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Encyclopedia > Seabird
The Sooty Tern is highly aerial and marine and will spend years flying at sea without returning to land. (Olsen and Larsson, Terns of Europe and North America ISBN 0-7136-4056-1)
The Sooty Tern is highly aerial and marine and will spend years flying at sea without returning to land. (Olsen and Larsson, Terns of Europe and North America ISBN 0-7136-4056-1)

Seabirds are birds that have adapted to BEING VANDALIZED life in the marine environment. While seabirds vary greatly in lifestyle, behaviour and physiology, they often exhibit striking convergent evolution, as the same environmental problems and feeding niches have resulted in similar adaptations. The first seabirds evolved in the Cretaceous, and modern seabird families emerged in the Paleogene. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1672x2304, 1122 KB) Hawaiian Islands NWR File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Seabird Wikipedia:Todays featured article/requests Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1672x2304, 1122 KB) Hawaiian Islands NWR File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Seabird Wikipedia:Todays featured article/requests Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added... Binomial name Sterna fuscata Linnaeus, 1766 The Sooty Tern, Sterna fuscata, is a seabird of the tern family Sternidae. ... Aves redirects here. ... Marine life can be very abundant. ... It has been suggested that Morphological convergence be merged into this article or section. ... Two lichenes species on a rock, in two different ecological niches In ecology, a niche is a term describing the relational position of a species or population in an ecosystem. ... The Cretaceous Period is one of the major divisions of the geologic timescale, reaching from the end of the Jurassic Period (i. ... Paleogene (alternatively Palaeogene) period is a unit of geologic time that began 65 and ended 23 million years ago. ...


Seabirds live longer, breed later and have fewer young than other birds do, but they invest a great deal of time in those young that they do have. Most species nest in colonies, which can vary in size from a few dozen birds to many millions. They are famous for undertaking long annual migrations, crossing the equator or circumnavigating the Earth in some cases. They feed both at the ocean's surface and below it, and even feed on each other. Seabirds can be highly pelagic, coastal, or in some cases spend a part of the year away from the sea entirely. Sevenspotted Lady Beetles mating In biology, mating is the pairing of opposite-sex or hermaphroditic internal fertilization animals for copulation and, in social animals, also to raise their offspring. ... A seabird colony is a site which seabirds visit to breed. ... Flock of Barnacle Geese during autumn migration Many species of birds undertake seasonal journeys of various lengths, a phenomenon known as Bird migration. ... World map showing the equator in red The Equator is an imaginary circle drawn around a planet (or other astronomical object) at a distance halfway between the poles. ... The pelagic zone is the part of the open sea or ocean comprising the water column, i. ...


Seabirds and humans have a long history together: they have provided food to hunters, guided fishermen to fishing stocks and led sailors to land. Many species are currently threatened by human activities, and conservation efforts are underway. Hunter and Huntress redirect here. ... Fishing is the activity of hunting for fish by hooking, trapping, or gathering animals not classifiable as insects which breathe in water or pass their lives in water. ... This article is about naval crewpeople; for other meanings, see sailor (disambiguation). ... Threatened species refers to animal and plant species under a serious, but perhaps not imminent, threat of extinction. ... The conservation movement is a political and social movement that seeks to protect natural resources including plant and animal species as well as their habitat for the future. ...

Contents

Classification of species as seabirds

There exists no one definition of which groups, families and species are seabirds, and most definitions are in some way arbitrary. In the words of two seabird scientists, "The one common characteristic that all seabirds share is that they feed in saltwater; but, as seems to be true with any statement in biology, some do not."[1] However, by convention all of the penguins and Procellariiformes, all of the Pelecaniformes except the darters, and some of the Charadriiformes (the skuas, gulls, terns, auks and skimmers) are classified as seabirds. The phalaropes are usually included as well, since although they are waders ("shorebirds" in North America), two of the three species are oceanic for nine months of the year, crossing the equator to feed pelagically. Annual mean sea surface temperature for the World Ocean. ... Modern Genera Aptenodytes Eudyptes Eudyptula Megadyptes Pygoscelis Spheniscus For extinct genera, see Systematics Penguins (order Sphenisciformes, family Spheniscidae) are an order of aquatic, flightless birds living exclusively in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Families Procellariidae Diomedeidae Hydrobatidae Pelecanoididae Procellariiformes (from the Latin procella, a storm) is an order of birds formerly called Tubinares and still called tubenoses in English. ... Families Pelecanidae Sulidae Phalacrocoracidae Fregatidae Anhingidae Phaethontidae The Pelecaniformes are an order of medium-sized and large waterbirds found worldwide. ... Species The darters or snake-birds are birds in the family Anhingidae. ... Families Thinocoridae Pedionomidae Scolopacidae Rostratulidae Jacanidae Chionididae Burhinidae Haematopodidae Recurvirostridae Ibidorhynchidae Charadriidae Pluvianellidae Dromadidae Glareolidae Stercorariidae Rhynchopidae Laridae Sternidae Alcidae Charadriiformes is a diverse order of small to medium-large birds. ... For other uses: see Skua (disambiguation). ... Look up gull in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Genera Sterna (Gelochelidon) (Hydroprogne) (Thalasseus) Chlidonias Phaetusa Anous Procelsterna Gygis Larosterna Terns are seabirds in the family Sternidae, previously considered a subfamily Sterninae of the gull family Laridae. ... Genera Alle Uria Alca Pinguinus Cepphus Brachyramphus Synthliboramphus Ptychoramphus Cyclorrhynchus Aethia Cerorhinca Fratercula This article is about a family of birds. ... Species Black Skimmer (Rhynchops niger) African Skimmer (Rhynchops flavirostris) Indian Skimmer (Rhynchops albicollis) For other uses, see Skimmer (disambiguation). ... Species Red Phalarope, Red-necked Phalarope, Wilsons Phalarope, The name Phalarope refers to any of three species of slender-necked shorebirds in the genus Phalaropus of the bird family Scolopacidae. ... Families Scolopacidae Rostratulidae Jacanidae Thinocoridae Pedionomidae Burhinidae Chionididae Pluvianellidae Ibidorhynchidae Recurvirostridae Haematopodidae Charadriidae Dunlin (Calidris alpina). ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ...


Loons and grebes, which nest on lakes but winter at sea, are usually categorised as water birds, not seabirds. Although there are a number of sea ducks in the family Anatidae which are truly marine in the winter, by convention they are usually excluded from the seabird grouping. Many waders (or shorebirds) and herons are also highly marine, living on the sea's edge, but are also not treated as seabirds. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Genera Podiceps Tachybaptus Podilymbus Aechmophorus Poliocephalus Rollandia Grebes are members of the Podicipediformes order, a widely distributed order of freshwater diving birds, some of which visit the sea when migrating and in winter. ... Genera Polysticta Somateria Histrionicus Camptorhynchus Melanitta Clangula Bucephala Mergellus Lophodytes Mergus † For other ducks, see also: Anatidae The seaducks, Merginae, form a subfamily of the duck, goose and swan family of birds, Anatidae. ... Genera See text. ...


Evolution and fossil record

Seabirds, by virtue of living in a geologically depositional environment (that is, in the sea where sediments are readily laid down), are well represented in the fossil record.[1] They are first known to occur in the Cretaceous era, the earliest being the Hesperornithiformes, like Hesperornis regalis, a flightless loon-like seabird that dove in a similar fashion to grebes and loons (using its feet to move underwater)[2] but had a beak filled with sharp teeth.[3] World geologic provinces Oceanic crust  0-20 Ma  20-65 Ma  >65 Ma Geologic provinces  Shield  Platform  Orogen  Basin  Large igneous province  Extended crust Geology (from Greek γη- (ge-, the earth) and λογος (logos, word, reason))[1] is the science and study of the solid matter of the earth, its composition, structure... Sediment is any particulate matter that can be transported by fluid flow and which eventually is deposited as a layer of solid particles on the bed or bottom of a body of water or other liquid. ... An ammonite fossil Eocene fossil fish of the genus Knightia Petrified wood fossil formed through permineralization. ... The Cretaceous Period is one of the major divisions of the geologic timescale, reaching from the end of the Jurassic Period (i. ... Families Hesperornithidae Hesperornithiformes are an extinct and highly specialized order of Cretaceous toothed birds. ...

