syndrome", has led to a revision of passenger safety regulations in nearly all of the developed world requiring that all seats in a vehicle be equipped with three-point belts. Since September 1, 2007, all new cars sold in the U.S. require a lap and shoulder belt in the center rear.[1]
  • Criss-cross: Experimental safety belt presented in the Volvo SCC. It forms a cross-brace across the chest.[2]
Harness
Harness
  • Five-point harnesses: Safer but more restrictive than most other seat belt types. They are typically found in child safety seats and in racing cars. The lap portion is connected to a belt between the legs and there are two shoulder belts, making a total of five points of attachment to the seat. (Strictly speaking, harnesses are never to be fastened to the seat—they should be fastened to the frame/sub-frame of the automobile.)
  • Six-point harnesses: Similar to a five-point harness but includes an extra belt between the legs, which is seen by some to be a weaker point than the other parts. These belts are used mainly in racing. In NASCAR, the six-point harness became popular after the death of Dale Earnhardt. Earnhardt was wearing a five-point harness when he suffered his fatal crash. As it was first thought that his belt had broken, some teams ordered a six-point harness in response.
  • Seven-point harnesses (5+2): Aerobatic aircraft frequently use a combination harness consisting of a five-point harness with a redundant lap-belt attached to a different part of the airframe. While providing redundancy for negative-g maneuvers (which lift the pilot out of the seat), they also require the pilot to un-latch two harnesses if it is necessary to parachute from a failed aircraft.

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (768x1024, 298 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Seat belt User:Edward/Images Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (768x1024, 298 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Seat belt User:Edward/Images Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or... The Citro n BX was introduced in 1982 and was a somewhat radical car compared to many of its contemporaries. ... The lumbar vertebrae are the largest segments of the movable part of the vertebral column, and are characterized by the absence of the foramen transversarium within the transverse process, and by the absence of facets on the sides of the body. ... Paralysed redirects here. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... The Volvo Safety Concept Car (SCC) is a concept car which was first showed at the 2001 North American International Auto Show in Detroit, Michigan. ... Image File history File links Harness. ... Image File history File links Harness. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Auto racing (also known as automobile racing or autosport) is a sport involving racing automobiles. ... In common usage, a human leg is the lower limb of the body, extending from the hip to the ankle, and including the thigh, the knee, and the cnemis. ... This article is about the elder Dale Earnhardt. ... Soon after aircraft were invented, pilots realised that they could be used as part of a flying circus to entertain people or impress others in what was termed aerobatics. ... Flying machine redirects here. ...

History

Seat belts were invented by George Cayley in the late 1800s.[citation needed] They were introduced in aircraft for the first time in , by Adolphe Pegoud, who became the first man to fly a plane upside-down. However, seat belts did not become common on aircraft until the 1930s. Sir George Cayley, 6th Baronet (December 27, 1773 – December 15, 1857) was a prolific English engineer from Brompton-by-Sawdon, near Scarborough in Yorkshire. ... // Invention of the Jacquard loom in 1801. ... Adolphe Celestin Pegoud (1889-1915) was a well known French aviator who became the first fighter ace. ... The 1930s were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles, as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression, also known as the [[. In East Asia, the rise of militarism occurred. ...


Edward J. Claghorn was granted U.S. Patent 312,085  on February 10, 1885 for a safety belt [3] is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


American physicians in the 1920s advocated the use of seat belts in cars. Some of them even outfitted their cars with seatbelts. Plastic surgeon Claire L. Straith and physician C. J. Strickland were at the forefront of that demand. Strickland founded the Automobile Safety League of America. The American public showed little interest. [4] Claire L. Straith (1891-1958) was an American plastic surgeon. ...


Engineer Hugh De Haven invented the inertia reel and created the concept of "wearing" the car and "packaging" passengers. Hugh De Haven was an American pilot, engineer and passive safety pioneer. ...


