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Encyclopedia > Seal (device)

A seal is an impression printed on, embossed upon, or affixed to a document (or any other object) in order to authenticate it, in lieu of or in addition to a signature. Only in the case of a dry seal the imprint is made as a relief resulting from the greater pressure on the paper where the high parts of the seal touch; in all other cases a liquid or liquified medium (such as ink or wax) is used, allowing the choice of another color than the paper's. // Look up seal in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... John Hancocks signature is one of the most prominent on the United States Declaration of Independence. ...


The word is also used as the generic term to describe the devices used to make such impressions, such as (signet) rings.


Sigillography is the term used for the study of seals. This page is a candidate to be copied to Wiktionary. ...

Contents

Seal as impression

Wax seal on an envelope
Wax seal on an envelope
Pine resin seal on vellum tag or tail of an English deed dated 1638.

The use of seals, in wax, in lacquer or embossed on paper, to authenticate documents, is a practice as old as writing itself. Seals of this nature were applied directly to the face of the document or attached to the document by cords in the owner's, or to a narrow strip of the document sliced and folded down as a tail but not detached from the document. This helped maintain authenticity by not allowing the reuse of the seal. If a forger tried to remove the seal in the first case, it would break. In the other cases, although the forger could remove the seal intact by ripping the cords from the paper, he'd still have to separate the cords to attach it to another document, which would destroy the seal as well because the cords had knots tied in them inside the wax seal. Most governments still attach seals to letters patent. While many instruments required seals for validity (i.e. the deed or covenant) it is rather uncommon for private citizens to use seals anymore. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Sealtaglarge. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Sealtaglarge. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Vellum (from the Old French Vélin, for calfskin[1]) is a sort of parchment, a material for the pages of a book or codex, characterized by its thin, smooth, durable properties. ... An English deed written on fine parchment or vellum with seal tag dated 1638. ... Events March 29 - Swedish colonists establish first settlement in Delaware, called New Sweden. ... Letters sealed with sealing wax in a painting by Cornelis Norbertus Gysbrechts (1665). ... Letters Patent by Queen Victoria creating the office of Governor-General of Australia Letters patent are a type of legal instrument in the form of an open letter issued by a monarch or government granting an office, a right, monopoly, title, or status to someone or some entity such as... An English deed written on fine parchment or vellum with seal tag dated 1638. ... A covenant, in its most general sense, is a solemn promise to do or not do something specified. ...


Seals were also applied to letters and parcels to indicate whether or not the item had been opened since the seal was applied. Seals were used both to seal the item to prevent tampering, as well as to provide proof that the item was actually from the sender and is not a forgery. To seal a letter, for example, a letter writer would compose the letter, fold it over, pour wax over the joint formed by the top of the page of paper, and then impress a ring, metal stamp, or other device. Governments would often send letters to citizens under the governmental seal for their eyes only. These were called letters secret. Seals are no longer commonly used in this way, except for ceremonial purposes. This article is about letter, a written message from one party to another. ...

Official seal of Ft. Sill Apache
Official seal of Ft. Sill Apache

The most common uses of the seal today are: the official seal of the Fort Sill Chiricahua Apache Picture of seal obtained from Chiricahua-Warm Springs Fort Sill Apache Tribe of Oklahoma website. ... the official seal of the Fort Sill Chiricahua Apache Picture of seal obtained from Chiricahua-Warm Springs Fort Sill Apache Tribe of Oklahoma website. ...

  1. to certify that a person has given an oath or acknowledgement, see notary public
  2. to certify the correctness of a copy of a record maintained by a court or other government agency.

This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A US Embossed Notary Seal. ...

