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Encyclopedia > Scythians
Scythians

Approximate extent of East Iranian languages the 1st century BCE is shown in orange.
Total population

Unknown Image File history File links Scythia-Parthia_100_BC.png historical spread of Iranian peoples/languages: Scythia, Sarmatia, Bactria and the Parthian Empire in ca. ... The Eastern Iranian languages are a subgroup of the Iranian languages emerging in Middle Iranian times (from ca. ...

Regions with significant populations
Eastern Europe
Central Asia
Northern India
Languages
Scythian language
Religions
Animism
Related ethnic groups

The Scythians (/'sɪθɪən/, also /'sɪðɪən/) or Scyths (/'sɪθs/[1]; from Greek Σκύθης), a nation of horse-riding nomadic pastoralists who spoke an Iranian language[2], dominated the Pontic steppe throughout Classical Antiquity. By Late Antiquity the closely-related Sarmatians came to dominate the Scyths in this area. Much of the surviving information about the Scyths comes from the Greek historian Herodotus (c. 440 BCE) in his Histories, and archaeologically from the exquisite goldwork found in Scythian burial mounds in Ukraine and the Southern Russia. Scythian and Sarmatian are the names of the East Iranian dialects spoken by the Scythian/Sarmatian tribes of cattlebreeders in Southern Russia between 8th century BC and 5th century AD. The two branches are divided mainly chronologically, rather than geographically: Scythian - archaic version; mainly during classic antiquity Sarmatian Sometimes, the... The term Animism is derived from the Latin anima, meaning soul.[1][2] In its most general sense, animism is simply the belief in souls. ... Sarmatia Europea in Scythia map 1697 AD Sarmatia Europæa separated from Sarmatia Asiatica by the Tanais (the River Don), based on Greek literary sources, in a map printed in London, ca 1770 Great steppe in early spring. ... Ideograms for Ta-Hsia. ... Saka is also the name of a town in Hiroshima, Japan; for information on this town, see Saka, Hiroshima. ... The Indo-Scythians are a branch of the Indo-Iranian Sakas (Scythians), who migrated from southern Siberia into Bactria, Sogdiana, Arachosia, Gandhara, Kashmir, Punjab, and into parts of Western and Central India, Gujarat and Rajasthan, from the middle of the 2nd century BCE to the 1st century BCE. The first... Massagetae were an Iranian people of antiquity. ... For other uses, see Nation (disambiguation). ... Eurasian nomads are a large group of peoples of the steppes of Central Asia, Mongolia and Eastern Europe (Pontic steppe). ... The Iranian languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family. ... The Pontic steppe refers to the steppelands to the north of the Black Sea and on its eastern side as far as the Caspian Sea. ... Classical antiquity is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, which begins roughly with the earliest-recorded Greek poetry of Homer (7th century BC), and continues through the rise of Christianity and the fall of the Western Roman Empire (5th century AD... Late Antiquity is a rough periodization (c. ... Sarmatia Europea in Scythia map 1697 AD Sarmatia Europæa separated from Sarmatia Asiatica by the Tanais (the River Don), based on Greek literary sources, in a map printed in London, ca 1770 Great steppe in early spring. ... Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: HÄ“rodotos Halikarnāsseus) was a Greek historian from Ionia who lived in the 5th century BC (ca. ... The Histories of Herodotus of Halicarnassus is considered the first work of history in Western literature. ... Sarmatian Kurgan 4th c. ...


Also, since ancient times non-Scyths have used the name "Scythian" more broadly to refer to various peoples seen as similar or identical to the Scythians, or who lived anywhere in a vast area covering including present-day Ukraine, Russia and Central Asia — known until medieval times as Scythia. The name was also used among early scholars studying the Proto Indo-Europeans, and the Scythians are still considered a reasonable analogue for their Proto Indo-European ancestors. Approximate extent of Scythia and Sarmatia in the 1st century BC (the orange background shows the spread of Eastern Iranian languages, among them Scytho-Sarmatian). ... See Pie (disambiguation) for other uses of PIE. The Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) is the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages. ... See Pie (disambiguation) for other uses of PIE. The Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) is the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages. ...

Contents

History and archaeology

Origins and pre-history (to 700 BCE)

Skunkha, king of the Sakā tigraxaudā ("wearing pointed caps Sakae", a group of Scythian tribes). Detail of Behistun Inscription.
Skunkha, king of the Sakā tigraxaudā ("wearing pointed caps Sakae", a group of Scythian tribes). Detail of Behistun Inscription.
The Tigrakhauda (Scythian) relief of eastern stairs, Apadana.
The Tigrakhauda (Scythian) relief of eastern stairs, Apadana.

Scholars generally classify the Scythian language as a member of the Eastern Iranian languages, and the Scythians as a branch of the ancient Iranian peoples expanding into the steppe regions north of Greater Iran from around 1000 BCE.[3] [4] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Behistun Inscription, carved into a cliffside, gives the same text in three languages, telling the story of King Darius conquests, with the names of twenty-three provinces subject to him. ... Image File history File links Tigraxauda. ... Image File history File links Tigraxauda. ... Scythia was an area in Eurasia inhabited in ancient times by an Indo-Aryans known as the Scythians. ... See Apadāna for the Pali texts. ... Scythian and Sarmatian are the names of the East Iranian dialects spoken by the Scythian/Sarmatian tribes of cattlebreeders in Southern Russia between 8th century BC and 5th century AD. The two branches are divided mainly chronologically, rather than geographically: Scythian - archaic version; mainly during classic antiquity Sarmatian Sometimes, the... The Eastern Iranian languages are a subgroup of the Iranian languages emerging in Middle Iranian times (from ca. ... Ancient Iranian peoples who settled Greater Iran in the 2nd millennium BC first appear in Assyrian records in the 9th century BC. They remain dominant throughout Classical Antiquity in Scythia and Persia. ... Greater Iran (in Persian: ایران بزرگ pron: Iran-e Bozorg, also ایران‌زمین pron: Iran-zameen) is a term for the Iranian plateau in addition to the entire region where Iranian languages are today spoken as a first language, or as a second language by a significant minority. ...


The Histories of Herodotus provide the most important literary sources relating to ancient Scyths. According to Sulimirski [5] , Herodotus provides a broadly correct depiction but apparently knew little of the eastern part of Scythia. According to Herodotus the ancient Persians called all the Scyths "Saca" (Herodotus .VII 64). Their principal tribe, the Royal Scyths, ruled the vast lands occupied by the nation as a whole (Herodotus .IV 20); and they called themselves Skolotoi. Oswald Szemerényi devotes a thorough discussion to the etymology of the word Scyth in his work "Four old Iranian ethnic names: Scythian - Skudra - Sogdian - Saka". [6]. The related words derive from *skuza, an ancient Indo-European word for archer, (cf. English shoot,) hence Iranian Ishkuzi = archers. Oswald Szemerényi (7 September 1913, London – 29 December 1996, Freiburg) was an Indo-Europeanist, with strong interests in Comparative linguistics in general. ...


The Scythians first appeared in the historical record in the beginning of the first millennium BCE. [7] . But Herodotus (IV. 11) [8] reported a version according to which:

The nomadic tribes of Scythians who lived in Asia were hard-pressed by the Massagetae tribes, were forced across the Araxes into Cimmeria. There is also another different story, now to be related, in which I am more inclined to put faith than in any other. It is that the wandering Scythians once dwelt in Asia, and there warred with the Massagetae, but with ill success; they therefore quit their homes, crossed the Araxes, and entered the land of Cimmeria.

Around 770 BCE, the Scythians (led by Ishpaki — Old Iranian *Spakaaya) in alliance with the Mannaens attacked Assyria. The group first appears in Assyrian annals under the name Ishkuzai. According to the brief assertion of Esarhaddon's inscription, the Assyrian empire defeated the alliance. Subsequent mention of Scythians in Babylonian and Assyrian texts occurs in connection with Media. Both Old Persian and Greek sources mention them during the period of the Achaemenid empires, with Greek sources locating them in the steppe between the Dnieper and Don rivers. The Massagetae were an Iranian people[1][2][3][4] of antiquity known primarily from the writings of Herodotus. ... Aras, Araks, Arax, Araxes, or Araz (Persian: ارس, Azerbaijani: Araz), is a river rising in Anatolia in Turkey, flowing along the Turkey-Armenia border, then along the Iran border, entering Azerbaijan, and falling into Kura river as a right tributary. ... The Cimmerians were an ancient people who lived in the south of modern-day Ukraine and Russia in the 8th and 7th century BC. Cimmeria was an ancient continental plate comprising present-day Turkey, Iran, and Afghanistan. ... For other uses, see Assyria (disambiguation). ... Esarhaddon (Greek and Biblical form; Akkadian Aššur-aha-iddina Ashur has given a brother to me), was a king of Assyria who reigned 681 BC-669 BC), the youngest son of Sennacherib and the Aramaic queen Naqia (Zakitu), Sennacheribs second wife. ... Babylonia was a state in southern Mesopotamia, in modern Iraq, combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid Dynasty was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire, including Cyrus II the Great, Darius I and Xerxes I. At the height of their power, the Achaemenid rulers of Persia ruled over territories roughly emcompassing some parts of todays Iraq, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Israel, Lebanon... This article is about the river. ... The Don (Дон) is one of the major rivers of Russia. ...


Classical Antiquity (600 BCE to CE 300)

Herodotus provides the first detailed description of the Scythians. He classes the Cimmerians as a distinct autochthonous tribe, expelled by the Scythians from the northern Black Sea coast (Hist. 4.11-12). Herodotus also states (4.6) that the Scythians consisted of the Auchatae, Catiaroi, Traspians and Paralatae or "Royal Scythians". Throughout his work Herodotus specifically distinguished between the nomadic Scythians in the south and the agricultural Scythians to the north.[citation needed] Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: Hērodotos Halikarnāsseus) was a Greek historian from Ionia who lived in the 5th century BC (ca. ... The Cimmerians (Greek: , Kimmerioi) were ancient equestrian nomads who, according to Herodotus, originally inhabited the region north of the Caucasus and the Black Sea, in what is now Russia and Ukraine, in the 8th and 7th century BC. Assyrian records, however, first place them in the region of what is...

Scythian warriors, drawn after figures on an electrum cup from the Kul-Oba kurgan burial near Kerch. The warrior on the right strings his bow, bracing it behind his knee; note the typical pointed hood, long jacket with fur or fleece trimming at the edges, decorated trousers, and short boots tied at the ankle. Scythians apparently normally wore their hair long and loose, and all adult men apparently wore beards. The gorytos appears clearly on the left hip of the bare-headed spearman; his companion has an interesting shield, perhaps representing a plain leather covering over a wooden or wicker base. (Hermitage Museum, St Petersburg)
Scythian warriors, drawn after figures on an electrum cup from the Kul-Oba kurgan burial near Kerch. The warrior on the right strings his bow, bracing it behind his knee; note the typical pointed hood, long jacket with fur or fleece trimming at the edges, decorated trousers, and short boots tied at the ankle. Scythians apparently normally wore their hair long and loose, and all adult men apparently wore beards. The gorytos appears clearly on the left hip of the bare-headed spearman; his companion has an interesting shield, perhaps representing a plain leather covering over a wooden or wicker base. (Hermitage Museum, St Petersburg)
Treasure of Kul-Oba, near Kerch.
Treasure of Kul-Oba, near Kerch.

In 512 BCE, when king Darius the Great of Persia attacked the Scythians, he allegedly penetrated into their land after crossing the Danube. Herodotus relates that the nomad Scythians succeeded in frustrating the designs of the Persian army by letting it march through the entire country without an engagement. According to Herodotus, Darius in this manner came as far as the Volga river. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Electrum coin of the Byzantine Emperor Alexius I Comnenus. ... Scythian warriors, drawn after figures on an electrum cup from the Kul-Oba kurgan. ... Sarmatian Kurgan 4th c. ... Kerch (Ukrainian: , Russian: , Crimean Tatar: , Old East Slavic: Кърчевъ) is a city (2001 pop 157,000) on the Kerch Peninsula of eastern Crimea, is an important industrial, transport and tourist centre of Ukraine. ... The State Hermitage Museum (Russian: ) in Saint Petersburg, Russia is one of the largest museums in the world, with 3 million works of art (not all on display at once), [1] and one of the oldest art galleries and museums of human history and culture in the world. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 648 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (907 × 839 pixel, file size: 231 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 648 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (907 × 839 pixel, file size: 231 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Scythian warriors, drawn after figures on an electrum cup from the Kul-Oba kurgan. ... Kerch (Ukrainian: , Russian: , Crimean Tatar: , Old East Slavic: Кърчевъ) is a city (2001 pop 157,000) on the Kerch Peninsula of eastern Crimea, is an important industrial, transport and tourist centre of Ukraine. ... Seal of Darius I, showing the king hunting on his chariot, and the symbol of Ahuramazda Darius the Great (Pers. ... Founder of empires: Cyrus, The Great is still revered in modern Iran as he was in all the successor Persian Empires. ... This article is about the Danube River. ... For other meanings of the word Volga see Volga (disambiguation) Волга Length 3,690 km Elevation of the source 225 m Average discharge  ? m³/s Area watershed 1. ...


