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Encyclopedia > Seasonal affective disorder
Light therapy lamp for Seasonal Affective Disorder
Light therapy lamp for Seasonal Affective Disorder

Seasonal affective disorder, also known as winter depression, is an affective, or mood, disorder. Most SAD sufferers experience normal mental health throughout most of the year, but experience depressive symptoms in the winter or summer. The condition in the summer is often referred to as Reverse Seasonal Affective Disorder. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2223x1599, 356 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Seasonal affective disorder Light therapy User:Mysid/otherimages ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2223x1599, 356 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Seasonal affective disorder Light therapy User:Mysid/otherimages ... The affective spectrum is a grouping of related psychiatric and medical disorders which may accompany bipolar, unipolar, and schizoaffective disorders at statistically higher rates than would normally be expected. ... A mood disorder is a condition whereby the prevailing emotional mood is distorted or inappropriate to the circumstances. ... A mental illness or mental disorder refers to one of many mental health conditions characterized by distress, impaired cognitive functioning, atypical behavior, emotional dysregulation, and/or maladaptive behavior. ... In everyday language depression refers to any downturn in mood, which may be relatively transitory and perhaps due to something trivial. ... For other uses, see Winter (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Summer (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Pathophysiology

Seasonal mood variations are believed to be related to light. An argument for this view is the effectiveness of bright light therapy.[1] SAD is measurably present at latitudes in the Arctic region, such as Finland (64º 00´N) where the rate of SAD is 9.5%[2] Cloud cover may contribute to the negative effects of SAD.[3] For the fast food restaurant chain, see Arctic Circle Restaurants. ...


SAD can be a serious disorder and may require hospitalization. There is also potential risk of suicide in some patients experiencing SAD. One study reports 6-35% of sufferers required hospitalization during one period of illness.[3] The symptoms of SAD mimic those of dysthymia or clinical depression. At times, patients may not feel depressed, but rather lack energy to perform everyday activities.[1] Norman Rosenthal, a pioneer in SAD research, has estimated that the prevalence of SAD in the adult United States population is between about 1.5 percent (in Florida) and about 9 percent (in the northern US).[3] Dysthymia is a mood disorder that falls within the depression spectrum. ... On the Threshold of Eternity. ...


Various etiologies have been suggested. One possibility is that SAD is related to a lack of serotonin, and serotonin polymorphisms could play a role in SAD,[4] although this has been disputed.[5] Another theory is that the cause may be related to melatonin produced in the pineal gland, since there are direct connections between the retina and the pineal gland. Mice incapable of synthesizing melatonin appear to express "depression-like" behaviors, melatonin receptor ligands produce an antidepressant-like effect[6] Subsyndromal Seasonal Affective Disorder is a milder form of SAD experienced by an estimated 14.3% vs. 6.4% of the U.S. population.[7] The blue feeling experienced by both SAD and SSAD sufferers can usually be dampened or extinguished by exercise and increased outdoor activity, particularly on sunny days, resulting in increased solar exposure.[8] Connections between human mood, as well as energy levels, and the seasons are well-documented, even in healthy individuals. Etiology (alternately aetiology, aitiology) is the study of causation. ... Serotonin (pronounced ) (5-hydroxytryptamine, or 5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter synthesized in serotonergic neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) and enterochromaffin cells in the gastrointestinal tract of animals including humans. ... Melatonin, 5-methoxy-N-acetyltryptamine, is a hormone found in all living creatures from algae[1] to humans, at levels that vary in a diurnal cycle. ... The pineal gland (also called the pineal body or epiphysis) is a small endocrine gland in the brain. ...