Seal as device

Seals were used in the earliest civilizations and are of considerable interest in archaeology. In ancient Mesopotamia seals were engraved on cylinders, which could be rolled to create an impression on clay e.g., as a label on a consignment of trade goods. From Ancient Egypt seals in the form of signet-rings of kings have been found. In the Indus Valley Civilization, rectangular seals were used to label trade goods and also had other purposes. This July 2007 does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Mesopotamia (disambiguation). ... Gilgamesh and Enkidu, cylinder seal impression from Ur III, with oldest type of pictographic cuneiform The Cylinder seals in ancient times, were used to put an impression in clay. ... Khafres Pyramid (4th dynasty) and Great Sphinx of Giza (c. ... The // (c. ...


Seals in East Asia

See also Chinese seal
A Baiwen name seal, read up-down-right-left: Ye Hao Min Yin (lit. "Seal of Ye Haomin")

Known as yinzhang in China, dojang or ingam in Korea and inkan or hanko in Japan, ink seals have been used in East Asia as a form of written identification since the invention of writing. Even in modern times, seals are still commonly used instead of handwritten signatures to authenticate official documents or financial transactions. Both individuals and organizations have official seals, and they often have multiple seals in different sizes and styles for different situations. East Asian seals usually bear the name of the person or organization represented, but they can also bear a poem or a personal motto. Sometimes both types of seals, or one large seal that bears a name and a motto, are used to authenticate official documents. Seals are so important in East Asia that foreigners who frequently conduct business there also commission the engraving of a personal seal. A Chinese seal is a seal or stamp containing Chinese characters used in East Asia to prove identity on documents, contracts, art, or similar items where authorship is considered important. ... My name chop, for use in chop. ... My name chop, for use in chop. ... This article is about the Korean peninsula and civilization. ... John Hancocks signature is one of the most prominent on the United States Declaration of Independence. ... Authentication (from Greek αυθεντικός; real or genuine, from authentes; author) is the act of establishing or confirming something (or someone) as authentic, that is, that claims made by or about the thing are true. ...


East Asian seals are carved from a variety of hard materials, including wood, soapstone, seaglass and jade. East Asian seals are traditionally used with a red oil-based paste consisting of finely ground cinnabar, which contrasts with the black ink traditionally used for the ink brush. Red chemical inks are more commonly used in modern times for sealing documents. Seal engraving is considered a form of calligraphy in East Asia. Like ink brush calligraphy, there are several styles of engraving. Some engraving styles emulate calligraphy styles, but many styles are so highly stylized that the characters represented on the seal are difficult for untrained readers to identify. Seal engravers are considered artists, and in the past, several famous calligraphers also became famous as engravers. Some seals, carved by famous engravers, or owned by famous artists or political leaders, have become valuable as works of art and history. Cinnabar, sometimes written cinnabarite, is a name applied to red mercury(II) sulfide (HgS), or native vermilion, the common ore of mercury. ... Ink brushes (筆, in Japanese fude) are speciality brushes used in East Asian calligraphy. ... Contemporary Calligraphy Calligraphy (from Greek kallos beauty + graphẽ writing) is the art of beautiful writing (Mediavilla 1996: 17). ...


Because seals are commissioned by individuals and carved by artists, every seal is unique, and engravers often personalize the seals they create. The material of seal and the style of the engraving are typically matched to the personality of the owner. Seals can be traditional or modern, conservative or expressive. Seals are sometimes carved with a figure on the owner's zodiac animal on the top of the seal. Seals are also sometimes carved with images or calligraphy on the sides. Chinese astrology (占星術 pinyin: zhan4 xing1 shu4; 星學 pinyin: xing1 xue2; 七政四餘 pinyin: qi1 zheng4 si4 yu2; and 果老星宗 pinyin: guo3 lao3 xing1 zong1) is related to the Chinese calendar, particularly its 12-year cycle of animals (aka Chinese Zodiac), and...