During the 5th to 3rd centuries BCE the Scythians evidently prospered. When Herodotus wrote his Histories in the 5th century BCE, Greeks distinguished Scythia Minor in present-day Romania and Bulgaria from a Greater Scythia that extended eastwards for a twenty-day ride from the Danube River, across the steppes of today's East Ukraine to the lower Don basin. The Don, then known as Tanaïs, has served as a major trading route ever since. The Scythians apparently obtained their wealth from their control over the slave-trade from the north to Greece through the Greek Black Sea colonial ports of Olvia, Chersonesos, Cimmerian Bosporus, and Gorgippia. They also grew grain, and shipped wheat, flocks, and cheese to Greece. The 5th century BC started the first day of 500 BC and ended the last day of 401 BC. // The Parthenon of Athens seen from the hill of the Pnyx to the west. ... The 3rd century BC started the first day of 300 BC and ended the last day of 201 BC. It is considered part of the Classical era, epoch, or historical period. ... Major ancient towns and colonies in Schythia Minor Scythia Minor (Greek: Μικρά Σκυθία, Mikrá Scythia) was in ancient times the region surrounded by the Danube at the north and west and the Black Sea at the east, corresponding to todays Dobruja (a large part in Romania and a smaller part in... Approximate extent of Scythia and Sarmatia in the 1st century BC (the orange background shows the spread of Eastern Iranian languages, among them Scytho-Sarmatian). ... Length 2,888 km Elevation of the source 1,078 m Average discharge 30 km before Passau: 580 m³/s Vienna: 1,900 m³/s Budapest: 2,350 m³/s just before Delta: 6,500 m³/s Area watershed 817,000 km² Origin Black Forest (Schwarzwald-Baar, Baden- Württemberg... The Don (Дон) is one of the major rivers of Russia. ... Sarmatian cataphract from Tanais. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... Colonies in antiquity were city-states founded from a mother-city, not from a territory-at-large. ... Pontic Olbia or Olvia is the site a colony founded by the Milesians on the shores of the Southern Bug estuary (Greek: Hypanis), opposite Berezan Island. ... The remains of the city of Chersonesos Chersonesos (Greek: , Latin: , Old East Slavic: Корсунь, Korsun, Russian/Ukrainian: Херсонес, Khersones; see also List of traditional Greek place names), also transliterated as Chersonese, Chersonesos, Cherson, was an ancient Greek colony founded approximately 2500 years ago in the southwestern part of Crimea, known then as... The Cimmerian Bosphorus of Antiquity, shown on a map printed in London, ca 1770 The Cimmerian Bosporus (Bosporus Cimmerius) was the ancient name for the Strait of Kerch that connects the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov. ... Anapa (Russian: ) is a seaport town in Krasnodar Krai, Russia. ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. compactum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 For the indie rock group see: Wheat (band). ... Cheese is a solid food made from the milk of cows, goats, sheep, and other mammals. ...


Strabo (c. 63 BCE - 24 CE) reports that king Ateas united under his power the Scythian tribes living between the Maeotian marshes and the Danube. His westward expansion brought him in conflict with Philip II of Macedon (reigned 359 to 336 BCE), who took military action against the Scythians in 339 BCE. Ateas died in battle and his empire disintegrated. In the aftermath of this defeat, the Celts seem to have displaced the Scythians from the Balkans, while in south Russia a kindred tribe, the Sarmatians, gradually overwhelmed them. The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ... A silver coin of King Ataias. ... In the geography of Antiquity the Maeotian marshes (Palus Maeotis) lay at where the the Don River emptied into the Maeotian Lake (the Sea of Azov), in Lesser Scythia. ... This article is about the Danube River. ... Philip II of Macedon: victory medal (niketerion) struck in Tarsus, 2nd c. ... Celts, normally pronounced // (see article on pronunciation), refers primarily to the members of any of a number of peoples in Europe using the Celtic languages, a branch of Indo-European languages, or descended from those who did. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Sarmatia Europea in Scythia map 1697 AD Sarmatia Europæa separated from Sarmatia Asiatica by the Tanais (the River Don), based on Greek literary sources, in a map printed in London, ca 1770 Great steppe in early spring. ...


By the time of Strabo's account (the first decades of the first millennium CE), the Crimean Scythians had created a new kingdom extending from the lower Dnieper to the Crimea. The kings Skilurus and Palakus waged wars with Mithridates the Great (reigned 120–63 BCE) for control of the Crimean littoral, including Chersonesos and the Cimmerian Bosporus. Their capital city, Scythian Neapolis, stood on the outskirts of modern Simferopol. The Goths destroyed it much later, in the 5th century CE. The Dnieper River (Russian: , Dnepr; Belarusian: , Dniapro; Ukrainian: , Dnipro) is a river which flows from Russia, through Belarus and Ukraine, ending its flow in the Black Sea. ... Motto Процветание в единстве(Russian) Protsvetanie v edinstve(transliteration) Prosperity in unity Anthem Нивы и горы твои волшебны, Родина(Russian) Nivy i gory tvoi volshebny, Rodina(transliteration) Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Location of Crimea (red) with respect to Ukraine (light blue). ... Skilurus or Scylurus was the best known king of Scythia in the 2nd century BC. He was the son of a king and the father of a king, but the relation of his dynasty to the previous one is disputed. ... Palacus or Palakus was the king of Lesser Scythia who succeeded his father, Skilurus. ... A silver coin depicting Mithradates VI of Pontus. ... The remains of the city of Chersonesos Chersonesos (Greek: , Latin: , Old East Slavic: Корсунь, Korsun, Russian/Ukrainian: Херсонес, Khersones; see also List of traditional Greek place names), also transliterated as Chersonese, Chersonesos, Cherson, was an ancient Greek colony founded approximately 2500 years ago in the southwestern part of Crimea, known then as... The Cimmerian Bosphorus of Antiquity, shown on a map printed in London, ca 1770 The Cimmerian Bosporus (Bosporus Cimmerius) was the ancient name for the Strait of Kerch that connects the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov. ... Scythian Neapolis was a settlement that existed from the end of the 3rd century BCE until the second half of the 3rd century CE. The archeological ruins sit on the outskirts of the present-day Simferopol. ... Simferopol (English pronunciation: /ËŒsɪm. ... Invasion of the Goths: a late 19th century painting by O. Fritsche, is a highly romanticized portrait of the Goths as cavalrymen. ...


Sakas

Main article: Sakas

Asians, especially Persians, knew the Scythians in Asia as Sakas. The Indo-Scythians had the name "Shaka" in South Asia, an extension on the name "Saka". Herodotus describes them as Scythians, called by a different name: Saka is also the name of a town in Hiroshima, Japan; for information on this town, see Saka, Hiroshima. ... The Persians of Iran (officially named Persia by West until 1935 while still referred to as Persia by some) are an Iranian people who speak Persian (locally named Fârsi by native speakers) and often refer to themselves as ethnic Iranians as well. ... A cataphract-style parade armour of a Saka royal from the Issyk kurgan. ... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ... Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: Hērodotos Halikarnāsseus) was a Greek historian from Ionia who lived in the 5th century BC (ca. ...

"The Sacae, or Scyths, were clad in trousers, and had on their heads tall stiff caps rising to a point. They bore the bow of their country and the dagger; besides which they carried the battle-axe, or sagaris. They were in truth Amyrgian (Western) Scythians, but the Persians called them Sacae, since that is the name which they gave to all Scythians." (Herodotus VII. 64)

Although the Shakas had a reputation as fierce and war-like, one of the greatest sages of peace, the Buddha, may have descended from this tribe: he had the title Shakyamuni which means "Shaka monk". This image depicts a typical bow, as made by the Huns, lying against a tree. ... Image:StandngBuddha. ...


Indo-Scythians

Main article: Indo-Scythians
Silver coin of King Azes II (r.c. 35-12 BCE). Buddhist triratna symbol in the left field on the reverse.
Silver coin of King Azes II (r.c. 35-12 BCE). Buddhist triratna symbol in the left field on the reverse.

In the 2nd century BC, a group of Scythian tribes, known as the Indo-Scythians, migrated into Bactria, Sogdiana and Arachosia. The migrations in 175-125 BCE of the Kushan (Chinese: "Yuezhi") tribes, who originally lived in eastern Tarim Basin before the Huns (Chinese: "Xiongnu") tribes dislodged them, displaced the Indo-Scythians from Central Asia. Led by their king Maues, they ultimately settled in modern-day Punjab and Kashmir from around 85 BCE, where they replaced the kingdom of the Indo-Greeks by the time of Azes II (reigned circa 35 - 12 BCE). Kushans invaded again in the 1st century, but the Indo-Scythian rule persisted in some areas of Central India until the 5th century. The Indo-Scythians are a branch of the Indo-Iranian Sakas (Scythians), who migrated from southern Siberia into Bactria, Sogdiana, Arachosia, Gandhara, Kashmir, Punjab, and into parts of Western and Central India, Gujarat and Rajasthan, from the middle of the 2nd century BCE to the 1st century BCE. The first... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1962x964, 3101 KB) Coin of Azes II. Personal photograph, personal coin. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1962x964, 3101 KB) Coin of Azes II. Personal photograph, personal coin. ... Silver coin of King Azes II (r. ... The Triratna or Three Jewels symbol, on a Buddha footprint. ... The Indo-Scythians are a branch of the Indo-Iranian Sakas (Scythians), who migrated from southern Siberia into Bactria, Sogdiana, Arachosia, Gandhara, Kashmir, Punjab, and into parts of Western and Central India, Gujarat and Rajasthan, from the middle of the 2nd century BCE to the 1st century BCE. The first... Bactria, about 320 BC Bactria (Bactriana, Bākhtar in Persian, also Bhalika in Arabic and Indian languages, and Ta-Hia in Chinese) was the ancient Greek name of the country between the range of the Hindu Kush and the Amu Darya (Oxus); its capital, Bactra or Balhika or Bokhdi (now... Sogdiana, ca. ... Arachosia is the ancient name of an area that corresponds to the southern part of today s Afghanistan, around the city of Kandahar. ... Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ... Languages Unknown, although the epigraphy ranges from Greek language to Bactrian, and often considered to have spoken a Tocharian language. ... Taklamakan Desert in the Tarim Basin. ... The Huns were an early confederation of Central Asian equestrian nomads or semi-nomads. ... A Xiongnu belt buckle. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... Silver tetradrachm of Maues. ... Punjab, 1903 Punjab Province, 1909 Punjab (Persian: ‎, meaning Land of the five Rivers) (c. ... Kashmir (or Cashmere) may refer to: Kashmir region, the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent India, Kashmir conflict, the territorial dispute between India, Pakistan, and the China over the Kashmir region. ... Maximum extent of Indo-Greek territory circa 175 BCE. The Indo-Greeks (or sometimes Greco-Indians) designate a series of Greek kings, who invaded and controlled parts of northwest and northern India from 180 BCE to around 10 BCE. They are the continuation of the Greco-Bactrian dynasty of Greek... Silver coin of King Azes II (r. ...


Hellenic-Scythian contact still focused on the Hellenistic cities and settlements of the Crimea (especially in the Bosporan Kingdom). Greek craftsmen from the colonies north of the Black Sea made spectacular Scythian-style gold ornaments (see below), applying Greek realism to depict Scythian motifs of lions, antlered reindeer and gryphons. Motto Процветание в единстве(Russian) Protsvetanie v edinstve(transliteration) Prosperity in unity Anthem Нивы и горы твои волшебны, Родина(Russian) Nivy i gory tvoi volshebny, Rodina(transliteration) Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Location of Crimea (red) with respect to Ukraine (light blue). ... The Bosporan Kingdom, which was located on the Crimea peninsula, existed in the time of the Roman Empire. ... Statue of a griffin at St. ...


Late Antiquity (CE 300 to 600)

In Late Antiquity the notion of a Scythian ethnicity grew more vague, and outsiders might dub any people inhabiting the Pontic-Caspian steppe as "Scythians", regardless of their language. Thus, Priscus, a Byzantine emissary to Attila, repeatedly referred to the latter's followers as "Scythians". In Attila's regime Edekon was the king of Scythians. Late Antiquity is a rough periodization (c. ... The steppe extends roughly from the Dniepr to the Ural or 30 to 55 degrees eastern longitude, and from the Black Sea and the Caucasus in the south to the temperate forest and taiga in the north, or 45 to 55 degrees northern latitude. ... Priscus (left) with the Roman embassy at the court of Attila, holding his ΙΣΤΟΡΙΑ (History, which the painter has incorrectly spelled ΙΣΤΩΡΙΑ). (Detail from Mór Thans Feast of Attila. ... For other uses, see Attila (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Attila (disambiguation). ...