Safety belts were tested by Col John P. Stapp, using a rocket sled and himself as the guinea pig, among others. His studies explained the phenomenon that most people injured or killed in plane crashes didn't die when the plane hit the ground, but when the person hit the inside of the plane. John Stapp rides the rocket sled at Edwards Air Force Base. ... A rocket sled is essentially a small railroad car with rockets attached. ...


Edward J. Hock invented the safety belt first used by the Ford Motor Company as standard equipment, while he was on active duty with the military as a flight instructor. In 1955 his idea was accepted by the naval authorities, and Hock was awarded $20.50 for his invention. The original schematic and blueprints shows that he utilized scrap parachute strapping to implement his idea. He was never awarded anything other than the $20.50 award, a letter of recognition, a picture with military "brass", and a newspaper article to his credit. “Ford” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Blueprint (disambiguation). ... This article is about the device. ...


The three point seat belt (the so-called CIR-Griswold restraint) was patented in 1951 by the Americans Roger W. Griswold and Hugh De Haven. There's no information about this design being used in cars [5]


Saab was the first car manufacturer to introduce seat belts as standard in 1958.[6] After the Saab GT 750 was introduced at the New York motor show in 1958 with safety belts fitted as standard, the practice became commonplace.[7] For the manufacturer of Saab cars, see Saab Automobile. ... Saab GT750 (Gran Turismo 750) is an automobile from Saab produced between 1764 and 1960. ...


Nils Bohlin of Sweden invented a particular kind of three point seat belt for Volvo, who introduced it in 1959 as standard equipment. Bohlin was granted U.S. Patent 3,043,625  for the device. Nils Ivar Bohlin (July 17, 1920 – September 26, 2002) was a Swedish inventor who invented the three-point safety belt while working at Volvo. ... Volvo Cars is the luxury car maker using the Volvo Trademark. ...


Most U.S. automobiles were sold with front seat belts standard in the 1964 model year. Rear seat belts were made standard in 1968.


In 1970, the state of Victoria, Australia, passed the first law worldwide making seat belt wearing compulsory for drivers and front-seat passengers. Motto: Peace and Prosperity Other Australian states and territories Capital Melbourne Governor HE Mr John Landy Premier Steve Bracks (ALP) Area 237,629 km² (6th)  - Land 227,416 km²  - Water 10,213 km² (4. ...


Technologies

Seat Belt uncovered Inertial Reel
Seat Belt uncovered Inertial Reel

Most seat belts are equipped with locking mechanisms (or inertia reels) that tighten the belt when pulled fast (e.g. by the quick force of a passenger's body during a crash) but do not tighten when pulled slowly. This is implemented with a centrifugal clutch, which engages as the reel spins quickly. Alternatively, this function may be secured by a weighted pendulum or ball bearing: when these are deflected by deceleration or roll-over they lock into pawls on the reel. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1536x2048, 502 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Seat belt ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1536x2048, 502 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Seat belt ...


Types of inertia reel type seatbelts:


NLR (No Locking Retractor): Commonly used in recoiling lap belts


ELR V (Emergency Locking Retractor - Vehicle sensitive): Single sensitive mechanism, composed of a locking mechanism activated in an emergency by deceleration or rollover of the vehicle. Thus, the seatbelt is sensitive to the vehicle's motion.


ELR VW (Emergency Locking Retractor - Vehicle and Webbing sensitive): Dual sensitive means a seatbelt retractor that, during normal driving conditions, allows freedom of movement by the wearer of the seatbelt by means of length-adjusting components that automatically adjust the strap to the wearer, with a locking mechanism that is activated by two or more of the following:

  • deceleration or rollover of the vehicle,
  • acceleration of the strap (webbing) from the retractor, or
  • other means of activation.

Pretensioners and webclamps

Seatbelts in many newer vehicles are also equipped with "pretensioners" and/or "Webclamps".

