FACTOID # 30: If Alaska were its own country, it would be the 26th largest in total area, slightly larger than Iran.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Sea water

Sea water is water from a sea or ocean. On average, sea water in the world's oceans has a salinity of ~3.5%. This means that for every 1 litre (1000 mL) of sea water there are 35 grams of salts (mostly, but not entirely, sodium chloride) dissolved in it. This can be expressed as 0.6M NaCl or 0.6 mol·L-1 (if the salinity were due entirely to NaCl, which it is not). Water (from the Old English waeter; c. ... Sunset at sea Look up Sea in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Look up maritime in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... [[Image:http://www. ... Salinity is the saltiness or dissolved salt content of a body of water. ... Sodium chloride, also known as common salt, table salt, or halite, is a chemical compound with the formula NaCl. ... Molar solution is used when referring to the molarity of a solution, which expresses its concentration. ... Sodium chloride, also known as common salt, table salt, or halite, is a chemical compound with formula NaCl. ... The mole and its simple conversions into different units of measurements. ... The liter (spelled liter in American English and litre in Commonwealth English) is a unit of volume. ... Sodium chloride, also known as common salt, table salt, or halite, is a chemical compound with formula NaCl. ...


Although a vast majority of sea water is found in oceans with salinity around the 3.5 %, sea water is not uniformly saline throughout the world. The planet's freshest (least saline) sea water are in the eastern parts of Gulf of Finland and in the northern end of Gulf of Bothnia, both part of the Baltic Sea. The most saline open sea is the Red Sea, where high temperatures and confined circulation result in high rates of surface evaporation and there is little fresh inflow from rivers. The salinity in isolated seas and salt-water lakes (for example, the Dead Sea) can be considerably greater. The Baltic Sea The Gulf of Finland is an arm of the Baltic Sea that extends between Finland (to the north) and Estonia (to the south) all the way to the city of Saint Petersburg in Russia, where the river Neva drains into it. ... The Baltic Sea The Gulf of Bothnia (Fin. ... The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. ... Location of the Red Sea Image:Red Seaimage. ... Evaporation is one of the two forms of vaporization. ... Dead Sea at Sunset (from Suwayma, Jordan) The Dead Sea (Hebrew ים המלח) , (Arabic البحر الميت) is the lowest exposed point on the Earths surface. ...


The density of sea water is between 1020 and 1030 kg·m-3. Seawater pH is limited to the range 7.5 to 8.4. Density (symbol: ρ - Greek: rho) is a measure of mass per unit of volume. ... The correct title of this article is pH. The initial letter is capitalized due to technical restrictions. ...

Contents


Geochemical explanations

Elemental composition of Earth's ocean water (by mass)
Element Percent Element Percent
Oxygen 85.7 Sulfur 0.0885
Hydrogen 10.8 Calcium 0.04
Chlorine 1.9 Potassium 0.0380
Sodium 1.05 Bromine 0.0065
Magnesium 0.1350 Carbon 0.0026

Scientific theories behind the origins of sea salt started with Sir Edmond Halley in 1715, who proposed that salt and other minerals were carried into the sea by rivers, having been leached out of the ground by rainfall runoff. Upon reaching the ocean, these salts would be retained and concentrated as the process of evaporation (see Hydrologic cycle) removed the water. Halley noted that of the small number of lakes in the world without ocean outlets (such as the Dead Sea and the Caspian Sea, see endorheic basin), most have high salt content. Halley termed this process "continental weathering". General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series Nonmetals, chalcogens Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless Atomic mass 15. ... General Name, Symbol, Number sulfur, S, 16 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 16, 3, p Appearance lemon yellow Atomic mass 32. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... General Name, Symbol, Number Calcium, Ca, 20 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 4, s Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 40. ... Chlorine is the current Good Article Collaboration of the week! Please help to improve this article to the highest of standards. ... General Name, Symbol, Number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 39. ... General Name, Symbol, Number sodium, Na, 11 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 3, s Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 22. ... General Name, Symbol, Number bromine, Br, 35 Chemical series halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 4, p Appearance gas/liquid: red-brown solid: metallic luster Atomic mass 79. ... General Name, Symbol, Number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 24. ... General Name, Symbol, Number carbon, C, 6 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 14, 2, p Appearance black (graphite) colorless (diamond) Atomic mass 12. ... Edmond Halley. ... The water cycle—technically known as the hydrologic cycle—is the circulation of water within the earths hydrosphere, involving changes in the physical state of water between liquid, solid, and gas phases. ... Dead Sea at Sunset (from Suwayma, Jordan) The Dead Sea (Hebrew ים המלח) , (Arabic البحر الميت) is the lowest exposed point on the Earths surface. ... Caspian Sea viewed from orbit The Caspian Sea is a landlocked endorheic sea of Eurasia between Asia and Europe. ... The shores of Lake Hart, an endorheic desert lake in South Australia In geography, an endorheic basin is a watershed from which there is no outflow of water (either on the surface as rivers, or underground by flow or diffusion through rock or permeable material). ...