Meanwhile he was the head of Attila's bodyguard. Edekon was bribed to assassinate Attila by Crysaphius and Vigilius. But he remained loyal to Attila and informed him about the conspiracy. Attila ordered the execution of Vigilius. [citation needed] For other uses, see Attila (disambiguation). ... Vigilius was Pope from 537 to 555. ... For other uses, see Attila (disambiguation). ... Vigilius was Pope from 537 to 555. ...


The Goths had displaced the Sarmatians in the 2nd century from most areas near the Roman frontier, and by early medieval times, the Turkic migration marginalized East Iranian dialects, and assimilated the Saka linguistically. Invasion of the Goths: a late 19th century painting by O. Fritsche, is a highly romanticized portrait of the Goths as cavalrymen. ... Sarmatia Europea in Scythia map 1697 AD Sarmatia Europæa separated from Sarmatia Asiatica by the Tanais (the River Don), based on Greek literary sources, in a map printed in London, ca 1770 Great steppe in early spring. ... The present distribution of Turkic languages bears witness to the Early Medieval westward expansion of Turkic tribes. ... A cataphract-style parade armour of a Saka royal from the Issyk kurgan. ...


Archaeology

Archaeological remains of the Scythians include kurgan tombs (ranging from simple exemplars to elaborate "Royal kurgans" containing the "Scythian triad" of weapons, horse-harness, and Scythian-style wild-animal art), gold, silk, and animal sacrifices, in places also with suspected human sacrifices. Mummification techniques and permafrost have aided in the relative preservation of some remains. Scythian archaeology also examines the remains of North Pontic Scythian cities and fortifications. This article is about Bronze Age burial mounds and the Kurgan culture. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... For other uses of this word, see Silk (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A mummy is a corpse whose skin and dried flesh have been preserved by either intentional or accidental exposure to chemicals, extreme cold, very low humidity, or airlessness. ... In geology, permafrost or permafrost soil is soil at or below the freezing point of water (0°C or 32°F) for two or more years. ...


Carbon-14 dating of kurgans has allowed archaeologists to trace their emergence in the Sayan-Altay area from about 3,000 BCE, and their westward spread starting about 900 BC.[citation needed] Radiocarbon dating is the use of the naturally occurring isotope of carbon-14 in radiometric dating to determine the age of organic materials, up to ca. ... Lake Gornyh Duhov Western Sayan, Ergaki mountains The Sayan Mountains (Russian: , Sayany) are a mountain range in southern Siberia, Asia. ...


The spectacular Scythian grave-goods from Arzhan, and others in Tuva have been dated from about 900 BCE onward. One grave find on the lower Volga gave a similar date, and one of the Steblev graves from the eastern, European end of the Scythian area was dated to the late 8th century BCE. [9] Tyva Republic IPA: (Russian: IPA: ; Tuvan: ), or Tuva (), is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). ...


Archaeologists can distinguish three periods of ancient Scythian archaeological remains:

  • 1st period - pre-Scythian and initial Scythian epoch: from the 9th to the middle of the 7th centuries BCE
  • 2nd period - early Scythian epoch: from the 7th to the 6th centuries BCE
  • 3rd period - classical Scythian epoch: from the 5th to the 4th centuries BCE

From the 8th century BC to the 2nd century BCE, archeology records a split into two distinct settlement areas: the older in the Sayan-Altai area in Central Asia, and the younger in the North Pontic area in Eastern Europe[10].


Kurgans

Main article: Kurgans
An arm from the throne of a Scythian king, 7th century BCE. Found at the Kerkemess kurgan, Krasnodar Krai in 1905. On exhibit at the Hermitage Museum.
An arm from the throne of a Scythian king, 7th century BCE. Found at the Kerkemess kurgan, Krasnodar Krai in 1905. On exhibit at the Hermitage Museum.

Large burial mounds (some over 20 metres high), provide the most valuable archaeological remains associated with the Scythians. They dot the south Russian steppe, extending in great chains for many kilometers along ridges and watersheds. From them archaeologists have learnt much about Scythian life and art. [11] The Russian term for such a burial mound, kurgan, derives from a Turkic word for "castle". [12] This article is about Bronze Age burial mounds and the Kurgan culture. ... Image File history File links Throne_arm. ... Image File history File links Throne_arm. ... Krasnodar Krai (Russian: , Krasnodarsky kray) is a federal subject of Russia (a krai), located in the Southern Federal District. ... The State Hermitage Museum (Russian: ) in Saint Petersburg, Russia is one of the largest museums in the world, with 3 million works of art (not all on display at once), [1] and one of the oldest art galleries and museums of human history and culture in the world. ... The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean to Siberia and Western China, and are traditionally considered to be part of the proposed Altaic language family. ...


Tamgas

Scythian tribes and clans have left behind them as important ethnological markers their tamgas (brand-marks which identify individual possession), a must for pastoral societies with shared grazing-ranges. An alternative point of view sees tamgas as a real script consisting of syllables and several logograms. Tamgas allow reconstruction of movements and family links where no written records have survived. A tamgha, or tamga (Modern Turkish: damga) is an abstract seal or device used by Eurasian nomadic peoples and by cultures influenced by them. ... Writing systems of the world today. ... Egyptian hieroglyphs, which have their origins as logograms. ...


Besides identifying property, tamgas marked participation of members of the clan in collective actions (treaties, religious ceremonies, fraternization, public functions), and served as symbols of authority for minting coins. The tamga forms stayed unchanged for about 2000 years within kindred ethnic groups, but after the decline of some famous clan another clan would adopt its tamga.


Wide use of tamgas originated from western Turkestan and Mongolia no later than the beginning of the 6th century BCE.[citation needed] Analysis of tamgas for most powerful clans and for the kings of the Bosporus has allowed scholars to define precisely their genealogy and their relations with territories from where their forefathers migrated to Europe: Chorasm, Kang-Kü, Bactria, Sogdiana. [13] This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Cimmerian Bosphorus of Antiquity, shown on a map printed in London, ca 1770 The Cimmerian Bosporus (Bosporus Cimmerius) was the ancient name for the Strait of Kerch that connects the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov. ... After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      Khwarezm was a series of states centered on the Amu Darya river delta of the former Aral Sea, in modern Uzbekistan, extending across the Ust-Urt plateau and possibly as far west as... Bactria, about 320 BC Bactria (Bactriana, Bākhtar in Persian, also Bhalika in Arabic and Indian languages, and Ta-Hia in Chinese) was the ancient Greek name of the country between the range of the Hindu Kush and the Amu Darya (Oxus); its capital, Bactra or Balhika or Bokhdi (now... Sogdiana, ca. ...


Pazyryk culture

Horseman, Pazyryk felt artifact, ca. 300 BC.
Horseman, Pazyryk felt artifact, ca. 300 BC.
Main article: Pazyryk

Some of the first Bronze Age Scythian burials documented by modern archaeologists include the kurgans at Pazyryk in the Ulagan district of the Altay Republic, south of Novosibirsk in the Altay Mountains of southern Siberia. Archaeologists have extrapolated the Pazyryk culture from these finds: five large burial mounds and several smaller ones between 1925 and 1949, one opened in 1947 by Russian archaeologist Sergei Rudenko. The burial mounds concealed chambers of larch-logs covered over with large cairns of boulders and stones. Download high resolution version (480x640, 148 KB)Pazyrik horseman. ... Download high resolution version (480x640, 148 KB)Pazyrik horseman. ... Horseman, Pazyryk felt artifact, c. ... Horseman, Pazyryk felt artifact, c. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... Sarmatian Kurgan 4th c. ... Horseman, Pazyryk felt artifact, c. ... The Altai Republic (Russian: Респу́блика Алта́й; Altay: Алтай Республика) is a Russian Federation (a republic). ... Location of Novosibirsk in Russia and the Oblast Coordinates: Oblast Novosibirsk  - Mayor Vladimir Gorodetskiy Area    - City 447. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... “Siberian” redirects here. ... The Pazyryk culture (ca. ... Sergei Ivanovich Rudenko (January 16, 1885, Kharkov - July 16, 1969, Leningrad) was a prominent Russian/Soviet anthropologist and archaeologist who discovered and excavated the most celebrated of Scythian burials, Pazyryk in Siberia. ... For the magazine see Cairn Magazine. ...


Pazyryk culture flourished between the 7th and 3rd centuries BCE in the area associated with the Sacae. (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 7th century BC started on January 1, 700 BC and ended on December 31, 601 BC. // Overview Events Ashurbanipal, king of Assyria who created the the first systematically collected library at Nineveh A 16th century depiction of the Hanging Gardens of... The 3rd century BC started the first day of 300 BC and ended the last day of 201 BC. It is considered part of the Classical era, epoch, or historical period. ... The Sakas or Saka race was a group of people who lived in present day Uzbekistan around 2000 BC. The Sakas followed other Aryans into present day Iran, and returned to their original area in Central Asia. ...


Ordinary Pazyryk graves contain only common utensils, but in one, among other treasures, archaeologists found the famous Pazyryk Carpet, the oldest surviving wool-pile oriental rug. Another striking find, a 3-metre-high four-wheel funerary chariot, survived superbly preserved from the 5th century BCE. Image File history File links Scythiancarpet. ... An authentic oriental rug is a handmade carpet that is either knotted with pile or woven without pile. ...


Although some scholars sought to connect the Pazyryk nomads with indigenous ethnic groups of the Altay, Rudenko summed up the cultural context in the following dictum:

All that is known to us at the present time about the culture of the population of the High Altay, who have left behind them the large cairns, permits us to refer them to the Scythian period, and the Pazyryk group in particular to the fifth century BCE. This is supported by radiocarbon dating.[citation needed]

Belsk excavations

Recent digs[citation needed](see:Gelonus) in Belsk near Poltava (Ukraine) have uncovered a "vast city", with the largest area of any city in the world at that time. It has been tentatively identified by a team of archaeologists led by Boris Shramko as the site of Gelonus, the purported capital of Scythia. The city's commanding ramparts and vast area of 40 square kilometers exceed even the outlandish size reported by Herodotus. Its location at the northern edge of the Ukrainian steppe would have allowed strategic control of the north-south trade-route. Judging by the finds dated to the 5th and 4th centuries BCE, craft workshops and Greek pottery abounded. Gelonus, (also transliterated Helonus), 50. ... Belz (Ukrainian Белз, Polish Bełz, Yiddish בעלז) is a small town in western Ukraine, near the border with Poland. ... Location Map of Ukraine with Poltava highlighted. ... Boris Shramko (Ukrainian: ) Born 1921, Ukrainian historian (professor). ... Gelonus, (also transliterated Helonus), 50. ... Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: HÄ“rodotos Halikarnāsseus) was a Greek historian from Ionia who lived in the 5th century BC (ca. ... It has been suggested that Commerce be merged into this article or section. ... The 5th century BC started the first day of 500 BC and ended the last day of 401 BC. // The Parthenon of Athens seen from the hill of the Pnyx to the west. ... The 4th century BC started the first day of 400 BC and ended the last day of 301 BC. It is considered part of the Classical era, epoch, or historical period. ...


Tillia tepe treasure

"Kings with dragons", Tillia tepe.
"Kings with dragons", Tillia tepe.
Main article: Tillia tepe

A site found in 1968 in Tillia tepe (literally "The golden hill") in northern Afghanistan (former Bactria) near Shebergan consisted of the graves of five women and one man with extremely rich jewelry, dated to around the 1st century BCE, and generally thought to belong to Scythian tribes. Altogether the graves yielded several thousands of pieces of fine jewelry, usually made from combinations of gold, turquoise and lapis-lazuli. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1190x904, 980 KB) Kings with dragons. Tillia tepe, 1st century BCE. Musee Guimet. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1190x904, 980 KB) Kings with dragons. Tillia tepe, 1st century BCE. Musee Guimet. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Bactrian Gold. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Bactrian Gold. ... Bactria, about 320 BC Bactria (Bactriana, Bākhtar in Persian, also Bhalika in Arabic and Indian languages, and Ta-Hia in Chinese) was the ancient Greek name of the country between the range of the Hindu Kush and the Amu Darya (Oxus); its capital, Bactra or Balhika or Bokhdi (now... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... For other uses, see Turquoise (disambiguation). ... Lapis lazuli, also known as just lapis, is a stone with one of the longest traditions of being considered a gem, with a history stretching back to 7000 BC in Mehrgarh in the Indian subcontinent, situated in between modern day Afghanistan, and Pakistan. ...

Royal crown, Tillia tepe.
Royal crown, Tillia tepe.