  • Pretensioners preemptively tighten the belt to prevent the occupant from jerking forward in a crash. Mercedes-Benz first introduced pretensioners on the 1981 S-Class. In the event of a crash, a pretensioner will tighten the belt almost instantaneously. This reduces the motion of the occupant in a violent crash. Like airbags, pretensioners are triggered by sensors in the car's body, and most pretensioners use explosively expanding gas to drive a piston that retracts the belt. Pretensioners also lower the risk of "submarining", which is when a passenger slides forward under a loosely worn seat belt.
  • Webclamps clamp the webbing in the event of an accident and limit the distance the webbing can spool out (caused by the unused webbing tightening on the central drum of the mechanism) these belts also often incorporate an energy management loop ("rip stitching") which is when the lower part of the webbing is looped and stitched with a special stitching. The function of this is to "rip" at a predetermined load, which reduces the load transmitted through the belt to the occupant, reducing injuries to the occupant.

For a complete overview of all S-Class models see Mercedes-Benz S-Class. ... For the Mozilla crash reporting software previously called Airbag, see Breakpad. ...

Automatic seat belts

Main article: Automatic seat belt

Some vehicles have shoulder belts that automatically move forward to secure the passenger when the vehicle is started. A separate lap belt is usually included, and the lap belt must be fastened manually. Automatic seat belts have fallen out of favor recently, since the airbag became mandatory in many countries. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Use of seat belts by child occupants

Main article: Infant car seat

As with adult drivers and passengers, the advent of seat belts was accompanied by calls for their use by child occupants, including legislation requiring such use. It has been claimed that children in adult restraints suffer lower injury risk than unrestrained children. An infant safety seat, a child restraint system or restraint car seat is a restraint which is secured to the seat of an automobile equipped with safety harnesses to hold an infant or small stature people in the event of a crash. ...


The UK extended compulsory seatbelt wearing to child passengers under the age of 14 in 1989. It was observed that this measure was accompanied by a 10% increase in fatalities and a 12% increase in injuries among the target population[8]. In crashes, small children who wear adult seatbelts can suffer characteristic "seat-belt syndrome" injuries including severed intestines, ruptured diaphragms and spinal damage. There is also research suggesting that children in inappropriate restraints are at significantly increased risk of head injury[9], one of the authors of this research has been quoted as claiming that "The early graduation of kids into adult lap and shoulder belts is a leading cause of child-occupant injuries and deaths."[10] As a result of such findings, many jurisdictions now advocate and/or require child passengers to use specially designed child restraints. Such systems include separate child-sized seats with their own restraints and booster cushions for children using adult restraints. In some jurisdictions children below a certain size are forbidden to travel in front car seats.


Use of seat belts by expectant mothers

For pregnant mothers, the fetus is protected by a sac full of amniotic fluid. This sac is quite strong and the fluid inside acts like a cushion to protect the fetus. The sac is pliable so it can change shape to a certain degree. The proper use of a seat belt will divert the pressure points off the sac, and thus the fetus would only be minimally affected. The lap belt should be worn low over the pelvic bones and not against the soft stomach area. The shoulder belt should be worn across the chest. Both should be worn snugly.[11]


Reminder chime and light

In North America and some other parts of the world, cars sold since the early 1970s have included a seat belt light on the dashboard, reminding the driver and passengers to buckle up. These systems also included a warning buzzer which sounded for several seconds before turning off (with the warning light), regardless of whether the car was started. New cars sold in the United States in 1974 and the first part of the 1975 model year were sold with a special "ignition interlock", whereby the driver could not start the car until the seat belt was fastened; however, this system was short-lived.


By the early 1980s, many automakers selling in the U.S. market had replaced the buzzer (along with all other buzzers for functions such as headlights-on) with a seatbelt warning chime, though for some models, this change was not implemented until the 1990s or even the early 2000s. Today, many of these carmakers use a red figure with its seatbelt on to serve as its seatbelt warning light, and it may stay on for several minutes after the car is started and the driver's seat belt is not fastened.


