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Encyclopedia > Sea Dart missile
Sea Dart
Sea Dart missile
Type surface-to-air, surface-to-surface
Nationality UK
Era Cold War
Launch platform ship
Target aircraft or ship
History
Builder British Aerospace
Date of design
Production period
Service duration 1973
Operators UK (Royal Navy), Argentina
Variants ?
Number built 2,000+
Specifications
Type
Diameter 0.42 m
Wing span 0.9 m
Length 4.4 m
Weight 550 kg
Propulsion Chow solid fuel booster motor
Bristol Siddeley Odin ramjet cruise motor
Steering control surfaces
Guidance semi-active radar illuminated by radar Type 909
Speed Mach 2.0+
Range 2 - 30 nm+ (3.7 - 55.5 km)
Ceiling Greater than 10,000 metres
Payload
Warhead Blast-fragmentation
Trigger proximity and contact

Sea Dart or Guided Weapon System (GWS) 30 is a British surface-to-air missile system designed by Hawker Siddeley Dynamics and built by British Aerospace (BAe). Image File history File links Sea_Dart_missile. ... A weapons platform is generally any structure or system on which a weapon can be mounted. ... Akash Missile Firing French Air Force Crotale battery Bendix Rim-8 Talos surface to air missile of the US Navy A surface-to-air missile (SAM) is a missile designed to be launched from the ground to destroy aircraft. ... Hawker Siddeley Dynamics is a division of Hawker Siddeley Company. ... British Aerospace (BAe) was a UK aircraft manufacturer, now part of BAE Systems. ...


It has been fitted to Type 42 (UK and Argentina) and Type 82 guided missile air defence destroyers and Invincible class light aircraft carriers of the Royal Navy. Type 42 destroyer HMS Manchester Type 42, also known as the Sheffield class, is a class of destroyers of the Royal Navy. ... The Type 82 or Bristol class destroyer was to be a class of four Royal Navy warships intended as area air-defence destroyers to escort the planned CVA-01 aircraft carriers. ... USS Lassen, an Arleigh Burke-class destroyer In naval terminology, a destroyer is a fast and maneuverable yet long-endurance warship intended to escort larger vessels in a fleet or battle group and defend them against smaller, short-range attackers (originally torpedo boats, later submarines and aircraft). ... The sixth (and current) HMS Invincible. ... Four aircraft carriers, (bottom-to-top) Principe de Asturias, amphibious assault carrier USS Wasp, supercarrier USS Forrestal and light V/STOL carrier HMS Invincible, showing size differences of late 20th century carriers An aircraft carrier is a warship designed to deploy and recover aircraft — in effect acting as a sea... The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore the Senior Service). ...

Contents

History

Sea Dart began as Hawker Siddeley project CF.299, a weapon to replace the Royal Navy's first-generation long-range surface-to-air missile, Sea Slug. It entered service in 1973 on the sole Type 82 destroyer HMS Bristol before widespread deployment on the Type 42 destroyer. The missile system was also fitted to Invincible class aircraft carrier but was removed during refits in the 1998-2000 period to increase the area of the flight deck and below-decks stowage associated with the operation of RAF Harrier GR9 aircraft. Sea Slug was a Royal Navy surface-to-air missile system built by Hawker Siddeley which came into service in the 1950s and was still in use at the time of the Falklands War. ... HMS Bristol (D23) was the only Type 82 destroyer of the Royal Navy. ... Type 42 destroyer HMS Manchester Type 42, also known as the Sheffield class, is a class of destroyers of the Royal Navy. ... The sixth (and current) HMS Invincible. ... Four aircraft carriers, (bottom-to-top) Principe de Asturias, amphibious assault carrier USS Wasp, supercarrier USS Forrestal and light V/STOL carrier HMS Invincible, showing size differences of late 20th century carriers An aircraft carrier is a warship designed to deploy and recover aircraft — in effect acting as a sea... The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the air force branch of the British Armed Forces. ... The BAE Systems/Boeing Harrier II (GR5/GR7/GR9 series) is a second generation vertical/short takeoff and landing (V/STOL) jet aircraft used by the Royal Air Force (RAF). ...