A high degree of cultural syncretism pervades the findings, however. Hellenistic cultural and artistic influences appear in many of the forms and human depictions (from amorini to rings with the depiction of Athena and her name inscribed in Greek), attributable to the existence of the Seleucid empire and Greco-Bactrian kingdom in the same area until around 140 BCE, and the continued existence of the Indo-Greek kingdom in the northwestern Indian sub-continent until the beginning of our era. These artifacts also appeared intermixed with items coming from much farther afield, such between as a few Chinese artifacts (especially Chinese bronze mirrors) as well as a few Indian ones (decorated ivory plates). This testifies to the richness of cultural influences in the area of Bactria at that time. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The term Hellenistic (established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen) in the history of the ancient world is used to refer to the shift from a culture dominated by ethnic Greeks, however scattered geographically, to a culture dominated by Greek-speakers of whatever ethnicity, and from the political dominance... Amoretti or Amorini is an Italian term used to describe the small, winged babies who accompanied Cupid in the classicizing art of the Renaissance and late. ... For other uses, see Athena (disambiguation). ... The Seleucid Empire was a Hellenistic successor state of Alexander the Greats dominion. ... Approximate extent of the Greco-Bactrian kingdom circa 220 BCE. The Greco-Bactrians were a dynasty of Greek kings who controlled Bactria and Sogdiana, an area comprising todays northern Afghanistan and parts of Central Asia, the easternmost area of the Hellenistic world, from 250 to 125 BCE. Their expansion... The Indo-Greek Kingdom (or sometimes Graeco-Indian Kingdom[2]) covered various parts of the northwest and northern Indian subcontinent from 180 BCE to around 10 CE, and was ruled by a succession of more than thirty Hellenic and Hellenistic kings,[3] often in conflict with each other. ... Bronze mirrors preceded the glass mirrors of today. ... Bactria, about 320 BC Bactria (Bactriana, Bākhtar in Persian, also Bhalika in Arabic and Indian languages, and Ta-Hia in Chinese) was the ancient Greek name of the country between the range of the Hindu Kush and the Amu Darya (Oxus); its capital, Bactra or Balhika or Bokhdi (now...


Ordos culture

Bronze statuette of a man, Ordos, 3-1st century BCE. British Museum.
Bronze statuette of a man, Ordos, 3-1st century BCE. British Museum.
Main article: Ordos culture

The Ordos people were horse nomads would lived in the area of the Ordos Desert, in the south of the Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region of the People's Republic of China. They occupied the area from the 5th century BCE to the 1st-2nd century CE. The weapons, found in tombs throughout the steppes of the Ordos, are very close to that of the Scythians, especially the Sakas.[14] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 432 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2007 × 2785 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 432 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2007 × 2785 pixel, file size: 1. ... The British Museum in London, England is one of the worlds greatest museums of human history and culture. ... Location of the archaeological finds of the Ordos culture. ... Ordos Desert 1912 The Ordos Desert (Chinese: 鄂尔多斯沙漠; Pinyin: ÈěrduōsÄ« Shāmò) is a desert and steppe region lying on a plateau in the south of the Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Inner Mongolia (Mongolian: ᠥᠪᠦᠷ ᠮᠣᠨᠺᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠺᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠤᠨ Öbür Mongghul-un Öbertegen Jasaqu Orun; Chinese: 内蒙古自治区; Hanyu Pinyin... Saka is also the name of a town in Hiroshima, Japan; for information on this town, see Saka, Hiroshima. ...


Scythian influences

China

Chinese jade and steatite plaques, in the Scythian-style animal art of the steppes. 4th-3rd century BC. British Museum.
Chinese jade and steatite plaques, in the Scythian-style animal art of the steppes. 4th-3rd century BC. British Museum.

Ancient influences from Central Asia became identifiable in China following contacts of metropolitan China with nomadic western and northwestern border territories from the 8th century BCE. Gold entered China from Central Asia between the 8th and the 7th centuries, and Chinese jade-carvers began to make imitations of the designs of the steppes. The Chinese adopted the Scythian-style animal art of the steppes (descriptions of animals locked in combat), particularly the rectangular belt-plaques made of gold or bronze, and created their own versions in jade and steatite.[15] ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (978x953, 525 KB) Summary Chinese jade and steatite plaques. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (978x953, 525 KB) Summary Chinese jade and steatite plaques. ... A selection of antique, hand-crafted Chinese jade (jadeite) buttons Unworked Jade Jade is used as an ornamental stone, the term jade is applied to two different rocks that are made up of different silicate minerals. ... An Egyptian carved and glazed steatite scarab amulet. ... The British Museum in London, England is one of the worlds greatest museums of human history and culture. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... A steppe in Western Kazakhstan in early spring In physical geography, a steppe (Russian: - , Ukrainian: - , Kazakh: - ), pronounced in English as , is a plain without trees (apart from those near rivers and lakes); it is similar to a prairie, although a prairie is generally considered as being dominated by tall grasses... A selection of antique, hand-crafted Chinese jade (jadeite) buttons Unworked Jade Jade is used as an ornamental stone, the term jade is applied to two different rocks that are made up of different silicate minerals. ... An Egyptian carved and glazed steatite scarab amulet. ...


Following their expulsion by the Yuezhi, some Scythians may also have migrated to the area of Yunnan in southern China. Excavations of the prehistoric art of the Dian civilization of Yunnan have revealed hunting scenes of Caucasoid horsemen in Central Asian clothing.[16] Languages Unknown, although the epigraphy ranges from Greek language to Bactrian, and often considered to have spoken a Tocharian language. ... Yunan redirects here. ... The Dian Kingdom was established by the Dian people, who lived around Lake Dian in eastern Yunnan, China from the late Spring and Autumn Period until the Eastern Han Dynasty. ... Typical Caucasoid skull Caucasoid is a racial classification usually used as part of a phenotypal system, also including other classifications such as Australoid, Mongoloid, Negroid, and sometimes others such as Capoid. ...


Northeastern Asia

Scythian influences have been identified as far as Korea and Japan. Various Korean artifacts, such as the royal crowns of the kingdom of Silla, are said to be of Scythian design.[17] Similar crowns, brought through contacts with the continent, can also be found in Kofun era Japan. Such contacts are not so surprising, as the Korean language itself, and sometimes even Japanese, are considered as Uralo-Altaic languages, related to Magyar, Turkish or Mongol.[18] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 448 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (569 × 761 pixel, file size: 79 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Korea Silla Crown... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 448 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (569 × 761 pixel, file size: 79 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Korea Silla Crown... National Treasure of Korea No. ... Silla (also spelled Shilla, traditional dates 57 BCE - 935 CE) was one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. ... Kofun period (Japanese: 古墳時代, Kofun-jidai) is an era in the history of Japan from around AD 250 to 538. ... This article is mainly about the spoken Korean language. ... Altaic is a proposed language family that includes 66 languages [1] spoken by about 348 million people, mostly in and around Central Asia and northeast Asia. ... The Hungarian language is a Finno-Ugric language spoken in Hungary and in adjacent areas of Romania, Slovakia, Ukraine, Serbia, Croatia, Austria, Slovenia (all territories lost after World War I). ... Mongolian is the best-known member of the Mongolic language family, and the primary language of most of the residents of Mongolia. ...


Scythian language

Main article: Scythian languages

The Scythian language and its various dialects formed part of the Indo-European language-family. The personal names found in the contemporary Greek literary and epigraphic texts suggest that the language of the Scythians and the Sarmatians (who spoke a dialect of Scythian according to Hist. 4.117 Herodotus) belonged to the Northeast Iranian branch. An alternative theory suggests that at least some Scythian tribes, such as the Meotians (Sindi), spoke Indo-Aryan dialects. [19] The Scythian languages are the Northeastern Iranian dialects spoken by the Scythian (Sarmatian, Saka) tribes of the nomadic pastoralists in Scythia (Central Asia, Pontic-Caspian steppe) between the 8th century BC and the 5th century AD. Very little is known about them; they likely formed a dialect continuum, the western... The Scythian languages are the Northeastern Iranian dialects spoken by the Scythian (Sarmatian, Saka) tribes of the nomadic pastoralists in Scythia (Central Asia, Pontic-Caspian steppe) between the 8th century BC and the 5th century AD. Very little is known about them; they likely formed a dialect continuum, the western... For other uses, see Indo-European. ... The Rosetta Stone in the British Museum. ... Sarmatia Europea in Scythia map 1697 AD Sarmatia Europæa separated from Sarmatia Asiatica by the Tanais (the River Don), based on Greek literary sources, in a map printed in London, ca 1770 Great steppe in early spring. ... The Eastern Iranian languages are a subgroup of the Iranian languages emerging in Middle Iranian times (from ca. ... The Maeotae or Mæotæ or Maeotici (Greek: ) were an ancient people dwelling along the Palus Maeotis (to which they lended their name) in antiquity. ... Ancient terracotta vessels unearthed at the Sindian necropolis near Phanagoria. ... The Indo-Aryan languages form a subgroup of the Indo-Iranian languages, which belong to the Indo-European family of languages. ...


Naming and etymology

The Scythians known to Herodotus (Hist. 4.6) called themselves Skolotoi. The Greek word Skythēs probably reflects an older rendering of the very same name, *Skuδa- (whereas Herodotus transcribes the unfamiliar [ð] sound with Λ; -toi represents the North-east Iranian plural ending -ta). The word originally means "shooter, archer", and it ultimately derived from the Proto-Indo-European root *skeud- "to shoot, throw" (compare English shoot). [20] Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: HÄ“rodotos Halikarnāsseus) was a Greek historian from Ionia who lived in the 5th century BC (ca. ... Look up Λ, λ in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) is the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, spoken by the Proto-Indo-Europeans. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


The Sogdians' name for themselves, Swγδ, may represent a related word (*Skuδa > *Suγuδa with an anaptyctic vowel). The name also occurs in Assyrian in the form Aškuzai or Iškuzai ("Scythian"). It may have provided the source for biblical Hebrew Ashkenaz (original *אשכוז ’škuz got misspelled as אשכנז ’šknz), later a Jewish name of the Germanic areas of Central Europe and hence a self-descriptor of the Central European Jews who lived there among the Ashkenazim ("Germans") at that time called Teutons or Wendels. The Sogdians were an ancient people of Central Asia, who inhabited the region known to the West as Sogdiana. ... An anaptyxis is a type of phonetic or phonological change involving insertion of a vowel to ease pronunciation. ... Akkadian (lišānum akkadÄ«tum) was a Semitic language (part of the greater Afro-Asiatic language family) spoken in ancient Mesopotamia, particularly by the Assyrians and Babylonians. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... Languages Yiddish, Hebrew, Russian, English Religions Judaism Related ethnic groups Sephardi Jews, Mizrahi Jews, and other Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or Ashkenazim (Standard Hebrew: sing. ...


The Old Persians used another name for the Scythians, namely Saka, which perhaps derived from the Iranian verbal root sak- "to go, to roam", i.e. "wanderer, nomad". The Chinese knew the Saka (Asian Scythians) as Sai (Chinese character: 塞, Old Sinitic *sək). A cataphract-style parade armour of a Saka royal from the Issyk kurgan. ... It has been suggested that Verbal agreement be merged into this article or section. ... Sai may be: Sai (weapon), a weapon used in certain martial arts, of Okinawan origin Sai (game), a variant of the game Mancala. ... Japanese name Kanji: Kana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Vietnamese name Quoc Ngu: Hantu: A Chinese character (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) is a logogram used in writing Chinese, Japanese, sometimes Korean, and formerly Vietnamese. ...


Scythian society

Scythians lived in confederated tribes, a political form of voluntary association which regulated pastures and organized a common defence against encroaching neighbors for the pastoral tribes of mostly equestrian herdsmen. While the productivity of domesticated animal-breeding greatly exceeded that of the settled agricultural societies, the pastoral economy also needed supplemental agricultural produce, and stable nomadic confederations developed either symbiotic or forced alliances with sedentary peoples — in exchange for animal produce and military protection. There are a number of theories regarding the domestication of the horse. ...


Herodotus relates that three main tribes of the Scythians descended from three brothers, Lipoxais, Arpoxais, and Colaxais[21]:

In their reign a plough, a yoke, an axe, and a bowl, all made of gold, fell from heaven upon the Scythian territory. The oldest of the brothers wished to take them away, but as he drew near the gold began to burn. The second brother approached them, but with the like result. The third and youngest then approached, upon which the fire went out, and he was enabled to carry away the golden gifts. The two eldest then made the youngest king, and henceforth the golden gifts were watched by the king with the greatest care, and annually approached with magnificent sacrifices.[22]

Gold clothing appliqué, showing two Scythian archers, 400 to 350 BCE. Probably from Kul-Oba, Crimea. British Museum.
Gold clothing appliqué, showing two Scythian archers, 400 to 350 BCE. Probably from Kul-Oba, Crimea. British Museum.

Herodotus also mentions a royal tribe or clan, an elite which dominated the other Scythians: Image File history File links Scythian Archers. ... Image File history File links Scythian Archers. ... Scythian warriors, drawn after figures on an electrum cup from the Kul-Oba kurgan. ... Motto Процветание в единстве(Russian) Protsvetanie v edinstve(transliteration) Prosperity in unity Anthem Нивы и горы твои волшебны, Родина(Russian) Nivy i gory tvoi volshebny, Rodina(transliteration) Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Location of Crimea (red) with respect to Ukraine (light blue). ... The British Museum in London, England is one of the worlds greatest museums of human history and culture. ...