The Cretaceous seabird Hesperornis
The Cretaceous seabird Hesperornis

While Hesperornis is not thought to have left descendants, the earliest extant seabirds also occurred in the Cretaceous, with a species called Tytthostonyx glauconiticus, which has been placed in the Procellariiformes. In the Paleogene the seas were dominated by early Procellariidae, giant penguins and two extinct families, the Pelagornithidae and the Plotopteridae (a group of large seabirds that looked like the penguins).[4] Modern genera began their wide radiation in the Miocene, although the genus Puffinus (which includes today's Manx Shearwater and Sooty Shearwater) dates back to the Oligocene.[1] The highest diversity of seabirds apparently existed during the Late Miocene and the Pliocene. At the end of the latter, the oceanic food web had undergone a period of upheaval due to extinction of considerable numbers of marine species;[5] subsequently, the spread of marine mammals seems to have prevented seabirds from reaching their erstwhile diversity.[6] This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Extant means still existing. It is the opposite of extinct, and can be applied to species, cultures and works of culture (e. ... Families Procellariidae Diomedeidae Hydrobatidae Pelecanoididae Procellariiformes (from the Latin procella, a storm) is an order of birds formerly called Tubinares and still called tubenoses in English. ... Paleogene (alternatively Palaeogene) period is a unit of geologic time that began 65 and ended 23 million years ago. ... Genera Several, List of Procellariidae. ... Modern Genera Aptenodytes Eudyptes Eudyptula Megadyptes Pygoscelis Spheniscus For extinct genera, see Systematics Penguins (order Sphenisciformes, family Spheniscidae) are an order of aquatic, flightless birds living exclusively in the Southern Hemisphere. ... In biology and ecology, extinction is the ceasing of existence of a species or group of species. ... In biological classification, family (Latin: familia, plural familiae) is 1) a rank or 2) a taxon in that rank. ... Genera Osteodontornis The Pelagornithidae or pseudo-tooth birds were a family of large seabirds from the order Pelecaniformes, which were common worldwide from the Eocene (or possibly Paleocene) up to the Miocene. ... Genera Plotopterium Copepteryx Tonsala Phocavis The Plotopteridae were an family of flightless seabirds from the order Pelecaniformes. ... The Miocene epoch is a period of time that extends from about 23 to 5. ... For other uses of the word, please see Genus (disambiguation). ... Genus Puffinus Brisson, 1760 Puffinus is a genus of seabirds in the order Procellariiformes. ... Binomial name Puffinus puffinus (Brünnich, 1764) The Manx Shearwater (Puffinus puffinus) is a medium-sized shearwater in the seabird family Procellariidae. ... Binomial name Puffinus griseus Gmelin, 1789 The Sooty Shearwater (Puffinus griseus) is a medium-large shearwater in the seabird family Procellariidae. ... The Oligocene epoch is a geologic period of time that extends from about 34 million to 23 million years before the present. ... The Pliocene epoch (spelled Pleiocene in some older texts) is the period in the geologic timescale that extends from 5. ... Figure 1. ...


Characteristics

Adaptations to life at sea

Seabirds have made numerous adaptations to living on and feeding in the sea. Wing morphology has been shaped by the niche an individual species or family has evolved, so that looking at a wing's shape and loading can tell a scientist about its life feeding behaviour. Longer wings and low wing loading are typical of more pelagic species, whilst diving species have shorter wings.[7] Species such as the Wandering Albatross, which forage over huge areas of sea, have a reduced capacity for powered flight and are dependent on a type of gliding called dynamic soaring (where the wind deflected by waves provides lift) as well as slope soaring.[8] Seabirds also almost always have webbed feet, to aid movement on the surface as well as assisting diving in some species. The Procellariiformes are unusual amongst birds in having a strong sense of smell (olfaction), which is used to find widely distributed food in a vast ocean,[9] and possibly to locate their colonies. A Laughing Gull on the beach in Atlantic City, USA. Wing shapes: a swept wing KC-10 Extender from Travis Air Force Base, California, refuels a delta wing F/A-22 Raptor. ... Two lichenes species on a rock, in two different ecological niches In ecology, a niche is a term describing the relational position of a species or population in an ecosystem. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... In aerodynamics, wing loading is the loaded weight of the aircraft divided by the area of the wing. ... The pelagic zone is the part of the open sea or ocean comprising the water column, i. ... Binomial name Diomedea exulans Linnaeus, 1758 The Wandering Albatross (Diomedea exulans), is a large seabird from the family Diomedeidae which has a circumpolar range in the Southern Ocean. ... A modern glider crossing the finish line of a competition at high speed. ... Dynamic soaring is a flying technique used to gain kinetic energy without effort by repeatedly crossing the boundary between air masses of significantly different horizontal velocity. ... Families Procellariidae Diomedeidae Hydrobatidae Pelecanoididae Procellariiformes (from the Latin procella, a storm) is an order of birds formerly called Tubinares and still called tubenoses in English. ... Look up smell in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Salt glands are used by seabirds to deal with the salt they ingest by drinking and feeding (particularly on crustaceans), and to help them osmoregulate.[10] The excretions from these glands (which are positioned in the head of the birds, emerging from the nasal cavity) are almost pure sodium chloride. Location of the supraorbital ridge on a human skull Magellanic penguin The Supraorbital Gland is a type of lateral nasal salt gland found in some species of marine birds, specifically penguins, which converts saltwater to fresh water. ... Edible salt is mostly sodium chloride (NaCl). ... Classes & Subclasses Branchiopoda Phyllopoda Sarsostraca Remipedia Cephalocarida Maxillopoda Thecostraca Tantulocarida Branchiura Pentastomida Mystacocarida Copepoda Ostracoda Myodocopa Podocopa Malacostraca Phyllocarida Hoplocarida Eumalacostraca The crustaceans (Crustacea) are a large group of arthropods, comprising approximately 52,000 described species [1], and are usually treated as a subphylum [2].They include various familiar animals... Osmoregulation is the active regulation of the osmotic pressure of bodily fluids to maintain the homeostasis of the bodys water content; that is it keeps the bodys fluids from becoming too dilute or too concentrated. ... Excretion is the process of eliminating waste products of metabolism and other materials that are of no use. ... The nasal cavity (or nasal fossa) is a large air-filled space above and behind the nose in the middle of the face. ... This articles section called Other facts does not cite its references or sources. ...

Cormorants, like this Double-crested Cormorant, have plumage which is partly wettable, allowing them to dive without fighting buoyancy.
Cormorants, like this Double-crested Cormorant, have plumage which is partly wettable, allowing them to dive without fighting buoyancy.

With the exception of the cormorants and some terns, and in common with most other birds, all seabirds have waterproof plumage. However, compared to land birds, they have far more feathers protecting their bodies. This dense plumage is better able to protect the bird from getting wet, and cold is kept out by a dense layer of down feathers. The cormorants possess a layer of unique feathers that retain a smaller layer of air (compared to other diving birds) but otherwise soak up water.[11] This allows them to swim without fighting the buoyancy that retaining air in the feathers causes, yet retain enough air to prevent the bird losing excessive heat through contact with water. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x1024, 352 KB) Double-crested Cormorant -- Humber Bay Park (Toronto, Canada) -- 2005 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x1024, 352 KB) Double-crested Cormorant -- Humber Bay Park (Toronto, Canada) -- 2005 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... For other uses, see Cormorant (disambiguation). ... Closeup on a single white feather A feather is one of the epidermal growths that forms the distinctive outer covering, or plumage, on a bird. ... The down of birds is a layer of fine feathers found under the tougher exterior feathers. ... // In physics, buoyancy is the upward force on an object produced by the surrounding fluid (i. ...


The plumage of most seabirds is less colourful than that of land birds, restricted in the main to variations of black, white or grey.[7] A few species sport colourful plumes (such as the tropicbirds or some penguins), but most of the colour in seabirds appears in the bills and legs. The plumage of seabirds is thought in many cases to be for camouflage, both defensive (the colour of US Navy battleships is the same as that of Antarctic Prions,[7] and in both cases it reduces visibility at sea) and aggressive (the white underside possessed by many seabirds helps hide them from prey below). Anolis caroliensis showing blending camouflage and counter-shading A flounder blends in with its environment. ... USN redirects here. ... For other uses, see Battleship (disambiguation). ...


Diet and feeding

Seabirds evolved to exploit different food resources in the world's seas and oceans, and to a great extent, their physiology and behaviour have been shaped by their diet. These evolutionary forces have often caused species in different families and even orders to evolve similar strategies and adaptations to the same problems, leading to remarkable convergent evolution, such as that between auks and penguins. There are four basic feeding strategies, or ecological guilds, for feeding at sea: surface feeding, pursuit diving, plunge diving, and predation of higher vertebrates; within these guilds there are multiple variations on the theme. Physiology (in Greek physis = nature and logos = word) is the study of the mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions of living organisms. ... Ethology is the scientific study of animal behavior considered as a branch of zoology. ... In nutrition, the diet is the sum of food consumed by a person or other organism. ... It has been suggested that Morphological convergence be merged into this article or section. ... Genera Alle Uria Alca Pinguinus Cepphus Brachyramphus Synthliboramphus Ptychoramphus Cyclorrhynchus Aethia Cerorhinca Fratercula This article is about a family of birds. ... Modern Genera Aptenodytes Eudyptes Eudyptula Megadyptes Pygoscelis Spheniscus For extinct genera, see Systematics Penguins (order Sphenisciformes, family Spheniscidae) are an order of aquatic, flightless birds living exclusively in the Southern Hemisphere. ...