Although it is a utilitarian instrument of daily business in East Asia, Westerners and other non-Asians seldom see Asian seals except on Asian paintings and works of calligraphy. All traditional paintings in China, Japan, Korea, Vietnam, and the rest of East Asia are watercolor paintings on silk, paper, or some other surface that the red ink from seals can adhere to. East Asian paintings often bear multiple seals, including one or two seals from the artist, and the seals from the owners of the painting. Korean painting includes paintings made in Korea or by overseas Koreans on all surfaces. ...


East Asian seals are the predecessors to block printing. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Woodblock printing. ...


Signet rings

Signet rings, generally bearing a coat of arms, are made by intaglio engraving, either in metal or gems (generally semiprecious). Agate is a frequent material, especially carnelian or banded agate like sardonyx; the banding make the impression contrast with the ground. Intaglio refers to incised (negative) image-making, and is the opposite of cameo. ... Agate is a type of quartz (silica), chiefly chalcedony, characterised by its fineness of grain and brightness of color. ... Imprint of a carnelian seal with Brahmi inscription Kusumadasasya (Flowers servant). 4-5th century CE, probably Punjab. ... Onyx is a banded variety of chalcedony, a cryptocrystalline form of quartz. ...


Metal signet rings can also be cast, which is cheaper but yields a weaker material.


The wearing of signet rings (French: une chevalière, from the word chevalier which means knight) is a longstanding tradition among nobles in European and some other cultures. In contemporary usage, the signet ring is typically worn on the little finger of either the right or left hand (depending on the country), although some countries have different customs (French and German noblemen, and some Spanish nobles wear it on the ring finger of their left hand; Swiss wear it on the ring finger of their right hand). The ring may either be worn facing up or facing toward the palm, the latter position sometimes indicating that the person is married. The silver Anglia knight, commissioned as a trophy in 1850, intended to represent the Black Prince. ...


Because it is used to attest the authority of its bearer, the ring has also been seen as a symbol of his power, which is one explanation for its inclusion in the regalia of certain monarchies. After the death of a Pope, the smashing of his signet ring is a prescribed act clearing the way for the sedevacancy and subsequent election of a new Pope. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Sede vacante is the vacancy of the episcopal see of a particular church in the Canon law of the Roman Catholic Church. ...


Signet rings are also used as souvenir or membership attribute, e.g. class ring (typically bear the coat of arms or crest of the school), as an alternative to one with a stone. A class ring (also known as a graduate, or grad, ring) is a ring worn by students and alumni to commemorate their graduation, generally for a high school, college, or university. ... A modern coat of arms is derived from the medi val practice of painting designs onto the shield and outer clothing of knights to enable them to be identified in battle, and later in tournaments. ...


In the United Kingdom, signet rings are typically worn on the little finger of the left hand of the bearer and tend to be cast of gold.


The wearing of a signet ring is declining as the European aristocracy dimishes however noble families have upheld long standing traditions of wearing sigent rings for centuries. Sometimes the initials of the individual are engraved into the ring as a mark of aristocracy and family loyalty.


Ecclesiastical seals

The use of a seal by men of wealth and position was common before the Christian era, so naturally high functionaries of the Church would adopt the habit as soon as they became socially and politically important. An incidental allusion in one of St. Augustine's letters (217 to Victorinus) lets us know that he used a seal. The practice spread and it seems to be taken for granted by king Clovis at the very beginning of the Merovingian period (Monum. German. Histor.: Leg., II, 2). “Augustinus” redirects here. ... Clovis may refer to the following: The personal name of Germanic origin that primarily saw use in Europe before the year 1000 AD. Several locales and persons of historical importance have borne this name. ... There are other articles with similar names; see Merovingian (disambiguation). ...

A series of crosses from the sigillum cereum of Beatrice of Bar when donating property to San Zeno, Verona (1073).

