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Encyclopedia > Seagrass
Seagrass from the coast of Florida

Sea grass (or sea-grass in British English) are flowering plants from four plant families (Posidoniaceae, Zosteraceae, Hydrocharitaceae, and Cymodoceaceae) that grow in the marine saline environment. Floridian seagrass bed From a USA government website that doesnt have a proclaimed copyright restriction: http://www. ... Floridian seagrass bed From a USA government website that doesnt have a proclaimed copyright restriction: http://www. ... British English (BrE, en-GB) is a broad term used to distinguish the forms of the English language used in the United Kingdom from forms used elsewhere. ... It has been suggested that Angiospermae, and Anthophyta be merged into this article or section. ... Posidoniaceae is a family of aquatic plants conatining a single genus, Posidonia. ... Genera Heterozostera Phyllospadix Zostera Zosteraceae is a family of aquatic grass. ... Genera See text. ... genera see text Cymodoceaceae is the botanical name of a family of flowering plants. ...


They are called sea grasses only because most species superficially resemble terrestrial grasses of the Family Poaceae. Because these plants must photosynthesize, they are limited to growing submerged in the photic zone, and most occur in shallow and sheltered coastal waters anchored in sand or mud bottoms. They undergo pollination while submerged and complete their entire life cycle underwater. There are about 60 species worldwide (although the taxonomy is still disputed). Subfamilies There are 7 subfamilies: Subfamily Arundinoideae Subfamily Bambusoideae Subfamily Centothecoideae Subfamily Chloridoideae Subfamily Panicoideae Subfamily Pooideae Subfamily Stipoideae The true grasses are monocotyledonous plants (Class Liliopsida) in the Family Poaceae, also known as Gramineae. ... Subfamilies There are 7 subfamilies: Subfamily Arundinoideae Subfamily Bambusoideae Subfamily Centothecoideae Subfamily Chloridoideae Subfamily Panicoideae Subfamily Pooideae Subfamily Stipoideae The true grasses are monocotyledonous plants (Class Liliopsida) in the Family Poaceae, also known as Gramineae. ... The leaf is the primary site of photosynthesis in plants. ... The photic zone is the depth of the water, whether in a lake or an ocean, that is exposed to sufficient sunlight for photosynthesis to occur. ... A flower-fly pollinating a Common Daisy (Bellis perennis) Pollination is an important step in the reproduction of seed plants: the transfer of pollen grains (male gametes) to the plant carpel, the structure that contains the ovule (female gamete). ... Look up taxonomy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Sea grasses form extensive beds or meadows, that can be either monospecific (made up of one species) or multispecific (where more than one species co-exist). In temperate areas, usually one or a few species dominate (for instance Eelgrass Zostera marina in the North Atlantic), whereas tropical beds usually are more diverse, with up to 13 species recorded in the Philippines. A meadow is a habitat of rolling or flat terrain where grasses predominate. ... Eelgrass can refer to two different plants: Marine eelgrass - Zostera marina Freshwater eelgrass - Vallisneria americana This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Species Zostera japonica Zostera marina Zostera is a genus small genus of widely distributed aquatic grass, it is commonly called eelgrass. ... In biology, a species is one of the basic units of biodiversity. ...

White-spotted puffers are often found in sea grass areas.
White-spotted puffers are often found in sea grass areas.

