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Encyclopedia > Sea otter
Sea Otter
A sea otter wraps itself in kelp in Morro Bay, California.
A sea otter wraps itself in kelp in Morro Bay, California.
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Carnivora
Family: Mustelidae
Subfamily: Lutrinae
Genus: Enhydra
Fleming, 1828
Species: E. lutris
Binomial name
Enhydra lutris
(Linnaeus, 1758)
Modern and historical range
Modern and historical range

The sea otter (Enhydra lutris) is a marine mammal native to the coasts of the northern and eastern North Pacific Ocean. Adult sea otters typically weigh between 14 and 45 kg (30 to 100 lb), making them the heaviest members of the weasel family, but among the smallest marine mammals. Unlike most marine mammals, the sea otter's primary form of insulation is an exceptionally thick coat of fur, the densest in the animal kingdom. Although it can walk on land, the sea otter is capable of living exclusively in the ocean. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Families Alariaceae Chordaceae Laminariaceae Lessoniaceae Phyllariaceae Pseudochordaceae Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Morro Bay is a waterfront city in San Luis Obispo County, California, United States. ... The conservation status of a species is an indicator of the likelihood of that species continuing to survive either in the present day or the future. ... Image File history File links Status_iucn2. ... The Siberian Tiger is a subspecies of tiger that are critically endangered. ... The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List and Red Data List), created in 1963, is the worlds most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of plant and animal species and can be found here. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Typical Classes Subphylum Urochordata - Tunicates Ascidiacea Thaliacea Larvacea Subphylum Cephalochordata - Lancelets Subphylum Myxini - Hagfishes Subphylum Vertebrata - Vertebrates Petromyzontida - Lampreys Placodermi (extinct) Chondrichthyes - Cartilaginous fishes Acanthodii (extinct) Actinopterygii - Ray-finned fishes Actinistia - Coelacanths Dipnoi - Lungfishes Amphibia - Amphibians Reptilia - Reptiles Aves - Birds Mammalia - Mammals Chordates (phylum Chordata) include the vertebrates, together with... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the presence of sweat glands, including milk producing sweat glands, and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex... Families 17, See classification The diverse order Carnivora (IPA: or ; from Latin carō (stem carn-) flesh, + vorāre to devour) includes over 260 species of placental mammals. ... Subfamilies Lutrinae Melinae Mellivorinae Taxidiinae Mustelinae Mustelidae is a family of carnivorous mammals. ... Genera Amblonyx Aonyx Enhydra Lontra Lutra Lutrogale Pteronura Otters are aquatic or marine carnivorous mammals, members of the large and diverse family Mustelidae, which also includes weasels, polecats, badgers and others. ... John Fleming (January 10, 1785 - November 18, 1857) was a Scottish zoologist and geologist. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A painting of Carolus Linnaeus Carl Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as Carl von Linné, and who wrote under the Latinized name Carolus Linnaeus (May 23, 1707 – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish scientist who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of taxonomy. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1000x666, 80 KB) geography of sea otter sub-species author : Christophe cagé 18:47, 9 July 2006 (UTC) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Sea otter Metadata... A Humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae), a member of Order Cetacea A Leopard seal (Hydrurga leptonyx), a member of infrafamily Pinnipedia A West Indian Manatee (Trichechus manatus), a member of Order Sirenia A pair of Sea Otters (Enhydra lutris), a member of family Mustelidae A Polar bear (Ursus maritimus), a member... Pacific redirects here. ... Kg redirects here. ... Look up pound in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Subfamilies Lutrinae Melinae Mellivorinae Taxidiinae Mustelinae Mustelidae is a family of carnivorous mammals. ... For other uses, see Fur (disambiguation). ...


The sea otter inhabits nearshore environments where it can quickly dive to the sea floor to forage. It preys mostly upon marine invertebrates such as sea urchins, various mollusks and crustaceans, and some species of fish. Its foraging and eating habits are noteworthy in several respects: its use of rocks to dislodge prey and to open shells makes it one of the few mammal species to use tools. In most of its range, it is a keystone species, controlling sea urchin populations which would otherwise inflict extensive damage to kelp forest ecosystems. Finally, its diet includes prey species that are also valued by humans as food, leading to conflicts between sea otters and fisheries. Subclasses Subclass Perischoechinoidea Order Cidaroida (pencil urchins) Subclass Euechinoidea Superorder Atelostomata Order Cassiduloida Order Spatangoida (heart urchins) Superorder Diadematacea Order Diadematoida Order Echinothurioida Order Pedinoida Superorder Echinacea Order Arbacioida Order Echinoida Order Phymosomatoida Order Salenioida Order Temnopleuroida Superorder Gnathostomata Order Clypeasteroida (sand dollars) Order Holectypoida Wikispecies has information related to... Classes Caudofoveata Aplacophora Polyplacophora Monoplacophora Bivalvia Scaphopoda Gastropoda Cephalopoda † Rostroconchia The mollusks or molluscs are the large and diverse phylum Mollusca, which includes a variety of familiar creatures well-known for their decorative shells or as seafood. ... For the Dutch band, see Crustacean (band). ... For other uses, see Fish (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Kelp Forest Kelp forests are a type of marine ecosystem established around colonies of kelp; they contain rich biodiversity. ...


Sea otters, whose numbers were once estimated at 150,000–300,000, were hunted extensively for their fur between 1741 and 1911, and the world population fell to 1,000–2,000 individuals in a fraction of their historic range. A subsequent international ban on hunting, conservation efforts, and reintroduction programs into previously populated areas have contributed to numbers rebounding, and the species now occupies about two-thirds of its former range. The recovery of the sea otter is considered an important success in marine conservation, although populations in the Aleutian Islands and California have recently declined or have plateaued at depressed levels. For these reasons (as well as its particular vulnerability to oil spills) the sea otter remains classified as an endangered species.[1] Marine conservation, also known as marine resources conservation, is the protection and preservation of ecosystems in oceans and seas. ... Aleutians seen from space The Aleutian Islands (possibly from Chukchi aliat, island) are a chain of more than 300 small volcanic islands forming an island arc in the Northern Pacific Ocean, occupying an area of 6,821 sq mi (17,666 km²) and extending about 1,200 mi (1,900... This article is about the U.S. state. ... A beach after an oil spill An oil spill is the release of a liquid petroleum hydrocarbon into the environment due to human activity, and is a form of pollution. ... The Siberian Tiger is a subspecies of tiger that are critically endangered. ...

Contents

Taxonomy

The first scientific description of the sea otter is contained in the field notes of Georg Steller from 1751, and the species was described by Linnaeus in his Systema Naturae of 1758.[2] Originally named Lutra marina, it underwent numerous name changes before being accepted as Enhydra lutris in 1922.[3] The generic name Enhydra, derives from the Ancient Greek en/εν "in" and hydra/ύδρα "water",[4] meaning "in the water", and the Latin word lutris, meaning "otter".[5] It was formerly sometimes referred to as the "sea beaver",[6] although it is only distantly related to beavers. It is not to be confused with the marine otter, a rare otter species native to the west coast of South America. A number of other otter species, while predominantly living in fresh water, are commonly found in marine coastal habitats as well. Georg Wilhelm Steller (March 10, 1709 - November 14, 1746) was a Russian botanist, zoologist, physician and explorer of German origin. ... A painting of Carolus Linnaeus Carl Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as Carl von Linné, and who wrote under the Latinized name Carolus Linnaeus (May 23, 1707 – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish scientist who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of taxonomy. ... Cover of the tenth edition of Linnaeuss Systema Naturae (1758). ... Beginning of Homers Odyssey The Ancient Greek language is the historical stage of the Greek language[1] as it existed during the Archaic (9th–6th centuries BC) and Classical (5th–4th centuries BC) periods in Ancient Greece. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Beaver (disambiguation). ... Binomial name (Molina, 1782) Marine Otters (Lontra felina) are rare and poorly-understood marine mammals of the weasel family (Family Mustelidae). ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ...


Evolution

Although it is a relatively new marine mammal lineage, the sea otter can live in the ocean at all stages of life.
Although it is a relatively new marine mammal lineage, the sea otter can live in the ocean at all stages of life.

The sea otter is the heaviest member of the family Mustelidae,[7][8] a diverse group that includes the thirteen otter species and terrestrial animals such as weasels, badgers, and minks. It is unique among the mustelids in not making dens or burrows, in having no functional anal scent glands,[9] and in being able to live its entire life without leaving the water.[10] The only member of the genus Enhydra, the sea otter is so different from other mustelid species that as recently as 1982, some scientists believed it was more closely related to the earless seals.[11] Genetic analysis indicates that the sea otter and its closest extant relative, the African speckle-throated otter, shared an ancestor approximately 5 million years ago (mya).[12] Its next-closest relatives include the Eurasian otter, African clawless otter and small-clawed otter.[12] Subfamilies Lutrinae Melinae Mellivorinae Taxidiinae Mustelinae Mustelidae is a family of carnivorous mammals. ... This article is about the carnivorous mammals. ... For other uses, see Weasel (disambiguation). ... Genera  Arctonyx  Melogale  Meles  Mellivora  Taxidea For other uses, see Badger (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Mink (disambiguation). ... Look up lair in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A burrow is a hole or tunnel dug into the ground by an animal to create a space suitable for habitation, temporary refuge, or as a byproduct of locomotion. ... Genera Monachus (Monk Seals) Mirounga (Elephant Seal) Lobodon (Crabeater Seals) Leptonychotes Hydrurga (Leopard Seals) Ommatophoca Erignathus (Bearded Seals) Phoca Halichoerus (Grey Seals) Cystophora (Hooded Seals) The true seals or earless seals are one of the three main groups of mammals within the seal suborder, Pinnipedia. ... Molecular phylogeny is the use of the structure of molecules to gain information on an organisms evolutionary relationships. ... In biology, extant taxon is commonly used in discussions of living and fossil species. ... Speckle-throated otter (hydrictis maculicollis) otherwise known as the spot-necked otter hunts in rivers and lakes and has to have clear water for visual purposes. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Range map (note: range also includes British Isles) The Eurasian otter, Lutra lutra, also known as the Eurasian river otter, common otter, Old World otter and European otter, is a European and Asian member of the Lutrinae or otter subfamily, and is typical of freshwater otters. ... Binomial name Aonyx capensis (Schinz, 1821) The African Clawless Otter, Aonyx capensis, also known as the Cape Clawless Otter or Groot otter, is the second largest freshwater species of otter. ...


Fossil evidence indicates that the Enhydra lineage became isolated in the North Pacific approximately 2 mya, giving rise to the now-extinct Enhydra macrodonta and the modern sea otter, Enhydra lutris.[3] The sea otter evolved initially in northern Hokkaidō and Russia, then spread east to the Aleutian Islands, mainland Alaska, and down the North American coast.[13] In comparison to cetaceans, sirenians, and pinnipeds, which entered the water approximately 50 mya, 40 mya, and 20 mya, respectively, the sea otter is a relative newcomer to a marine existence.[14] In some respects, however, the sea otter is more fully aquatically adapted than pinnipeds, which must haul out on land or ice to give birth.[15]   literally North Sea Circuit, Ainu: Mosir), formerly known as Ezo, Yezo, Yeso, or Yesso, is Japans second largest island and the largest of its 47 prefectural-level subdivisions. ... Aleutians seen from space The Aleutian Islands (possibly from Chukchi aliat, island) are a chain of more than 300 small volcanic islands forming an island arc in the Northern Pacific Ocean, occupying an area of 6,821 sq mi (17,666 km²) and extending about 1,200 mi (1,900... For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ... Suborders Mysticeti Odontoceti Archaeoceti (extinct) (see text for families) The order Cetacea (IPA: , L. cetus, whale) includes whales, dolphins and porpoises. ... Families Dugongidae Trichechidae For information about the Gothic Metal band, see Sirenia (band) Sirenia are herbivorous mammals of coastal waters. ... Families Odobenidae Otariidae Phocidae Pinnipeds (fin-feet, lit. ...