Surface feeding

Many seabirds feed on the ocean's surface, as the action of marine currents often concentrates food such as krill, fish, squid or other prey items within reach of a dipped head. An ocean current is any more or less permanent or continuous, directed movement of ocean water that flows in one of the Earths oceans. ... Families Euphausiidae Euphausia Dana, 1852 Meganyctiphanes Holt and W. M. Tattersall, 1905 Nematobrachion Calman, 1905 Nematoscelis G. O. Sars, 1883 Nyctiphanes G. O. Sars, 1883 Pseudeuphausia Hansen, 1910 Stylocheiron G. O. Sars, 1883 Tessarabrachion Hansen, 1911 Thysanoessa Brandt, 1851 Thysanopoda Latreille, 1831 Bentheuphausiidae Bentheuphausia amblyops Krill are shrimp-like marine... A giant grouper at the Georgia Aquarium Fish are aquatic vertebrates that are typically cold-blooded; covered with scales, and equipped with two sets of paired fins and several unpaired fins. ... SQUIDs, or Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices, are used to measure extremely small magnetic fields; they are currently the most sensitive such devices (magnetometers) known, with noise levels as low as 3 fT·Hz−½. While a typical fridge magnet is ~0. ...

Wilson's Storm Petrels pattering on the water's surface

Surface feeding itself can be broken up into two different approaches, surface feeding while flying (for example as practiced by gadfly petrels, frigatebirds and storm-petrels), and surface feeding whilst swimming (examples of which are practiced by fulmars, gulls, many of the shearwaters and gadfly petrels). Surface feeders in flight include some of the most acrobatic of seabirds, which either snatch morsels from the water (as do frigate-birds and some terns), or "walk", pattering and hovering on the water's surface, as some of the storm-petrels do.[12] Many of these do not ever land in the water, and some, such as the frigatebirds, have difficulty getting airborne again should they do so.[13] Another seabird family that does not land while feeding is the skimmer, which has a unique fishing method: flying along the surface with the lower mandible in the water—this shuts automatically when the bill touches something in the water. The skimmer's bill reflects its unusual lifestyle, with the lower mandible uniquely being longer than the upper one. Image File history File linksMetadata Wilson's_storm_petrel. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Wilson's_storm_petrel. ... Binomial name Oceanites oceanicus Kuhl, 1820 Wilsons Petrel, painted by John James Audubon The Wilsons Storm-petrel, Oceanites oceanicus also known as Wilsons Petrel is a small seabird of the storm-petrel family Hydrobatidae. ... Flight is the mode of locomotion used by most of the world’s bird species. ... Species 32, see text. ... Species Fregata magnificens Fregata aquila Fregata andrewsi Fregata minor Fregata ariel There are five Derek Jeter in the family Fregatidae, the frigatebirds. ... Genera Subfamily Oceanitinadae Oceanites Pelagodroma Fregatta Neofregatta Subfamily Hydrobatinae Garrodia Hydrobates Oceanodroma Halocyptena The storm-petrels are seabirds in the family Hydrobatidae, part of the order Procellariiformes. ... Species (Linnaeus, 1761) (A. Smith, 1840) For the aircraft, see Fairey Fulmar The two Fulmars are closely related seabirds occupying the same niche in different oceans. ... Look up gull in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Genera Procellaria Calonectris Puffinus †See also fulmar, prion, petrel Shearwaters are medium-sized long-winged seabirds. ... Species Black Skimmer (Rhynchops niger) African Skimmer (Rhynchops flavirostris) Indian Skimmer (Rhynchops albicollis) For other uses, see Skimmer (disambiguation). ...


Surface feeders that swim often have unique bills as well, adapted for their specific prey. Prions have special bills with filters called lamellae to filter out plankton from mouthfuls of water,[14] and many albatrosses and petrels have hooked bills to snatch fast-moving prey. Gulls have more generalised bills that reflect their more opportunistic lifestyle. Species Fairy Prion, Slender-billed Prion, Fulmar Prion, Broad-billed Prion, Antarctic Prion, Salvins Prion, A prion is a petrel (genus Pachyptila) found in Antarctica and nearby islands. ... Lamellae is a term for several very different biological and material structures. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Pursuit diving

The Chinstrap Penguin is a highly streamlined pursuit diver.
The Chinstrap Penguin is a highly streamlined pursuit diver.

Pursuit diving exerts greater pressures (both evolutionary and physiological) on seabirds, but the reward is a greater area in which to feed than is available to surface feeders. Propulsion underwater can be provided by wings (as used by penguins, auks, diving petrels, and some other species of petrel) or feet (as used by cormorants, grebes, loons and several types of fish-eating ducks). Wing-propelled divers are generally faster than foot-propelled divers.[1] In both cases, the use of wings or feet for diving has limited their utility in other situations: loons and grebes walk with extreme difficulty (if at all), penguins cannot fly, and auks have sacrificed flight efficiency in favour of underwater diving. For example, the razorbill (an Atlantic auk) requires 64% more energy to fly than a petrel of equivalent size.[15] Many shearwaters are intermediate between the two, having longer wings than typical wing-propelled divers but heavier wing loadings than the other surface-feeding procellariids, leaving them capable of diving to considerable depths while still being efficient long-distance travellers. The most impressive diving exhibited by shearwaters is found in the Short-tailed Shearwater, which has been recorded diving below 70 m.[16] Some albatross species are also capable of some limited diving, with Light-mantled Sooty Albatrosses holding the record at 12 m.[17] Of all the wing-propelled pursuit divers, the most efficient in the air are the albatrosses, and it is no coincidence that they are the poorest divers. This is the dominant guild in polar and subpolar environments, as it is energetically inefficient in warmer waters. With their poor flying ability, many wing-propelled pursuit divers are more limited in their foraging range than other guilds, especially during the breeding season when hungry chicks need regular feeding. chinstrap penguin larger image on http://www. ... chinstrap penguin larger image on http://www. ... Propulsion method may refer to a number of different articles: For a list of space transport methods, see spacecraft propulsion. ... The diving petrels are seabirds in the bird order Procellariiformes. ... For other uses, see Cormorant (disambiguation). ... Genera Podiceps Tachybaptus Podilymbus Aechmophorus Poliocephalus Rollandia Grebes are members of the Podicipediformes order, a widely distributed order of freshwater diving birds, some of which visit the sea when migrating and in winter. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... // Subfamilies Dendrocygninae Oxyurinae Anatinae Merginae Duck is the common name for a number of species in the Anatidae family of birds. ... Binomial name Alca torda Linnaeus, 1758 The Razorbill, Alca torda, is a large alcid, 38-43 cm in length, with a 60-69 cm wingspan. ... The Atlantic Ocean is Earths second-largest ocean, covering approximately one_fifth of its surface. ... Genera Procellaria Calonectris Puffinus †See also fulmar, prion, petrel Shearwaters are medium-sized long-winged seabirds. ... Genera Several, List of Procellariidae. ... Binomial name Puffinus tenuirostris (Temminck, 1835) The Short-tailed Shearwater also commonly known as the muttonbird in Australia, is the most abundant seabird species in Australia and they are one of the few Australian native birds that is commercially harvested. ... Species (Hilsenberg, 1822) (Forster, 1785) The sooty albatrosses or sooties are small albatrosses from the genus Phoebetria. ... Genera Diomedea Thalassarche Phoebastria Phoebetria Albatrosses, of the biological family Diomedeidae, are large seabirds allied to the procellariids, storm-petrels and diving-petrels in the order Procellariiformes (the tubenoses). ...


Plunge diving

Gannets, boobies, tropicbirds, some terns and Brown Pelicans all engage in plunge diving, taking fast moving prey by diving into the water from flight. Plunge diving allows birds to use the energy from the momentum of the dive to combat natural buoyancy (caused by air trapped in plumage),[18] and thus uses less energy than the dedicated pursuit divers, allowing them utilise more widely distributed food resources, for example, in impoverished tropical seas. In general, this is the most specialised method of hunting employed by seabirds; other non-specialists (such as gulls and skuas) may employ it but do so with less skill and from lower heights. In Brown Pelicans the skills of plunge diving take several years to fully develop—once mature, they can dive from 20 m (70 ft) above the water's surface, shifting the body before impact to avoid injury.[19] It has been suggested that plunge divers are restricted in their hunting grounds to clear waters that afford a view of their prey from the air,[20] and while they are the dominant guild in the tropics, the link between plunge diving and water clarity is inconclusive.[21] Some plunge divers (as well as some surface feeders) are dependent on dolphins and tuna to push shoaling fish up towards the surface.[22] This does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Booby (disambiguation). ... Species 3, see text 0mgg t1z R @ll liez Tropicbirds are a group of three closely related pelagic cows of tropical oceans: The Red-Billed Tropicbird, the Red-Tailed Tropicbird, and the White-Tailed Tropicbird. ... Genera Sterna (Gelochelidon) (Hydroprogne) (Thalasseus) Chlidonias Phaetusa Anous Procelsterna Gygis Larosterna Terns are seabirds in the family Sternidae, previously considered a subfamily Sterninae of the gull family Laridae. ... Binomial name Pelecanus occidentalis Linnaeus, 1766 The Brown Pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis †) is the smallest (42-54) member of the seven species of the pelican family. ... The tropics are the geographic region of the Earth centered on the equator and limited in latitude by the two tropics: the Tropic of Cancer in the northern hemisphere and the Tropic of Capricorn in the southern hemisphere. ... Genera See article below. ... Species See text. ...