Sea grass beds are highly diverse and productive ecosystems, and can harbor hundreds of associated species from all phyla, for example juvenile and adult fish, epiphytic and free-living macroalgae and microalgae, shellfish, bristle worms, and nematodes. Few species were originally considered to feed directly on sea grass leaves (partly because of their low nutritional content), but scientific reviews and improved working methods have shown that sea grass herbivory is a highly important link in the food chain, with hundreds of species feeding on sea grasses worldwide, including dugongs, manatees, fish, geese, swans, sea urchins and crabs. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 590 pixelsFull resolution (1324 × 976 pixel, file size: 890 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Seagrass White-spotted puffer ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 590 pixelsFull resolution (1324 × 976 pixel, file size: 890 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Seagrass White-spotted puffer ... Binomial name Arothron hispidus (Linnaeus, 1758) The white-spotted puffer, Arothron hispidus, is a medium sized fish, light grey in colour with small white spots. ... A coral reef near the Hawaiian islands is an example of a complex marine ecosystem. ... For the linguistic term, see Phylum (linguistics). ... A giant grouper at the Georgia Aquarium Fish are aquatic vertebrates that are typically cold-blooded; covered with scales, and equipped with two sets of paired fins and several unpaired fins. ... Seaweed-covered rocks in the UK Biologists, specifically marine biologists, consider seaweed to be any of a large number of marine benthic algae that are multicellular, macrothallic, and thus differentiated from most algae that tend to be microscopic in size [1]. Many phycologists prefer the term marine macroalgae over seaweeds... Microalgae are the most primitive form of plants. ... Cooked mussels Shellfish is a term used to describe shelled molluscs and crustaceans used as food. ... Orders Amphinomida Capitellida Chaetopterida Cirratulida Cossurida Ctenodrillidae Eunicida Flabelligerida Magelonida Myzostomida Nerillida Opheliida Orbiniida Orweniida Phyllodocida Pisionidae Polygordiida Protodrilida Psammodrilidae Sabellida Spionida Spintheridae Sternaspida Terebellida The Polychaeta or Polychaetes are a class of annelid worms, generally marine, with a pair of fleshy protrusions on each body segment called parapodia that... Classes Adenophorea    Subclass Enoplia    Subclass Chromadoria Secernentea    Subclass Rhabditia    Subclass Spiruria    Subclass Diplogasteria The nematodes or roundworms (Phylum Nematoda from Greek (nema): thread + -ode like) are one of the most common phyla of animals, with over 20,000 different described species (over 15,000 are parasitic). ... In the armed forces, leave is permission to be away from ones unit for a period of time. ... Look up Review in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In zoology, an herbivore is an animal that is adapted to eat primarily plants (rather than meat). ... Binomial name Dugong dugon (Müller, 1776) Natural range of . ... Species Trichechus inunguis Trichechus manatus Trichechus senegalensis For the record label, see Manatee Records. ... A giant grouper at the Georgia Aquarium Fish are aquatic vertebrates that are typically cold-blooded; covered with scales, and equipped with two sets of paired fins and several unpaired fins. ... Other uses: Goose (disambiguation) Genera Anser Branta Chen Cereopsis † see also: Swan, Duck Anatidae Goose (plural geese) is the general English name for a considerable number of birds, belonging to the family Anatidae. ... Species 6-7 living, see text. ... Subclasses Euechinoidea Superorder Atelostomata Order Cassiduloida Order Spatangoida (heart urchins) Superorder Diadematacea Order Diadematoida Order Echinothurioida Order Pedinoida Superorder Echinacea Order Arbacioida Order Echinoida Order Phymosomatoida Order Salenioida Order Temnopleuroida Superorder Gnathostomata Order Clypeasteroida (sand dollars) Order Holectypoida Perischoechinoidea Order Cidaroida (pencil urchins) Sea urchins are small spiny sea creatures... Superfamilies Dromiacea Homolodromioidea Dromioidea Homoloidea Eubrachyura Raninoidea Cyclodorippoidea Dorippoidea Calappoidea Leucosioidea Majoidea Hymenosomatoidea Parthenopoidea Retroplumoidea Cancroidea Portunoidea Bythograeoidea Xanthoidea Bellioidea Potamoidea Pseudothelphusoidea Gecarcinucoidea Cryptochiroidea Pinnotheroidea * Ocypodoidea * Grapsoidea * An asterisk (*) marks the crabs included in the clade Thoracotremata. ...