Subspecies

There are three recognized subspecies, which vary in body size and in some skull and dental characteristics:[7][16]

  • The common sea otter, E. l. lutris (Linnaeus, 1758), ranges from the Kuril Islands to the Commander Islands in the western Pacific Ocean.[7] Also known as the Asian sea otter, it is the largest subspecies with a wide skull and short nasal bones.[17]
  • The southern sea otter, E. l. nereis (Merriam, 1904), is found off the coast of central California.[7] Also known as the Californian sea otter, it has a narrower skull with a long rostrum and small teeth.[17]
  • The northern sea otter, E. l. kenyoni[18] (Wilson, 1991), also known as the Alaskan sea otter, is native to the Aleutian Islands and mainland Alaska,[17] but has since been re-introduced to various locations from Alaska to Oregon.[7] While intermediate between the other subspecies in most characteristics, it has longer mandible bones.

For the political history of the sovereignty conflict, see Kuril Islands dispute. ... The Komandorski Islands or Commander Islands, (in Russian, Komandorskiye Ostrova) are a group of treeless islands east of the Kamchatka Peninsula in the Russian Far East, in the Bering Sea. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... A rostrum (Latin for beak) is an anatomical structure resembling a birds beak, such as the snout of a crocodile or dolphin or the foremost extension of a crustaceans carapace. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... The mandible (from Latin mandibÅ­la, jawbone) or inferior maxillary bone is, together with the maxilla, the largest and strongest bone of the face. ...

Physical characteristics

A sea otter's thick fur makes its body appear much plumper on land than in the water.
A sea otter's thick fur makes its body appear much plumper on land than in the water.

The sea otter is one of the smallest marine mammal species.[10] Male sea otters weigh 22 to 45 kg (49 to 99 lb) and are 1.2 to 1.5 m (4 to 5 ft) in length. Females are smaller, weighing 14 to 33 kg (30 to 73 lb) and measuring 1.0 to 1.4 m (3 ft 3 in to 4 ft 7 in) in length.[19] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 567 pixelsFull resolution (2571 × 1823 pixel, file size: 1,016 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Title: Sea Otter Alternative Title: (none) Creator: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Source: AK/RO/00175 Publisher: (none) Contributor: ASSISTANT REGIONAL DIRECTOR-EXTERNAL... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 567 pixelsFull resolution (2571 × 1823 pixel, file size: 1,016 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Title: Sea Otter Alternative Title: (none) Creator: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Source: AK/RO/00175 Publisher: (none) Contributor: ASSISTANT REGIONAL DIRECTOR-EXTERNAL... A Humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae), a member of Order Cetacea A Leopard seal (Hydrurga leptonyx), a member of infrafamily Pinnipedia A West Indian Manatee (Trichechus manatus), a member of Order Sirenia A pair of Sea Otters (Enhydra lutris), a member of family Mustelidae A Polar bear (Ursus maritimus), a member... For other uses of M, see M (disambiguation). ... This article is about a foot as a unit of length. ... An inch (plural: inches; symbol or abbreviation: in or, sometimes, ″ - a double prime) is the name of a unit of length in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ...


Unlike other marine mammals, the sea otter has no blubber and relies on its exceptionally thick fur to keep warm.[20] With up to 150 thousand strands of hair per square centimeter (nearly one million per sq in), its fur is the most dense of any animal.[21] The fur consists of long waterproof guard hairs and short underfur; the guard hairs keep the dense underfur layer dry. Cold water is thus kept completely away from the skin and heat loss is limited.[19] The fur is thick year-round, as it is shed and replaced gradually rather than in a distinct molting season.[22] As the ability of the guard hairs to repel water depends on utmost cleanliness, the sea otter has the ability to reach and groom the fur on any part of its body, taking advantage of its loose skin and an unusually supple skeleton.[23] The coloration of the pelage is usually deep brown with sliver-gray speckles, however it can range from yellowish or grayish brown to almost black.[24] In adults, the head, throat, and chest are lighter in color than the rest of the body.[24] Remains of seventeenth century blubber cauldrons at the abandoned Dutch settlement of Smeerenburg in Svalbard, Norway This article is about the body tissue. ... For other uses, see Fur (disambiguation). ... In birds, moulting or molting is the routine shedding of old feathers. ... For other uses, see Skeleton (disambiguation). ... In mammals, pelage is the hair, fur, or wool that covers the animal. ...


The sea otter displays numerous adaptations to its marine environment. The nostrils and small ears can close.[25] The hind feet, which provide most of its propulsion in swimming, are long, broadly flattened, and fully webbed.[26] The fifth digit on each hind foot is longest, facilitating swimming while on its back, but making walking difficult.[27] The tail is fairly short, thick, slightly flattened, and muscular. The front paws are short with retractable claws, with tough pads on the palms that enable gripping slippery prey.[28]

Skeleton of a sea otter. The hind flippers are larger than the mitten-like front paws.
Skeleton of a sea otter. The hind flippers are larger than the mitten-like front paws.

The sea otter propels itself underwater by moving the rear end of its body, including its tail and hind feet, up and down,[26] and is capable of speeds of up to 9 km/h (5.6 mph).[7] When underwater, its body is long and streamlined, with the short forelimbs pressed closely against the chest.[29] When at the surface, it usually floats on its back and moves by sculling its feet and tail from side to side.[30] At rest, all four limbs can be folded onto the torso to conserve heat, whereas on particularly hot days the hind feet may be held underwater for cooling.[31] The sea otter's body is highly buoyant because of its large lung capacity – about 2.5 times greater than that of similarly-sized land mammals[32] – and the air trapped in its fur. The sea otter walks with a clumsy rolling gait on land, and can run in a bounding motion.[27] KM, Km, or km may stand for: Khmer language (ISO 639 alpha-2, km) Kilometre Kinemantra Meditation Knowledge management KM programming language KM Culture, Korean Movie Maker. ... Miles per hour is a unit of speed, expressing the number of international miles covered per hour. ... In physics, buoyancy is an upward force on an object immersed in a fluid (i. ... The average pair of human lungs can hold about 5 litres of air, but only a small amount is used during normal breathing. ...


Long, highly sensitive whiskers and front paws help the sea otter find prey by touch when waters are dark or murky.[10] Researchers have noted that when they approach in plain view, sea otters react more rapidly when the wind is blowing towards the animals, indicating that the sense of smell is more important than sight as a warning sense.[33] Other observations indicate that the sea otter's sense of sight is useful above and below the water, although not as good as that of seals.[34] Its hearing is neither particularly acute nor poor.[35] This article is about vibrissae, often called whiskers. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Olfaction (also known as olfactics) refers to the sense of smell. ... In psychology, visual perception is the ability to interpret visible light information reaching the eyes which is then made available for planning and action. ... Hearing (or audition) is one of the traditional five senses, and refers to the ability to detect sound. ...


An adult's 32 teeth, particularly the molars, are flattened and rounded, designed to crush rather than cut food.[36] Seals and sea otters are the only carnivores with two pairs of lower incisor teeth rather than three;[37] the adult dental formula is:[38] Types of teeth Molars are used for grinding up foods Carnassials are used for slicing food. ... Molars are the rearmost and most complicated kind of tooth in most mammals. ... Families Odobenidae Otariidae Phocidae Pinnipeds (fin-feet, lit. ... Carnivorism redirects here. ... Incisors (from Latin incidere, to cut) are the first kind of tooth in heterodont mammals. ... Dentition is the development of teeth and their arrangement in the mouth. ...

3.1.3.1
2.1.3.2

The sea otter has a metabolic rate two or three times that of comparatively sized terrestrial mammals. It must eat an estimated 25 to 38% of its own body weight in food each day in order to burn the calories necessary to counteract the loss of heat due to the cold water environment.[39][40] Its digestive efficiency is estimated at 80 to 85%,[41] and food is digested and passed in as little as three hours.[20] Most of its need for water is met through food, although, in contrast to most other marine mammals, it also drinks seawater. Its relatively large kidneys enable it to derive fresh water from sea water and excrete concentrated urine.[42] Santorio Santorio (1561-1636) in his steelyard balance, from Ars de statica medecina, first published 1614 Metabolism (from μεταβολισμος(metavallo), the Greek word for change), in the most general sense, is the ingestion and breakdown of complex compounds, coupled with the liberation of energy, and the consequent generation of waste... Terrestrial animals are animals that live predominantly or entirely on land, as compared with aquatic animals, which live predominantly or entirely in the water (e. ... The kidneys are the organs that filter wastes (such as urea) from the blood and excrete them, along with water, as urine. ...


Behavior

Sensitive whiskers and forepaws enable sea otters to find prey using their sense of touch.
Sensitive whiskers and forepaws enable sea otters to find prey using their sense of touch.

The sea otter is diurnal. It has a period of foraging and eating in the morning, starting about an hour before sunrise, then rests or sleeps in mid-day.[43] Foraging resumes for a few hours in the afternoon and subsides before sunset, and there may be a third foraging period around midnight.[43] Females with pups appear to be more inclined to feed at night.[43] Observations of the amount of time a sea otter must spend each day foraging range from 24 to 60%, apparently depending on the availability of food in the area.[44] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 600 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,650 × 1,650 pixels, file size: 2 MB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 600 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,650 × 1,650 pixels, file size: 2 MB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... This article is about vibrissae, often called whiskers. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... In animal behavior, diurnality indicates an animal that is active during the daytime and rests during the night. ...


The sea otter spends much of its time grooming, which consists of cleaning the fur, untangling knots, removing loose fur, rubbing the fur to squeeze out water and introduce air, and blowing air into the fur. To an observer it appears as if the animal is scratching, however sea otters are not known to have lice or other parasites in the fur.[45] When eating, the sea otter rolls in the water frequently, apparently to wash food scraps from its fur.[46] Suborders Anoplura (sucking lice) Rhyncophthirina Ischnocera (avian lice) Amblycera (chewing lice) Lice (singular: louse) (order Phthiraptera) are an order of over 3000 species of wingless parasitic insects. ...


Foraging

The sea otter hunts in short dives, often to the sea floor. Although it can hold its breath for up to five minutes,[25] dives typically last about one minute and no more than four.[19] It is the only marine animal capable of lifting and turning over boulders, which it often does with its front paws when searching for prey.[46] The sea otter may also pluck snails and other organisms from kelp and dig deep into underwater mud for clams.[46] It is the only marine mammal that catches fish with its forepaws rather than with its teeth.[20] The seabed (also sea floor, seafloor, or ocean floor) is the bottom of the ocean. ... For other uses, see Snail (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Clam (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fish (disambiguation). ...


Under each foreleg, the sea otter has a loose pouch of skin that extends across the chest. In this pouch (preferentially the left one), the animal stores collected food to bring to the surface.[47] There, the sea otter eats while floating on its back, using its forepaws to tear food apart and bring it to its mouth. It can chew and swallow small mussels with their shells, whereas large mussel shells may be twisted apart.[48] It uses its lower incisor teeth to access the meat in shellfish.[49] To eat large sea urchins, which are mostly covered with spines, the sea otter bites through the underside where the spines are shortest, and licks the soft contents out of the urchin's shell.[48] Subclasses Pteriomorpha (marine mussels) Palaeoheterodonta (freshwater mussels) Heterodonta (zebra mussels) The term mussel is used for several families of bivalve molluscs inhabiting lakes, rivers, and creeks, as well as intertidal areas along coastlines worldwide. ... Incisors (from Latin incidere, to cut) are the first kind of tooth in heterodont mammals. ...