Treatment

Another type of light therapy lamp
Another type of light therapy lamp

There are many different treatments for seasonal affective disorder, including light therapies, medication, and ionized-air reception. Bright light treatments are common, however as many as 19% of patients stop use because of the inconvenience.[2] Specially designed light, many times brighter than normal office lighting, is placed near the sufferer, and has proven to be effective at doses of 2500- 10,000 lux.[7] Most treatments use 30-60 minute treatments, however this varies depending on the situation. The sufferer sits a prescribed distance, commonly 30-60 cm, in front of the box with her/his eyes open but not staring at the light source.[2] Many patients use the light box in the morning, however it has not been proven any more effective than any other time of day.[7] Discovering the best schedule is essential because up to 69% of patients find it inconvenient.[2] Dawn simulation has also proven to be more effective in some studies, there is an 83% better response when compared to bright light.[2] When compared in a study to negative air ionization however, bright light was proven to be 57.1% effective vs. dawn simulation, 49.5%.[9] Patients using light therapy can experience improvement during the first week, but increased results are evident when continued throughout several weeks.[2] Most studies found it effective without use year round, but rather as a seasonal treatment lasting for several weeks until frequent light exposure is naturally obtained.[1] SSRI (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor) antidepressants have proven effective in treating SAD. Bupropion is also effective as a prophylactic.[3] Effective antidepressants are fluoxetine, sertraline, or paroxetine.[1][10] Both fluoxetine and light therapy are 67% effective in treating SAD according to direct head-to-head trials.[1] Negative air ionization, involving the release of charged particles into the sleep environment, has also been found effective with a 47.9% improvement.[9] Depending upon the patient, one treatment (ie. lightbox) may be used in conjunction with another therapy (ie. medication).[1] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Bright light therapy is a common treatment for seasonal affective disorder. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The lux (symbol: lx) is the SI derived unit of illuminance or illumination. ... Dawn Simulation is an experimental technique used in the treatment of Seasonal Affective Disorder, also known as winter depression. ... SSRI is an acronym that stands for several things: It is a class of antidepressants called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor SSRI also is used as the stock symbol for Silver Standard Resources Inc. ... Bupropion (INN; also amfebutamone,[1] brand names Wellbutrin, Zyban, Budeprion and Buproban) is an atypical antidepressant, which acts as a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor and dopamine reuptake inhibitor,[2] and a nicotinic antagonist. ... Prozac redirects here. ... Zoloft bottles, with blue and green tablets Sertraline hydrochloride (also sold under brand names Zoloft, Lustral, Apo-Sertral, Asentra, Gladem, Serlift, Stimuloton, Xydep, Serlain, Concorz) is an antidepressant of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class. ... Paroxetine (Paxil, Seroxat, Pexeva) is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressant. ...


Throughout the world

Scandinavia

Winter depression (or winter blues) is a common slump in the mood of Scandinavians. Doctors estimate that about 20% of all Scandinavians are affected, and it seems to be genetically heritable.[citation needed] It was first described by the 6th century Goth scholar Jordanes in his Getica where he described the inhabitants of Scandza (Scandinavia).[11] Scandinavia is the cultural and historic region of the Scandinavian Peninsula. ... Genetics (from the Greek genno γεννώ= give birth) is the science of genes, heredity, and the variation of organisms. ... The 6th century is the period from 501 - 600 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... This article is about the Germanic tribes. ... The Origin and Deeds of the Goths (Latin: De origine actibusque Getarum), commonly referred to as Getica, was written by Jordanes, probably in Constantinople, and was published in AD 551. ... Scandza was the name given to Scandinavia by Jordanes, in his work Getica. ...


There are words in Icelandic and Swedish that directly describe Seasonal Affective conditions. The Icelandic word is "skammdegisthunglyndi". "Skamm" means short, "degi" is day, "thung" is heavy and "lyndi" means mood although there is some argument as to how long the word existed as the earliest records indicate it appeared in the late 1800s in print. [12]


A large study in 2000 of more than 2000 people in Iceland found the prevalence of seasonal affective disorder to be "unexpectedly low", as the researchers phrased it. Anxiety and depression were not found to be high in winter for either sex. It is suggested that propensity for SAD differs among genetically diverse groups. Prevalence of SAD among Canadians of wholly Icelandic descent has been shown to be low.[13]


United States

In the United States, a diagnosis of seasonal affective disorder was first proposed by Norman E. Rosenthal, MD in 1984. Rosenthal wondered why he became muggish during the winter after moving from sunny South Africa to New York. He started experimenting increasing exposure to artificial light, and found this made a difference. In Alaska it has been established that there is a SAD rate of 8.9%, and an even greater rate of 24.9%[14] for subsyndromal SAD. This article is about the state. ... For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ...


Ireland

Around one in five Irish people are affected by SAD, according to a survey conducted in 2007. The survey also shows women are more likely to be affected by SAD than men. [15]


SAD and bipolar disorder

Most people with SAD experience unipolar depression, but as many as 20% may have or go on to develop a bipolar or manic-depressive disorder.[16] In these cases, persons with SAD may experience depression during the winter and hypomania in the summer. For other uses, see Bipolar. ... Hypomania is a mood state characterized by persistent and pervasive elated or irritable mood, and thoughts and behaviors that are consistent with such a mood state. ...


Famous sufferers

Imbruglia redirects here. ... London — containing the City of London — is the capital of the United Kingdom and of England and a major world city. With over seven million inhabitants (Londoners) in Greater London area, it is amongst the most densely populated areas in Western Europe. ... Barbara Hambly (born August 28, 1951) is an award winning and prolific American novelist and screenwriter within the genres of fantasy, science fiction and historical fiction. ...