Kleptoparasitism, scavenging and predation

Some seabirds, like this South Polar Skua, will take the eggs of other birds. This skua is attempting to push an Adelie Penguin off its nest.
Some seabirds, like this South Polar Skua, will take the eggs of other birds. This skua is attempting to push an Adelie Penguin off its nest.

This catch-all category refers to other seabird strategies that involve the next trophic level up. Kleptoparasites are seabirds that make a part of their living stealing food of other seabirds. Most famously, frigatebirds and skuas engage in this behaviour, although gulls, terns and other species will steal food opportunistically.[23] The nocturnal nesting behaviour of some seabirds has been interpreted as arising due to pressure from this aerial piracy.[24] Kleptoparasitism is not thought to play a significant part of the diet of any species, and is instead a supplement to food obtained by hunting.[1] A study of Great Frigatebirds stealing from Masked Boobies estimated that the frigatebirds could at most obtain 40% of the food they needed, and on average obtained only 5%.[25] Many species of gull will feed on seabird and sea mammal carrion when the opportunity arises, as will giant petrels. Some species of albatross also engage in scavenging: an analysis of regurgitated squid beaks has shown that many of the squid eaten are too large to have been caught alive, and include mid-water species likely to be beyond the reach of albatrosses.[26] Some species will also feed on other seabirds; for example, gulls, skuas and giant petrels will often take eggs, chicks and even small seabirds from nesting colonies. [27] ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1773x1172, 358 KB) Summary A South Polar Skua tries to push an Adelie Penguin off its nest to steal its egg. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1773x1172, 358 KB) Summary A South Polar Skua tries to push an Adelie Penguin off its nest to steal its egg. ... In ecology, the trophic level (Greek trophē, food) is the position that an organism occupies in a food chain - what it eats, and what eats it. ... Kleptoparasitism (literally, parasitism by theft) is a form of feeding where one animal takes prey from another that has caught, killed, or otherwise prepared it. ... Species Fregata magnificens Fregata aquila Fregata andrewsi Fregata minor Fregata ariel There are five Derek Jeter in the family Fregatidae, the frigatebirds. ... For other uses: see Skua (disambiguation). ... A bat illustrating nocturnal features. ... Binomial name Fregata minor (Gmelin, 1789) The Great Frigatebird (Fregata minor), also known as the Iwa, is a migratory seabird in the frigatebird family. ... Binomial name Sula dactylatra (Lesson, 1831) The Masked Booby, Sula dactylatra, is a large seabird of the gannet family, Sulidae. ... An American Black Vulture feeding on squirrel carrion For other uses, see Carrion (disambiguation). ... Species (Gmelin, 1789) (Mathews, 1912) The giant petrels are two large seabirds from the genus Macronectes. ... SQUIDs, or Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices, are used to measure extremely small magnetic fields; they are currently the most sensitive such devices (magnetometers) known, with noise levels as low as 3 fT·Hz−½. While a typical fridge magnet is ~0. ...

Life history

Seabirds' life histories are dramatically different from those of land birds. In general, they are K-selected, live much longer (anywhere between twenty and sixty years), delay breeding for longer (for up to ten years), and invest more effort into fewer young.[1][28] Most species will only have one clutch a year, unless they lose the first (with a few exceptions, like the Cassin's Auklet),[29] and many species (like the tubenoses and sulids), only one egg a year.[14] K-selected species (or competitor species) is a term to describe reproductive and survival patterns in organisms. ... A clutch of blackbird (Turdus merula) eggs. ... Binomial name Ptychoramphus aleuticus (Pallas, 1811) The Cassin’s Auklet is a small, chunky seabird that ranges widely in the North Pacific. ... Families Procellariidae Diomedeidae Hydrobatidae Pelecanoididae Procellariiformes (from the Latin procella, a storm) is an order of birds formerly called Tubinares and still called tubenoses in English. ... Genera Morus Sula Papasula The bird family Sulidae comprises the gannets and boobies. ...

Northern Gannet pair "billing" during courtship; like all seabirds except the phalaropes they maintain a pair bond throughout the breeding season.
Northern Gannet pair "billing" during courtship; like all seabirds except the phalaropes they maintain a pair bond throughout the breeding season.

Care of young is protracted, extending for as long as six months, among the longest for birds. For example, once Common Guillemot chicks fledge, they remain with the male parent for several months at sea.[15] The frigatebirds have the longest period of parental care of any bird, with the chicks fledging after four to six months and with continued assistance after that for up to fourteen months.[30] Due to the extended period of care, breeding occurs every two years rather than annually for some species. This life-history strategy has probably evolved both in response to the challenges of living at sea (collecting widely scattered prey items), the frequency of breeding failures due to unfavourable marine conditions, and the relative lack of predation compared to that of land-living birds.[1] Image File history File links Morus_bassanus_billing. ... Image File history File links Morus_bassanus_billing. ... Binomial name Morus bassanus Linnaeus, 1758 Northern Gannet range The Northern Gannet (Morus bassanus, formerly Sula bassana) is a large seabird of the gannet family, Sulidae. ... Binomial name Uria aalge (Pontoppidan, 1763) The Common Guillemot, known as the Common Murre in North America, Uria aalge, is a large alcid. ... Fledge is the stage in a young birds life when the feathers and wing muscles are sufficiently developed for flight. ... Species Fregata magnificens Fregata aquila Fregata andrewsi Fregata minor Fregata ariel There are five Derek Jeter in the family Fregatidae, the frigatebirds. ...


Because of the greater investment in raising the young and because foraging for food may occur far from the nest site, in all seabird species except the phalaropes, both parents participate in caring for the young, and pairs are typically at least seasonally monogamous. Many species, such as gulls, auks and penguins, retain the same mate for several seasons, and many petrel species mate for life.[14] The albatrosses and procellariids which mate for life can take many years to form a pair bond before they breed, and the albatrosses have an elaborate breeding dance that is part of pair-bond formation.[31] Animal sexual behavior takes many different forms, even within the same species. ... The petrels are seabirds in the bird order Procellariiformes. ... Genera Several, List of Procellariidae. ...


Breeding and colonies

See also Seabird colony
Common Murres breed on densely packed colonies on offshore rocks, islands and cliffs.
Common Murres breed on densely packed colonies on offshore rocks, islands and cliffs.

Ninety-five per cent of seabirds are colonial,[1] and seabird colonies are amongst the largest bird colonies in the world, providing one of Earth's great wildlife spectacles. Colonies of over a million birds have been recorded, both in the tropics (such as Kiritimati in the Pacific) and in the polar latitudes (as in Antarctica). Seabird colonies occur exclusively for the purpose of breeding; non-breeding birds will only collect together outside the breeding season in areas where prey species are densely aggregated. A seabird colony is a site which seabirds visit to breed. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 283 KB) Common Murre Colony on the Farallon Islands. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 283 KB) Common Murre Colony on the Farallon Islands. ... Binomial name Uria aalge (Pontoppidan, 1763) The Common Guillemot, known as the Common Murre in North America, Uria aalge, is a large alcid. ... A tropic is either of two circles of latitude: Tropic of Cancer, at 23½°N Tropic of Capricorn, at 23½°S Tropic is also the name of a town in Utah, United States. ... NASA photograph of Kiritimati Island, taken from the International Space Station. ... Pacific redirects here. ...


Seabird colonies are highly variable. Individual nesting sites can be widely spaced, as in an albatross colony, or densely packed as with a murre colony. In most seabird colonies, several different species will nest on the same colony, often exhibiting some niche separation. Seabirds can nest in trees (if any are available), on the ground (with or without nests), on cliffs, in burrows under the ground and in rocky crevices. Competition can be strong both within species and between species, with aggressive species such as Sooty Terns pushing less dominant species out of the most desirable nesting spaces.[32] The tropical Bonin Petrel nests during the winter to avoid competition with the more aggressive Wedge-tailed Shearwater. When the seasons overlap, the Wedge-tailed Shearwaters will kill young Bonin Petrels in order to use their burrows.[33] Genera Alle Uria Alca Pinguinus Cepphus Brachyramphus Synthliboramphus Ptychoramphus Cyclorrhynchus Aethia Cerorhinca Fratercula Auks are birds of the family Alcidae in the order Charadriiformes. ... Two lichenes species on a rock, in two different ecological niches In ecology, a niche is a term describing the relational position of a species or population in an ecosystem. ... The coniferous Coast Redwood, the tallest tree species on earth. ... A basket style nest A nest is place of refuge built to hold an animals eggs and/or provide a place to raise their offspring. ... The Trango Towers in Pakistan have the highest cliffs in the world In geography, a cliff is a significant vertical, or near vertical, rock exposure. ... There is a suggestion that the words Bunny and Burrow have a common origin and meaning, French in origin appearing in Britain afetr the Norman conquest. ... Binomial name Sterna fuscata Linnaeus, 1766 The Sooty Tern, Sterna fuscata, is a seabird of the tern family Sternidae. ... Binomial name Pterodroma hypoleuca (Salvin, 1888) The Bonin Petrel, Pterodroma hypoleuca, is a seabird in the family Procellariidae. ... Binomial name Puffinus pacificus (Gmelin, 1789) The Wedge-tailed Shearwater (Puffinus pacificus) is a medium-large shearwater in the seabird family Procellariidae. ...