To keep from drifting apart, sea otters may sleep holding paws. Note the high buoyancy of the animals' bodies.
To keep from drifting apart, sea otters may sleep holding paws.[50] Note the high buoyancy of the animals' bodies.

The sea otter's use of rocks when hunting and feeding makes it one of the few mammal species to use tools.[51] To open hard shells, it may pound its prey with both paws against a rock on its chest. To pry an abalone off its rock, it hammers the abalone shell using a large stone, with observed rates of 45 blows in 15 seconds.[19] Releasing an abalone, which can cling to rock with a force equal to 4,000 times its own body weight, requires multiple dives.[19] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,024 × 768 pixels, file size: 222 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,024 × 768 pixels, file size: 222 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the presence of sweat glands, including milk producing sweat glands, and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex... Species Many, see species section. ...


Social structure

Although each adult and independent juvenile forages alone, sea otters tend to rest together in single-sex groups called rafts. A raft typically contains 10 to 100 animals, with male rafts being larger than female ones.[52] The largest raft ever seen contained over 2000 sea otters. To keep from drifting out to sea when resting and eating, sea otters may wrap themselves in kelp.[53] Families Alariaceae Chordaceae Laminariaceae Lessoniaceae Phyllariaceae Pseudochordaceae Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ...


A male sea otter is most likely to mate if he maintains a breeding territory in an area that is also favored by females.[54] As autumn is the peak breeding season in most areas, males typically defend their territory only from spring to autumn.[54] During this time, males patrol the boundaries of their territories to exclude other males,[54] although actual fighting is rare.[52] Adult females move freely between male territories, where they outnumber adult males by an average of five to one.[54] Males who do not have territories tend to congregate in large male-only groups,[54] and swim through female areas when searching for a mate.[55]


The species exhibits a variety of vocal behaviors. The cry of a pup is often compared to that of a seagull.[56] Females coo when they are apparently content; males may grunt instead.[57] Distressed or frightened adults may whistle, hiss, or in extreme circumstances, scream.[56] Seagull or Seagulls may refer to: Gull, a family of seabird, members of which are often called seagulls. ...


Although sea otters can be playful and sociable, they are not considered to be truly social animals.[58] They spend much time alone, and each adult can meet its own needs in terms of hunting, grooming, and defense.[58] A social animal is a loosely defined term for an organism that is highly interactive with other members of its species to the point of having a recognizable and distinct society. ...


Reproduction and lifecycle

During mating, the male bites the nose of the female, often bloodying and scarring it.
During mating, the male bites the nose of the female, often bloodying and scarring it.

Sea otters are polygynous: males have multiple female partners. However, temporary pair-bonding occurs for a few days between a female in estrus and her mate.[46] Mating takes place in the water and can be rough, the male biting the female on the muzzle – which often leaves scars on the nose – and sometimes holding her head under water.[7][59] The term polygyny (Greek: poly many, gynaika woman) is used in related ways in social anthropology and sociobiology. ... Estrus (also spelled œstrus) or heat in female mammals is the period of greatest female sexual responsiveness usually coinciding with ovulation. ...


Births occur year-round, with peaks between May and June in northern populations and between January and March in southern populations.[60] Gestation appears to vary from four to twelve months, as the species is capable of delayed implantation followed by four months of pregnancy.[60] In California, sea otters usually breed every year, about twice as often as sea otters in Alaska.[61] Gestation is the carrying of an embryo or fetus inside a female viviparous animal. ... Embryonic diapause is a reproductive strategy used by close to 100 different mammals in seven different orders. ...


Birth usually takes place in the water and typically produces a single pup weighing 1.4 to 2.3 kg (3 to 5 lb).[62] Twins occur in 2% of births; however, usually only one pup survives.[7] At birth, the eyes are open, ten teeth are visible, and the pup has a thick coat of baby fur.[63] Mothers have been observed to lick and fluff a newborn for hours; after grooming, the pup's fur retains so much air that the pup floats like a cork and cannot dive.[64] The fluffy baby fur is replaced by adult fur after about thirteen weeks.[2]

A mother floats with her pup on her chest. Georg Steller wrote, "They embrace their young with an affection that is scarcely credible."
A mother floats with her pup on her chest. Georg Steller wrote, "They embrace their young with an affection that is scarcely credible."[65]

Nursing lasts six to eight months in California populations and four to twelve months in Alaska, with the mother beginning to offer bits of prey at one to two months.[66] The milk from a sea otter's two abdominal nipples is rich in fat and more similar to the milk of other marine mammals than to that of other mustelids.[67] A pup, with guidance from its mother, practices swimming and diving for several weeks before it is able to reach the sea floor. Initially the objects it retrieves are of little food value, such as brightly colored starfish and pebbles.[47] Juveniles are typically independent at six to eight months, however a mother may be forced to abandon a pup if she cannot find enough food for it[68] and at the other extreme, a pup may nurse until it is almost adult size.[62] Pup mortality is high, particularly during an individual's first winter – by one estimate, only 25% of pups survive their first year.[68] Pups born to experienced mothers have the highest survival rates.[69] Georg Wilhelm Steller (March 10, 1709 - November 14, 1746) was a Russian botanist, zoologist, physician and explorer of German origin. ... Kittens nursing Lactation describes the secretion of milk from the mammary glands, the process of providing that milk to the young, and the period of time that a mother lactates to feed her young. ... This article is about the anatomical structure. ... Subfamilies Lutrinae Melinae Mellivorinae Taxidiinae Mustelinae Mustelidae is a family of carnivorous mammals. ... Orders Brisingida (100 species[1]) Forcipulatida (300 species[2]) Paxillosida (255 species[3]) Notomyotida (75 species[4]) Spinulosida (120 species[5]) Valvatida (695 species[6]) Velatida (200 species[7]) For other uses, see Starfish (disambiguation). ...


Females perform all tasks of feeding and raising offspring, and have occasionally been observed caring for orphaned pups.[70] Much has been written about the level of devotion of sea otter mothers for their pups – a mother gives her infant almost constant attention, cradling it on her chest away from the cold water and attentively grooming its fur.[71] When foraging, she leaves her pup floating on the water, sometimes wrapped in kelp to keep it from floating away;[72] if the pup is not sleeping, it cries loudly until she returns.[73] Mothers have been known to carry their pup for days after the pup's death.[65]


Females become sexually mature at around three or four years of age and males at around five, however males often do not successfully breed until a few years later.[74] A captive male sired offspring at age 19.[62] In the wild, sea otters live to a maximum age of 23 years,[19] with average lifespans of 10–15 years for males and 15–20 years for females.[75] Several captive individuals have lived past 20 years, and a female at the Seattle Aquarium died at the age of 28 years.[76] Sea otters in the wild often develop worn teeth, which may account for their apparently shorter lifespans.[77] The Seattle Aquarium is a public aquarium located on Pier 59 on Seattles Elliot Bay waterfront. ... Types of teeth Molars are used for grinding up foods Carnassials are used for slicing food. ...


Population and distribution

See also: Sea otter conservation
A raft of sea otters in Moss Landing, California.
A raft of sea otters in Moss Landing, California.

Sea otters live in coastal waters 15 to 23 meters (50 to 75 ft) deep,[78] and usually stay within a kilometer (⅔ mi) of the shore.[79] They are found most often in areas with protection from the most severe ocean winds, such as rocky coastlines, thick kelp forests, and barrier reefs.[80] Although they are most strongly associated with rocky substrates, sea otters can also live in areas where the sea floor consists primarily of mud, sand, or silt.[81] Their northern range is limited by ice, as sea otters can survive amidst drift ice but not land-fast ice.[82] Individuals generally occupy a home range a few kilometers long, and remain there year-round.[83] Moss Landing is a census-designated place located in Monterey County, California. ... Kelp Forest Kelp forests are a type of marine ecosystem established around colonies of kelp; they contain rich biodiversity. ... Some of the biodiversity of a coral reef, in this case the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. ... Stream substrate (sediment) is the material that rests at the bottom of a stream. ... Drift ice consists of slabs of ice that float on the surface of the water in cold regions. ...


The sea otter population is thought to have once been 150,000 to 300,000,[6] stretching in an arc across the North Pacific from northern Japan to the central Baja Peninsula in Mexico. The fur trade that began in the 1740s reduced the sea otter's numbers to an estimated 1,000 to 2,000 members in thirteen colonies. In about two-thirds of its former range, the species is at varying levels of recovery, with high population densities in some areas and threatened populations in others. Sea otters currently have stable populations in parts of the Russian east coast, Alaska, British Columbia, Washington, and California, and there have been reports of recolonizations in Mexico and Japan.[84] Population estimates made between 2004 and 2007 give a worldwide total of approximately 107,000 sea otters.[85][86][87][2][88] ... The threatened categories (IUCN Red List) Threatened species are any species (including animals, plants, fungi, insects, bugs, etc. ...


Russia

Currently, the most stable and secure part of the sea otter's range is Russia.[89] Before the 19th century there were around 20,000 to 25,000 sea otters in the Kuril Islands, with more on Kamchatka and the Commander Islands. After the years of the Great Hunt, the population in these areas, currently part of Russia, was only 750.[85] As of 2004, sea otters have repopulated all of their former habitat in these areas, with an estimated total population of about 27,000. Of these, about 19,000 are in the Kurils, 2000 to 3500 on Kamchatka and another 5000 to 5500 on the Commander Islands.[85] Growth has slowed slightly, suggesting that the numbers are reaching carrying capacity.[85] For the political history of the sovereignty conflict, see Kuril Islands dispute. ... Kamchatka Oblast, an oblast in Russia. ... The Komandorski Islands or Commander Islands, (in Russian, Komandorskiye Ostrova) are a group of treeless islands east of the Kamchatka Peninsula in the Russian Far East, in the Bering Sea. ... The equilibrium maximum of the population of an organism is known as the ecosystems carrying capacity for that organism. ...


Alaska

Alaska is the heartland of the sea otter's range. In 1973, the sea otter population in Alaska was estimated at between 100,000 and 125,000 animals.[90] By 2006, however, the Alaska population had fallen to an estimated 73,000 animals.[86] A massive decline in sea otter populations in the Aleutian Islands accounts for most of the change; the cause of this decline is not known, although orca predation is suspected.[91] The sea otter population in Prince William Sound was also hit hard by the Exxon Valdez oil spill, which killed thousands of sea otters in 1989.[46] For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ... Aleutians seen from space The Aleutian Islands (possibly from Chukchi aliat, island) are a chain of more than 300 small volcanic islands forming an island arc in the Northern Pacific Ocean, occupying an area of 6,821 sq mi (17,666 km²) and extending about 1,200 mi (1,900... Binomial name Orcinus orca Linnaeus, 1758 Orca range (in blue) The Orca or Killer Whale (Orcinus orca) is the largest species of the oceanic dolphin family (Delphinidae). ... Prince William Sound, on the south coast of Alaska. ... The Exxon Valdez Oil Spill occurred in Prince William Sound, Alaska, on 24 March 1989. ...