Design

Sea Dart is a two-stage, 4.4 m long missile weighing 550 kg. It is launched using a drop-off Chow solid-fuelled booster that accelerates it to the supersonic speed necessary for the operation of the cruise motor, a Rolls-Royce (Bristol Aerojet) kerosene-fuelled Odin ramjet. This gives a cruise speed of over Mach 2.5, and unlike many rocket powered designs the cruise engine burns for the entire flight, giving excellent terminal manoeuvrability at extreme range. It is capable of engaging targets out to at least 30 nautical miles over a wide range of altitudes. It has a secondary capability against small surface vessels, tested against a 'Brave' class fast patrol boat, although the warhead is too small to inflict major damage on larger vessels. Rolls-Royce Limited was a British car and aero-engine manufacturing company founded by Henry Royce and C.S. Rolls on 15 March 1906 and was the result of a partnership formed in 1904. ... Kerosene or paraffin oil (British English, not to be confused with the waxy solid also called paraffin wax or just paraffin) is a colorless flammable hydrocarbon liquid. ... A ramjet, sometimes referred to as a stovepipe jet, is a type of jet engine. ... Mach number (Ma) is defined as a ratio of speed to the speed of sound in the medium in case. ... The Brave fast patrol boats were a class of patrol boats that were the last of their type for the Royal Navy (RN) Coastal Forces. They followed the Bold class boats which were a couple of experimental turbojet powered boats. ...


Guidance is by proportional navigation and a semi-active radar homing system using the nose intake cone and four aerials around the intake as an interferometer aerial, with targets being identified by a Type 1022 surveillance radar (originally radar Type 965) and illuminated by 1 of a pair of radar Type 909. This allows two targets to be engaged simultaneously in initial versions, with later variants (see below) able to engage more. Firing is from a twin-arm trainable launcher that is loaded automatically from below decks. The original launcher seen on the Bristol was significantly larger than that that appeared on the Type 42 and Invincible classes. Initial difficulties with launcher reliability have been resolved.


Combat Service

Falklands War

Sea Dart was used during the Falklands War and is credited with seven confirmed kills (plus one British Gazelle helicopter by friendly fire). One kill was against a high-flying Learjet reconnaissance aircraft beyond the missile's stated technical envelope. In another engagement, a high-flying Argentinian Canberra bomber was shot down. Other kills were made against low-flying attack aircraft. However, Sea Dart was found to be unsuitable when operating close inshore as it was unable to lock onto targets at distance obscured by land and fast-moving low-level targets obscured in ground clutter or sea-returns. These shortcomings were more damning of the Type 42 destroyer than Sea Dart itself, as Batch 1 ships of the class were fitted with obsolete 1950s-era radar Type 965 (later ships, including Exeter which served in the Falklands had the more advanced Type 1022 radar) and had no other defence against aircraft apart from a pair of World War 2-vintage 20 mm guns. Combatants Argentina United Kingdom Commanders Presidente Leopoldo Galtieri Vice Admiral Juan Lombardo Brigadier General Ernesto Crespo Brigade General Mario Menéndez Prime minister Margaret Thatcher Admiral Sir John Fieldhouse Rear-Admiral Sandy Woodward Major General Jeremy Moore Casualties 649 killed 1,068 wounded 11,313 taken prisoner 75 fixed wing... The Gazelle is a helicopter developed as part of an Anglo-French venture between the Westland and Aérospatiale companies in 1968. ... Learjet is a manufacturer of business jets for civilian and military use. ... Argentina is a Spanish-speaking country in southern South America, situated between the Atlantic Ocean in the east. ... The English Electric Canberra was a first-generation jet bomber manufactured in large numbers through the 1950s. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...

Sea Dart on HMS Invincible
Sea Dart on HMS Invincible

Image File history File links Sea-dart_DN-SN-90-08592. ... Image File history File links Sea-dart_DN-SN-90-08592. ...