Then on the other side of the Gerros we have those parts which are called the “Royal” lands and those Scythians who are the bravest and most numerous and who esteem the other Scythians their slaves.[23]

The elder brothers then, acknowledging the significance of this thing, delivered the whole of the kingly power to the youngest. From Lixopais, they say, are descended those Scythians who are called the race of the Auchatai; from the middle brother Arpoxais those who are called Catiaroi and Traspians, and from the youngest of them the “Royal” tribe, who are called Paralatai: and the whole together are called, they say, Scolotoi, after the name of their king; but the Hellenes gave them the name of Scythians. Thus the Scythians say they were produced; and from the time of their origin, that is to say from the first king Targitaos, to the passing over of Dareios [the Persian Emperor Darius I] against them [512 BCE], they say that there is a period of a thousand years and no more.[24] Seal of Darius I, showing the king hunting on his chariot, and the symbol of Ahuramazda Darius the Great (Pers. ...

This royal clan is also named in other classical sources the "Royal Dahae". The rich burials of Scythian kings in (kurgans) is independent evidence for the existence of this powerful royal elite. This article is about Bronze Age burial mounds and the Kurgan culture. ...


Although scholars have traditionally treated the three tribes as geographically distinct, Georges Dumézil interpreted the divine gifts as the symbols of social occupations, illustrating his trifunctional vision of early Indo-European societies: the plough and yoke symbolised the farmers, the axe — the warriors, the bowl — the priests. [25] According to Dumézil, "the fruitless attempts of Arpoxais and Lipoxais, in contrast to the success of Colaxais, may explain why the highest strata was not that of farmers or magicians, but rather that of warriors." [26] Georges Dumézil (March 4, 1898 - October 11, 1986) was a French comparative philologist best known for his analysis of sovereignty and power in Indo-European religion and society. ... The Trifunctional Hypothesis is a controversial conjecture proposed by French mythographer Georges Dumézil. ... The Proto-Indo-Europeans (PIE) were a patrilineal society of the Bronze Age (roughly 5th to 4th millennium BC), probably semi-nomadic, relying on animal husbandry. ...


Ruled by small numbers of closely-allied élites, Scythians had a reputation for their archers, and many gained employment as mercenaries. Scythian élites had kurgan tombs: high barrows heaped over chamber-tombs of larch-wood — a deciduous conifer that may have had special significance as a tree of life-renewal, for it stands bare in winter. Burials at Pazyryk in the Altay Mountains have included some spectacularly preserved Scythians of the "Pazyryk culture" — including the Ice Maiden of the 5th century BC. Archery is the practice of using a bow to shoot arrows. ... A mercenary is a person who takes part in an armed conflict who is not a national of a Party to the conflict and is motivated to take part in the hostilities essentially by the desire for private gain and, in fact, is promised, by or on behalf of a... Sarmatian Kurgan 4th c. ... For other uses, see Larch (disambiguation). ... Horseman, Pazyryk felt artifact, c. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The Ice Maiden is a 15th century Inca mummy of a 12 to 14 year old girl. ...


Scythian women dressed in much the same fashion as men, and at times fought alongside them in battle. A Pazyryk burial found in the 1990s contained the skeletons of a man and a woman, each with weapons, arrowheads, and an axe. In the 1998 NOVA documentary "Ice Mummies", an archaeologist explains that, "The woman was dressed exactly like a man. This shows that certain women, probably young and unmarried, could be warriors, literally Amazons. It didn't offend the principles of nomadic society." Anthropologist Hermann Baumann recorded male-to-female transsexual priestesses among the Scythians as well, pointing to a broad range of gender expression in the culture.[27] Nova is a popular science television series from the USA produced by WGBH and can be seen on PBS and in more than 100 countries. ... The Amazons (in Greek, ) were a mythical ancient nation of all-female warriors. ... Hermann Baumann (Born in Hamburg, Germany, in 1934) is a virtuoso Horn player, teacher and composer. ... A transsexual (sometimes transexual) person establishes a permanent identity with the opposite gender to their assigned (usually at birth) sex. ... Gender, for the purposes of this article, is the perceived or projected (self-identified) masculinity or femininity of a person. ...


As far as we know, the Scythians had no writing system. Until recent archaeological developments, most of our information about them came from the Greeks. The Ziwiye hoard, a treasure of gold and silver metalwork and ivory found near the town of Sakiz south of Lake Urmia and dated to between 680 and 625 BCE, includes objects with Scythian "animal style" features. One silver dish from this find bears some inscriptions, as yet undeciphered and so possibly representing a form of Scythian writing. Writing systems of the world today. ... The Ziwiye hoard is a treasure hoard containing gold, silver, and ivory objects, included a few Luristan pieces that was serendipitously uncovered on the south shore of Lake Urmia in Kordestan in 1947. ... The Ziwiye hoard is a treasure hoard containing gold, silver, and ivory objects, included a few Luristan pieces, that was serendipitously uncovered on the south shore of Lake Urmia in Kordestan in 1947. ... Lake Urmia (Persian: دریاچه ارومیه) is a salt lake in northwestern Iran between the provinces of East Azarbaijan and West Azarbaijan, west of the southern portion of the similarly shaped Caspian Sea. ... Vendel sword hilt from Norway. ...


Homer called the Scythians "the mare-milkers". Herodotus described them in detail: their costume consisted of padded and quilted leather trousers tucked into boots, and open tunics. They rode with no stirrups or saddles, just saddle-cloths. Herodotus reports that Scythians used cannabis, both to weave their clothing and to cleanse themselves in its smoke (Hist. 4.73-75); archaeology has confirmed the use of cannabis in funeral rituals. The Scythian philosopher Anacharsis visited Athens in the 6th century BCE and became a legendary sage. For other uses, see Homer (disambiguation). ... Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: Hērodotos Halikarnāsseus) was a Greek historian from Ionia who lived in the 5th century BC (ca. ... Haniwa horse statuette, complete with saddle and stirrups, 6th century, Kofun period, Japan. ... Cannabis (also known as marijuana[1] or ganja[2] in its herbal form and hashish in its resinous form[3]) is a psychoactive product of the plant Cannabis sativa L. subsp. ... Anacharsis He marvelled that among the Greeks, those who were skillful in a thing vie in competition; those who have no skill, judge —Diogenes Laertius, of Anacharsis. ... Athens is the largest and the capital city of Greece, located in the Attica periphery. ...


Scythians also had a reputation for the use of barbed and poisoned arrows of several types, for a nomadic life centered around horses — "fed from horse-blood" according to Herodotus — and for skill in guerrilla warfare. Communities of nomadic people move from place to place, rather than settling down in one location. ... “Guerrilla” redirects here. ...


Art

Main article: Scythian art
The Hermitage Museum has preserved by far the greatest collection of Scythian gold, including one of the most famous of all Scythian finds: the golden comb, featuring a battle-scene, from the 4th century Solokha royal burial mound.

Scythian contacts with craftsmen in Greek colonies along the northern shores of the Black Sea resulted in the famous Scythian gold adornments that feature among the most glamorous artifacts of world museums. Ethnographically extremely useful as well, the gold depicts Scythian men as bearded, long-haired Caucasoids. "Greco-Scythian" works depicting Scythians within a much more Hellenic style date from a later period, when Scythians had already adopted elements of Greek culture. By far the greatest collection of Scythian gold is preserved at the Hermitage Museum. ... 5th-century B.C. Scythian golden comb from the Hermitage Museum in St Petersburg. ... 5th-century B.C. Scythian golden comb from the Hermitage Museum in St Petersburg. ... The State Hermitage Museum (Russian: ) in Saint Petersburg, Russia is one of the largest museums in the world, with 3 million works of art (not all on display at once), [1] and one of the oldest art galleries and museums of human history and culture in the world. ... The Solokha comb, found in the lateral grave of the Solokha kurgan in 1913. ... Ethnography (from the Greek ethnos = nation and graphein = writing) refers to the qualitative description of human social phenomena, based on fieldwork. ... Typical Caucasoid skull Caucasoid is a racial classification usually used as part of a phenotypal system, also including other classifications such as Australoid, Mongoloid, Negroid, and sometimes others such as Capoid. ... Ancient Greece is a period in Greek history that lasted for around nine hundred years. ...


Scythians had a taste for elaborate personal jewelry, weapon-ornaments and horse-trappings. They executed Central-Asian animal motifs with Greek realism: winged gryphons attacking horses, battling stags, deer, and eagles, combined with everyday motifs like milking ewes. Statue of a griffin at St. ... Genera About 15 in 4 subfamilies. ... This article is about the ruminant animal. ... Genera Several, see below. ... Species See text. ...


In 2000, the touring exhibition 'Scythian Gold' introduced the North American public to the objects made for Scythian nomads by Greek craftsmen north of the Black Sea, and buried with their Scythian owners under burial mounds on the flat plains of present-day Ukraine, most of them unearthed after 1980. For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ...


In 2001, the discovery of an undisturbed royal Scythian burial-barrow illustrated for the first time Scythian animal-style gold that lacks the direct influence of Greek styles. Forty-four pounds of gold weighed down the royal couple in this burial, discovered near Kyzyl, capital of the Siberian republic of Tuva. Music-Drama Theatre in Kyzyl Kyzyl (Tuvan and Russian: Кызы́л) is a city in Russia, capital of Tyva Republic. ... “Siberian” redirects here. ... Tyva Republic IPA: (Russian: IPA: ; Tuvan: ), or Tuva (), is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). ...


Historiography

Herodotus

Herodotus wrote about an enormous city, Gelonus, in the northern part of Scythia (4.108): Gelonus, (also transliterated Helonus), 50. ...

"The Budini are a large and powerful nation: they have all deep blue eyes, and bright red hair. There is a city in their territory, called Gelonus, which is surrounded with a lofty wall, thirty furlongs [τριήκοντα σταδίων = ca. 5,5 km] each way, built entirely of wood. All the houses in the place and all the temples are of the same material. Here are temples built in honour of the Grecian gods, and adorned after the Greek fashion with images, altars, and shrines, all in wood. There is even a festival, held every third year in honour of Bacchus, at which the natives fall into the Bacchic fury. For the fact is that the Geloni were anciently Greeks, who, being driven out of the factories along the coast, fled to the Budini and took up their abode with them. They still speak a language half Greek, half Scythian." (transl. Rawlinson)

Herodotus and other classical historians listed quite a number of tribes who lived near the Scythians, and presumably shared the same general milieu and nomadic steppe culture, often called "Scythian culture", even though scholars may have difficulties in determining their exact relationship to the "linguistic Scythians". A partial list of these tribes includes the Agathyrsi, Geloni, Budini, and Neuri. Agathyrsi were a people of Scythian[citation needed], Thracian, or mixed Thraco-Scythic origin, who in the time of Herodotus occupied the plain of the Maris (Mures), in the region now known as Transylvania. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Gelonus. ... Wikisource has an original article from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica about: Budini Budini, an ancient nation in the NE of the Scythia of Herodotus (iv. ... According to Herodotus the Neuri were a tribe of Scythians described by as: Dniepr river Categories: Stub ...


Herodotus presented four different versions of Scythian origins:

  1. Firstly (4.7), the Scythians' legend about themselves, which portrays the first Scythian king, Targitaus, as the child of the sky-god and of a daughter of the Dnieper. Targitaus allegedly lived a thousand years before the failed Persian invasion of Scythia, or around 1500 BCE. He had three sons, before whom fell from the sky a set of four golden implements — a plough, a yoke, a cup and a battle-axe. Only the youngest son succeeded in touching the golden implements without them bursting with fire, and this son's descendants, called by Herodotus the "Royal Scythians", continued to guard them.
  1. Secondly (4.8), a legend told by the Pontic Greeks featuring Scythes, the first king of the Scythians, as a child of Hercules and a monster.
  1. Thirdly (4.11), in the version which Herodotus said he believed most, the Scythians came from a more southern part of Central Asia, until a war with the Massagetae (a powerful tribe of steppe nomads who lived just northeast of Persia) forced them westward.
  1. Finally (4.13), a legend which Herodotus attributed to the Greek bard Aristeas, who claimed to have got himself into such a Bachanalian fury that he ran all the way northeast across Scythia and further. According to this, the Scythians originally lived south of the Rhipaean mountains, until they got into a conflict with a tribe called the Issedones, pressed in their turn by the Cyclopes; and so the Scythians decided to migrate westwards.

Persians and other peoples in Asia referred to the Scythians living in Asia as Sakas. Herodotus describes them as Scythians, although they figure under a different name: This article is about the river. ... The term Pontic Greeks, Pontian Greeks, Pontians or Greeks of Pontus (Greek: or , Turkish: ) can refer to Greeks specifically from the area of Pontus in the region of the former Empire of Trebizond on the Black Sea coast of Eastern Turkey, or in other cases more generally all Greeks from... Hercules and the Nemean Lion (detail), silver plate, 6th century BC (Cabinet des Médailles, Paris). ... The Massagetae were an Iranian people[1][2][3][4] of antiquity known primarily from the writings of Herodotus. ... Aristeas was a semi-legendary Greek poet and miracle-worker, a native of Proconnesus in Asia Minor, active ca. ... The Issedones were an ancient people of Central Asia at the end of the trade route leading north-east from Scythia, described by Herodotus in Book Four of his History. ... Polyphemus the Cyclops. ... The Persians of Iran (officially named Persia by West until 1935 while still referred to as Persia by some) are an Iranian people who speak Persian (locally named Fârsi by native speakers) and often refer to themselves as ethnic Iranians as well. ... A cataphract-style parade armour of a Saka royal from the Issyk kurgan. ... Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: Hērodotos Halikarnāsseus) was a Greek historian from Ionia who lived in the 5th century BC (ca. ...