British Columbia and Washington

Along the North American coast south of Alaska, the sea otter's range is discontinuous. Between 1969 and 1972, 89 sea otters were flown or shipped from Alaska to the west coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia. They established a healthy population, estimated to be over 3,000 as of 2004, and their range is now from Tofino to Cape Scott.[87] In 1989, a separate colony was discovered in the central British Columbia coast. It is not known if this colony, which had a size of about 300 animals in 2004, was founded by transplanted otters or by survivors of the fur trade.[87] Vancouver Island is separated from mainland British Columbia by the Strait of Georgia and the Queen Charlotte Strait, and from Washington by the Juan De Fuca Strait. ... Tofino is a village of about 1,600 residents on the west coast of Vancouver Island, within the province of British Columbia, Canada. ... Cape Scott Provincial Park is a provincial park located at the northwestern tip of Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada. ...


In 1969 and 1970, 59 sea otters were translocated from Amchitka Island to Washington State. Annual surveys between 2000 and 2004 have recorded between 504 and 743 individuals, and their range is in the Olympic Peninsula from just south of Destruction Island to Pillar Point.[2] This article deals with the U.S. state. ... The Olympic Peninsula is the large arm of land in western Washington state that lies across Puget Sound from Seattle. ...

California has over 3,000 sea otters, descendants of approximately 50 individuals discovered in 1938.
California has over 3,000 sea otters, descendants of approximately 50 individuals discovered in 1938.

In British Columbia and Washington, sea otters are found almost exclusively on the outer coasts. Reported sightings of sea otters in the San Juan Islands and Puget Sound almost always turn out to be northern river otters which are commonly seen along the seashore. However, biologists have confirmed isolated sightings of sea otters in these areas since the mid-1990s.[2] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,073 × 1,382 pixels, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,073 × 1,382 pixels, file size: 1. ... One of the San Juan islands The San Juan Islands are a part of the San Juan Archipelago in the northwest corner of the continental United States. ... Puget Sound For the university in this region, see University of Puget Sound. ... Binomial name Lontra canadensis (Schreber, 1777) The Northern River Otter, Lontra canadensis, is a North American member of the Mustelidae or weasel family. ...


California

The spring 2007 sea otter survey counted 3,026 sea otters in the central California coast, down from an estimated pre-fur trade population of 16,000.[88][92] California's sea otters are the descendants of a single colony of about 50 southern sea otters discovered near Big Sur in 1938;[93] their principal range is now from just south of San Francisco to Santa Barbara County.[92] In the late 1980s, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service relocated about 140 California sea otters to San Nicolas Island in southern California, in the hope of establishing a reserve population should the mainland be struck by an oil spill. To the surprise of biologists, the San Nicholas population initially shrank as the animals migrated back to the mainland; however, it later stabilized and thrived amidst the abundant prey around the island.[94]
For other uses, see Big Sur (disambiguation). ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Santa Barbara County is a county located on the Pacific coast of Southern California, in the state of California, just west of Ventura County. ... San Nicolas Island (sometimes shortened as San Nic or SNI) is the most remote of Californias Channel Islands. ...


Ecology

Diet

Sea otters keep kelp forests healthy by eating animals that graze on kelp.
Sea otters keep kelp forests healthy by eating animals that graze on kelp.

Sea otters consume over 100 different prey species.[95] In most of its range, the sea otter's diet consists almost exclusively of marine invertebrates, including sea urchins, a variety of bivalves such as clams and mussels, abalone, other mollusks, crustaceans, and snails.[95] Its prey ranges in size from tiny limpets crabs and giant octopuses.[95] Where prey such as sea urchins, clams, and abalone are present in a range of sizes, sea otters tend to select larger items over smaller ones of similar type.[95] In California, it has been noted that sea otters ignore Pismo clams smaller than 3 inches (7 cm) across.[96] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 379 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,455 × 2,301 pixels, file size: 635 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 379 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,455 × 2,301 pixels, file size: 635 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Kelp Forest Kelp forests are a type of marine ecosystem established around colonies of kelp; they contain rich biodiversity. ... Subclasses Subclass Perischoechinoidea Order Cidaroida (pencil urchins) Subclass Euechinoidea Superorder Atelostomata Order Cassiduloida Order Spatangoida (heart urchins) Superorder Diadematacea Order Diadematoida Order Echinothurioida Order Pedinoida Superorder Echinacea Order Arbacioida Order Echinoida Order Phymosomatoida Order Salenioida Order Temnopleuroida Superorder Gnathostomata Order Clypeasteroida (sand dollars) Order Holectypoida Wikispecies has information related to... Orders Subclass Protobranchia Solemyoida Nuculoida Subclass Pteriomorphia - oysters Arcoida Mytiloida Pterioida Subclass Paleoheterodonta - mussels Trigoinoida Unionoida Subclass Heterodonta - clams, zebra mussels Veneroida Myoida Subclass Anomalosdesmata Pholadomyoida Animals of the Class Bivalvia are known as bivalves because they typically have two-part shells, with both parts being more or less symmetrical. ... For other uses, see Clam (disambiguation). ... Subclasses Pteriomorpha (marine mussels) Palaeoheterodonta (freshwater mussels) Heterodonta (zebra mussels) The term mussel is used for several families of bivalve molluscs inhabiting lakes, rivers, and creeks, as well as intertidal areas along coastlines worldwide. ... Species Many, see species section. ... Classes Caudofoveata Aplacophora Polyplacophora Monoplacophora Bivalvia Scaphopoda Gastropoda Cephalopoda † Rostroconchia The mollusks or molluscs are the large and diverse phylum Mollusca, which includes a variety of familiar creatures well-known for their decorative shells or as seafood. ... For the Dutch band, see Crustacean (band). ... For other uses, see Snail (disambiguation). ... Suborders and families See text. ... For other uses, see Crab (disambiguation). ... Giant Octopus may refer to the following: Octopuses of the genus Enteroctopus Colossal Octopus or lusca, a cryptid This is a disambiguation page — a list of articles associated with the same title. ...


In a few northern areas, fish are also eaten. In studies performed at Amchitka Island in the 1960s, where the sea otter population was at carrying capacity, 50% of food found in sea otter stomachs was fish.[97] The fish species were usually bottom-dwelling and sedentary or sluggish forms, such as the red Irish lord and globefish.[97] However, south of Alaska on the North American coast, fish are a negligible or extremely minor part of the sea otter's diet.[98][2] Contrary to popular depictions, sea otters rarely eat starfish, and any kelp that is consumed apparently passes through the sea otter's system undigested.[99] Amchitka is an island in the Rat Islands group of the Aleutian Islands in southwest Alaska. ... The equilibrium maximum of the population of an organism is known as the ecosystems carrying capacity for that organism. ... Genera Amblyrhynchotes Arothron Auriglobus Canthigaster Carinotetraodon Chelonodon Colomesus Contusus Ephippion Feroxodon Fugu Gastrophysus Javichthys Lagocephalus Liosaccus Marilyna Monotretus Omegaphora Pelagocephalus Polyspina Reicheltia Sphoeroides Takifugu Tetractenos Tetraodon Torquigener Tylerius Xenopterus For species see Genera articles. ... Orders Brisingida (100 species[1]) Forcipulatida (300 species[2]) Paxillosida (255 species[3]) Notomyotida (75 species[4]) Spinulosida (120 species[5]) Valvatida (695 species[6]) Velatida (200 species[7]) For other uses, see Starfish (disambiguation). ... Families Alariaceae Chordaceae Laminariaceae Lessoniaceae Phyllariaceae Pseudochordaceae Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ...


The individuals within a particular area often differ in their foraging methods and their prey types, and tend to follow the same patterns as their mothers.[100] The diet of local populations also changes over time, as sea otters can significantly deplete populations of highly preferred prey such as large sea urchins, and prey availability is also affected by other factors such as fishing by humans.[2] Sea otters can thoroughly remove abalone from an area except for specimens in deep rock crevices,[101] however, they never completely wipe out a prey species from an area.[102] A 2007 California study demonstrated that in areas where food was relatively scarce, a wider variety of prey was consumed. However, surprisingly, the diets of individuals were more specialized in these areas than in areas where food was plentiful.[94]


As a keystone species

Sea otters are a classic example of a keystone species; their presence affects the ecosystem more profoundly than their size and numbers would suggest. Sea otters keep the population of certain benthic (sea floor) herbivores, particularly sea urchins, in check. Sea urchins graze on the lower stems of kelp, causing the kelp to drift away and die. Loss of the habitat and nutrients provided by kelp forests leads to profound cascade effects on the marine ecosystem. North Pacific areas that do not have sea otters often turn into urchin barrens, with abundant sea urchins and no kelp forest.[7] This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... In marine geology and biology, benthos are the organisms and habitats of the sea floor; in freshwater biology they are the organisms and habitats of the bottoms of lakes, rivers, and creeks. ... Subclasses Subclass Perischoechinoidea Order Cidaroida (pencil urchins) Subclass Euechinoidea Superorder Atelostomata Order Cassiduloida Order Spatangoida (heart urchins) Superorder Diadematacea Order Diadematoida Order Echinothurioida Order Pedinoida Superorder Echinacea Order Arbacioida Order Echinoida Order Phymosomatoida Order Salenioida Order Temnopleuroida Superorder Gnathostomata Order Clypeasteroida (sand dollars) Order Holectypoida Wikispecies has information related to... Families Alariaceae Chordaceae Laminariaceae Lessoniaceae Phyllariaceae Pseudochordaceae Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Kelp Forest Kelp forests are a type of marine ecosystem established around colonies of kelp; they contain rich biodiversity. ... An ecological cascade effect is a series of secondary extinctions that is triggered by the primary extinction of a key species in an ecosystem. ... An urchin barren is an area in the open sea where the population growth of sea urchins has gone unchecked, causing massive kelp die-offs. ...

Remote areas of coastline, such as this area in California, sheltered the few remaining colonies of sea otters that survived the fur trade.
Remote areas of coastline, such as this area in California, sheltered the few remaining colonies of sea otters that survived the fur trade.

Reintroduction of sea otters to British Columbia has led to a dramatic improvement in the health of coastal ecosystems,[103] and similar changes have been observed as sea otter populations recovered in the Aleutian and Commander Islands and the Big Sur coast of California[104] However, some kelp forest ecosystems in California have also thrived without sea otters, with sea urchin populations apparently controlled by other factors.[104] The role of sea otters in maintaining kelp forests has been observed to be more important in areas of open coast than in more protected bays and estuaries.[104] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 858 KB) Picture of central Californias coastline looking south from the shoulder of the Pacific Coast Highway (Rt. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 858 KB) Picture of central Californias coastline looking south from the shoulder of the Pacific Coast Highway (Rt. ... For other uses, see Big Sur (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Ecological Systems Theory. ... An estuary is a semi-enclosed coastal body of water which has a free connection with the open sea and within which sea water mixes with fresh water. ...


In addition to promoting growth of kelp forests, sea otters can also have a profound effect in rocky areas that tend to be dominated by mussel beds. They remove mussels from rocks, liberating space for competitive species and thereby increasing the diversity of species in the area.[105] Subclasses Pteriomorpha (marine mussels) Palaeoheterodonta (freshwater mussels) Heterodonta (zebra mussels) The term mussel is used for several families of bivalve molluscs inhabiting lakes, rivers, and creeks, as well as intertidal areas along coastlines worldwide. ...