Later ecclesiastical synods require that letters under the bishop's seal should be given to priests when for some reason they lawfully quitted their own proper diocese. So it was enacted at Chalon-sur-Saône in 813. Pope Nicholas I in the same century complains that the bishops of Dôle and Reims had contra morem sent their letters to him unsealed (Jaffé, "Regesta", nn. 2789, 2806, 2823). The custom of bishops possessing seals may from this date be assumed to have been pretty general. At first they were only used for securing the document from impertinent curiosity and the seal was commonly attached to the ties with which it was fastened. When the letter was opened by the addressee, the seal was necessarily broken. Later the seal served as an authentication and was attached to the face of the document. The deed was thus only held to be valid so long as the seal remained intact. It soon came to follow from this point of view that not only real persons like kings and bishops, but also every kind of body corporate, cathedral chapters, municipalities, monasteries etc., also required a common seal to validate the acts which were executed in their name. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Beatrice of Bar (also Beatrix) (c. ... The basilica of San Zeno. ... Verona is a city and provincial capital in Veneto, Northern Italy. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      This article is about a title... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Nicholas I,(Rome c. ... Chapter (Latin capitulum) designates certain corporate ecclesiastical bodies in the Roman Catholic, Anglican and Nordic Lutheran churches. ...


During the early Middle Ages seals of lead, or more properly "bullae" (from the Latin for lead), were in common use both in East and West, but except in the case of the papal chancery, these leaden authentications soon went out of favour in western Christendom and it became the universal practice to take the impressions in wax. In England hardly any waxen seals have survived of earlier date than the Norman Conquest. In the British Museum collection the earliest bishop's seals preserved are those of William of St. Carileph, Bishop of Durham (1081-96) and of St. Anselm, Archbishop of Canterbury (1093-1109). Bulla (plural, Bullae), a lump of clay molded around a cord and stamped with a seal. ... The Chancery of Apostolic Briefs (also known as the Papal, Apostolic or Roman Chanc(ell)ery), is a former office of the Roman Curia, merged into the Congregation for Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs by Pope Pius X on June 29, 1908 with the apostolic constitution Sapienti Consilio. ... Arms of the Bishop of Durham The Bishop of Durham is the officer of the Church of England responsible for the diocese of Durham, one of the oldest in the country. ... For entities named after Saint Anselm, see Saint Anselms. ...


The importance of the seal as a means of authentication necessitated that when authority passed into new hands the old seal should be destroyed and a new one made. When the pope dies it is the first duty of the Cardinal Camerlengo to obtain possession of the Fisherman's Ring, the papal signet, and to see that it is broken up. A similar practice prevailed in the Middle Ages and it is often alluded to by historians, as it seems to have been a matter of some ceremony. Thus we are concisely told: "There died in this year Robert de Insula, Bishop of Durham. After his burial, his seal was publicly broken up in the presence of all by Master Robert Avenel." (Histor. Dunel. Scrip. Tres., p. 63). Matthew Paris gives a similar description of the breaking of the seal of William, Abbot of St. Albans, in 1235. The title Camerlengo (Italian for Chamberlain) refers to an official of the Papal court, referring either to the Chamberlain of the Roman Catholic Church, to the Chamberlain of the Sacred College of Cardinals, or to various lesser dignitaries. ... The Ring of the Fisherman or Pescatorio is an official part of the regalia worn by the pope, described by the Roman Catholic Church as the successor of Saint Peter, a fisherman by trade. ...


Figurative uses

For Roman Catholic priests, the confidentiality of anything that they learn from penitents during the course of confession is absolute. ...

Metaphorical use

Representation of a seal of approval
Representation of a seal of approval

The expression "Seal of Approval" refers to a formal approval, regardless whether it involves a seal or other external marking, by an authoritative person or institute. Image File history File links Gold_seal_v2. ... Image File history File links Gold_seal_v2. ...


It is also part of the formal name of certain quality marks, such as:

Good Housekeeping is a womens magazine owned by the Hearst Corporation, featuring articles about home economics as well as literary articles. ... The Good NetKeeping Seal of Approval or GNKSA is designation that indicates a piece of Usenet software for end-user use meets a minimum set of posting standards. ... Nintendos Official Seal of Quality in PAL regions. ...