Halley's theory is partly correct. In addition, sodium was leached out of the ocean floor when the oceans first formed. The presence of the other dominant element of salt, chloride, results from "outgassing" of chloride (as hydrochloric acid) with other gases from Earth's interior via volcanos and hydrothermal vents. The sodium and chloride subsequently became the most abundant constituents of sea salt. General Name, Symbol, Number sodium, Na, 11 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 3, s Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 22. ... The chemical substance hydrochloric acid is the aqueous (water-based) solution of hydrogen chloride (HCl) gas. ... A volcano is a geological landform usually generated by the eruption through a planets surface of magma, molten rock welling up from the planets interior. ... A hydrothermal vent A hydrothermal vent is a fissure in a planets surface from which geothermally heated water issues. ... Sea salt harvest in Ile de Ré, France. ...


Ocean salinity has been stable for millions of years, most likely as a consequence of a chemical/tectonic system which recycles the salt. Since the ocean's creation, sodium is no longer leached out of the ocean floor, but instead is captured in sedimentary layers covering the bed of the ocean. One theory is that plate tectonics result in salt being forced under the continental land masses, where it is again slowly leached to the surface.


Potability

Total Molal Composition of Seawater (Salinity = 35)[1]
Component Concentration (moles/kgsoln)
H2O 53.6
Na+ 0.546
Cl- 0.469
Mg2+ 0.0528
SO42- 0.0283
Ca2+ 0.0103
K+ 0.0102
CT 0.00206
Br- 0.000844
BT 0.000416
Sr2+ 0.000091
F- 0.000068

Even on a ship or island in the middle of the ocean, there can be a "shortage of water" meaning, of course, a shortage of fresh water. This is described most famously by a line from Samuel Taylor Coleridge's The Rime of the Ancient Mariner: Water has the chemical formula H2O, meaning that one molecule of water is composed of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom. ... General Name, Symbol, Number sodium, Na, 11 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 3, s Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 22. ... The chloride ion is formed when the element chlorine picks up one electron to form an anion (negatively-charged ion) Cl−. The salts of hydrochloric acid HCl contain chloride ions and are also called chlorides. ... General Name, Symbol, Number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 24. ... In inorganic chemistry, a sulfate (IUPAC-recommended spelling; also sulphate in British English) is a salt of sulfuric acid. ... General Name, Symbol, Number Calcium, Ca, 20 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 4, s Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 40. ... General Name, Symbol, Number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 39. ... The total inorganic carbon (CT, or TIC)is the sum of inorganic carbon species in a solution. ... A bromide is a phrase, or person who uses phrases, which have been used and repeated so many times as to become either insincere in their meaning, or seem like an attempt at trying to explain the obvious. ... The total boron (BT) is the sum of boron species in a solution. ... General Name, Symbol, Number strontium, Sr, 38 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 5, s Appearance silvery white metallic Atomic mass 87. ... A fluoride ion is the ionic form of fluorine. ... Italian ship-rigged vessel Amerigo Vespucci in New York Harbor, 1976 A ship is a large, sea-going watercraft, usually with multiple decks. ... For the village on the Isle of Wight, see Freshwater, Isle of Wight. ... Samuel Taylor Coleridge, English poet, 1795 Samuel Taylor Coleridge (October 21, 1772 – July 25, 1834) was an English poet, critic, and philosopher who was, along with his friend William Wordsworth, one of the founders of the Romantic Movement in England and one of the Lake Poets. ... One of a set of engraved metal plate illustrations by Gustave Doré. The Rime of the Ancient Mariner is a poem written by the English poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge in 1797-1799 and published in the first edition of Lyrical Ballads (1797). ...

"Water, water, every where
Nor any drop to drink."

Seawater can be turned into drinkable (potable) water by one of a number of desalination processes. Otherwise, it should not be drunk because of its high dissolved mineral content. In the long run, more water must be expended to eliminate these minerals (through excretion in urine) than is gained from drinking the seawater itself. Drinking water This article focuses on water as we experience it every day. ... Desalination or desalinization refers to any of several processes that remove the excess salt and other minerals from water in order to obtain fresh water suitable for animal consumption or irrigation, and if almost all of the salt is removed, for human consumption, sometimes producing table salt as a by... Excretion is the biological process by which an organism chemically separates waste products from its body. ... Urine is liquid waste excreted by the kidneys and is produced by the process of filtration. ...


Sea water for flushing toilet

Hong Kong has an extensive use of sea water for flushing toilets citywide. More than 90% of its toilets are flushed by sea water as a means of conserving fresh water resources. The development of this approach was started in the 1960s and 1970s when water shortages became a severe problem as the population of the (then) British colony grew. This is unusual because saline water cannot be treated (in a waste water treatment plant) by the usual methods. Sewage (or domestic wastewater) treatment incorporates physical, chemical and biological processes which treat and remove physical, chemical and biological contaminants from water following human use. ...


See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Waves power sea water desalination plant :: Water (534 words)
But it may not be a case of 'water, water everywhere and not a drop to drink' if technology being trialled off the New South Wales coast is adopted.
Fifty per cent of the cost of a litre of water is energy.
That is close to the price of the cheapest water in Sydney, which Mr Engelsman puts at 47 cents per cubic metre.
Search Results for "sea-water" (189 words)
...Salt that is produced by the evaporation of sea water and that contains sodium chloride and trace elements such as sulfur, magnesium, zinc, potassium, calcium, and...
...manganese, magnesium, iron, and silicon and is resistant to corrosion by acids and sea water.
...Italian marinare, to marinate, from Latin (aqua) marna, sea(water), brine, pickle, feminine of marnus, of the sea.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m