"The Sacae, or Scyths, were clad in trousers, and had on their heads tall stiff caps rising to a point. They bore the bow of their country and the dagger; besides which they carried the battle-axe, or sagaris. They were in truth Amyrgian (Western) Scythians, but the Persians called them Sacae, since that is the name which they gave to all Scythians." (Herodotus 4.64)

Sagaris was the Greek name for a weapon used by Scythian tribes (Hdt. ...

Strabo

In the 1st century BCE, the Greek-Roman geographer Strabo gave an extensive description of the eastern Scythians, whom he located in north-eastern Asia beyond Bactria and Sogdiana: The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ... Bactria, about 320 BC Bactria (Bactriana, Bākhtar in Persian, also Bhalika in Arabic and Indian languages, and Ta-Hia in Chinese) was the ancient Greek name of the country between the range of the Hindu Kush and the Amu Darya (Oxus); its capital, Bactra or Balhika or Bokhdi (now... Sogdiana, ca. ...

"Then comes Bactriana, and Sogdiana, and finally the Scythian nomads." (Strabo, Geography, 11.8.1)

Strabo went on to list the names of the various tribes among the Scythians, probably making an amalgam with some of the tribes of eastern Central Asia (such as the Tochari): Bactria, about 320 BC Bactria (Bactriana, Bākhtar in Persian, also Bhalika in Arabic and Indian languages, and Ta-Hia in Chinese) was the ancient Greek name of the country between the range of the Hindu Kush and the Amu Darya (Oxus); its capital, Bactra or Balhika or Bokhdi (now... Sogdiana, ca. ... The Tocharians or Tusharas as known in Indian literature were the easternmost speakers of an Indo-European language in antiquity, inhabiting the Tarim basin in what is now Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, northwestern Peoples Republic of China. ...

"Now the greater part of the Scythians, beginning at the Caspian Sea, are called Dahae, but those who are situated more to the east than these are named Massagetae and Sacae, whereas all the rest are given the general name of Scythians, though each people is given a separate name of its own. They are all for the most part nomads.
But the best known of the nomads are those who took away Bactriana from the Greeks (i.e. Greco-Bactrians), I mean the Asii, Pasiani, Tochari, and Sacarauli, who originally came from the country on the other side of the Jaxartes River that adjoins that of the Sacae and the Sogdiani and was occupied by the Sacae.
And as for the Däae, some of them are called Aparni, some Xanthii, and some Pissuri. Now of these the Aparni are situated closest to Hyrcania and the part of the sea that borders on it, but the remainder extend even as far as the country that stretches parallel to Aria." (Strabo, Geography, 11.8.1)

The Caspian Sea (Russian: Каспийское море; Kazakh: Каспий теңізі; Turkmen: Hazar deňizi; Azeri: XÉ™zÉ™r dÉ™nizi; Persian: دریای خزر Daryā-ye Khazar) is the largest lake on Earth by area[2], with a surface area of 371,000 square kilometers (143,244 sq mi) and a volume of 78,200 cubic kilometers (18... Ideograms for Ta-Hsia. ... The Massagetae were an Iranian people[1][2][3][4] of antiquity known primarily from the writings of Herodotus. ... Saka is also the name of a town in Hiroshima, Japan; for information on this town, see Saka, Hiroshima. ... Bactria, about 320 BC Bactria (Bactriana, Bākhtar in Persian, also Bhalika in Arabic and Indian languages, and Ta-Hia in Chinese) was the ancient Greek name of the country between the range of the Hindu Kush and the Amu Darya (Oxus); its capital, Bactra or Balhika or Bokhdi (now... Approximate extent of the Greco-Bactrian kingdom circa 220 BCE. The Greco-Bactrians were a dynasty of Greek kings who controlled Bactria and Sogdiana, an area comprising todays northern Afghanistan and parts of Central Asia, the easternmost area of the Hellenistic world, from 250 to 125 BCE. Their expansion... Asii, Asio, Osii, Asiani etc is the name of a people, believed to be followers of Scythian culture, a section of whom had moved out from Alai valley during second century BCE under pressure from Ta Yuezhi, and in association with Pasiani and Sacarauloi (Sacae) tribes, they had wrested Sogdiana... The Tocharians or Tusharas as known in Indian literature were the easternmost speakers of an Indo-European language in antiquity, inhabiting the Tarim basin in what is now Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, northwestern Peoples Republic of China. ... Syr Darya (also known as Syrdarya or Sirdaryo) is a river in Central Asia. ... The Sakas or Saka race was a group of people who lived in present day Uzbekistan around 2000 BC. The Sakas followed other Aryans into present day Iran, and returned to their original area in Central Asia. ... The Sogdians were an ancient people of Central Asia, who inhabited the region known to the West as Sogdiana. ... Dahae or Dahan Scythians were ancient Scythian tribes of Iranian origin. ... Gorgan (گرگان); Hyrcania ; Hyrcana (Old Persian Varkâna, land of wolves; modern Persian Gorgan): part of the ancient Persian empire, on the southern shores of the Caspian Sea (present day Golestan, Mazandaran, Gilan and parts of Turkmenistan). ... An aria (Italian for air; plural: arie or arias in common usage) in music was originally any expressive melody, usually, but not always, performed by a singer. ...

Indian sources

Silver coin of the Indo-Scythian King Azes II (r.c. 35-12 7BC). Note the royal tamga on the coin.
Silver coin of the Indo-Scythian King Azes II (r.c. 35-12 7BC). Note the royal tamga on the coin.
Main articles: Indo-Scythians and Invasion of India by Scythian Tribes

Sakas receive numerous mentions in Indian texts, including the Puranas, the Manusmriti, the Ramayana, the Mahabharata, the Mahabhashya of Patanjali, the Brhat Samhita of Vraha Mihira, the Kavyamimamsa, the Brhat-Katha-Manjari and the Kaṭha-Saritsagara. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 412 pixelsFull resolution (860 × 443 pixel, file size: 62 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (All user names refer to en. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 412 pixelsFull resolution (860 × 443 pixel, file size: 62 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (All user names refer to en. ... The Indo-Scythian King of Kings Azes II (c. ... Silver coin of King Azes II (r. ... The Indo-Scythians are a branch of the Indo-Iranian Sakas (Scythians), who migrated from southern Siberia into Bactria, Sogdiana, Arachosia, Gandhara, Kashmir, Punjab, and into parts of Western and Central India, Gujarat and Rajasthan, from the middle of the 2nd century BCE to the 1st century BCE. The first... Invasion of India by Scythian tribes from Central Asia is often termed as Indo-Scythian invasion. ... A cataphract-style parade armour of a Saka royal from the Issyk kurgan. ... Purana (Sanskrit: , meaning tales of ancient times) is the name of an ancient Indian genre (or a group of related genres) of Hindu or Jain literature (as distinct from oral tradition). ... The Manu Smriti or Laws of Manu, is one of the eighteen Smritis of the Dharma Sastra (or laws of righteous conduct), written c. ... For the television series by Ramanand Sagar, see Ramayan (TV series). ... For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film). ... The Mahābhāṣya (great commentary), attributed to Patañjali, is a commentary on the celebrated Ashtadhyayi of Panini is one of the three most famous works in Sanskrit grammar. ... Patañjali, is the compiler of the Yoga Sutra, a major work containing aphorisms on the practical and philosophical wisdom regarding practice of Raja yoga. ... The Kaá¹­ha Upanishad is one of the older, primary Upanishads commented upon by Shankara. ...


Hebrew Bible

The people briefly mentioned in the Bible as "Ashkenaz" — perhaps as a result of ancient Hebrew alphabet misreading: אשכנז instead of the correct אשכוז (= Ashkūz), in Genesis x. 3 and I Chronicles i. 6 — traced their ancestry back through Gomer to Noah's third son, Japheth. The Book of Jeremiah li. 27, 28, mentions Ashkenaz in connection with the kingdoms of Ararat and Minni (in the Taurus Mountains), together with the Medes — and portrays them all as hostile to Babylon. This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... In medical slang, a true gomer is a patient who, in spite of old age and multiple diseases, just never seems to die. ... This article is about the biblical Noah. ... Japheth (Hebrew. ... For other uses, see Jeremiah (disambiguation). ... Ashkenazi (אַשְׁכֲּנָזִי, Standard Hebrew Aškanazi, Tiberian Hebrew ʾAškănāzî) Jews or Ashkenazic Jews, also called Ashkenazim (אַשְׁכֲּנָזִי&#1501... For other meanings of Ararat, see Ararat (disambiguation) Mount Ararat (Turkish Ağrı; Armenian Արարատ; Persian آرارات; Hebrew אררט, Standard Hebrew Ararat, Tiberian Hebrew ʾĂrārāṭ), the tallest peak in... edit The Mannaeans (or Mannai, Mannae, Biblical Minni מנּי) were an ancient people of unknown origin, who lived in the territory of present-day Iran, around the 10th to 7th centuries BC. At that time they were neighbors of the empires of Assyria and Urartu, as well as other small buffer... Demirkazık Summit [IN CHINA] The Taurus Mountains (Turkish: Toros DaÄŸları, also known as Ala-Dagh or Bulghar-Dagh) are a mountain range in the southeastern Anatolian plateau, from which the Euphrates (Turkish: Fırat) descends into Syria. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Genetics

Genetic research in modern populations reveals[28] that the same paternal Y-chromosome haplogroup (R1a1) represents a genetic lineage currently found in central, western and south Asia, and in Slavic populations of Europe. The distribution of this haplogroup has been posited to represent the spread of peoples form the Ukrainian steppelands which served as an ice-age refuge during the LGM. These people are theorized to be those of the kurgan-building culture, possibly associated with the spread of Indo-European languages. Though this area corresponds to prehistoric Scythia, the age of this haplogroup dates back far earlier than the rise of the Scythian civilization. Furthermore, it is well known that the Ukrainian steppes have seen numerous different peoples come and go. Although the Scythians are a sub-class of Indo-Europeans, it would be a gross oversimplification to assume that R1a gene distribution mirrors the migration patterns of Scythians, and thus their genetic contribution to modern populations. The human Y chromosome is one of two sex chromosomes, it contains the genes that cause testis development, thus determining maleness. ... Haplogroup R1a (M17) is a Y-Chromosome haplogroup that is spread across Eurasia. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... A map showing Southwest Asia - The term Middle East is more often used to refer to both Southwest Asia and some North African countries Southwest Asia, or West Asia, is the southwestern part of Asia. ... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ... Distribution of Slavic people by language The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in Europe, where they constitute roughly a third of the population. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies The Yamna (from Russian яма pit) or pit grave culture is a prehistoric culture of the Bug/Dniester/Ural region, dating to the 36th–23rd centuries BC. The culture was predominantly nomadic, with some agriculture practiced near rivers and a few... Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies Indo-European is originally a linguistic term, referring to the Indo-European language family. ...


The distribution of Y-chromosome haplogroup (G2) from Northern China to Pakistan and northwest India and out to Spain rather closely mirrors the spread of the Scythians, Sarmatians, and their offshoot, the Alans. Haplogroup G2 reaches its highest worldwide concentration in the Caucasian Russian Republic of North Ossetia-Alania, and the present-day Ossetians, who speak a Scythian Northeast Iranic language are the last remnant of the ancient Alans. Although this may be indirect evidence of Scythian "genetic legacy", it does not represent a marker for a specific 'ethnic' or tribal group. Rather, it represents a Neolithic nomadic people which spread out the Caucusus several thousand years ago, which remained as the dominant genetic substrate for several ethnic groups which later formed in the area. What's more, the concept of ethnicity is now regarded to represent cultural identification rather than tribal ancestry/ genetic lineage. The human Y chromosome is one of two sex chromosomes, it contains the genes that cause testis development, thus determining maleness. ... Also known as M201, Haplogroup G is one of the lower frequency lineages, of which relatively little is currently known. ... The Alans, Alani, Alauni or Halani were an Iranian nomadic group among the Sarmatian people, warlike nomadic pastoralists of varied backgrounds, who spoke an Iranian language and to a large extent shared a common culture. ... Capital Vladikavkaz Area - total - % water Ranked 84th - 8,000 km² - negligible Population - Total - Density Ranked 68th - est. ... The Ossetians (oss. ... The Entholinguistic patchwork of the modern Caucasus - CIA map Ossetic or Ossetian (Ossetic: or , Persian: اوسِتی) is an Iranian language spoken in Ossetia, a region on the slopes of the Caucasus mountains on the borders of Russia and Georgia. ...