In Europe most modern cars include a seat-belt reminder light for the driver and some also include a reminder for the passenger, when present, activated by a pressure sensor under the passenger seat. In some systems (i.e. older Volvos), the seatbelt is connected to the turn signal relay, making clicking sounds constantly until the front passengers are buckled up. Turn signals (US English) or indicators (British English) are a set of lights on a vehicle (be it a car, truck/lorry, tractor, motorcycle, etc. ...


Some newer cars from Audi, BMW, Ford, Honda, Hyundai, Mercedes-Benz, and Toyota will intermittently flash the reminder light and sound the chime until the driver (and sometimes the front passenger, if present) fasten their seatbelt. Audi AG is a German automobile manufacturer with headquarters in Ingolstadt, Bavaria, and has been an almost wholly owned (99. ... For other uses, see BMW (disambiguation). ... Ford may mean a number of things: A ford is a river crossing. ... This article is about the Japanese motor corporation. ... The Hyundai Motor Company, a division of the Hyundai Kia Automotive Group, is South Koreas largest and the worlds Sixth Largest Automaker. ... This page is about the Mercedes-Benz brand of automobiles and trucks from the DaimlerChrysler automobile manufacturer. ... This article is about the automaker. ...


Legislation

Main article: Seat belt legislation

Observational studies of car crash morbidity and mortality,[12][13][14] experiments using both crash test dummies and human cadavers indicate that wearing seat belts greatly reduces the risk of death and injury in the majority of car crashes. Seat belt legislation is a law or laws put in place to enforce or require, the fitting of seat belts to motor vehicles, or the wearing of seat belts by motor vehicle occupants. ... In statistics, the goal of an observational study is to draw inferences about the possible effect of a treatment on subjects, where the assignment of subjects into a treated group versus a control group is outside the control of the investigator. ... A car accident in Yate, near Bristol, England, in July 2004. ... In the scientific method, an experiment (Latin: ex- periri, of (or from) trying) is a set of observations performed in the context of solving a particular problem or question, to retain or falsify a hypothesis or research concerning phenomena. ... Crash test dummies have saved many thousands of lives. ... For other uses, see Cadaver (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Death (disambiguation). ...


This has led many countries to adopt mandatory seat belt wearing laws. It is generally accepted that, in comparing like-for-like accidents, a vehicle occupant not wearing a properly fitted seat belt has a significantly higher chance of death and serious injury. One large observation studying using US data showed that the odds ratio of crash death is 0.46 with a three-point belt, when compared with no belt.[15] In another study, that examined injuries presenting to the ER pre- and post-seat belt law introduction, it was found that 40% more escaped injury and 35% more escaped mild and moderate injuries.[16] The odds-ratio is a statistical measure, particularly important in Bayesian statistics and logistic regression. ... The emergency room is the American English term for a room, or group of rooms, within a hospital that is designed for the treatment of urgent and medical emergencies. ...


The effects of seat belt laws are disputed by some, stemming from the observation that following the passage of seat belt laws, road fatalities often did not decrease. There was also concern that instead of legislating for a general protection standard for vehicle occupants, laws that required a particular technical approach would rapidly become dated as motor manufacturers would tool up for a particular standard which could not easily be changed. For example, in 1969 there were competing designs for lap and 3-point seat belts, rapidly-tilting seats, inflatable restraints and air bags being developed. But as countries started to mandate seat belt restraints the global auto industry invested in the tooling and standardized exclusively on seat belts, and ignored other designs, such as air bags, for several decades[17] For the Radiohead song, see Airbag (song). ...


Risk compensation

Some have proposed that the number of deaths was influenced by the development of risk compensation, which says that drivers adjust their behaviour in response to the increased sense of personal safety wearing a seat belt provides. In ethology, risk compensation is an effect whereby individual animals may tend to adjust their behaviour in response to perceived changes in risk. ...