Many seabirds show remarkable site fidelity, returning to the same burrow, nest or site for many years, and they will defend that site from rivals with great vigour.[1] This increases breeding success, provides a place for returning mates to reunite, and reduces the costs of prospecting for a new site.[34] Young adults breeding for the first time usually return to their natal colony, and often nest close to where they hatched. This tendency, known as philopatry, is so strong that a study of Laysan Albatrosses found that the average distance between hatching site and the site where a bird established its own territory was 22 m;[35] another study, this time on Cory's Shearwaters nesting near Corsica, found that of nine out of 61 male chicks that returned to breed at their natal colony bred in the burrow they were raised in, and two actually bred with their own mother.[36] For the financial services company, see Fidelity Investments. ... In animal behaviour philopatry is the tendency of a migrating animal to return to a specific location in order to breed or feed. ... Binomial name Phoebastria immutabilis (Rothschild, 1893) The Laysan Albatross, Phoebastria immutabilis, is a large seabird that ranges across the North Pacific. ... Binomial name Calonectris diomedea (Scopoli, 1769) The Corys Shearwater (Calonectris diomedea) is a large shearwater in the seabird family Procellariidae. ... (Territorial collectivity flag) (Territorial collectivity logo) Location Administration Capital Ajaccio President of the Executive Council Ange Santini (UMP) (since 2004) Departments Corse-du-Sud Haute-Corse Arrondissements 5 Cantons 52 Communes 360 Statistics Land area1 8,680 km² Population (Ranked 25th)  - January 1, 2006 est. ...


Colonies are usually situated on islands, cliffs or headlands which land mammals have difficulty accessing.[37] This is thought to provide protection to seabirds, which are often very clumsy on land. Coloniality often arises in types of bird which do not defend feeding territories (such as swifts, which have a very variable prey source); this may be a reason why it arises more frequently in seabirds.[1] There are other possible advantages: colonies may act as information centres, where seabirds returning to the sea to forage can find out where prey is by studying returning individuals of the same species. There are disadvantages to colonial life, particularly the spread of disease. Colonies also attract the attention of predators, principally other birds, and many species attend their colonies nocturnally to avoid predation.[38] I smoke weed im growing a blue penis dude#REDIRECT penises are cool ... Genera Many; see text. ... A disease or medical condition is an abnormality of the body or mind that causes discomfort, dysfunction, distress, or death to the person afflicted or those in contact with the person. ... A hawk consuming its prey, a small rodent. ... A bat illustrating nocturnal features. ...


Migration

Arctic Terns breed in the arctic and subarctic and winter in Antarctica.
Arctic Terns breed in the arctic and subarctic and winter in Antarctica.

Like many birds, seabirds often migrate after the breeding season. Of these, the trip taken by the Arctic Tern is the farthest of any bird, crossing the equator in order to spend the Austral summer in Antarctica. Other species also undertake trans-equatorial trips, both from the north to the south, and from south to north. The population of Elegant Terns, which nest off Baja California, splits after the breeding season with some birds travelling north to the Central Coast of California and some travelling as far south as Peru and Chile to feed in the Humboldt Current.[39] The Sooty Shearwater undertakes an annual migration cycle that rivals that of the Arctic Tern; birds that nest in New Zealand and Chile and spend the northern summer feeding in the North Pacific off Japan, Alaska and California, an annual round trip of 40,000 miles (64,000 km).[40] Arctic Tern at nest on the Farne Islands, Northumberland. ... Arctic Tern at nest on the Farne Islands, Northumberland. ... Flock of Barnacle Geese during autumn migration Many species of birds undertake seasonal journeys of various lengths, a phenomenon known as Bird migration. ... Reproduction is the creation of one thing as a copy of, product of, or replacement for a similar thing, e. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... World map showing the equator in red The Equator is an imaginary circle drawn around a planet (or other astronomical object) at a distance halfway between the poles. ... Binomial name Sterna elegans Gambel, 1849 The Elegant Tern (Sterna elegans or sometimes Thalasseus elegans) is a seabird of the tern family Sternidae. ... Baja California (literally lower California in Spanish) is the northernmost state of Mexico. ... The Central Coast is an area of California, United States, extending from Santa Cruz in the north to Santa Barbara in the south, but centering primarily on Monterey and San Luis Obispo counties. ... ... Binomial name Puffinus griseus Gmelin, 1789 The Sooty Shearwater (Puffinus griseus) is a medium-large shearwater in the seabird family Procellariidae. ... Official language(s) English Capital Juneau Largest city Anchorage Area  Ranked 1st  - Total 663,267 sq mi (1,717,855 km²)  - Width 808 miles (1,300 km)  - Length 1,479 miles (2,380 km)  - % water 13. ...


Other species also migrate shorter distances away from the breeding sites, their distribution at sea determined by the availability of food. If oceanic conditions are unsuitable, seabirds will emigrate to more productive areas, sometimes permanently if the bird is young.[41] After fledging, juvenile birds often disperse further than adults, and to different areas, so are commonly sighted far from a species' normal range. Some species, such as the auks, do not have a concerted migration effort, but drift southwards as the winter approaches.[15] Other species, such as some of the storm-petrels, diving petrels and cormorants, never disperse at all, staying near their breeding colonies year round. Genera Subfamily Oceanitinadae Oceanites Pelagodroma Fregatta Neofregatta Subfamily Hydrobatinae Garrodia Hydrobates Oceanodroma Halocyptena The storm-petrels are seabirds in the family Hydrobatidae, part of the order Procellariiformes. ... The diving petrels are seabirds in the bird order Procellariiformes. ... For other uses, see Cormorant (disambiguation). ...


Away from the sea

Whilst the definition of seabirds suggests that the birds in question spend their lives on the ocean, many seabird families have many species that spend some or even most of their lives inland away from the sea. Most strikingly, many species breed many tens, hundreds or even thousands of miles inland. Some of these species still return to the ocean to feed; for example, the Snow Petrel, the nests of which have been found 300 miles inland on the Antarctic mainland, are unlikely to find anything to eat around their breeding sites.[42] The Marbled Murrelet nests inland in old growth forest, seeking huge conifers with large branches to nest on.[43] Other species, such as the California Gull, nest and feed inland on lakes, and then move to the coasts in the winter.[44] Some cormorant, pelican, gull and tern species have individuals that never visit the sea at all, spending their lives on lakes, rivers, swamps and, in the case of some of the gulls, cities and agricultural land. In these cases it is thought that these terrestrial or freshwater birds evolved from marine ancestors.[7] Some seabirds, principally those that nest in tundra-like skuas and phalaropes, will migrate over land as well. Binomial name Pagodroma nivea (G. Forster, 1777) The Snow Petrel (Pagodroma nivea) is a small, pure white fulmarine petrel with black underdown, coal-black eyes, small black bill and bluish gray feet. ... Binomial name Brachyramphus marmoratus (Gmelin, 1789) The Marbled Murrelet, Brachyramphus marmoratus is a small seabird from the North Pacific. ... It has been suggested that Ancient woodland be merged into this article or section. ... Orders & Families Cordaitales † Pinales   Pinaceae - Pine family   Araucariaceae - Araucaria family   Podocarpaceae - Yellow-wood family   Sciadopityaceae - Umbrella-pine family   Cupressaceae - Cypress family   Cephalotaxaceae - Plum-yew family   Taxaceae - Yew family Vojnovskyales † Voltziales † The conifers, division Pinophyta, are one of 13 or 14 division level taxa within the Kingdom Plantae. ... Binomial name Larus californicus (Lawrence, 1854) Subspecies Lawrence, 1854 Great Basin California Gull Jehl, 1987 Great Plains Galifornia Gull The California Gull, Larus californicus, is a medium-sized gull, smaller than the Herring Gull but larger than the Ring-billed Gull. ... A man-made lake in Keukenhof, Netherlands A lake is a body of water or other liquid of considerable size surrounded by land. ... For other uses, see Cormorant (disambiguation). ... Species Pelecanus occidentalis Pelecanus thagus Pelecanus erythrorhynchos Pelecanus onocrotalus Pelecanus crispus Pelecanus rufescens Pelecanus philippensis Pelecanus conspicillatus A pelican is any of several very large water birds with a distinctive pouch under the beak belonging to the bird family Pelecanidae. ... Look up gull in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Genera Sterna (Gelochelidon) (Hydroprogne) (Thalasseus) Chlidonias Phaetusa Anous Procelsterna Gygis Larosterna Terns are seabirds in the family Sternidae, previously considered a subfamily Sterninae of the gull family Laridae. ... A freshwater swamp This article is about the wetland type (a landform). ... In physical geography, tundra is an area where the tree growth is hindered by low temperatures and short growing seasons. ...