Predators

Predators of sea otters include orcas and sea lions; bald eagles also prey on pups by snatching them from the water surface.[51] In California, bites from sharks, particularly great white sharks, have been estimated to cause 10% of sea otter deaths and are one of the reasons the population has not expanded further north.[106] Dead sea otters have been found with injuries from shark bites, although there is no evidence that sharks actually eat them.[106] Binomial name Orcinus orca Linnaeus, 1758 Orca range (in blue) The Orca or Killer Whale (Orcinus orca) is the largest species of the oceanic dolphin family (Delphinidae). ... For other uses, see Sea Lion (disambiguation). ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1766) Bald Eagle range  Resident, breeding Summer visitor, breeding Winter visitor On migration only Star: accidental records Subspecies (Linnaeus, 1766) Southern Bald Eagle (Audubon, 1827) Northern Bald Eagle Synonyms Falco leucocephalus Linnaeus, 1766 The Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) is a bird of prey found in North America... For other uses, see Shark (disambiguation). ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Range (in blue) For other uses, see Great White (disambiguation). ...


Relationship with humans

Fur trade

Aleut men in Unalaska in 1896. The waterproof kayak gear and garments were used to hunt sea otters.
Aleut men in Unalaska in 1896. The waterproof kayak gear and garments were used to hunt sea otters.

Archaeological evidence indicates that for thousands of years, indigenous peoples have hunted sea otters in moderation for food and fur.[6] Large-scale hunting, which would eventually kill approximately one million sea otters, began in the 1700s when hunters and traders began to arrive from all over the world to meet foreign demand for otter pelts, which were one of the world's most valuable types of fur.[6] Languages English, Russian, Aleut Religions Christianity, Shamanism Related ethnic groups Inuit, Yupik The Aleuts (self-denomination: , Unangan or Unanga) are the indigenous people of the Aleutian Islands of Alaska, United States and Kamchatka Krai, Russia. ... Unalaska is an island in the Fox Islands group in the middle of the Aleutian Islands southwest of Alaska, at 53°54 North 166°32 West. ... Look up kayak in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The term indigenous peoples has no universal, standard or fixed definition, but can be used about any ethnic group who inhabit the geographic region with which they have the earliest historical connection. ...


In the early 1700s, Russians began to hunt sea otters in the Kuril Islands and sold them to China.[6] Russia was also exploring the far northern Pacific at this time, and sent Vitus Bering to map the Arctic coast and find routes from Siberia to North America.[107] In 1741, on his second North Pacific voyage, Bering was shipwrecked off Bering Island in the Commander Islands, where Bering and many of his crew died.[107] The surviving crew members, which included naturalist Georg Steller, discovered sea otters on the beaches of the island and spent the winter hunting sea otters and gambling with otter pelts.[107] They returned to Siberia having killed nearly 1000 sea otters, and were able to command high prices for the pelts.[107] Thus began what is sometimes called the "Great Hunt", which would continue for another hundred years. For the political history of the sovereignty conflict, see Kuril Islands dispute. ... A portrait attributed to Vitus Bering (according to modern data, his uncles portrait) Vitus Jonassen Bering (also, less correctly, Behring) (August 1681–December 19, 1741) was a Danish-born navigator in the service of the Russian Navy, a captain-komandor known among the Russian sailors as Ivan Ivanovich. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Komandorski Islands or Commander Islands, (in Russian, Komandorskiye Ostrova) are a group of treeless islands east of the Kamchatka Peninsula in the Russian Far East, in the Bering Sea. ... Georg Wilhelm Steller (March 10, 1709 - November 14, 1746) was a Russian botanist, zoologist, physician and explorer of German origin. ...

Pelt sales (in thousands) in the London fur market. The drop beginning in the 1880s reflects dwindling sea otter populations.
Pelt sales (in thousands) in the London fur market. The drop beginning in the 1880s reflects dwindling sea otter populations.[108]

Russian fur-hunting expeditions soon depleted the sea otter populations in the Commander Islands, and by 1745 they began to move on to the Aleutian Islands. The Russians initially traded with the Aleuts inhabitants of these islands for otter pelts, but later enslaved the Aleuts, taking women and children hostage and torturing and killing Aleut men to force them to hunt. Many Aleuts were either murdered by the Russians or died from diseases that the hunters had introduced.[109] The Aleut population was reduced, by the Russians' own estimate, from 20,000 to 2,000.[110] By the 1760s, the Russians had reached Alaska. Other nations joined in the hunt in the south. Along the coasts of what is now Mexico and California, Spanish explorers bought sea otter pelts from Native Americans and sold them in Asia.[109] In 1778, British explorer Captain James Cook reached Vancouver Island and bought sea otter furs from the First Nations people.[111] When Cook's ship later stopped at a Chinese port, the pelts rapidly sold at high prices, and were soon known as "soft gold". As word spread, people from all over Europe and North America began to arrive in the Pacific Northwest to trade for sea otter furs.[111] Aleutians seen from space The Aleutian Islands (possibly from Chukchi aliat, island) are a chain of more than 300 small volcanic islands forming an island arc in the Northern Pacific Ocean, occupying an area of 6,821 sq mi (17,666 km²) and extending about 1,200 mi (1,900... Languages English, Russian, Aleut Religions Christianity, Shamanism Related ethnic groups Inuit, Yupik The Aleuts (self-denomination: , Unangan or Unanga) are the indigenous people of the Aleutian Islands of Alaska, United States and Kamchatka Krai, Russia. ... For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Native Americans (also Indians, Aboriginal Peoples, American Indians, First Nations, Alaskan Natives, Amerindians, or Indigenous Peoples of America) are the indigenous inhabitants of The Americas prior to the European colonization, and their modern descendants. ... Captain James Cook may refer to: James Cook - British explorer, navigator, and map maker Captain James Cook (TV miniseries) - 1987 Australian television miniseries This is a disambiguation page, a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... Vancouver Island is separated from mainland British Columbia by the Strait of Georgia and the Queen Charlotte Strait, and from Washington by the Juan De Fuca Strait. ... The Pacific Northwest from space The Pacific Northwest, abbreviated PNW, or PacNW is a region in the northwest of North America. ...


Russian hunting expanded to the south, in what is now Washington, Oregon, and California, and the Russians founded what is now the Fort Ross settlement in northern California as their southern headquarters.[111] In the next 29 years, they would kill 50,000 California sea otters.[111] Fort Ross is a former Russian fur trading outpost in what is now Sonoma County, California in the United States. ...


Eventually, sea otter populations became so depleted that commercial hunting was no longer viable. In the Aleutian Islands, commercial hunting had stopped by 1808.[112] When Russia sold Alaska to the United States in 1867, the Alaska population had recovered to over 100,000, but Americans resumed hunting and quickly extirpated the sea otter again.[112] Prices rose as the species became rare: During the 1880s, a pelt brought $105 to $165 in the London market, however by 1903 a pelt could be worth as much as $1,125.[62] In 1911, Russia, Japan, Great Britain (for Canada) and the United States signed the Treaty for the Preservation and Protection of Fur Seals, imposing a moratorium on the harvesting of sea otters.[113] So few remained, perhaps only 1,000–2,000 individuals in the wild, that many believed the species would become extinct.[2] Check used to pay for Alaska The Alaska purchase from Russia by the United States occurred in 1867 at the behest of Secretary of State William Seward. ... For other uses, see Extinction (disambiguation). ...


Recovery and conservation

Main article: Sea otter conservation
In the wake of the Exxon Valdez oil spill, heavy sheens of oil covered large areas of Prince William Sound.

During the 20th century, sea otter numbers rebounded in about two-thirds of their historic range, a recovery that is considered one of the greatest successes in marine conservation.[114] However, the IUCN lists the sea otter as an endangered species, and describes the significant threats to sea otters as oil pollution, predation by orcas, poaching, and conflicts with fisheries – sea otters can drown if entangled in fishing gear.[1] The hunting of sea otters is no longer legal except for limited harvests by indigenous peoples in the United States.[115] Poaching was a serious concern in the Russian Far East immediately after the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, however it has declined significantly with stricter law enforcement and better economic conditions.[89] During the first few days of the spill, heavy sheens of oil, such as the sheen visible in this photograph, covered large areas of the surface of Prince William Sound. ... During the first few days of the spill, heavy sheens of oil, such as the sheen visible in this photograph, covered large areas of the surface of Prince William Sound. ... The Exxon Valdez Oil Spill occurred in Prince William Sound, Alaska, on 24 March 1989. ... Prince William Sound, on the south coast of Alaska. ... The World Conservation Union or International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) is an international organization dedicated to natural resource conservation. ... The Siberian Tiger is a subspecies of tiger that are critically endangered. ... Subsequent to an Oil Spill An oil spill is the unintentional release of a liquid petroleum hydrocarbon into the environment as a result of human activity. ... Binomial name Orcinus orca Linnaeus, 1758 Orca range (in blue) The Orca or Killer Whale (Orcinus orca) is the largest species of the oceanic dolphin family (Delphinidae). ... For other uses, see Poaching (disambiguation). ... The term indigenous peoples has no universal, standard or fixed definition, but can be used about any ethnic group who inhabit the geographic region with which they have the earliest historical connection. ... The Soviet Unions collapse into independent nations began in earnest in 1985. ...


The most significant threat to sea otters is oil spills.[51] Sea otters are particularly vulnerable, as they rely on their fur to keep warm. When their fur is soaked with oil, it loses its ability to retain air, and the animal quickly dies from hypothermia.[51] The liver, kidneys, and lungs of sea otters also become damaged after they inhale oil or ingest it when grooming.[51] The Exxon Valdez oil spill of 24 March 1989 killed thousands of sea otters in Prince William Sound, and as of 2006 the lingering oil in the area continues to affect the population.[116] Describing the public sympathy for sea otters that developed from media coverage of the event, a U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service spokesperson wrote: A beach after an oil spill An oil spill is the release of a liquid petroleum hydrocarbon into the environment due to human activity, and is a form of pollution. ... Hypothermia is a condition in which an organisms temperature drops below that Required fOr normal metabolism and Bodily functionS. In warm-blooded animals, core [[body Temperature]] is maintained nEar a constant leVel through biologic [[homEostasis]]. But wheN the body iS exposed to cold Its internal mechanismS may be unable... For the bird, see Liver bird. ... The kidneys are the organs that filter wastes (such as urea) from the blood and excrete them, along with water, as urine. ... Human respiratory system The lungs flank the heart and great vessels in the chest cavity. ... The Exxon Valdez Oil Spill occurred in Prince William Sound, Alaska, on 24 March 1989. ... Prince William Sound, on the south coast of Alaska. ...

As a playful, photogenic, innocent bystander, the sea otter epitomized the role of victim ... cute and frolicsome sea otters suddenly in distress, oiled, frightened, and dying, in a losing battle with the oil.[2]

The small geographic ranges of the sea otter populations in California, Washington, and British Columbia mean that a single major spill could be catastrophic for that state or province.[46][40][2] Prevention of oil spills and preparation for the rescue of otters in the event of one are major areas of focus for conservation efforts. Increasing the size and the range of sea otter populations would also reduce the risk of an oil spill wiping out a population.[2] However, because of the species' reputation for depleting shellfish resources, advocates for commercial, recreational, and subsistence shellfish harvesting have often opposed allowing the sea otter's range to increase, and there have even been instances of fishermen and others illegally killing them.[117]

Sea otters in the Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary. Note the unusual shape of the hind feet, in which the outer toes are longest.
Sea otters in the Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary. Note the unusual shape of the hind feet, in which the outer toes are longest.