In one trial subjects were asked to drive go-karts around a track under various conditions. It was found that subjects who started driving unbelted drove consistently faster when subsequently belted.[18] Similarly, a study of habitual non-seatbelt wearers driving in freeway conditions found evidence that they had adapted to seatbelt use by adopting higher driving speeds and closer following distances.[19] Similar responses have been shown in respect of anti-lock braking system and, more recently, airbags and electronic stability control.[citation needed] A kart racer takes a turn on an indoor track Kart racing (as the word is so spelled by enthusiasts) or karting is a variant of open-wheeler motor sport with simple, small four-wheeled vehicles called karts, go-karts, or gearbox/shifter karts depending on the design. ... An anti-lock braking system (ABS) (translated from German, Antiblockiersystem) is a system on motor vehicles which prevents the wheels from locking while braking. ... An airbag is a flexible membrane or envelope, inflatable to contain air or some other gas. ... Electronic Stability Control (ESC) is a computerized system designed to improve a vehicles handling by intervening at the limits of traction and helping the driver maintain control of the vehicle. ...


A 2001 analysis of US crash data aimed to establish the effects of seatbelt legislation on driving fatalities[20] and found that previous estimates of seatbelts effectiveness had been significantly overstated. According to the analysis used, seatbelts were claimed to have decreased fatalities by 1.35% for each 10% increase in seatbelt use. The study controlled for endogenous motivations of seat belt use, which it is claimed creates an artificial correlation between seat belt use and fatalities, leading to the conclusion that seatbelts cause fatalities. For example, drivers in high risk areas are more likely to use seat belts, and are more likely to be in accidents, creating a non-causal correlation between seatbelt use and mortality. After accounting for the endogeneity of seatbelt usage, Cohen and Einav found no evidence that the risk compensation effect makes seatbelt wearing drivers more dangerous, a finding at variance with other research.


Increased traffic

Other statistical analyses have included adjustments for factors such as increased traffic, and other factors such as age, and based on these adjustments, a reduction of morbidity and mortality due to seat belt use has been claimed.[12] However, Smeed's law predicts a fall in accident rate with increasing car ownership and has been demonstrated independently of seatbelt legislation. Smeeds Law, after RJ Smeed who first proposed the relationship in 1949, is an empirical rule relating traffic fatalities to motor vehicle registrations and population. ...


See also

Passive safety redirects here. ... It has been suggested that Child carrier be merged into this article or section. ... Seat belt use rates in the USA have been rising steadily since 1984. ...