Gulf War (1991)

In February 1991 during the Gulf War the battleship USS Missouri, escorted by the Sea Dart carrying HMS Gloucester and the Phalanx CIWS-equipped USS Jarrett, was engaged by an Iraqi Silkworm missile (also known as a Seersucker). After an unsuccessful response from the Phalanx 20 mm CIWS of Jarrett, having targeted chaff launched by the Missouri rather than the incoming missile, the Silkworm missile was intercepted and destroyed by a Sea Dart fired from Gloucester. This engagement was the first validated, successful engagement of a missile by a missile during combat at sea. Combatants UN Coalition Republic of Iraq Commanders Norman Schwarzkopf, Peter de la Billière, Khalid bin Sultan, Saleh Al-Muhaya, Mohamed Hussein Tantawi Saddam Hussein Strength 883,863 360,000 Casualties 378 dead, 1,000 wounded see section below The Gulf War or the Persian Gulf War (16 January 1991... Radars: AN/SPS-49 Air Search Radar AN/SPS-67 Surface Search Radar Fire control: 4 × Mk 37 Gun Fire Control 2 × Mk 38 Gun Director 1 × Mk 40 Gun Director EW: AN/SLQ-32 Other: AN/SLQ-25 NIXIE Decoy System 8 × Super Rapid Bloom Rocket Launchers (SRBOC) Armor... HMS Gloucester (D96) is a Type 42 destroyer of the Royal Navy. ... Block 1 CIWS The Phalanx CIWS (Close-in weapon system, pronounced see-wiz) is an anti-missile system that was designed and manufactured by the General Dynamics Corporation, Pomona Division. ... USS Jarrett (FFG-33), twenty-fifth ship of the Oliver Hazard Perry class of guided-missile frigates, was named for Vice Admiral Harry B. Jarrett (1898–1974). ... Silkworm missile stored at Umm Qasr in Iraq. ... Block 1 CIWS The Phalanx CIWS (Close-in weapon system, pronounced see-wiz) is an anti-missile system that was designed and manufactured by the General Dynamics Corporation, Pomona Division. ... Phalanx CIWS A Close-in weapon system (CIWS) is a naval shipboard weapon system for detecting and destroying incoming anti-ship missiles and enemy aircraft at short range (the threat(s) having penetrated the ships available outer defences). ...


Variants

The Sea Dart has been upgraded over the years - notably its electronics - as technology advances. The following Modification standards have been fielded:

  • Mod 0 — Basic 1960s version, used in the Falklands. Vacuum-tube technology. Range circa 40 nm.
  • Mod 1 — Improved Sea Dart. Upgraded version 1983-1986. Updated guidance systems possibly allowing some capability against sea-skimming targets and much greater reliability.
  • Mod 2 — 1989-1991. Upgrade included ADIMP (Air Defence IMProvement) which saw the replacement of six old circuit cards in the guidance system with one, allowing the spare volume to be used for an autopilot. Used alongside a command datalink (sited on the Type 909 pedestal) it allows several missiles to be 'in the air' at once, re-targeted during flight etc. and allows an initial ballistic trajectory, doubling range to 80 nm with the upgraded 909(I) radar for terminal illumination only.
  • Mod 3 — Latest version with new Infrared fuze. Delayed eight years from 1994 to 2002.

The Sea Dart Mark 2, GWS 31, (a.k.a. Sea Dart II - not to be confused with Mod 2, above) development was cancelled in 1981. This was intended to allow 'off the rail' manoeuvres with additional controls added to the booster. The Mark 2 was reduced to Advanced Sea Dart, then Enhanced Sea Dart and finally Improved Sea Dart. Image of two girls in mid-infrared (thermal) light (false-color) Infrared (IR) radiation is electromagnetic radiation of a wavelength longer than that of visible light, but shorter than that of radio waves. ... Fuze is a brand of beverage. ... Aka can refer to the following meanings: Aka is an initialism for Also Known As. ...


Guardian was a proposed land-based system of radars, control stations and a box-launched version of Sea Dart ('Land Dart'?) proposed in the 1980s for use as a land-based air defence system for the Falkland Islands. A similar lightweight box-launched version was also proposed for small naval craft.