In the Aleutian Islands, a massive and unexpected disappearance of sea otters has occurred in recent decades. In the 1980s, the area was home to an estimated 55,000 to 100,000 sea otters, but the population fell to around 6,000 animals by 2000.[118] The most widely-accepted, but still controversial, hypothesis is that orcas have been eating the otters. The pattern of sea otter disappearances is consistent with a rise in orca predation, however there has been no direct evidence that orcas prey on sea otters to any significant extent.[91] Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary The Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary is one of 13 marine sanctuaries in the U.S., found off the Olympic Peninsula in Washington state, U.S.A. The Sanctuary was declared in 1994 and protects about 3,310 square miles of the Pacific Ocean between... Binomial name Orcinus orca Linnaeus, 1758 Orca range (in blue) The orca (Orcinus orca), commonly known as the killer whale, and sometimes called the grampus, is the largest member of the oceanic dolphin family. ...


Another area of concern is California, where recovery began to fluctuate or decline in the late 1990s.[119] Unusually high mortality rates amongst adult and sub-adult otters, particularly females, have been reported.[88] Necropsies of dead sea otters indicate that diseases, particularly Toxoplasma gondii infection and acanthocephalan parasite infection, are a major cause of sea otter mortality in California.[120] The Toxoplasma gondii parasite, which is often fatal to sea otters, is carried by wild and domestic cats and by opossums, and may be transmitted by domestic cat droppings flushed into the ocean via the sewage system.[120][121] Although it is clear that disease has contributed to the deaths of many of California's sea otters, it is not known why the California population is apparently more affected by disease than populations in other areas.[120] Binomial name (Nicolle & Manceaux, 1908) Toxoplasma gondii is a species of parasitic protozoa in the genus Toxoplasma. ... Classes Archiacanthocephala Palaeacanthocephala Eoacanthocephala The Acanthocephala (gr. ... Genera Several; see text Opossum fur is quite soft. ...


Sea otter habitat is preserved through several protected areas in the United States, Russia and Canada. In marine protected areas, polluting activities such as dumping of waste and oil drilling are typically prohibited.[122] There are estimated to be more than 1,200 sea otters within the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary , and more than 500 within the Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary.[123] [124] The term Marine Protected Area is often used as an umbrella term covering a wide range of marine areas with some level of restriction to protect living, non-living, cultural, and/or historic resources. ... The Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary (MBNMS) is a Federally protected marine area offshore of Californias central coast. ... Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary The Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary is one of 13 marine sanctuaries in the U.S., found off the Olympic Peninsula in Washington state, U.S.A. The Sanctuary was declared in 1994 and protects about 3,310 square miles of the Pacific Ocean between...


Economic impact

Some of the sea otter's preferred prey species, particularly abalone, clams, and crabs, are also food sources for humans. In some areas, massive declines in shellfish harvests have been blamed on the sea otter, and intense public debate has taken place over how to manage the competition between sea otters and humans for seafood.[125] Species Many, see species section. ... For other uses, see Clam (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Crab (disambiguation). ... Cooked mussels Shellfish is a term used to describe shelled molluscs and crustaceans used as food. ...


The debate is complicated by the fact that sea otters have sometimes been held responsible for declines of shellfish stocks that were more likely caused by overfishing by humans, disease, pollution, and seismic activity.[126][46] Shellfish declines have also occurred in many parts of the North American Pacific coast that do not have sea otters, and conservationists sometimes note that the existence of large concentrations of shellfish on the coast is a recent development resulting from the fur trade's near-extirpation of the sea otter.[126] Although many factors affect shellfish stocks, it is reasonably certain that sea otter predation can deplete a fishery to the point that it is no longer commercially viable.[125] There is a consensus among scientists that sea otters and abalone fisheries cannot co-exist in the same area,[125] and the same is likely true for certain other types of shellfish as well.[118] The Traffic Light colour convention, showing the concept of Harvest Control Rule (HCR), specifying when a rebuilding plan is mandatory in terms of precautionary and limit reference points for spawning biomass and fishing mortality rate. ... Seismology (from the Greek seismos = earthquake and logos = word) is the scientific study of earthquakes and the movement of waves through the Earth. ... Extirpation is the localized extinction of a species. ...


There are many facets to the interaction between sea otters and the human economy that are not as immediately felt. Sea otters have been credited with contributing to the kelp harvesting industry via their well-known role in controlling sea urchin populations; kelp is used in the production of diverse food and pharmaceutical products.[127] Although human divers harvest red sea urchins both for food and to protect the kelp, sea otters hunt more sea urchin species and are more consistently effective in controlling these populations.[128] The health of the kelp forest ecosystem is significant in nurturing populations of fish, including commercially important fish species.[127] In some areas, sea otters are a popular tourist attraction, bringing visitors to local hotels, restaurants, and sea otter-watching expeditions.[127] Families Alariaceae Chordaceae Laminariaceae Lessoniaceae Phyllariaceae Pseudochordaceae Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) The Red Sea Urchin is a Sea Urchin found in the Pacific ocean, from Alaska to Baja California. ... Tourist redirects here. ...


Role in human cultures

Aleut carving of a sea otter hunt

Left: Aleut sea otter amulet in the form of a mother with pup. Above: Aleut carving of a sea otter hunt on a whalebone spear. Both items are on display at the St. Petersburg Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography. Articles depicting sea otters were considered to have magical properties.[129] Languages English, Russian, Aleut Religions Christianity, Shamanism Related ethnic groups Inuit, Yupik The Aleuts (self-denomination: , Unangan or Unanga) are the indigenous people of the Aleutian Islands of Alaska, United States and Kamchatka Krai, Russia. ... An amulet from the Black Pullet grimoire. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland... The Peter the Great Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography is the major museum of anthropology and ethnography in St Petersburg, Russia. ...

For many maritime indigenous cultures throughout the North Pacific, especially the Ainu in the Kuril Islands, the Koryaks and Itelmen of Kamchatka, the Aleut in the Aleutian Islands and a host of tribes on the Pacific coast of North America, the sea otter has played an important role as a cultural as well as material resource. In these cultures, many of which have strongly animist traditions full of legends and stories in which many aspects of the natural world are associated with spirits, the sea otter was considered particularly kin to humans. The Nuu-chah-nulth, Haida, and other First Nations of coastal British Columbia used the warm and luxurious pelts as chiefs' regalia. Sea otter pelts were given in potlatches to mark coming-of-age ceremonies, weddings, and funerals.[50] The Aleuts carved sea otter bones for use as ornaments and in games, and used powdered sea otter baculum as a medicine for fever.[130] Ainu ) IPA: (also called Ezo in historical texts) are an ethnic group indigenous to Hokkaidō, the Kuril Islands, and much of Sakhalin. ... See also: Koryakia Autonomous District Koryaks, a Mongoloid people of northeastern Siberia, inhabiting the coastlands of the Bering Sea to the south of the Anadyr basin and the country to the immediate north of the Kamchatka Peninsula, the southernmost limit of their range being Tigilsk. ... The Itelmen are an ethnic group that live on the Kamchatka peninsula in the Russian Federation. ... Languages English, Russian, Aleut Religions Christianity, Shamanism Related ethnic groups Inuit, Yupik The Aleuts (self-denomination: , Unangan or Unanga) are the indigenous people of the Aleutian Islands of Alaska, United States and Kamchatka Krai, Russia. ... Chief Anotklosh of the Taku Tribe, ca. ... This article is in need of attention. ... The Nuu-chah-nulth (pronounced New-cha-nulth) (also formerly referred to as the Nootka, Nutka, Aht, West Coast, T’aat’aaqsapa, Nuuchahnulth) people are indigenous peoples of Canada. ... This article is about the people. ... First Nations is a Canadian term of ethnicity which refers to the aboriginal peoples located in what is now Canada, and their descendants who are neither Inuit nor Métis. ... For other uses, see Potlatch (disambiguation). ... The baculum (also penis bone, penile bone or os penis) is a bone found in the penis of most mammals. ...

Sea otters at the Lisbon Oceanarium show their flexibility when grooming.
Sea otters at the Lisbon Oceanarium show their flexibility when grooming.

Among the Ainu, the otter is portrayed as an occasional messenger between humans and the creator.[131] Versions of a widespread Aleut legend tell of lovers or despairing women who plunge into the sea and become otters.[132] These links have been associated with the many human-like behavioral features of the sea otter, including apparent playfulness, strong mother-pup bonds and tool use, yielding to ready anthropomorphism.[133] The beginning of commercial exploitation had a great impact on the human as well as animal populations – the Ainu and Aleuts have been displaced or their numbers are dwindling, while the coastal tribes of North America, where the otter is in any case greatly depleted, no longer rely as intimately on sea mammals for survival.[134] The Oceanarium in the Park of Nations. ... 7th millennium BC anthropomorphized rocks, with slits for eyes, found in modern-day Israel. ...


Since the mid-1970s, the beauty and charisma of the species have gained wide appreciation, and the sea otter has become an icon of environmental conservation.[119] The round, expressive face and soft furry body of the sea otter are depicted in a wide variety of souvenirs, postcards, clothing, and stuffed toys.[135]


Aquariums and zoos

Sea otters can do well in captivity, and are featured in over 40 public aquariums and zoos.[136] The Seattle Aquarium became the first institution to raise sea otters from conception to adulthood with the birth of Tichuk in 1979, followed by three more pups in the early 1980s.[137] In 2007, a YouTube video of two sea otters holding paws drew 1.5 million viewers in two weeks, and currently has over 10.3 million views.[138] Filmed five years previously at the Vancouver Aquarium, it was YouTube's most popular animal video to date. The lighter-colored otter in the video is Nyac, a survivor of the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill.[139] Animal husbandry Animals that live under human care are in captivity. ... “Aquaria” redirects here. ... Giraffes in Sydneys Taronga Zoo A zoological garden, zoological park, or zoo is a facility in which animals are confined within enclosures and displayed to the public, and in which they may also be bred. ... The Seattle Aquarium is a public aquarium located on Pier 59 on Seattles Elliot Bay waterfront. ... YouTube is a popular video sharing website where users can upload, view and share video clips. ... The Vancouver Aquarium is a public aquarium located in Stanley Park in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. ... The Exxon Valdez Oil Spill occurred in Prince William Sound, Alaska, on 24 March 1989. ...