References

  1. ^ Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Occupant Crash Protection. Final Rule
  2. ^ default - Concept Cars - Volvo Models - www.volvocars.com/intl
  3. ^ Andréasson, Rune; Claes-Göran Bäckström (2000.). The Seat Belt : Swedish Research and Development for Global Automotive Safety. Stockholm: Kulturvårdskommittén Vattenfall AB, p. 12. ISBN 91-630-9389-8. 
  4. ^ Andréasson (2000) p. 13
  5. ^ Andréasson (2000) pp. 15–16.
  6. ^ Saab Innovations
  7. ^ Trollhattan Saab — Saab 9-1, 9-3, 9-4x, 9-5, 9-7x News
  8. ^ Risk, by John Adams, UCL Press Ltd. University College, London 1995
  9. ^ The Danger of Premature Graduation to Seat Belts for Young Children, Winston FK, Durbin DR, Kallan MJ, Moll EK,, Pediatrics, Vol. 105, No. 6, June 2000, pp. 1179–1183.
  10. ^ "Kids at Risk: When Seatbelts are NOT Enough", by Karp H, Reader's Digest (US Edition), November 1999.
  11. ^ "How to protect the unborn baby", Oct 2007 http://www.childseatcenter.com/article12.html
  12. ^ a b Nakahara S, Ichikawa M, Wakai S (2003). "Seatbelt legislation in Japan: high risk driver mortality and seatbelt use". Inj. Prev. 9 (1): 29–32. PMID 12642555. 
  13. ^ Allen S, Zhu S, Sauter C, Layde P, Hargarten S (2006). "A comprehensive statewide analysis of seatbelt non-use with injury and hospital admissions: new data, old problem". Academic emergency medicine : official journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine 13 (4): 427–34. doi:10.1197/j.aem.2005.11.003. PMID 16531597. 
  14. ^ Bourbeau R, Desjardins D, Maag U, Laberge-Nadeau C (1993). "Neck injuries among belted and unbelted occupants of the front seat of cars". The Journal of trauma 35 (5): 794–9. PMID 8230348. 
  15. ^ Bédard M, Guyatt GH, Stones MJ, Hirdes JP (2002). "The independent contribution of driver, crash, and vehicle characteristics to driver fatalities". Accident; analysis and prevention 34 (6): 717–27. PMID 12371777. 
  16. ^ Thomas J (1990). "Road traffic accidents before and after seatbelt legislation--study in a district general hospital". Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 83 (2): 79–81. PMID 2319551. 
  17. ^ Fenton, John. "Safety Design", The Times, 1969-01024. 
  18. ^ Streff FM, Geller ES (1988). "An experimental test of risk compensation: between-subject versus within-subject analyses". Accident; analysis and prevention 20 (4): 277–87. PMID 3415759. 
  19. ^ Janssen W (1994). "Seat-belt wearing and driving behavior: an instrumented-vehicle study". Accident; analysis and prevention 26 (2): 249–61. PMID 8198694. 
  20. ^ 'The Effects of Mandatory Seat Belt Laws on Driving Behavior and Traffic Fatalities' by Alma Cohen and Liran Einav at Harvard Law School