The more marine species, such as petrels, auks, and gannets, are more restricted in their habits, but are occasionally seen inland as vagrants. This most commonly happens to young inexperienced birds, but can happen in great numbers to exhausted adults after large storms, an event known as a wreck,[45] where they provide prized sightings for birders. The petrels are seabirds in the bird order Procellariiformes. ... Genera Alle Uria Alca Pinguinus Cepphus Brachyramphus Synthliboramphus Ptychoramphus Cyclorrhynchus Aethia Cerorhinca Fratercula This article is about a family of birds. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... A shelf cloud associated with a heavy or severe thunderstorm over Enschede, Netherlands A storm is any disturbed state of a planets atmosphere, especially affecting its surface, and strongly implying severe weather. ... Birdwatching or birding is the observation and study of birds. ...


Relationship with humans

Seabirds and fisheries

Seabirds have had a long association with both fisheries and sailors, and both have drawn benefits and disadvantages from the relationship. A lobster boat unloading its catch in Ilfracombe harbour, North Devon, England. ... This article is about naval crewpeople; for other meanings, see sailor (disambiguation). ...


Fishermen have traditionally used seabirds as indicators of both fish shoals,[22] underwater banks that might indicate fish stocks, and of potential landfall. In fact, the known association of seabirds with land was instrumental in allowing the Polynesians to locate tiny landmasses in the Pacific.[1] Seabirds have provided food for fishermen away from home, as well as bait. Famously, tethered cormorants have been used to catch fish directly. Indirectly, fisheries have also benefited from guano from colonies of seabirds acting as fertilizer for the surrounding seas. Look up Shoal in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A bank is a comparatively shallow area or an underwater hill on the continental shelf. ... Carving from the ridgepole of a Māori house, ca 1840 Polynesia (from Greek: πολύς many, νῆσος island) is a large grouping of over 1,000 islands scattered over the central and southern Pacific Ocean. ... For other uses, see Cormorant (disambiguation). ... The Chincha guano islands in Peru. ... spreading manure, an organic fertilizer Fertilizers (British English fertilisers) are compounds given to plants to promote growth; they are usually applied either via the soil, for uptake by plant roots, or by foliar feeding, for uptake through leaves. ...


Negative effects on fisheries are mostly restricted to raiding by birds on aquaculture,[46] although long-lining fisheries also have to deal with bait stealing. There have been claims of prey depletion by seabirds of fishery stocks, and while there is some evidence of this, the effects of seabirds are considered smaller than that of marine mammals and predatory fish (like tuna).[1] Workers harvest catfish from the Delta Pride Catfish farms in Mississippi Aquaculture is the cultivation of the natural produce of water (such as fish or shellfish, algae and other aquatic organisms). ... Long-line fishing is a commercial fishing technique that uses hundreds or even thousands of baited hooks hanging from a single line. ... Bait is any substance used to attract prey, e. ... A Humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae), a member of Order Cetacea A Leopard seal (Hydrurga leptonyx), a member of infrafamily Pinnipedia A West Indian Manatee (Trichechus manatus), a member of Order Sirenia A marine mammal is a mammal that is primarily ocean-dwelling or depends on the ocean for its food. ... Species See text. ...

Seabirds (mostly Northern Fulmars) flocking at a long-lining vessel
Seabirds (mostly Northern Fulmars) flocking at a long-lining vessel

Some seabird species have benefited from fisheries, particularly from discarded fish and offal. These discards compose 30% of the food of seabirds in the North Sea, for example, and compose up to 70% of the total food of some seabird populations.[47] This can have other impacts; for example, the spread of the Northern Fulmar through the British Isles is attributed in part to the availability of discards.[48] Discards generally benefit surface feeders, such as gannets and petrels, to the detriment of pursuit divers like penguins. Image File history File links Please see the file description page for further information. ... Image File history File links Please see the file description page for further information. ... Scrapple sandwich at the Delaware state fair Offal is the entrails and internal organs of a butchered animal. ... The North Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, located between the coasts of Norway and Denmark in the east, the coast of the British Isles in the west, and the German, Dutch, Belgian and French coasts in the south. ... Species Fulmar (Linnaeus, 1761) Southern Fulmar (Smith,A, 1840) The two Fulmars are closely related seabirds occupying the same niche in different oceans. ... Location of the British Isles The British Isles is a group of islands off the northwest coast of continental Europe consisting of Great Britain, Ireland, and a number of smaller surrounding islands and islets. ...


Fisheries also have negative effects on seabirds, and these effects, particularly on the long-lived and slow-breeding albatrosses, are a source of increasing concern to conservationists. The bycatch of seabirds entangled in nets or hooked on fishing lines has had a big impact on seabird numbers; for example, an estimated 100,000 albatrosses are hooked and drown each year on tuna lines set out by long-line fisheries.[49][50] Overall, many hundreds of thousands of birds are trapped and killed each year, a source of concern for some of the rarest species (for example, only 1,000 Short-tailed Albatrosses are known to still exist). Seabirds are also thought to suffer when overfishing occurs. Binomial name Phoebastria albatrus Pallas, 1769 The Short-tailed Albatross or Stellers Albatross (Phoebastria albatrus) is a large rare seabird from the North Pacific. ...


Exploitation

The hunting of seabirds and the collecting of seabird eggs have contributed to the declines of many species, and the extinction of several, including the Great Auk and the Spectacled Cormorant. Seabirds have been hunted for food by coastal peoples throughout history—one of the earliest instances known is in southern Chile, where archaeological excavations in middens has shown hunting of albatrosses, cormorants and shearwaters from 5000 BP.[51] This pressure has led to some species becoming extinct in many places; in particular, at least 20 species of an original 29 no longer breed on Easter Island. In the 19th century, the hunting of seabirds for fat deposits and feathers for the millinery trade reached industrial levels. Muttonbirding (harvesting shearwater chicks) developed as important industries in both New Zealand and Tasmania, and the name of one species, the Providence Petrel, is derived from its seemingly miraculous arrival on Norfolk Island where it provided a windfall for starving European settlers.[52] In the Falkland Islands, hundreds of thousands of penguins were harvested for their oil each year. Seabird eggs have also long been an important source of food for sailors undertaking long sea voyages, as well as being taken when settlements grow in areas near a colony. Eggers from San Francisco took almost half a million eggs a year from the Farallon Islands in the mid-19th century, a period in the islands' history from which the seabird species are still recovering.[53] Hunter and Huntress redirect here. ... In most birds and reptiles, an egg (Latin ovum) is the zygote, resulting from fertilization of the ovum. ... In biology and ecology, extinction is the ceasing of existence of a species or group of species. ... Binomial name Pinguinus impennis (Linnaeus, 1758) The Great Auk (Pinguinus impennis) is an extinct bird. ... Binomial name Phalacrocorax perspicillatus Pallas, 1811 The Spectacled Cormorant (Phalacrocorax perspicillatus) is an extinct marine bird of the cormorant family of seabirds that inhabited a few islands at the western end of the Aleutian Islands. ... Archaeology or sometimes in American English archeology (from the Greek words αρχαίος = ancient and λόγος = word/speech) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains, including architecture, artefacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. ... motto: ( Rapa Nui ) Also called Te Pito O Te Henua (Ombligo del mundo) (Navel of the world) Discovered by Europeans April 5, 1722 by Jakob Roggeveen Capital Hanga Roa Area  - City Proper  163,6 km² Population  - City (2005)  - Density (city proper) 3. ... Fats consist of a wide group of compounds that are generally soluble in organic solvents and largely insoluble in water. ... Millinery is womens hats and other articles sold by a milliner, or the profession or business of designing, making, or selling hats for women. ... Muttonbird may refer to the following: Sooty shearwater, a seabird. ... Binomial name Pterodroma solandri (Gould, 1844) The Providence Petrel (Pterodroma solandri) is a species that burrows in one location; isolated Lord Howe Island, some 800km from the Australian mainland in the Tasman Sea. ... Nickname: The City by the Bay; Fog City Location of the City and County of San Francisco, California Coordinates: Country United States of America State California City-County San Francisco Mayor Gavin Newsom Area    - City 122 km²  (47 sq mi)  - Land 121. ... County outline map of California, showing position of the Farallon Islands The Farallon Islands are a group of islands and rocks found in the Gulf of the Farallones, off the coast of mainland San Francisco, California. ...


Both hunting and egging continue today, although not at the levels that occurred in the past, and generally in a more controlled manner. For example, the Māori of Stewart Island/Rakiura continue to harvest the chicks of the Sooty Shearwater as they have done for centuries, using traditional methods (called kaitiakitanga) to manage the harvest, but now work with the University of Otago in studying the populations. In Greenland, however, uncontrolled hunting is pushing many species into steep decline.[54] Languages Māori, English Religions Māori religion, Christianity Related ethnic groups other Polynesian peoples, Austronesian peoples The word Māori refers to the indigenous people of New Zealand and their language. ... A Rakiura beach Stewart Island/Rakiura is the third largest island of New Zealand. ... Binomial name Puffinus griseus Gmelin, 1789 The Sooty Shearwater (Puffinus griseus) is a medium-large shearwater in the seabird family Procellariidae. ... Kaitiaki is a New Zealand term used for the Māori concept of guardianship, for the sky, the sea, and the land. ... The University of Otago in Dunedin is New Zealands oldest university with over 20,000 students enrolled during 2006. ...