Sea grasses are sometimes labeled ecosystem engineers, because they partly create their own habitat: the leaves slow down water-currents increasing sedimentation, and the sea grass roots and rhizomes stabilize the seabed. Their importance for associated species is mainly due to provision of shelter (through their three-dimensional structure in the water column), and for their extraordinary high rate of primary production. As a result, sea grasses provide coastal zones with a number of ecological goods and ecological services, for instance fishing grounds, wave protection, oxygen production and protection against coastal erosion. Sea grasses can also be collected to be used to fertilize sandy soil. This was an important activity in the Ria de Aveiro, Portugal, where the plants collected were named moli├žo. In the early part of the 20th century Seagrass was used by the French and to a lesser extent the Channel Isles as a form of mattress (Paillasse) filling, and was in high demand by the French forces during World War I. An ecosystem engineer is any organism that modifies its own ecosystem. ... Habitat (which is Latin for it inhabits) is the place where a particular species live and grow. ... Sedimentation describes the motion of particles in solutions or suspensions in response to an external force such as gravity, centrifugal force or electric force. ... Primary and secondary roots in a cotton plant In vascular plants, the root is that organ of a plant body that typically lies below the surface of the soil (compare with stem). ... Ginger rhizome A rhizome is, in botany, a usually underground, horizontal stem of a plant that often sends out roots and shoots from its nodes. ... Shelter can refer to several things: Look up shelter on Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards and make it easier to understand, this article or section may require cleanup. ... General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... Severe soil erosion in a wheat field near Washington State University, USA. For erosion as an operation of Mathematical morphology, see Erosion (morphology) Erosion is displacement of solids (soil, mud, rock and other particles) by the agents of ocean currents, wind, water, or ice by downward or down-slope movement... Moliço is the Portuguese word for the submerged aquatic vegetation collected for use in agriculture. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ...

Evolution of seagrasses.
Evolution of seagrasses.

Contents

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

Genera of sea grasses

  • Family Zosteraceae
    • Zosterea
    • Heterozosterea
    • Phyllospadix
  • Family Cymodoceaceae
    • Amphiboilis
    • Cymodocea
    • Halodule
    • Syringodium
    • Thalassodendrion

Posidoniaceae is a family of aquatic plants conatining a single genus, Posidonia. ... Genera See text Posidoniaceae Hutch. ... Genera Heterozostera Phyllospadix Zostera Zosteraceae is a family of aquatic grass. ... Genera See text. ... Halophiles are extremophiles that thrive in environments with very high concentrations of salt (at least 2 M, approximately ten times the salt level of ocean water). ... genera see text Cymodoceaceae is the botanical name of a family of flowering plants. ...

See also

Families Alismataceae Aponogetonaceae Araceae Butomaceae Cymodoceaceae Hydrocharitaceae Juncaginaceae Limnocharitaceae Posidoniaceae Potamogetonaceae Ruppiaceae Scheuchzeriaceae Tofieldiaceae Zosteraceae The order Alismatales contains the alismatids, a group of monocotyledons (class Liliopsida). ...

References

  • den Hartog, C. 1970. The Sea-grasses of the World. Verhandl. der Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen, Afd. Natuurkunde, No. 59(1).
  • Hemminga, M.A. & Duarte, C. 2000. Seagrass Ecology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. 298 pp.
  • Short, F.T. & Coles, R.G.(eds). 2001. Global Seagrass Research Methods. Elsevier Science, Amsterdam. 473 pp.
  • Green, E.P. & Short, F.T.(eds). 2003. World Seagrass Atlas. UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre, UCP, Berkely. 286 pp.
  • A.W.D. Larkum, R.J. Orth, and C.M. Duarte (eds). Seagrass Biology: A Treatise. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, in press.

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Seagrass habitat (2013 words)
Seagrasses are a type of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) have evolved from terrestrial plants and have become specialized to live in the marine environment.
Seagrasses are subject to a number of biotic and abiotic stresses such as storms, excessive grazing by herbivores, disease, and anthropogenic threats due to point and non-point sources of pollution, decreasing water clarity, excessive nutrients in runoff, sedimentation and prop scarring.
Seagrasses that remain in fragmented areas are then susceptible to erosion effects and are vulnerable to increased damage as boaters continue to scar the meadow.
Seagrass Beds of the Indian River Lagoon (1350 words)
Seagrasses are flowering vascular plants that inhabit shallow areas of oceans, estuaries, and lagoons worldwide (Figure 1).
Major parts of a typical seagrass (Figure 2) include the blade, which is the main photosynthetic organ, and the short shoot, which is analogous to a land plant stem.
Seagrass loss due to light attenuation usually starts at the outer (deeper) edge of the beds, where the light reaching the plants is only marginal, and progresses towards the shallower regions as conditions deteriorate.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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