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Windshield washer fluid being poured into a vehicle Windshield washer fluid is a fluid for motor vehicles that is used in cleaning the windshield while the vehicle is being driven. ... Curb feeler mounted behind the front wheel of a 1950s Rambler American. ... Bumper stickers are often used on commercial vehicles so that employers can receive feedback about the driving habits of their employees A bumper sticker is an adhesive label or sticker with a message, intended to be attached to the bumper of an automobile and to be read by the occupants... A hood ornament is the name given to a specially crafted model of something which symbolises a car company like a badge. ... Japan Black is the name of a lacquer used extensively in the production of automobiles in the early 20th century in the United States. ... A monsoonshield is mounted above the doors of some automobiles, to protect the inside of the car from rain or other precipitation in case of slightly opened windows. ... A 2002 Ford Explorer Sport Trac with black nerf bars A nerf bar is a tubular device fitted to the side of a Pickup truck or a Sport utility vehicle to act as a step to ease entry and exit from the vehicle. ... Firestone tire This article is about pneumatic tires. ... The various pieces of a tow hitch (also known as a tow bar) are as follows (as seen on cars and non-industrial trucks). ... A Truck Accessory is an aftermarket part that is used to enhance the style or function of the original OEM pickup truck. ... Exterior equipment of a vehicle consist of the automotive lighting, distance sensor, vanity plates, vehicle registration plate, windscreen wiper and windshield washer fluid. ... The lighting system of a motor vehicle consists of lighting and signalling devices mounted or integrated to the front, sides and rear of the vehicle. ... Daytime Running Lamps (DRL, also Daylight Running Lamps, Daytime Running Lights) are lighting devices on the front of roadgoing motor vehicles, automatically switched on when the vehicle is moving forward, and intended to increase the conspicuity of the vehicle during daylight conditions. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... 1937 Cord 812 with hidden headlights Promotional art for the 1942 DeSoto, the first mass produced American car with hidden headlights 1967 Ford Thunderbird with hidden headlights Pop-up headlights on a 1973 SAAB Sonett III. Hidden headlamps are an automotive styling feature that conceals an automobiles headlights when... 15 kW Xenon short-arc lamp used in IMAX projectors High-intensity discharge (HID) lamps include these types of electrical lamps: mercury vapor, metal halide (also HQI), high-pressure sodium (Son), low-pressure sodium (Sox) and less common, xenon short-arc lamps. ... Retroreflectors are clearly visible in a pair of bicycle shoes. ... A burnt-out sealed beam, broken open to show internals. ... Trafficators are the internally lit semaphores springing out from the door pillars on some older (pre 1950s) motor vehicles to signal left and right turns. ... A vehicle registration plate is a metal or plastic plate attached to a motor vehicle or trailer for official identification purposes. ... A vanity plate (US), prestige plate, private number plate, personalised registration (UK) or personalised plate (Australia and New Zealand) is a special type of vehicle registration plate on an automobile or other vehicle. ... Parktronic, also called Acoustic Parking System (APS), is a parking-assistence system installed on some Audi vehicles. ... Motor vehicle theft is a crime of theft. ... Automobile interior equipment generally includes passive safety, dashboard, shifter for selecting gear ratios and ancillary. ... Vehicle instrument is an instrument that measures some parameters in the vehicle, often found on its control panel or dashboard. ... A backup camera is a special type of video camera that is produced specifically for the purpose of being attached to the rear of a vehicle to aid in backing up. ... Boost gauge on a Ford Focus RS (left) A boost gauge is a pressure gauge that indicates manifold air pressure or turbocharger or supercharger boost pressure in an internal combustion engine. ... A buzzer or beeper is a signaling device, usually electronic, typically used in automobiles, household appliances such as a microwave oven, or game shows. ... Carputer is a term sometimes used to refer to a computer installed in a car. ... A fuel gauge (or gas gauge) is an instrument used to indicate the level of fuel contained in a tank. ... GPS redirects here. ... A taxi in Kyoto, equipped with GPS navigation system An automotive navigation system is a satellite navigation system designed for use in automobiles. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... An idiot light is a method of displaying information about a system (e. ... A Malfunction Indicator Lamp, this one labeled Service Engine Soon. A Malfunction Indicator Lamp (MIL) is an indicator of the internal status of a car engine. ... Night-vision is seeing in the dark. ... A modern non-digital odometer A Smiths speedometer from the 1920s showing odometer and trip meter An odometer is a device used for indicating distance traveled by an automobile or other vehicle. ... An early radar detector A radar detector, sometimes called a fuzz buster, is an electronic device used by motorists to determine if their speed is being monitored by a radar unit. ... Speedometer gauge on a car, showing the speed of the vehicle in miles and kilometres per hour on the out– and inside respectively. ... Tachometer showing engine RPM (revolutions per minute), and a redline from 6000 and 7000 RPM. A tachometer is an instrument that measures the speed of rotation of a shaft or disk, as in a motor or other machine. ... A trip computer is an onboard computer device fitted to cars which can generally record distance travelled, average speed, average fuel consumption, and display