Post-classical "Scythians"

Migration period

Although the classical Scythians may have largely disappeared by the 1st century BC, Eastern Romans continued to speak conventionally of "Scythians" to designate mounted Eurasian nomadic barbarians in general: in 448 CE two mounted "Scythians" led the emissary Priscus to Attila's encampment in Pannonia. The Byzantines in this case carefully distinguished the Scythians from the Goths and Huns who also followed Attila. For other uses, see Eurasia (disambiguation). ... Priscus (left) with the Roman embassy at the court of Attila, holding his ΙΣΤΟΡΙΑ (History, which the painter has incorrectly spelled ΙΣΤΩΡΙΑ). (Detail from Mór Thans Feast of Attila. ... For other uses, see Attila (disambiguation). ... Position of the Roman province of Pannonia Pannonia is an ancient country bounded north and east by the Danube, conterminous westward with Noricum and upper Italy, and southward with Dalmatia and upper Moesia. ... Many historians consider the Huns (meaning person in Mongolian language) the first Mongolian and Turkic people mentioned in European history. ...


The Sarmatians (including the Alans and finally the Ossetians) counted as Scythians in the broadest sense of the word — as speakers of Northeast Iranian languages — but nevertheless remain distinct from the Scythians proper. [29] Sarmatia Europea in Scythia map 1697 AD Sarmatia Europæa separated from Sarmatia Asiatica by the Tanais (the River Don), based on Greek literary sources, in a map printed in London, ca 1770 Great steppe in early spring. ... The Alans, Alani, Alauni or Halani were an Iranian nomadic group among the Sarmatian people, warlike nomadic pastoralists of varied backgrounds, who spoke an Iranian language and to a large extent shared a common culture. ... The Ossetians (oss. ...


Byzantine sources also refer to the Rus raiders who attacked Constantinople around 860 AD in contemporary accounts as "Tauroscythians", because of their geographical origin, and despite their lack of any ethnic relation to Scythians. Patriarch Photius may have first applied the term to them during the Siege of Constantinople (860). Rus’ (????, ) was a medieval East Slavic nation, which, according to the most popular (but by no means only) theory, may have taken its name from a ruling warrior class, possibly with Scandinavian roots. ... Combatants Roman (Byzantine) Empire Rus Commanders Michael III Askold and Dir? Strength Unknown Unknown Casualties Unknown Unknown The Rus raid against Constantinople in 860 is the only major military expedition of the Khaganate of Rus recorded in Greek and Western European sources. ... The Tauri (), also Scythotauri, Tauri Scythae, Tauroscythae (Pliny, 4. ... Photius (b. ... Combatants Roman (Byzantine) Empire Rus Commanders Michael III Askold and Dir? Strength Unknown Unknown Casualties Unknown Unknown The Rus raid against Constantinople in 860 is the only major military expedition of the Khaganate of Rus recorded in Greek and Western European sources. ...


Early Modern usage

Owing to their reputation as established by Greek historians, the Scythians long served as the epitome of savagery and barbarism in the early modern period. Shakespeare, for instance, alluded to the legend that Scythians ate their parents in his play King Lear: Shakespeare redirects here. ... King Lear and the Fool in the Storm by William Dyce (1806-1864) King Lear is a play by William Shakespeare, considered one of his greatest tragedies, based on the legend of King Lear of Britain. ...

The barbarous Scythian
Or he that makes his generation messes
To gorge his appetite, shall to my bosom
Be as well neighbour'd, pitied, and relieved,
As thou my sometime daughter.[30]

Characteristically, early modern English discourse on Ireland frequently resorted to comparisons with Scythians in order to confirm that the indigenous population of Ireland descended from these ancient "bogeymen", and showed themselves as barbaric as their alleged ancestors. Edmund Spenser wrote that Cordelia can refer to several things: A character in the play King Lear by William Shakespeare. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...

""the Chiefest [nation that settled in Ireland] I Suppose to be Scithians ... which firste inhabitinge and afterwarde stretchinge themselves forthe into the lande as theire numbers increased named it all of themselues Scuttenlande which more brieflye is Called Scuttlande or Scotlande" (A View of the Present State of Ireland, c. 1596).

As proofs for this origin Spenser cites the alleged Irish customs of blood-drinking, nomadic lifestyle, the wearing of mantles and certain haircuts and

"Cryes allsoe vsed amongeste the Irishe which savor greatlye of the Scythyan Barbarisme".

William Camden, one of Spenser's main sources, comments on this legend of origin that William Camden William Camden (May 2, 1551 - November 9, 1623) was an English antiquarian and historian. ...

"to derive descent from a Scythian stock, cannot be thought any waies dishonourable, seeing that the Scythians, as they are most ancient, so they have been the Conquerours of most Nations, themselves alwaies invincible, and never subject to the Empire of others" (Britannia, 1586 etc., English translation 1610).
Romantic nationalism: Battle between the Scythians and the Slavs (Viktor Vasnetsov, 1881).
Romantic nationalism: Battle between the Scythians and the Slavs (Viktor Vasnetsov, 1881).

In the 17th and 18th centuries, foreigners regarded the Russians as descendants of Scythians. It became conventional to refer to Russians as Scythians in 18th century poetry, and Alexander Blok drew on this tradition sarcastically in his last major poem, The Scythians (1920). In the nineteenth century, romantic revisionists in the West transformed the "barbarian" Scyths of literature into the wild and free, hardy and democratic ancestors of all blond Indo-Europeans. Image File history File linksMetadata Бой_скифов_со_славянами.jpg‎ Viktor Vasnetsov. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Бой_скифов_со_славянами.jpg‎ Viktor Vasnetsov. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Self-portrait 1873 Viktor Mikhailovich Vasnetsov (Виктор Михайлович Васнецов) (May 15 (N.S.), 1848—1926) was a Russian artist who specialized in mythological and historical subjects. ... Blok in 1907 Alexander Blok (Александр Александрович Блок, November 28 [O.S. November 16] 1880 – August 7, 1921), was perhaps the most gifted lyrical poet produced by Russia after Alexander Pushkin. ... Look up Barbarian in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Indo-Europeans are speakers of Indo-European languages. ...


Descent-claims

Some modern ethnic groups have claimed descent from the Scythians as a means to extend back in time their national history, and to provide a prestigious connection with classical antiquity.


The Scythians feature in some post-Medieval national origin-legends of the Celts. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ... Celts, normally pronounced // (see article on pronunciation), refers primarily to the members of any of a number of peoples in Europe using the Celtic languages, a branch of Indo-European languages, or descended from those who did. ...


British historian Sharon Turner in his History of the Anglo Saxons, concluded Sharon Turner (1768 - 1847), historian. ...

“The migrating Scythians crossed the Araxes, passed out of Asia, and suddenly appeared in Europe in the sixth century B.C.”

Citing many ancient sources, Turner identified the Scythians ("Sakai") as the ancestors of the Anglo Saxons. However, that conclusion remains controversial. Sharon Turner (1768 - 1847), historian. ... For other uses, see Anglo-Saxon. ...


Traditions of the Turkic Kazakhs and Yakuts (whose endoethnonym is "Sakha"); and the Pashtuns of Afghanistan connect these peoples to Scythians. Some legends of the Picts; the Gaels; the Hungarians; Serbs and Croats (among others) also include mention of Scythian origins. In the second paragraph of the 1320 Declaration of Arbroath the élite of Scotland claim Scythia as a former homeland of the Scots. Some romantic nationalist writers claim that Scythians figured in the formation of the empire of the Medes and likewise of Caucasian Albania, the precursor in antiquity of the modern-day Azerbaijan Republic. Claims of Scythian origins also play a role in both Pan-Turkism and Sarmatism. Languages Kazakh (and/or languages in country of residence) Religions Sunni Islam The Kazakhs (also spelled Kazaks, Qazaqs; Kazakh: Қазақтар []; Russian: Казахи; the English name is transliterated from Russian) are a Turkic people of the northern parts of Central Asia (largely Kazakhstan, but also found in parts of Uzbekistan, China, Russia, and... Yakuts, self-designation: Sakha, are a Turkic people associated with the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic. ... The Pashtuns (also Pushtun, Pakhtun, or ethnic Afghan; in referring to the period of the British Raj or earlier, sometimes Pathan) are an ethnic/religious group of people, living primarily in Afghanistan, Pakistan, and India who follow Pashtunwali, their indigenous religion. ... A replica of the Hilton of Cadboll Stone. ... The Gaels are an ethno-linguistic group which spread from Ireland to many parts of Britain, specifically Scotland, the Isle of Man, Wales and Cornwall. ... Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below (* many Serbs opted for Yugoslav ethnicity) [28] Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in... Languages Croatian Religions Predominantly Roman Catholic Related ethnic groups Slavs South Slavs Croats (Croatian: Hrvati) are a South Slavic people mostly living in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and nearby countries. ... The Declaration of Arbroath was a declaration of Scottish independence, and set out to confirm Scotlands status as an independent, sovereign state and its use of military action when unjustly attacked. ... This article is about the country. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Ancient countries of Caucasus: Armenia, Iberia, Colchis and Albania Caucasian Albania (or Aghbania) was an ancient kingdom that covered what is now southern Dagestan and most of present-day Azerbaijan. ... Turkic peoples listed geographically. ... Sarmatism was the dominant lifestyle, culture and ideology of szlachta (nobility social class) in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth from 16th century to 19th century. ...


[dubious ]


Various Frankish and Carolingian sources traced royal Merovingian ancestry to the Germanic tribe of the Sicambri. Gregory of Tours documents in his History of the Franks that when Clovis was baptised, he was referred to as a Sicamber with the words "Mitis depone colla, Sicamber, adora quod incendisti, incendi quod adorasti."'. The Chronicle of Fredegar in turn reveals that the Franks believed the Sicambri to be a tribe of Scythian or Cimmerian descent, who had changed their name to Franks in honour of their chieftain Franco in 11 BC. Also see: France in the Middle Ages. ... There are other articles with similar names; see Merovingian (disambiguation). ... The Germanic tribe of the Sicambri (var. ... Saint Gregory of Tours (c. ... Clovis may refer to the following: The personal name of Germanic origin that primarily saw use in Europe before the year 1000 AD. Several locales and persons of historical importance have borne this name. ... The Chronicle of Fredegar is a chronicle that recounts the events of Frankish Gaul from 584 to around 641, although a number of later authors have continued the history to the coronation of Charlemagne and his brother Carloman on 9 October 768. ... This article is about the Frankish people and society. ...