See also

Stamp of seals of old Germany

Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 510 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1526 × 1794 pixel, file size: 364 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Other versions unknown File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 510 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1526 × 1794 pixel, file size: 364 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Other versions unknown File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Bulla (plural, Bullae), a lump of clay molded around a cord and stamped with a seal. ... Gilgamesh and Enkidu, cylinder seal impression from Ur III, with oldest type of pictographic cuneiform The Cylinder seals in ancient times, were used to put an impression in clay. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... The Great Seal might mean: Great Seal of Canada Great Seal of the Irish Free State Great Seal of the Realm (UK) Great Seal of the United States See also: Seal This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same... The Great Seal of the Realm is a British institution by which the monarch can authorise official documents without having to sign each document individually. ... The Great Seal of Scotland allows the monarch to authorise official documents without having to sign each document individually. ... Grand sceau de la République française The Great seal of France is the official seal of the French Republic // Description The Great Seal features a personification of liberty as a sitted Juno wearing a sever-pike crown. ... The National and Imperial Seal of Japan was originally the Imperial Seal, and is called 菊の御紋 Kiku No Gomon in Japanese, which, literally, means Noble Symbol of Chrysanthemum or Imperial Seal of Chrysanthemum . The Imperial Seal is used by members of the Japanese Imperial family. ... Obverse The Great Seal of the United States is used to authenticate certain documents issued by the United States government. ... The Great Seal of Northern Ireland is the seal used for Northern Ireland. ... The Great Seal of Canada is a seal used for official purposes of state in Canada such as the certification of Acts of Parliament. ... The Privy Seal of England can be traced back to the reign of King John. ... The Lord Privy Seal or Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal is one of the traditional sinecure offices in the British Cabinet. ... Seals of the Knights Templars Officials of religious Orders had their own seals to validate documents approved by the Order. ... This page lists direct English translations of common Latin phrases, such as veni vidi vici and et cetera. ... This article is about vulcanized rubber stamps. ... A Chinese seal is a seal or stamp containing Chinese characters used in East Asia to prove identity on documents, contracts, art, or similar items where authorship is considered important. ... In Medieval Jewish, Islamic and Christian legends, the Seal of Solomon was a magical signet ring said to have been possessed by King Solomon (or Sulayman in the Islamic version), which variously gave him the power to command demons (or jinni), or to speak with animals. ... See also Flags of the U.S. states Lists of U.S. state insignia Categories: U.S. state insignia | U.S. state seals ... This page is a candidate to be copied to Wiktionary. ... John Hancocks signature is one of the most prominent on the United States Declaration of Independence. ... State seal may refer to one of the following: One of Seals of the U.S. states One of State seals of Russian Empire Category: ...

Sources and external links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Seal (device)

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Kensey Nash Corporation (232 words)
The Angio-Seal™ Vascular Closure Device, originally developed by Kensey Nash Corporation and exclusively licensed to St. Jude Medical, Inc., provides a way of closing the puncture and limiting much of the discomfort associated with this part of a catheterization procedure, while providing for quicker ambulation and discharge.
The Angio-Seal™ device consists of three resorbable components: an anchor, a collagen sponge and a suture along with a delivery system that closes the puncture.
The anchor and suture act as a pulley to position the collagen into the puncture tract adjacent to the outside of the artery wall to seal and close the puncture and effect hemostasis.
Buy Seals Online at www.offshoreseals.com (0 words)
Seal embodying two faces in rubbing contact in a plane at right angles to the axis of the seal.
Lip Seal: A seal where the sealing surface is in the form of a flexible lip.
A doughnut-shaped object, or torus, that functions as a seal, blocking the passage of liquids or gases, by being compressed between the two mating surfaces comprising the walls of the cavity (gland) into which the ring is installed.
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