real time fuel consumption information. ... Invented by Frank Bowden, a bowden cable is a type of flexible cable used to transmit mechanical force or energy by the movement of an inner cable (most commonly of steel or stainless steel) relative to a hollow outer cable housing. ... Cruise control (sometimes known as speed control or Autocruise) is a system to automatically control the speed of an automobile. ... Electronic throttle control (ETC) is an automobile technology which severs the direct link between the accelerator pedal and the throttle. ... A gear stick (also gearstick, gear lever and gear shifter) is the lever used to change gear in a vehicle, such as an automobile, with manual transmission or automatic transmission. ... In cars, the hand brake (also known as the emergency brake, e-brake, park brake, or parking brake) is a supplementary system that can be used if the vehicles primary brake system (usually hydraulic brakes) has a failure. ... Manettino dials are part of modern super cars (like the new Ferrari 599 GTB and Ferrari Enzo). ... A modern road cars steering wheel Steering wheels from different periods A steering wheel is a type of steering control used in most modern land vehicles, including all mass-production automobiles. ... In an engine, the throttle is the mechanism by which the engines power is increased or decreased. ... Motor vehicle theft is a crime of theft. ... Power door locks (aka electric door locks or central locking) allow the driver or front passenger to simultaneously lock or unlock all the doors of an automobile or truck, by pressing a button or flipping a switch. ... A car alarm is an electronic device installed in a vehicle in an attempt to discourage theft. ... An immobiliser or immobilizer is an electronic device fitted to an automobile which prevents the engine from running unless the correct key (or other token) is present. ... For the English band, see Klaxons. ... Automatic vehicle location or AVL is a means for determining the geographic location of a vehicle and transmitting this information to a point where it can be used. ... VIN etching is a countermeasure to motor vehicle theft. ... Passive safety redirects here. ... A car seat usually refers to a small seat secured to the seat of an automobile equipped with safety harnesses to hold children in the event of a crash. ... For the Mozilla crash reporting software previously called Airbag, see Breakpad. ... The armrest in the backseat of a Lincoln Town Car, featuring cupholders. ... Automatic seat belt in a Chevrolet Corsica Automatic seat belts are seat belts that automatically close over riders in a car. ... The traditional seat installed in American automobiles was the bench seat. ... A bucket seat is an upholstered seat in a car, truck, or motorboat that seats one person. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This 1931 Ford Model A sport roadster features a rumble seat A rumble seat, dicky seat, dickie seat or dickey seat is an upholstered exterior seat which hinges or otherwise opens out from the rear deck of a pre-World War II automobile, and seats one or more passengers. ... Note: in the broadest sense, air conditioning can refer to any form of heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning. ... Automobile accessory power can be produced by several different means. ... It has been suggested that In car entertainment be merged into this article or section. ... ... The center console (British English: centre console) in an automobile refers to the control-bearing surfaces in the center of the front of the vehicles interior. ... A dashboard from a 1940s car The dashboard of a modern car, a Bentley Continental GT A Hayabusas dash A modern Formula 1 car has all its gauges mounted on the steering wheel A dashboard or dash board in an automobile is a panel located under the windscreen and... A flat tire means the motorist must use the spare tire In a motor vehicle, a flat tire occurs when a tire becomes deflated and the metal of the wheel comes in contact with the ground below (or ground level). ... The glovebox of a Cadillac Eldorado Brougham For the sealed container for handling hazardous materials, see glovebox. ... Typical Motorola plug found on consumer auto accessory antenna coaxial cables A common coaxial cable connector used primarily in the automotive industry for connecting the coaxial feedline from the antenna to the radio receiver. ... Electric window controls between the front seats, including lockout switch (2005 Saab 9-5). ... The rear-view mirror of a Mazda 626. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Seat Belts: Stay Safe and Secure (1454 words)
A seat belt should not be worn twisted, as the full width of the belt is required to spread motor vehicle collision forces across the body.
Wearing a seat belt loosely or placing the shoulder belt under the arm or behind your back instead of across the chest, could, in the case of a collision or sudden stop, result in an injury-producing impact with the vehicle interior, or ejection from the vehicle.
To effectively use a seat belt, a child must be able to sit with legs bent comfortably over the vehicle seat and with his or her back fully against the back of the vehicle seat.
seat belt: Definition and Much More from Answers.com (1860 words)
In states that require the use of seat belts by all drivers and front-seat passengers, the failure to use a seat belt is a violation that carries a small fine.
Evidence of the potential for lap belts to cause separation of the lumbar vertebrae and the sometimes associated paralysis, or "seat belt syndrome", has led to a revision of safety regulations in nearly all of the developed world requiring that all seats in a vehicle be equipped with three-point belts.
Seat belts were introduced in aircraft for the first time in 1913, for air shows and became common in the 1930s.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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