References

  1. ^ but note Scytho- /'saɪθəʊ/ in composition (OED)
  2. ^ Scythian, member of a normadic people originally of Iranian stock who migrated from Central Asia to southern Russia in the 8th and 7th centuries BCE - The New Encyclopedia Britannica, 15th edition - Micropaedia on "Scythian", 10:576
  3. ^ Oswald Szemerényi, "Four old Iranian ethnic names: Scythian - Skudra - Sogdian - Saka" (Sitzungsberichte der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften 371), Vienna, 1980 = Scripta minora, vol. 4, pp. 2051-2093. [1] Sulimirski, T. "The Scyths" in Cambridge History of Iran, vol. 2: 149-99 [2]
  4. ^ Grousset, Rene. "The empire of the Steppes", Rutgers University Press, 1989, pg 19 Jacbonson, Esther. "The Art of Scythians", Brill Academic Publishers, 1995, pg 63 ISBN 90-04-09856-9 Gamkrelidze and Ivanov Indo-European and the Indo-Europeans: A Reconstruction and Historical Typological Analysis of a Proto-Language and Proto-Culture (Parts I and II). Tbilisi State University., 1984 Mallory, J.P. . In Search of the Indo-Europeans: Language Archeology and Myth. Thames and Hudson. Read Chapter 2 and see 51-53 for a quick reference.(1989) Newark, T. The Barbarians: Warriors and wars of the Dark Ages. Blandford: New York. See pages 65, 85, 87, 119-139. ,1985 Renfrew, C. Archeology and Language: The Puzzle of Indo-European origins. Cambridge University Press, 1988 Abaev, V.I. and H.W. Bailey, "Alans," Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol. 1. pp. 801-803. ; Great Soviet Encyclopedia, (translation of the 3rd Russian-language edition), 31 vols., New York, 1973-1983. Vogelsang, W J The rise & organisation of the Achaemenid empire – the eastern evidence (Studies in the History of the Ancient Near East Vol. III). Leiden: Brill. pp. 344., 1992 ISBN 90-04-09682-5. Sinor, Denis. Inner Asia: History - Civilization - Languages, Routledge, 1997 pg 82 ISBN 0-7007-0896-0 ; "Scythian". (2006). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved September 7, 2006, from Encyclopædia Britannica Premium Service Masica, Colin P. The Indo-Aryan Languages, Cambridge University Press, 1993, pg 48 ISBN 0-521-29944-6
  5. ^ Sulimirski, T. "The Scyths," in Cambridge History of Iran, vol. 2: 149-99, http://www.azargoshnasp.net/history/Scythians/scyth_main.htm
  6. ^ Oswald Szemerényi, "Four old Iranian ethnic names: Scythian - Skudra - Sogdian - Saka" (Sitzungsberichte der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften 371), Vienna, 1980 = Scripta minora, vol. 4, pp. 2051-2093. http://www.azargoshnasp.net/history/Scythians/scyth_main.htm
  7. ^ Oswald Szemerényi, "Four old Iranian ethnic names: Scythian - Skudra - Sogdian - Saka" (Sitzungsberichte der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften 371), pg 5-6, Vienna, 1980 = Scripta minora, vol. 4, pp. 2051-2093. http://www.azargoshnasp.net/history/Scythians/scyth_main.htm
  8. ^ Oswald Szemerényi, "Four old Iranian ethnic names: Scythian - Skudra - Sogdian - Saka" (Sitzungsberichte der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften 371), pg 5-6, Vienna, 1980 = Scripta minora, vol. 4, pp. 2051-2093. http://www.azargoshnasp.net/history/Scythians/scyth_main.htm
  9. ^ SOME PROBLEMS IN THE STUDY OF THE CHRONOLOGY OF THE ANCIENT NOMADIC CULTURES IN EURASIA (9TH - 3RD CENTURIES BC. A.YU.ALEKSEEV, N.A.BOKOVENKO, YU.BOLTRIK, et alia. GEOCHRONOMETRIA Vol. 21, pp 143-150, 2002. Journal on Methods and Applications of Absolute Chronology. Available at http://www.geochronometria.pl/pdf/geo_21/geo21_17.pdf
  10. ^ A. Yu. Alekseev et al., "Chronology of Eurasian Scythian Antiquities..."
  11. ^ John Boardman, I. E. S. Edwards, E. Sollberger, N. G. L. Hammond. The Cambridge Ancient History. Cambridge University Press. Jan 16, 1992, pg 550.
  12. ^ "kurgan." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com (10 Oct. 2006).
  13. ^ S. A. Yatsenko, Tamgas ...
  14. ^ Iaroslav Lebedynsky, p127
  15. ^ Mallory and Mair, The Tarim Mummies: Ancient China and the Mystery of the Earliest Peoples from the West, 2000)
  16. ^ "Les Saces", Iaroslav Lebedynsky, p.73 ISBN 2877723372
  17. ^ Crowns similar to the Scythian ones discovered in Tillia Tepe "appear later, during the 5th and 6th century at the eastern edge of the Asia continent, in the tumulus tombs of the Kingdom of Silla, in South-East Korea. "Afganistan, les trésors retrouvés", 2006, p282, ISBN 9782711852185
  18. ^ Scythian artifacts "remind us of the artistic tradition of Korea during the Three Kingdoms (1-8th century), which is not so illogical since Korean pertains to the same Uralo-Altaic languages as Magyar, Turk or Mongol". Pierre Cambon, in "Afganistan, les trésors retrouvés", 2006, p25, ISBN 9782711852185
  19. ^ Rjabchikov 2004
  20. ^ Oswald Szemerényi, "Four old Iranian ethnic names: Scythian - Skudra - Sogdian - Saka" (Sitzungsberichte der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften 371), Vienna, 1980 = Scripta minora, vol. 4, pp. 2051-2093. http://www.azargoshnasp.net/history/Scythians/scyth_main.htm
  21. ^ Traces of the Iranian root xšaya — "ruler" — may persist in all three names.
  22. ^ Herodotus. History, Book IV, verse 5. 
  23. ^ Herodotus. History, Book IV, verses 19-20. 
  24. ^ Herodotus. History, Book IV, verses 6-7. 
  25. ^ The first scholar to compare the three strata of Scythian society to the Indian castes, Arthur Christensen, published Les types du premiere homme et du premier roi dans l'histoire legendaire des Iraniens, I (Stockholm, Leiden, 1917).
  26. ^ Quoted in Wouter Wiggert Belier. Decayed Gods: Origin and Development of Georges Dumezil’s "Ideologie Tripartie". Brill Academic Publishers, 1991. ISBN 90-04-06195-9. Page 69.
  27. ^ Feinberg, Leslie: Transgender Warriors, page 40. Beacon Press, 1996.
  28. ^ Semino et al. The Genetic Legacy of Paleolithic Homo sapiens sapiens in Extant Europeans: A Y Chromosome Perspective, Science, 290, 1155-1159, 2000
  29. ^ The Ossetes, the only Iranian people presently resident in Europe, call their country Iriston or Iron, though North Ossetia now officially has the designation Alania. They speak an North-Eastern Iranian language Ossetic, whose more widely-spoken dialect, Iron or Ironig (i.e. Iranian), preserves some similarities with the Gathic Avestan language, another Iranian language of the Eastern branch.
  30. ^ King Lear Act I, Scene i.

OED stands for Oxford English Dictionary Office of Enrollment & Discipline This page concerning a three-letter acronym or abbreviation is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... 1913 advertisement for the 11th edition, with the slogan When in doubt — look it up in the Encyclopædia Britannica The Encyclopædia Britannica (properly spelled with æ, the ae-ligature) was first published in 1768–1771 as The Britannica was an important early English-language general encyclopedia and is still... Oswald Szemerényi (7 September 1913, London – 29 December 1996, Freiburg) was an Indo-Europeanist, with strong interests in Comparative linguistics in general. ... Vasilij Ivanovich Abaev (Ossetian: Васо Абайты, Russian: Василий Иванович Абаев, also transilterated as Abaity and Abayev; 15 December 1900 in Kobi, Georgia — 18 March 2001 in Saint Petersburg) was an Ossetian linguist specializing in Ossetian and Iranian linguistics. ... is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Oswald Szemerényi (7 September 1913, London – 29 December 1996, Freiburg) was an Indo-Europeanist, with strong interests in Comparative linguistics in general. ... Oswald Szemerényi (7 September 1913, London – 29 December 1996, Freiburg) was an Indo-Europeanist, with strong interests in Comparative linguistics in general. ... Oswald Szemerényi (7 September 1913, London – 29 December 1996, Freiburg) was an Indo-Europeanist, with strong interests in Comparative linguistics in general. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Bactrian Gold. ... A tumulus (plural tumuli, from the Latin word for mound or small hill, from the root to bulge, swell also found in ) is a mound of earth and stones raised over a grave or graves. ... This article is about the Korean peninsula and civilization. ... Oswald Szemerényi (7 September 1913, London – 29 December 1996, Freiburg) was an Indo-Europeanist, with strong interests in Comparative linguistics in general. ... Caste systems are traditional, hereditary systems of social restriction and social stratification, enforced by law or common practice, based on endogamy, occupation, economic status, race, ethnicity, // 1555, a race of men, from L. casto chaste, from castus pure, cut off, separated, pp. ... 2007 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Republic of North Ossetia-Alania (Russian: Респу́блика Се́верная Осе́тия-Ала́ния; Ossetic: Цæгат Иры&#1089... 2006 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... ALania can refer to: Yhe feudal state of Alans. ... The Gathas (Gāθās) are the most sacred of the texts of the Zoroastrian faith, and are traditionally believed to have been composed by Zarathushtra (Zoroaster) himself. ... Yasna 28. ... King Lear and the Fool in the Storm by William Dyce (1806-1864) King Lear is a play by William Shakespeare, considered one of his greatest tragedies, based on the legend of King Lear of Britain. ...

Further reading

  • Alekseev, A. Yu. et al., "Chronology of Eurasian Scythian Antiquities Born by New Archaeological and 14C Data". Radiocarbon, Vol .43, No 2B, 2001, p 1085-1107.
  • Davis-Kimball, Jeannine. 2002. Warrior Women: An Archaeologist's Search for History's Hidden Heroines. Warner Books, New York. 1st Trade printing, 2003. ISBN 0-446-67983-6 (pbk).
  • Gamkrelidze and Ivanov (1984). Indo-European and the Indo-Europeans: A Reconstruction and Historical Typological Analysis of a Proto-Language and Proto-Culture (Parts I and II). Tbilisi State University.
  • Harmatta, J., "Studies in the History and Language of the Sarmatians", Acta Universitatis de Attila József Nominatae. Acta antique et archaeologica Tomus XIII. Szeged 1970 [3]
  • Lebedynsky, I. (2001). "Les Scythes : la civilisation nomade des steppes VIIe - III siècle av. J.-C." / Errance, Paris.
  • Lebedynsky Iaroslav (2006) "Les Saces", Editions Errance, ISBN 2877723372
  • Mallory, J.P. (1989). In Search of the Indo-Europeans: Language Archeology and Myth. Thames and Hudson. Chapter 2; and pages 51-53 for a quick reference.
  • Newark, T. (1985). The Barbarians: Warriors and wars of the Dark Ages. Blandford: New York. See pages 65, 85, 87, 119-139.
  • Renfrew, C. (1988). Archeology and Language: The Puzzle of Indo-European origins. Cambridge University Press.
  • Rolle, Renate, The world of the Scythians, London and New York (1989).
  • Rjabchikov, S. V., The Scythians, Sarmatians, Meotians and Slavs: Sign System, Mythology, Folklore. Rostov-on-Don, 2004 (in Russian)
  • Rybakov, Boris. Paganism of Ancient Rus. Nauka, Moscow, 1987 (in Russian)
  • Sulimirski, T. "The Scyths", in Cambridge History of Iran, vol. 2: 149-99 [4]
  • Szemerényi, O., "Four Old Iranian Ethnic Names: SCYTHIAN - SKUDRA - SOGDIAN - SAKA", Vienna (1980) [5]
  • Torday, Laszlo (1998). Mounted Archers: The Beginnings of Central Asian History. Durham Academic Press. ISBN 1-900838-03-6.
  • Yatsenko, S. A., "Tamgas of Iranolingual antique and Early Middle Ages people". Russian Academy of Science, Moscow Press "Eastern Literature", 2001 (in Russian)

Boris Alexandrovich Rybakov (June 3, 1908- December 27, 2001) was an orthodox Soviet historian who personified the anti-Normanist vision of Russian history. ...

External links

  • "A chronology of the Scythian antiquities of Eurasia based on new archaeological and C-14 data", Alekseev, A.Y. et al A detailed scholarly article on pre-Scythian, early Scythian and classical Scythian archaeological sites and their dating, by the Hermitage Museum's director of archaeology and others.
  • "Some problems in the study of the chronology of the ancient nomadic cultures in Eurasia (9th - 3rd centuries BC)", Alekseev, A.Y. et al More of the same.
  • "Scythian Gold From Siberia Said to Predate the Greeks" A journalist's article on the Arzhan finds, quoting Hermitage experts
  • A Scythian warrior found at a height of 2600 metres in the Altay Mountains in an intact burial mound (August 25, 2006)
  • "Coins of Barbarous Tribes of the Northern Black Sea Region"
  • Rjabchikov, Sergei V. "The Slavonic Antiquity: Scythians, Sarmatians, Meotians and Slavs" A collection of articles on deciphering of the Scythian/Sarmatian language and script.
  • Rjabchikov, S.V., 2005. On Scythian, Sarmatian and Meotian Records about Thunderstorm. AnthroGlobe Journal, 2005
  • Rjabchikov, S.V., 2001. The Scythian and Sarmatian Sources of the Russian Mythology and Fairy-Tales. AnthroGlobe Journal, 2001
  • Scythians overview by Chris Bennet
  • Livius website articles on ancient history, entry on Scythians/Sacae by Jona Lendering
  • The early burial in Tuva
  • Scythian myth and culture; map
  • Color illustrations of Scythian gold
  • Published excavations of royal Scythian kurgan (barrow) at Chertomlyk reviewed
  • all known Scythian kings listed on Regnal Chronologies
  • Herodotus, Histories, Book IV - translated by Rawlinson, the 1942 edition
    • Livio Stecchini, "The Mapping of the Earth: Scythia": reconstructing the map of Scythia according to the conceptual geography of Herodotus
    • Livio Stecchini, "The Mapping of the Earth: Gerrhos"
  • 1998 NOVA documentary: "Ice Mummies: Siberian Ice Maiden" Transcript
  • on Sarmatian (a related Iranian group) trade and ethnic connections
  • Scythia Group (a Yahoo group for discussing the Scythians)
Ryzhanovka
  • Archaeology abstract of 1997 article
  • the Ryzhanovka Kurgan in Ukraine
Genetics
  • Haplogroups in India (PDF file)
  • Y-Chromosome Biallelic Haplogroups

  Results from FactBites:
 
Britain.tv Wikipedia - Scythians (5549 words)
Scythians lived in confederated tribes, a political form of voluntary association which regulated pastures and organized a common defence against encroaching neighbors for the pastoral tribes of mostly equestrian herdsmen.
Scythians also had reputations for their usage of barbed and poisoned arrows of several types, for a nomadic life centered around horses — "fed from horse-blood"?title=according to Herodotus — and for skill in guerrilla warfare.
"The ethnic of the Sakas (Scythians)" by I. P'iankov
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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