Withdrawal

The Sea Dart equipped Type 42s are reaching the end of their service lives, with some vessels already retired. Construction has begun on the Type 45 class which, with the much more capable PAAMS missile system, will replace the Type 42 from 2009. The United Kingdoms Type 45 destroyer is the state-of-the art air defence destroyer programme of the Royal Navy. ... The Principle Anti Air Missile System (PAAMS) is a joint French/Italian/British program for a naval anti-aircraft weapon. ...


References

  • Britain's Modern Royal Navy, Paul Beaver, Patrick Stephens Limited, 1996 ISBN 1-85260-442-5
  • Naval Armament, Doug Richardson, Jane's Publishing, 1981, ISBN 0-531-03738-X

See also


British guided missiles

Air-to-air Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... A US Navy VF-103 Jolly Rogers F-14 Tomcat fighter launches an AIM-54 Phoenix long-range air-to-air missile. ...


ASRAAM | Fireflash | Firestreak | Red Top | Skyflash The AIM-132 Advanced Short Range Air-to-Air Missile is a British air-to-air missile with infra-red guidance. ... The Fairey Fireflash was the first British air-to-air missile. ... Type air-to-air Nationality United Kingdom Era Cold War Launch platform fixed wing aircraft Target aircraft History Builder de Havilland Propellors Date of design ? Production period ? Service duration 1958 - 1988 Operators United Kingdom, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia. ... Hawker Siddeley Red Top missile mounted on a English Electric Lightning at the RAF Museum at Hendon, London. ... UK medium-range semi-active radar guided air-to-air missile derived from the US AIM-7 Sparrow missile and carried by the Tornado F3 interceptor aircraft. ...


Air-to-surface An air-to-surface missile (also, air-to-ground missile, ASM or AGM) is a missile designed to be launched from military aircraft (bombers, attack aircraft, fighter aircraft or other kinds) and strike ground targets on land, at sea, or both. ...


ALARM | Brimstone | Martel (UK/France) | Sea Eagle | Sea Skua | Storm Shadow (UK/France) For other uses, see Alarm (disambiguation). ... Brimstone test firing from Panavia Tornado The Brimstone missile is an advanced Anti-Tank Guided Missile (ATGM) developed by MBDA. The missile is a development of Boeings AGM-114 Hellfire is designed to meet the RAFs requirement for a long range anti-armour weapon, allowing strike aircraft to... Martel (AS 37) Type air-to-surface Nationality UK/France Era Cold War Launch platform fixed wing aircraft Target ship History Builder BAe, Matra Date of design ? Production period ? Service duration ? Operators FAA Variants AS 37 radar, AJ 168 Video Number built ? Specifications Type ? Diameter 0. ... The BAe Sea Eagle is a medium weight, fire-and-forget, sea-skimming anti-ship missile designed and built by BAe Dynamics (now MBDA) in service with the Indian Navy. ... Sea Skua Type air-to-surface Nationality United Kingdom Era 1980-Present Launch platform Helicopted launched Target shipping History Builder British Aerospace Dynamics (now MBDA) Date of design Production period Service duration Operators UK, Brazil, Germany, Malaysia Variants ? Number built ? Specifications Type anti-shipping Diameter 0. ... Storm Shadow is an Anglo-French air-launched cruise missile, manufactured by MBDA and used by Britain, France, and Italy. ...


Surface-to-air Akash Missile Firing French Air Force Crotale battery Bendix Rim-8 Talos surface to air missile of the US Navy A surface-to-air missile (SAM) is a missile designed to be launched from the ground to destroy aircraft. ...