Other threats

Other human factors have led to declines and even extinctions in seabird populations, colonies and species. Of these, perhaps the most serious are introduced species. Seabirds, breeding predominantly on small isolated islands, have lost many predator defence behaviours.[37] Feral cats are capable of taking seabirds as large as albatrosses, and many introduced rodents, such as the Pacific Rat, can take eggs hidden in burrows. Introduced goats, cattle, rabbits and other herbivores can lead to problems, particularly when species need vegetation to protect or shade their young.[55] Disturbance of breeding colonies by humans is often a problem as well—visitors, even well-meaning tourists, can flush brooding adults off a colony leaving chicks and eggs vulnerable to predators. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into invasive species. ... Rescued feral kittens Most feral kittens have little chance of surving more than a few months and are vulnerable to starvation, predators, disease and even flea-induced anemia. ... Binomial name Rattus exulans (Peale, 1848) The Polynesian Rat or Pacific Rat (Rattus exulans), known to the Maori as Kiore, is the third most widespread species of rat in the world behind the Brown Rat and Black Rat. ... Species See Species and subspecies The goat is a mammal in the genus Capra, which consists of nine species: the Ibex, the West Caucasian Tur, the East Caucasian Tur, the Markhor, and the Wild Goat. ... Binomial name Bos taurus Linnaeus, 1758 Cattle (often called cows in vernacular and contemporary usage, or kye as the Scots plural of cou) are domesticated ungulates, a member of the subfamily Bovinae of the family Bovidae. ... Genera Pentalagus Bunolagus Nesolagus Romerolagus Brachylagus Sylvilagus Oryctolagus Poelagus Rabbits are small mammals in the family Leporidae of the order Lagomorpha, found in many parts of the world. ... A deer and two fawns feeding on some foliage A herbivore is often defined as any organism that eats only plants[1]. By that definition, many fungi, some bacteria, many animals, about 1% of flowering plants and some protists can be considered herbivores. ... Tourists at Oahu island, Hawaii Tourism is the act of travel for predominantly recreational or leisure purposes, and also refers to the provision of services in support of this act. ...

This Crested Auklet was oiled in Alaska during the M/V Selendang Ayu spill of 2004.
This Crested Auklet was oiled in Alaska during the M/V Selendang Ayu spill of 2004.

The build-up of toxins and pollutants in seabirds is also a concern. Seabirds, being apex predators, suffered from the ravages of DDT until it was banned; among other effects, DDT was implicated in embryo development problems and the skewed sex ratio of Western Gulls in southern California.[56] Oil spills are also a threat to seabird species, as both a toxin and because the feathers of the birds become saturated by the oil, causing them to lose their waterproofing.[57] Oil pollution threatens species with restricted ranges or already depressed populations. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (960x720, 211 KB) Oiled Crested Auklet from Alaska. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (960x720, 211 KB) Oiled Crested Auklet from Alaska. ... The venom of the black widow spider is a potent latrotoxin. ... Pollution is the release of environmental contaminants. ... DDT was the first modern pesticide and is arguably the best known organic pesticide. ... Binomial name Larus occidentalis (Audubon, 1839) The Western Gull, Larus occidentalis, is a large white-headed gull that lives on the western coast of North America. ... Volunteers cleaning up the aftermath of the Prestige oil spill An oil spill(also called a oil slick) is the unintentional release of oil (generally, petroleum) into the natural environment as a result of human activity. ...


Conservation

The threats faced by seabirds have not gone unnoticed by scientists or the conservation movement. As early as 1903, U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt was convinced of the need to declare Pelican Island in Florida a National Wildlife Refuge to protect the bird colonies (including the nesting Brown Pelicans),[58] and in 1909 he protected the Farallon Islands. Today many important seabird colonies are given some measure of protection, from Heron Island in Australia to Triangle Island in British Columbia. The conservation movement is a political and social movement that seeks to protect natural resources including plant and animal species as well as their habitat for the future. ... Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. ... Pelican Island National Wildlife Refuge is a United States National Wildlife Refuge located near Vero Beach, Florida. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... National Wildlife Refuge is a designation for certain protected areas of the United States managed by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service. ... Binomial name Pelecanus occidentalis Linnaeus, 1766 The Brown Pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis †) is the smallest (42-54) member of the seven species of the pelican family. ... County outline map of California, showing position of the Farallon Islands The Farallon Islands are a group of islands and rocks found in the Gulf of the Farallones, off the coast of mainland San Francisco, California. ... Heron Island plus fringing reef, with Wistari Reef in the foreground, as seen from a helicopter View of Heron Island from helicopter Heron Island is a coral cay in the Great Barrier Reef. ... Motto: Splendor Sine Occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Official languages English de facto (none stated in law) Flower Pacific dogwood Tree Western Redcedar Bird Stellers Jay Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Lieutenant-Governor Iona Campagnolo Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Parliamentary representation  - House seats  - Senate seats 36 6 Area...


Island restoration techniques, pioneered by New Zealand, enable the removal of exotic invaders from increasingly large islands. Feral cats have been removed from Ascension Island, Arctic Foxes from many islands in the Aleutian Islands,[59] and rats from Campbell Island. The removal of these introduced species has led to increases in numbers of species under pressure and even the return of extirpated ones. After the removal of cats from Ascension Island, seabirds began to nest there again for the first time in over a hundred years.[60] Island restoration is the application of the principles of ecological restoration to islands and island groups. ... Anthem: God Save the Queen Capital Georgetown Largest city Georgetown English Government Dependency of St. ... Binomial name Alopex lagopus (Linnaeus, 1758) The Arctic fox (Alopex lagopus), also known as the polar fox, is a small fox native to cold Arctic regions of the Northern Hemisphere. ... Looking down the Aleutians from an airplane. ... Campbell Island is a remote, sub-antarctic island of New Zealand and the main island of the Campbell Island group. ...


Seabird mortality caused by long-line fisheries can be massively reduced by techniques such as setting long-line bait at night, dying the bait blue, setting the bait underwater, increasing the amount of weight on lines and by using bird scarers,[61] and their deployment is increasingly required by many national fishing fleets. The international ban on the use of drift nets has also helped reduce the mortality of seabirds and other marine wildlife. Drift nets are nets used in oceans. ...


One of the Millennium Projects in the UK was the Scottish Seabird Centre, near the important bird sanctuaries on Bass Rock, Fidra and the surrounding islands. The area is home to huge colonies of gannets, puffins, skuas and other seabirds. The centre allows visitors to watch live video from the islands as well as learn about the threats the birds face and how we can protect them, and has helped to significantly raise the profile of seabird conservation in the UK. Seabird tourism can provide income for costal communities as well as raise the profile of seabird conservation. For example, the Northern Royal Albatross colony at Taiaroa Head in New Zealand attracts 40,000 visitors a year.[14] The Scottish Seabird Centre is a popular visitor attraction in North Berwick, East Lothian, Scotland. ... Bass Rock from North Berwick. ... Fidra Fidra is an uninhabited island in the Firth of Forth, off eastern Scotland. ... Species Fratercula arctica Fratercula corniculata Fratercula cirrhata For prehistoric species, see article text. ... Binomial name Diomedea sanfordi Murphy, 1917 Synonyms Diomedea epomophora sanfordi The Northern Royal Albatross (Diomedea sanfordi) is a large seabird from the albatross family. ... Taiaroa Head is a headland at the end of Otago Harbour in New Zealand, overlooking the mouth of the Otago Harbour. ...


The plight of albatross and large seabirds, as well as other marine creatures, being taken as bycatch by long-line fisheries, has been addressed by a large number of non-governmental organizations (including BirdLife International and the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds). This led to the Agreement on the Conservation of Albatrosses and Petrels, a legally binding treaty designed to protect these threatened species, which has been ratified by eight countries as of 2006 (namely Australia, Ecuador, France, New Zealand, Peru, South Africa, Spain, and the United Kingdom).[62] The term non-governmental organization (NGO) is used in a variety of ways all over the world and, depending on the context in which it is used, can refer to many different types of organizations. ... BirdLife International is the international conservation organization working to protect the world’s birds and their habitats. ... The Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB) is Europes largest wildlife conservation charity. ... The Agreement on the Conservation of Albatrosses and Petrels is a legally binding international treaty signed in 2001. ...