Notes

  1. ^ a b Estes (2000). Enhydra lutris. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. Retrieved on 11 May 2006.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Final Washington State Sea Otter Recovery Plan. Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife. Retrieved on 2007-11-29.
  3. ^ a b Love, p. 9
  4. ^ Liddell, Henry George and Robert Scott (1980). A Greek-English Lexicon (Abridged Edition). United Kingdom: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-910207-4. 
  5. ^ Nickerson, p. 19
  6. ^ a b c d e Silverstein, p. 34
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i Enhydra Lutis. Animal Diversity Web. University of Michigan Museum of Zoology. Retrieved on 2007-11-24.
  8. ^ The giant otter is longer, but significantly slimmer.
  9. ^ Kenyon, p. 4
  10. ^ a b c VanBlaricom, p. 11
  11. ^ Koepfli, K.-P; Wayne, R.K. (December 1998). "Phylogenetic relationships of otters (Carnivora: Mustelidae) based on mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences". Journal of Zoology 246 (4): 401–416. Retrieved on 2007-12-29. 
  12. ^ a b Koepfli, Klaus-Peter et al. (February 2008). "Multigene phylogeny of the Mustelidae: resolving relationships, tempo and biogeographic history of a mammalian adaptive radiation". BMC Biology 6 (10). 
  13. ^ Love, pp. 15–16
  14. ^ Love, pp. 4–6
  15. ^ Love, p. 6
  16. ^ Enhydra lutris (TSN 180547). Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved on 18 March 2006.
  17. ^ a b c Wilson, Don. E. et al (February 1991). "Geographic Variation in Sea Otters, Enhydra lutris". Journal of Mammalogy 72 (1): 22-36. 
  18. ^ Sea otter researcher Karl W. Kenyon, after whom the subspecies is named, was never convinced that E. l. kenyoni was a distinct subspecies.Soundings: The Newsletter of the Monterey Bay Chapter of ACS. American Cetacean Society Monterey Bay Chapter (June 2007). Retrieved on 2008-01-22.
  19. ^ a b c d e f Sea Otter, Enhydra lutris at MarineBio.org. Retrieved on 2007-11-23.
  20. ^ a b c Nickerson, p. 21
  21. ^ Silverstein, p. 14
  22. ^ Kenyon, pp. 37–39
  23. ^ Love, p. 21 and 28
  24. ^ a b Love, p. 27
  25. ^ a b Silverstein, p. 13
  26. ^ a b Love, p. 21
  27. ^ a b Kenyon, p. 70
  28. ^ Silverstein, p. 11
  29. ^ Kenyon, p. 62
  30. ^ Love, p. 22
  31. ^ VanBlaricom, p. 64
  32. ^ USFWS Species Profile: Southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis). Retrieved on 2008-02-23.
  33. ^ Kenyon, p. 55
  34. ^ Love, p. 23
  35. ^ Kenyon, p. 56
  36. ^ Kenyon, p. 43
  37. ^ Love, p. 74
  38. ^ Kenyon, p. 47
  39. ^ VanBlaricom, p. 17
  40. ^ a b Sea Otter. British Columbia Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks (October 1993). Retrieved on 2007-12-13.
  41. ^ Love, p.24
  42. ^ Ortiz, Rudy M. (2001). "Osmoregulation in Marine Mammals". Journal of Experimental Biology 204: 1831–1844. Retrieved on 2007-12-23. 
  43. ^ a b c Love, pp. 69–70
  44. ^ Love, pp. 70–71
  45. ^ Kenyon, p. 76
  46. ^ a b c d e f g Reitherman, Bruce (Producer and photographer). (1993). Waddlers and Paddlers: A Sea Otter Story–Warm Hearts & Cold Water [Documentary]. U.S.A.: PBS.
  47. ^ a b (1986) "Sea Otter", in Haley, Delphine: Marine Mammals of Eastern North Pacific and Arctic Waters, 2nd edition, Seattle, Washington: Pacific Search Press. 
  48. ^ a b VanBlaricom, p. 22
  49. ^ Sea otter. BBC. Retrieved on 2007-12-31.
  50. ^ a b Okerlund, Lana (4 October 2007). Too Many Sea Otters?. Retrieved on 2007-01-15.
  51. ^ a b c d e Sea otter AquaFact file. Vancouver Aquarium Marine Science Centre. Retrieved on 2007-12-05.
  52. ^ a b Love, p. 49
  53. ^ VanBlaricom, p. 45
  54. ^ a b c d e VanBlaricom, pp. 42–45
  55. ^ Love, p. 50
  56. ^ a b Kenyon, p. 77
  57. ^ Kenyon, pp. 78–79
  58. ^ a b Silverstein, p. 61
  59. ^ At least one female is known to have died from an infected nose. (Love, p. 52)
  60. ^ a b Love, p. 54
  61. ^ Silverstein, p. 30
  62. ^ a b c d Nowak, Roland M. (1991). Walker's Mammals of the World Volume II. Baltimore and London: The John Hopkins University Press, 1141–1143. ISBN 0-8018-3970-X. 
  63. ^ Kenyon, p.44
  64. ^ Love, pp. 56–61
  65. ^ a b Love, p. 58
  66. ^ Silverstein, pp. 31–32
  67. ^ Love, p. 61
  68. ^ a b Love, p. 63
  69. ^ Love, p. 62
  70. ^ Love, p. 59
  71. ^ Kenyon, p. 89
  72. ^ Silverstein, p. 31
  73. ^ Silverstein, p. 28
  74. ^ Love, p. 53
  75. ^ VanBlaricom, p. 71
  76. ^ VanBlaricom, pp. 40–41
  77. ^ VanBlaricom, p. 41
  78. ^ Silverstein, p. 17
  79. ^ Nickerson, p. 49
  80. ^ Silverstein, p. 19
  81. ^ VanBlaricom, p. 14
  82. ^ Kenyon, p. 133
  83. ^ Love, pp. 67–69
  84. ^ VanBlaricom, p. 54
  85. ^ a b c d Kornev S.I., Korneva S.M. (2004) Population dynamics and present status of sea otters (Enhydra lutris) of the Kuril Islands and southern Kamchatka. Marine Mammals of the Holarctic, Proceedings of 2004 conference. p. 273–278.
  86. ^ a b Sea Otters – Southwest Alaska Sea Otter Recovery Team (SWAKSORT). U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service – Alaska. Retrieved on 2008-01-15.
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  88. ^ a b c Leff, Lisa. "California otters rebound, but remain at risk", Associated Press, 15 June 2007. Retrieved on 2007-12-25. 
  89. ^ a b VanBlaricom, p. 62
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  91. ^ a b Schrope, Mark (15 February 2007). "Food chains: Killer in the kelp". Nature 445: 703–705. 
  92. ^ a b Spring 2007 Mainland California Sea Otter Survey Results. U.S. Geological Survey (30 May 2007). Retrieved on 2008-02-23.
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  94. ^ a b University of California — Santa Cruz (18 January 2008). Sea Otter Show Striking Variability In Diets And Feeding Strategies. ScienceDaily. Retrieved on 2008-01-20.
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  103. ^ Aquatic Species at Risk – Species Profile – Sea Otter. Fisheries and Oceans Canada. Retrieved on 2007-11-29.
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  107. ^ a b c d Silverstein, p. 35
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The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List and Red Data List), created in 1963, is the worlds most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of plant and animal species and can be found here. ... The World Conservation Union or International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) is an international organization dedicated to natural resource conservation. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Very Rev. ... Robert Scott (January 26, 1811 - December 2, 1877) was a 19th-century British academic philologist and a Fellow (later Master) of Balliol College, Oxford University. ... A Greek-English Lexicon is the standard lexicographical work of the ancient Greek language, begun in the nineteenth century and now in its ninth (revised) edition. ... Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 328th day of the year (329th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Binomial name Pteronura brasiliensis (Gmelin, 1788) The Giant Otter, Pteronura brasiliensis, (also known as the river wolf) is the longest of the worlds otters, as well as one of the largest mustelids[2]. It is native to South America but is endangered and is also very rare in captivity. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) is a partnership designed to provide consistent and reliable information on the taxonomy of biological species. ... is the 77th day of the year (78th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... PBS redirects here. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Two sea otters at the Vancouver Aquarium. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 339th day of the year (340th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO), also referred to as Fisheries and Oceans Canada (Pêches et Océans Canada), is the department within the government of Canada with responsibility for the management and safety of waters under federal jurisdiction. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 338th day of the year (339th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is a scientific agency of the United States Department of Commerce focused on the conditions of the oceans and the atmosphere. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 328th day of the year (329th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is a scientific agency of the United States Department of Commerce focused on the conditions of the oceans and the atmosphere. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 78th day of the year (79th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 78th day of the year (79th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is a scientific agency of the United States Department of Commerce focused on the conditions of the oceans and the atmosphere. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 78th day of the year (79th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 78th day of the year (79th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Kenyon, Karl W. (1969). The Sea Otter in the Eastern Pacific Ocean. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife. 
  • Love, John A. (1992). Sea Otters. Golden, Colorado: Fulcrum Publishing. ISBN 1-55591-123-4. 
  • Nickerson, Roy (1989). Sea Otters, a Natural History and Guide. San Francisco, CA: Chronicle Books. ISBN 0-87701-567-8. 
  • Silverstein, Alvin; Silverstein, Virginia and Robert (1995). The Sea Otter. Brookfield, Connecticut: The Millbrook Press, Inc.. ISBN 1-56294-418-5. 
  • VanBlaricom, Glenn R. (2001). Sea Otters. Stillwater, MN: Voyageur Press Inc.. ISBN 0-89658-562-X. 