See also

In everyday language depression refers to any downturn in mood, which may be relatively transitory and perhaps due to something trivial. ... Circadian rhythm sleep disorders are a family of sleep disorders affecting the timing of sleep. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f Lam, RW; Levitt AJ, Levitan RD, Enns MW, Morehouse R, Michalak EE, Tam EM (2006). "The Can-SAD Study: a randomized controlled trial of the effectiveness of light therapy and fluoxetine in patients with winter seasonal affective disorder". American Journal of Psychiatry 163 (5). PMID 16648320. Retrieved on 2007-05-12. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f Avery, D H; Eder DN, Bolte MA, Hellekson CJ, Dunner DL, Vitiello MV, Prinz PN (2001). "Dawn simulation and bright light in the treatment of SAD: a controlled study". Biological Psychiatry 50 (3): 205-216. PMID 11513820. Retrieved on 2007-05-05. 
  3. ^ a b c d Modell, Jack; Rosenthal NE, Harriett AE, Krishen A, Asgharian A, Foster VJ, Metz A, Rockett CB, Wightman DS (2005). "Seasonal affective disorder and its prevention by anticipatory treatment with bupropion XL Biological Psychiatry" 58 (8): 658-667. PMID 16271314. 
  4. ^ Johansson, C; Smedh C, Partonen T, Pekkarinen P, Paunio T, Ekholm J, Peltonen L,Lichtermann D, Palmgren J, Adolfsson R, Schalling M (2001). "Seasonal affective disorder and serotonin-related polymorphisms". Neurobiology of Disease 8 (2): 351-357. PMID 11300730. Retrieved on 2007-05-05. 
  5. ^ Johansson, C; Willeit M, Levitan R, Partonen T, Smedh C, Del Favero J, Bel Kacem S, Praschak-Rieder N,Neumeister A, Masellis M, Basile V, Zill P, Bondy B, Paunio T, Kasper S, Van Broeckhoven C, Nilsson LG,Lam R, Schalling M, Adolfsson R. (2003). "The serotonin transporter promoter repeat length polymorphism, seasonal affective disorder and seasonality". Psychological Medicine 33 (5): 785-792. PMID 12877393. Retrieved on 2007-05-05. 
  6. ^ Uz, T; Manev, H (2001). "Prolonged swim-test immobility of serotonin N-acetyltransferase (AANAT)-mutant mice". Journal of Pineal Research 30: 166-170. PMID 11316327. 
  7. ^ a b c Avery, D. H.; Kizer D, Bolte MA, Hellekson C (2001). "Bright light therapy of subsyndromal seasonal affective disorder in the workplace: morning vs. afternoon exposure". Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 103 (4): 267-274. PMID 11328240. Retrieved on 2007-05-12. 
  8. ^ Leppämäki, Sami; Haukka J, Lonnqvist J, Partonen T (2004). "Drop-out and mood improvement: a randomised controlled trial with light exposure and physical exercise". BMC Psychiatry 4 (22). PMID 15306031. Retrieved on 2007-05-12. 
  9. ^ a b Terman, M.; Terman, J.S. (2006). "Controlled Trial of Naturalistic Dawn Simulation and Negative Air Ionization for Seasonal Affective Disorder". American Journal of Psychiatry 163 (12): 2126-2133. 17151164. Retrieved on 2007-05-12. 
  10. ^ Moscovitch, A; Blashko CA, Eagles JM, Darcourt G, Thompson C, Kasper S, Lane RM (2004). "A placebo-controlled study of sertraline in the treatment of outpatients with seasonal affective disorder". Psychopharmacology 171: 390-397. Retrieved on 2007-05-12. 
  11. ^ Jordanes, Getica, ed. Mommsen, Mon. Germanae historica, V, Berlin, 1882.
  12. ^ [1]
  13. ^ Magnusson, Andres; Axelsson, Johann; Karlsson, Mikael M.; Oskarsson, Högni (February 2000). "Lack of Seasonal Mood Change in the Icelandic Population: Results of a Cross-Sectional Study" (Fulltext). Am J Psychiatry 157: 234-238. American Psychiatric Association. Retrieved on 2007-11-27. 
  14. ^ Seasonal Affective Disorder and Latitude
  15. ^ BreakingNews.ie - One in five suffers from SAD
  16. ^ SAD and depression
  17. ^ Interview with Natalie Imbruglia 17th June 2005
  18. ^ Andromeda Spaceways interview with Barbara Hambly, discusses SAD

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 331st day of the year (332nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Resources

The Open Directory Project (ODP), also known as dmoz (from , its original domain name), is a multilingual open content directory of World Wide Web links owned by Netscape that is constructed and maintained by a community of volunteer editors. ...

Organizations

Articles


  Results from FactBites:
 
Seasonal affective disorder - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (826 words)
Seasonal affective disorder, or SAD, also known as winter depression is an affective, or mood disorder.
SAD is rare, if existent at all in the tropics, but is measurably present at latitudes of 30°N (or S) and higher.
In the USA the diagnosis of seasonal affective disorder was first proposed by Norman E. Rosenthal, MD in 1984.
Seasonal Affective Disorder (5591 words)
For 27% of the sample, seasonal changes were a problem and 4.3% to 10% of subjects (depending on the case-finding definition) rated a degree of seasonal impairment equivalent to that of patients with seasonal affective disorder.
It is apparent from this study that seasonal affective disorder represents the extreme end of the spectrum of seasonality that affects a large percentage of the general population.
Seasonal affective disorder afflicts both sexes, though virtually all studies of the prevalence of SAD report that women are more likely to suffer than males.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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