Bloodhound | Blowpipe | Javelin | Rapier | Sea Cat | Sea Dart | Sea Slug | Sea Wolf | Starburst | Starstreak | Tigercat | Thunderbird Type SAM Nationality UK Era Cold War Launch platform Fixed installation Target High altitude bomber History Builder Bristol Aeroplane Co. ... Canadian 129th Anti-Aircraft Defense Battery missile team with Blowpipe during NATO exercise Cornet Phaser. ... A triple Javelin missile launcher Javelin is a British man-portable surface-to-air missile, used by the British Army and Canadian Army. ... Rapier Type surface to air Nationality UK Era Cold War Launch platform vehicle Target aircraft History Builder British Aerospace Date of design Production period Service duration Operators UK Variants ? Number built ? Specifications Type Diameter 0. ... Sea Cat Type surface-to-air Nationality United Kingdom Era Cold War Launch platform Ship Target aircraft History Builder Short Brothers Date of design Production period Service duration 1962 - Operators UK Variants Fire Control (see text) Number built Specifications Type close range anti-aircraft Diameter 0. ... Sea Slug was a Royal Navy surface-to-air missile system built by Hawker Siddeley which came into service in the 1950s and was still in use at the time of the Falklands War. ... Type surface-to-air Nationality UK Era Cold War Launch platform ship Target missile, aircraft History Builder BAe, MDBA Date of design Production period Service duration 1979 - Operators UK, Brazil and Chile Variants Electronics; GWS-25, GWS-26, GWS-27 Vertical Launch Number built Specifications Type Diameter 0. ... Starburst Type short-range surface-to-air missile Nationality United Kingdom Era Launch platform Target History Builder Shorts Missile Systems (Thales Air Defence Limited) Date of design Production period Service duration 1990 Operators United Kingdom, Canada, Kuwait, Malaysia (504 missiles) Variants Number built 10,000 built by 1999 Specifications Type... Type short-range surface-to-air missile Nationality UK Era 1990s-Current Launch platform Target History Builder Thales Air Defence Limited Date of design Production period Service duration 1997 Operators Variants Number built 7,000 ordered Specifications Type Diameter 27 cm Wing span Length 1. ... Sea Cat Type surface-to-air Nationality United Kingdom Era Cold War Launch platform Ship Target aircraft History Builder Short Brothers Date of design Production period Service duration 1962 - Operators UK, Brazil, Chile and Sweden Variants Fire Control (see text) Number built Specifications Type close range anti-aircraft Diameter 0. ... Thunderbird in displayed in Finnish Anti-aircraft museum (Ilmatorjuntamuseo) in Tuusula. ...


Surface-to-surface A surface-to-surface missile (SSM) is a guided projectile launched from a hand-held, vehicle mounted, trailer mounted or fixed installation or from a ship. ...


Swingfire | Malkara (UK/Australia) | Vigilant Swingfire Type Anti-tank Nationality UK Era Cold War Launch platform Vehicle Target Vehicle History Builder Date of design Production period Service duration Operators UK, Belgium, Kenya Variants none Number built Specifications Type Diameter 0. ... Malkara Type anti-tank guided missile Nationality UK/Australia Era Cold War Launch platform Vehicle Target AFV History Builder Date of design 1954 Production period Service duration 1958 to 1960s Operators UK Variants none Number built 1000 Specifications Type surface to surface Diameter 0. ... The Vickers Vigilant was a British anti-tank missile used by the British Army. ...


Strategic and tactical nuclear // Nuclear weapons delivery is the technology and systems used to place a nuclear weapon at the position of detonation, on or near its intended target. ...


Blue Steel Blue Steel Type nuclear stand-off missile Nationality UK Era Cold War Launch platform Aircraft Target History Builder Avro Date of design Production period Service duration 1963-1969 Operators UK RAF Variants Number built Specifications Type Diameter 0. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Sea Dart missile - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (585 words)
Sea Dart began as Hawker Siddeley project CF.299, a weapon to replace the Royal Navy's first generation long-range surface-to-air missile, the Sea Slug.
The missile system was also fitted to Invincible class aircraft carrier but was removed during refits in the 1998-2000 period to increase the area of the flight deck and below-decks stowage associated with the operation of RAF Harrier GR9 aircraft.
Sea Dart was used during the Falklands War and is credited with 8 confirmed kills.
Sea Dart missile - definition of Sea Dart missile in Encyclopedia (192 words)
Sea Dart is a surface to air missile system mounted on air defence destroyers of the Royal Navy.
Sea Dart entered service in 1967 on HMS Bristol, before becoming widespread on the Type 42 destroyers.
The missile system was also fitted to Invincible class aircraft carriers but was removed during refits in the 1998-2000 period to increase the area of the flight deck.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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