External links

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Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1315x1039, 744 KB) Yellow Tang Zebrasoma flavescens at Bristol Zoo, Bristol, England. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1280x960, 155 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Mongoose Dwarf Mongoose Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikispecies-logo. ... Wikispecies is a wiki-based online project supported by the Wikimedia Foundation that aims to create a comprehensive free content catalogue of all species (including animalia, plantae, fungi, bacteria, archaea, and protista). ... Subfamilies Lutrinae Melinae Mellivorinae Taxidiinae Mustelinae Mustelidae is a family of carnivorous mammals. ... Phyla Subkingdom Parazoa Porifera (sponges) Subkingdom Agnotozoa Placozoa Orthonectida Rhombozoa Subkingdom Metazoa Radiata Cnidaria Ctenophora - Comb jellies Bilateria Protostomia Acoelomorpha Platyhelminthes - Flatworms Nemertina - Ribbon worms Gastrotricha Gnathostomulida - Jawed worms Micrognathozoa Rotifera - Rotifers Acanthocephala Priapulida Kinorhyncha Loricifera Entoprocta Nematoda - Roundworms Nematomorpha - Horsehair worms Cycliophora Mollusca - Mollusks Sipuncula - Peanut worms Annelida - Segmented... Typical Classes Subphylum Urochordata - Tunicates Ascidiacea Thaliacea Larvacea Subphylum Cephalochordata - Lancelets Subphylum Myxini - Hagfishes Subphylum Vertebrata - Vertebrates Petromyzontida - Lampreys Placodermi (extinct) Chondrichthyes - Cartilaginous fishes Acanthodii (extinct) Actinopterygii - Ray-finned fishes Actinistia - Coelacanths Dipnoi - Lungfishes Amphibia - Amphibians Reptilia - Reptiles Aves - Birds Mammalia - Mammals Chordates (phylum Chordata) include the vertebrates, together with... Orders Subclass Monotremata Monotremata Subclass Marsupialia Didelphimorphia Paucituberculata Microbiotheria Dasyuromorphia Peramelemorphia Notoryctemorphia Diprotodontia Subclass Placentalia Xenarthra Dermoptera Desmostylia Scandentia Primates Rodentia Lagomorpha Insectivora Chiroptera Pholidota Carnivora Perissodactyla Artiodactyla Cetacea Afrosoricida Macroscelidea Tubulidentata Hyracoidea Proboscidea Sirenia The mammals are the class of vertebrate animals primarily characterized by the presence of mammary... Families 17, See classification The diverse order Carnivora (IPA: or ; from Latin carō (stem carn-) flesh, + vorāre to devour) includes over 260 species of placental mammals. ... Families Canidae Felidae Herpestidae Hyaenidae Mephitidae Mustelidae Nandiniidae Odobenidae Pinnipedia Procyonidae Ursidae Viverridae The diverse order Carnivora includes over 260 placental mammals. ... This article is about the carnivorous mammals. ... Species Aonyx capensis Aonyx congicus Aonyx is a genus of otters, containing two species, the African Clawless Otter and the Congo Clawless Otter. ... Binomial name Aonyx capensis (Schinz, 1821) The African Clawless Otter, Aonyx capensis, also known as the Cape Clawless Otter or Groot otter, is the second largest freshwater species of otter. ... Binomial name Amblonyx cinereus (Illiger, 1815) Oriental Small-clawed Otters, (aka Asian Small-Clawed Otters) are the smallest otters in the world. ... Genera Amblonyx Aonyx Enhydra Lontra Lutra Lutrogale Pteronura Otters are aquatic or marine carnivorous mammals, members of the large and diverse family Mustelidae, which also includes weasels, polecats, badgers and others. ... Binomial name Lontra canadensis (Schreber, 1777) The Northern River Otter, Lontra canadensis, is a North American member of the Mustelidae or weasel family. ... Binomial name Lontra provocax The Southern river otter (Lontra provocax) is a species of otter that lives in Chile and Argentina. ... Binomial name Lontra longicaudis (Olfers, 1818) The Neotropical River Otter (or just Neotropical Otter), Lontra longicaudis, is an otter species found in Central and South America. ... Binomial name (Molina, 1782) Marine Otters (Lontra felina) are rare and poorly-understood marine mammals of the weasel family (Family Mustelidae). ... Binomial name Lutra lutra (Linnaeus, 1758) The European Otter, Lutra lutra, is a European member of the Mustelidae or weasel family, and is typical of freshwater otters. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Range map (note: range also includes British Isles) The Eurasian otter, Lutra lutra, also known as the Eurasian river otter, common otter, Old World otter and European otter, is a European and Asian member of the Lutrinae or otter subfamily, and is typical of freshwater otters. ... Binomial name Lutra sumatrana The hairy-nosed otter (Lutra sumatrana) is an otter thought extinct in 1998 but more were found. ... Speckle-throated otter (hydrictis maculicollis) otherwise known as the spot-necked otter hunts in rivers and lakes and has to have clear water for visual purposes. ... Speckle-throated otter (hydrictis maculicollis) otherwise known as the spot-necked otter hunts in rivers and lakes and has to have clear water for visual purposes. ... Species † Lutrogale cretensis - Cretan Otter † Lutrogale palaeoleptonyx Lutrogale perspicillata - Smooth-coated Otter Lutrogale is a genus of otter, with only one extant species - the smooth-coated otter. ... Binomial name Lutrogale perspicillata (Geoffroy, 1826) The Smooth-coated Otter (Lutrogale perspicillata) is a species of otter, the only extant representative of the genus Lutrogale. ... Binomial name Pteronura brasiliensis (Gmelin, 1788) The Giant Otter, Pteronura brasiliensis, (also known as the river wolf) is the longest of the worlds otters, as well as one of the largest mustelids[2]. It is native to South America but is endangered and is also very rare in captivity. ... Binomial name Pteronura brasiliensis (Gmelin, 1788) The Giant Otter, Pteronura brasiliensis, (also known as the river wolf) is the longest of the worlds otters, as well as one of the largest mustelids[2]. It is native to South America but is endangered and is also very rare in captivity. ... Genera  Arctonyx  Melogale  Meles  Mellivora  Taxidea For other uses, see Badger (disambiguation). ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Range map The Eurasian or European badger, Meles meles, is a mammal indigenous to most of Europe (excluding northern Scandinavia, Iceland, Corsica, Sardinia, Sicily and Cyprus) and to many parts of Asia, from about 15° to 65° North, and from about 10° West to 135° East. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Range map The Eurasian or European badger, Meles meles, is a mammal indigenous to most of Europe (excluding northern Scandinavia, Iceland, Corsica, Sardinia, Sicily and Cyprus) and to many parts of Asia, from about 15° to 65° North, and from about 10° West to 135° East. ... Binomial name Melogale everetti (Thomas, 1895) The Everetts Ferret Badger (Melogale everetti), also known as the Kinabalu Ferret Badger, is a member of the Mustelidae family. ... Binomial name Melogale moschata The Chinese Ferret Badger Distinctive mask-like face markings distinguish the Chinese ferret badger from other oriental mustelids. ... Mydaus is a genus of Old World carnivore comprising of two species of stink badger. ... Binomial name Mydaus marchei (Huet, 1887) The Palawan stink badger is a small badger that lives on the Philippine Islands of Palawan and Busuanga. ... The Javan Stink Badger (Mydaus javanensis, also called the Teledu, Malay Stink Badger and Indonesian Stink Badger) is a member of the badger family endemic to Java. ... Binomial name Mellivora capensis (Schreber, 1776) The Ratel (Mellivora capensis), also known as the Honey Badger, is a member of the Mustelidae family. ... Binomial name Mellivora capensis (Schreber, 1776) The Ratel (Mellivora capensis), also known as the Honey Badger, is a member of the Mustelidae family. ... Binomial name Mellivora capensis (Schreber, 1776) The Ratel (Mellivora capensis), also known as the Honey Badger, is a member of the Mustelidae family. ... Binomial name Taxidea taxus (Schreber, 1777) The American Badger, Taxidea taxus, is a North American badger, somewhat similar in appearance to the European Badger. ... Binomial name Taxidea taxus (Schreber, 1777) The American Badger, Taxidea taxus, is a North American badger, somewhat similar in appearance to the European Badger. ... Mustelinae is a Subfamily of Family Mustelidae and includes wolverines, weasels, ferrets, martens, and similar carnivorous mammals of Order Carnivora. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 A Tayra at the Summit Botanical Gardens and Zoo, Panamá The Tayra (Eira barbara), also known as the Tolomuco or Perico ligero in Central America, is an omnivorous animal from the weasel family Mustelidae. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 A Tayra at the Summit Botanical Gardens and Zoo, Panamá The Tayra (Eira barbara), also known as the Tolomuco or Perico ligero in Central America, is an omnivorous animal from the weasel family Mustelidae. ... The hurón or grison (Spanish: ferret) refers to either of two related ferret-like mammals from Central and South America: Galictis vittatus. ... Binomial name Galictis cuja (Molina, 1782) The Lesser Grison (Spanish: Hurón Menor; Portuguese: Furão), Galictis cuja, is an animal belonging to the ferret family Mustelidae from South America. ... Binomial name Galictis vittata (Schreber, 1776) The Greater Grison, Galictis vittata, is an animal belonging to the ferret family Mustelidae from Central and South America, from southern Mexico to Brazil and Bolivia, living in savannas and rainforests, usually seen near rivers and streams. ... For other uses, see Wolverine (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Wolverine (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Ictonyx striatus Kaup, 1835 The Striped Polecat (Ictonyx striatus, also called the African Polecat, Zoril, Zorille or Zorilla) is a member of the weasel family which somewhat resembles a skunk. ... Binomial name Ictonyx striatus Kaup, 1835 The Striped Polecat (Ictonyx striatus, also called the African Polecat, Zoril, Zorille or Zorilla) is a member of the weasel family which somewhat resembles a skunk. ... Binomial name Lyncodon patagonicus (Blainville, 1842) The Patagonian weasel is a small mustelid that is the only member of the genus Lyncodon. ... Binomial name Lyncodon patagonicus (Blainville, 1842) The Patagonian weasel is a small mustelid that is the only member of the genus Lyncodon. ... Species Martes americana Martes flavigula Martes foina Martes gwatkinsii Martes martes Martes melampus Martes pennanti Martes zibellina For the Wiltshire village see Marten, Wiltshire. ... Binomial name Martes americana (Turton, 1806) The American Marten (Martes americana) is a North American marten sometimes also called the Pine Marten, even though it is a separate species from the European Pine Marten. ... Binomial name Martes flavigula Boddaert, 1785 Subspecies M. f. ... Binomial name Martes foina (Erxleben, 1777) The Beech Marten (Martes foina) is the most common species of marten in Central Europe. ... Nilgiri marten Martes gwatkinsii Horsfield, 1851 Distribution The Nilgiri marten is endemic to Western Ghats. ... Binomial name Martes martes (Linnaeus, 1758) This article is about the European Pine Marten. ... Binomial name (Erxleben, 1777) The fisher is a North American marten, a medium sized mustelid. ... Binomial name Martes zibellina Linnaeus, 1758 The Sable (Martes zibellina) is a small mammal, closely akin to the martens, living in southern Russia near the Ural Mountains through Siberia and Mongolia to Hokkaidō in Japan. ... For other uses, see Weasel (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Desmarest, 1818 The Tropical Weasel or Amazon Weasel (Mustela africana) is a South American weasel, which has been recorded in Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru. ... Binomial name Mustela altaica Pallas, 1811 The Mountain Weasel, also known as the Pale Weasel, is a species of weasel that lives in mountainous parts of Asia from Kazakhstan, Tibet and the Himalayas through to Mongolia, northeastern China, southern Siberia and Korea. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Range map The stoat (Mustela erminea) is a small mammal of the family Mustelidae. ... Binomial name (Lesson, 1827) The Steppe Polecat (Mustela eversmannii) is a small carnivore and is one of several species of weasel that belong to the genus Mustela. ... Species Mustela felipei Colombian Weasel (Comadreja Colombiana) is a mammal originary of south america, specially Colombia , but some specimens have been found in northern Ecuador. ... Binomial name Mustela frenata Lichtenstein, 1831 The Long-tailed Weasel (Mustela frenata) is the most widely distributed mustelid in the New World. ... Binomial name Hodgson, 1835 The Yellow-bellied Weasel (Mustela kathiah) is a species of mammal in the Mustelidae family. ... Binomial name Mustela lutreola (Linnaeus, 1761) The European Mink, Mustela lutreola, is a European member of the Mustelidae family found in some regions of Spain, France, Romania, Sweden, Poland and the greater part of Russia, though not found east of the Ural Mountains. ... The Indonesian Mountain Weasel (Mustela lutreolina) is only found on the islands of Java and Sumatra at elevations over 1,000 metres. ... Binomial name (Audubon & Bachman, 1851) The Black-footed Ferret (Mustela nigripes) is a small carnivorous North American mammal closely related to the Steppe Polecat of Russia, and a member of the diverse family Mustelidae which also includes weasels, mink, polecats, martens, otters, and badgers. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1766 The Least Weasel, is the smallest member of the genus Mustela, and indeed in the entire order carnivora. ... Binomial name Mustela putorius (Linnaeus, 1758) This article is about one species of mammal referred to as Polecat. For other uses, see Polecat (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Mustela sibirica Pallas, 1773 The Siberian Mountain Weasel, also known as the Siberian Weasel, Kolinsky or Himalayan Weasel, is a rust coloured relative of the weasel. ... Trinomial name Mustela strigidorsa xxxx (AuthorLastname, XXXX) The Back-striped weasel (Lat. ... Binomial name (Schreber, 1777) The American Mink is a trademark of the American Legend Cooperative The American Mink, Neovison vison, is a North American member of the Mustelidae family found in Alaska, Canada and most of the United States. ... Binomial name Vormela peregusna (Güldenstädt, 1770) The marbled polecat () is a small mammal belonging to the monotypic genus Vormela within the Mustelinae subfamily. ... Binomial name Vormela peregusna (Güldenstädt, 1770) The marbled polecat () is a small mammal belonging to the monotypic genus Vormela within the Mustelinae subfamily. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Oceanlink | Ocean Info (2684 words)
The typical haunts of the sea otter are characterized by precipitous rocky shores, barrier reefs, tidewater stones, and dense kelp forests.
When resting, sea otters often lie on their backs among kelp or in quiet water; the most common position is with the head up, and with folded paws and chin resting on the chest.
In sea otters, mating is always aquatic and often involves violent and prolonged copulations during which the male approaches the female from behind and grasps her face and nose with his teeth, sometimes pulling her head underwater while attempting to subdue her.
OCAQ Exhibits - Sea Otters (1024 words)
Sea otters range from 50 to 100 pounds and have a luxuriant pelt averaging one million hairs per square inch—more in one inch than exists on an entire human head.
Hunter, a male southern sea otter that was rehabilitated at the Monterey Bay Aquarium in California.
Judge is a male sea otter that was found abandoned as a tiny pup on the central coast of California.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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