Role in culture

A relief depicting a mother pelican bleeding to feed her chicks
A relief depicting a mother pelican bleeding to feed her chicks

Many seabirds are little studied and poorly known, due to living far out to sea and breeding in isolated colonies. Some seabirds have made the break into popular consciousness, most particularly, the albatrosses and gulls. The albatrosses have been described as "the most legendary of birds",[63] and have a variety of myths and legends associated with them, and today it is widely considered unlucky to harm them, although the notion that sailors believed that is a myth[64] which derives from Samuel Taylor Coleridge's famous poem, "The Rime of the Ancient Mariner", in which a sailor is punished for harming an albatross by wearing the dead bird around his neck. Sailors did, however, consider it unlucky to touch a storm-petrel, especially one that has landed on the ship.[63] A relief depicting a pelican in her piety, Cimetière Notre-Dame-des-Neiges, Montreal. ... A relief depicting a pelican in her piety, Cimetière Notre-Dame-des-Neiges, Montreal. ... // For the Derek Sherinian album, see Mythology (Derek Sherinian album). ... A legend (Latin, legenda, things to be read) is a narrative of human actions that are perceived both by teller and listeners to take place within human history and to possess certain qualities that give the tale verisimilitude. ... A four leaf clover is often considered to bestow good luck This article is about fortune. ... An urban legend is a kind of modern folklore consisting of stories often thought to be factual by those circulating them. ... Samuel Taylor Coleridge (October 21, 1772 – July 25, 1834) (pronounced ) was an English poet, critic, and philosopher who was, along with his friend William Wordsworth, one of the founders of the Romantic Movement in England and one of the Lake Poets. ... Poetry (ancient Greek: poieo = create) is an art form in which human language is used for its aesthetic qualities in addition to, or instead of, its notional and semantic content. ... One of a set of engraved metal plate illustrations by Gustave Doré. The Rime of the Ancient Mariner is a poem written by the English poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge in 1797-1799 and published in the first edition of Lyrical Ballads (1797). ... Genera Subfamily Oceanitinadae Oceanites Pelagodroma Fregatta Neofregatta Subfamily Hydrobatinae Garrodia Hydrobates Oceanodroma Halocyptena The storm-petrels are seabirds in the family Hydrobatidae, part of the order Procellariiformes. ...


Gulls are one of the most commonly seen seabirds, given their use of human-made habitats (such as cities and dumps) and their often fearless nature. They therefore also have made it into the popular consciousness, if only as the "flying rats" berated in Finding Nemo. They have been used metaphorically, as in Jonathan Livingston Seagull by Richard Bach, or to denote a closeness to the sea, such as their use in the The Lord of the Rings – both in the insignia of Gondor and therefore Númenor (used in the design of the films), and to call Legolas to (and across) the sea. Other species have also made an impact; pelicans have long been associated with mercy and altruism because of an early Western Christian myth that they split open their breast to feed their starving chicks.[19] Habitat (from the Latin for it inhabits) is the place where a particular species lives and grows. ... A landfill compaction vehicle in operation A landfill, also known as a dump (US) or a tip (UK), is a site for the disposal of waste materials by burial and is the oldest form of waste treatment. ... Finding Nemo is an Academy Award-winning computer-animated film produced by Pixar Animation Studios and released to theaters by Walt Disney Pictures and Buena Vista Distribution. ... Look up metaphor in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... An illustration for the main theme of Jonathan Livingston Seagull. ... Richard David Bach (b. ... This article is about the novel by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Númenor is a fictional location from J. R. R. Tolkiens universe of Middle-earth and is intended to be his version of Atlantis. ... Legolas is an important character in J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium, featured in The Lord of the Rings. ... Species Pelecanus occidentalis Pelecanus thagus Pelecanus erythrorhynchos Pelecanus onocrotalus Pelecanus crispus Pelecanus rufescens Pelecanus philippensis Pelecanus conspicillatus A pelican is any of several very large water birds with a distinctive pouch under the beak belonging to the bird family Pelecanidae. ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ...


Seabird families

The following are the groups of birds normally classed as seabirds.


Sphenisciformes (Antarctic and southern waters; 16 species)

Procellariiformes (Tubenoses: pan-oceanic and pelagic; 93 species) Modern Genera Aptenodytes Eudyptes Eudyptula Megadyptes Pygoscelis Spheniscus For extinct genera, see Systematics Penguins (order Sphenisciformes, family Spheniscidae) are an order of aquatic, flightless birds living exclusively in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Families Procellariidae Diomedeidae Hydrobatidae Pelecanoididae Procellariiformes (from the Latin procella, a storm) is an order of birds formerly called Tubinares and still called tubenoses in English. ...

Pelecaniformes (Worldwide; 57 species) Genera Diomedea Thalassarche Phoebastria Phoebetria Albatrosses, of the biological family Diomedeidae, are large seabirds allied to the procellariids, storm-petrels and diving-petrels in the order Procellariiformes (the tubenoses). ... Species (Linnaeus, 1761) (A. Smith, 1840) For the aircraft, see Fairey Fulmar The two Fulmars are closely related seabirds occupying the same niche in different oceans. ... Species Fairy Prion, Slender-billed Prion, Fulmar Prion, Broad-billed Prion, Antarctic Prion, Salvins Prion, A prion is a petrel (genus Pachyptila) found in Antarctica and nearby islands. ... Genera Procellaria Calonectris Puffinus †See also fulmar, prion, petrel Shearwaters are medium-sized long-winged seabirds. ... Species 32, see text. ... The petrels are seabirds in the bird order Procellariiformes. ... The diving petrels are seabirds in the bird order Procellariiformes. ... Genera Subfamily Oceanitinadae Oceanites Pelagodroma Fregatta Neofregatta Subfamily Hydrobatinae Garrodia Hydrobates Oceanodroma Halocyptena The storm-petrels are seabirds in the family Hydrobatidae, part of the order Procellariiformes. ... Families Pelecanidae Sulidae Phalacrocoracidae Fregatidae Anhingidae Phaethontidae The Pelecaniformes are an order of medium-sized and large waterbirds found worldwide. ...

Charadriiformes (Worldwide; 305 species, but only the families listed are classed as seabirds.) Species Pelecanus occidentalis Pelecanus thagus Pelecanus erythrorhynchos Pelecanus onocrotalus Pelecanus crispus Pelecanus rufescens Pelecanus philippensis Pelecanus conspicillatus A pelican is any of several very large water birds with a distinctive pouch under the beak belonging to the bird family Pelecanidae. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Booby (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cormorant (disambiguation). ... Species Fregata magnificens Fregata aquila Fregata andrewsi Fregata minor Fregata ariel There are five Derek Jeter in the family Fregatidae, the frigatebirds. ... Species 3, see text 0mgg t1z R @ll liez Tropicbirds are a group of three closely related pelagic cows of tropical oceans: The Red-Billed Tropicbird, the Red-Tailed Tropicbird, and the White-Tailed Tropicbird. ... Families Thinocoridae Pedionomidae Scolopacidae Rostratulidae Jacanidae Chionididae Burhinidae Haematopodidae Recurvirostridae Ibidorhynchidae Charadriidae Pluvianellidae Dromadidae Glareolidae Stercorariidae Rhynchopidae Laridae Sternidae Alcidae Charadriiformes is a diverse order of small to medium-large birds. ...

For an alternative taxonomy of these groups, see also Sibley-Ahlquist taxonomy. For other uses: see Skua (disambiguation). ... Look up gull in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Genera Sterna (Gelochelidon) (Hydroprogne) (Thalasseus) Chlidonias Phaetusa Anous Procelsterna Gygis Larosterna Terns are seabirds in the family Sternidae, previously considered a subfamily Sterninae of the gull family Laridae. ... Species Black Skimmer (Rhynchops niger) African Skimmer (Rhynchops flavirostris) Indian Skimmer (Rhynchops albicollis) For other uses, see Skimmer (disambiguation). ... Genera Alle Uria Alca Pinguinus Cepphus Brachyramphus Synthliboramphus Ptychoramphus Cyclorrhynchus Aethia Cerorhinca Fratercula This article is about a family of birds. ... The Sibley-Ahlquist taxonomy is a radical bird taxonomy based on DNA-DNA hybridization studies conducted in the late 1970s and throughout the 1980s. ...


See also list of birds. This page lists living orders and families of birds, class Aves (for extinct birds, please see Extinct birds and Prehistoric birds). ...


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  59. ^ Williams, J.C., Byrd G.V.& Konyukhov, N.B. (2003) Whiskered Auklets Aethia pygmaea, foxes, humans and how to right a wrong. 'Marine Ornithology 31: 175-180 [16]
  60. ^ BirdLife International (2005) Stamps celebrate seabird return. Retrived August 12 2006
  61. ^ Food and Agriculture Organisation (1999) "The incidental catch of seabirds by longline fisheries: worldwide review and technical guidelines for mitigation. FAO Fisheries Circular No.937. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome. [17]
  62. ^ Australian Antarctic Division Agreement on the Conservation of Albatrosses and Petrels Site Retrieved September 2 2006
  63. ^ a b Carboneras, C. (1992) "Family Diomedeidae (Albatrosses)" in Handbook of Birds of the World Vol 1. Barcelona:Lynx Edicions, ISBN 84-87334-10-5
  64. ^ Cocker, M., & Mabey, R., (2005) Birds Britannica London:Chatto & Windus, ISBN 0-7011-6907-9

A light-year, symbol ly, is the distance light travels in one year: exactly 9. ... Multiwavelength X-ray image of the remnant of Keplers Supernova, SN 1604. ... Science is the journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). ... March 17 is the 76th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (77th in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

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Monterey Pelagic Seabird Cruises (382 words)
Monterey Seabirds features year-round pelagic trips enabling you to experience the seabirds of the Monterey Bay in their respective seasons.
This year we're offering a free seabirding trip for every three seabirding trips you take.
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Seabirds are birds that spend much of their lives, outside the breeding season at least, at sea.
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