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Encyclopedia > Scythian languages
Scythian
Spoken in: Scythia
Language extinction: mostly extinct by AD 1000, remnants evolved into Ossetic
Language family: Indo-European
 Indo-Iranian
  Iranian
   Eastern Iranian
    Northeastern Iranian
     Scythian
Language codes
ISO 639-1: none
ISO 639-2: ine
ISO 639-3: xsc

  Approximate extent of Scythia and Sarmatia in the 1st century BC (the orange background shows the spread of Eastern Iranian languages, among them Scytho-Sarmatian). ... An extinct language is a language which no longer has any native speakers, in contrast to a dead language, which is is a language which has stopped changing in grammar, vocabulary, and the complete meaning of a sentence. ... The Entholinguistic patchwork of the modern Caucasus - CIA map Ossetic or Ossetian (Ossetic: or , Persian: اوسِتی) is an Iranian language spoken in Ossetia, a region on the slopes of the Caucasus mountains on the borders of Russia and Georgia. ... A language family is a group of languages related by descent from a common proto-language. ... For other uses, see Indo-European. ... The Indo-Iranian language group constitutes the easternmost extant branch of the Indo-European family of languages. ... The Eastern Iranian languages are a subgroup of the Iranian languages emerging in Middle Iranian times (from ca. ... The Eastern Iranian languages are a subgroup of the Iranian languages emerging in Middle Iranian times (from ca. ... ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family. ... ISO 639-2 is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages. ... ISO 639-3 is an international standard for language codes. ...

The Scythian languages form a North Eastern branch of the Iranian language family and comprise the distinctive languages[1] spoken by the Scythian (Sarmatian and Saka) tribes of nomadic pastoralists in Scythia (Central Asia, Pontic-Caspian steppe) between the 8th century BC and the 5th century AD. Up to the 4th century AD we have only a few words from any of these languages[2], substantial evidence of Sogdian and Saka dating from a later period. The Iranian languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family. ... Scythia was an area in Eurasia inhabited in ancient times by an Indo-Aryans known as the Scythians. ... Sarmatian Cataphract Sarmatians, Sarmatae or Sauromatae (the second form is mostly used by the earlier Greek writers, the other by the later Greeks and the Romans) were a people whom Herodotus (4. ... A cataphract-style parade armour of a Saka royal from the Issyk kurgan. ... Eurasian nomads are a large group of peoples of the steppes of Central Asia, Mongolia and Eastern Europe (Pontic steppe). ... Approximate extent of Scythia and Sarmatia in the 1st century BC (the orange background shows the spread of Eastern Iranian languages, among them Scytho-Sarmatian). ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... The steppe extends roughly from the Dniepr to the Ural or 30 to 55 degrees eastern longitude, and from the Black Sea and the Caucasus in the south to the temperate forest and taiga in the north, or 45 to 55 degrees northern latitude. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) Ruins of the training grounds at Olympia, Greece. ... Europe in 450 The 5th century is the period from 401 to 500 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ...


The Scythian languages may have formed a dialect continuum: A dialect continuum is a range of dialects spoken across a large geographical area, differing only slightly between areas that are geographically close, and gradually decreasing in mutual intelligibility as the distances become greater. ...

  • Scytho-Sarmatian languages were spoken by people originally of Iranian stock[3] from the 8th and 7th century BC onwards in the area of the Ukraine, Southern Russia and Kazakhstan. Modern Ossetic survives as a continuation of the language family possibly represented by Scytho-Sarmatian inscriptions, although the Scytho-Sarmatian language family "does not simply represent the same [Ossetic] language" at an earlier date.[4]
  • Saka language or Scytho-Khotanese in the east: spoken in the Kingdom of Khotan (located in present-day Xinjiang, China), and including the Khotanese of Khotan and Tumshuqese of Tumshuq. Scholars classify these languages as part of the North-Eastern branch of Iranian languages.[5]

Contents

Southern Federal District (Russian: Ю́жный федера́льный о́круг; tr. ... The Entholinguistic patchwork of the modern Caucasus - CIA map Ossetic or Ossetian (Ossetic: or , Persian: اوسِتی) is an Iranian language spoken in Ossetia, a region on the slopes of the Caucasus mountains on the borders of Russia and Georgia. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Kingdom of Khotan is an ancient Buddhist kingdom that was located on the branch of the Silk road that ran along the southern edge of the Taklamakan desert in the Tarim basin. ... For the county in Shanxi province, see Xinjiang County. ... Mosque in Khotan. ... Tumxuk (Chinese: 图木舒克, Pinyin: Túmùshūkè; Uyghur: تۇمشۇق شەھرى / ; also known as Tumushuk, Tumshuq, etc. ...

History

The approximate distribution of Eastern Iranian languages in 100 BC appears in orange.
The approximate distribution of Eastern Iranian languages in 100 BC appears in orange.

The Scythians migrated from Central Asia toward Eastern Europe, occupying today's Southern Russia and Ukraine and the Carpathian Basin and parts of Moldova and Dobruja BULGARIA. They disappeared from history after the Hunnish invasion of Europe in the 5th century AD, and Turkic (Avar, Bulgar, Batsange, etc.) and Slavic peoples probably assimilated most people speaking Scythian. However, in the Caucasus, a dialect belonging to the Scythian-Sarmatian linguistic continuum remains in use today, namely Ossetic. Image File history File links Scythia-Parthia_100_BC.png historical spread of Iranian peoples/languages: Scythia, Sarmatia, Bactria and the Parthian Empire in ca. ... Image File history File links Scythia-Parthia_100_BC.png historical spread of Iranian peoples/languages: Scythia, Sarmatia, Bactria and the Parthian Empire in ca. ... The Eastern Iranian languages are a subgroup of the Iranian languages emerging in Middle Iranian times (from ca. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange),members of the Warsaw pact (light orange), and other former Communist regimes not aligned with Moscow (lightest orange). ... The Pannonian plain is a large plain in central/south-eastern Europe that remained when the Pliocene Pannonian Sea (see below) dried out. ... The Huns were an early confederation of Central Asian equestrian nomads or semi-nomads. ... Late Avar period Map showing the location of Avar Khaganate, c. ... For the people of Central Asia see Bulgars Bulgar language is an extinct language commonly considered Turkic but more recently Indo-Iranian Bulgar, or bulgarish is Yiddish word for Romanian dance bugarească (means Bulgarian cf. ... Pechenegs or Patzinaks (Armenian: Badzinag, Bulgarian/Russian: Pechenegi (Печенеги), Greek: Patzinaki/Petsenegi (Πατζινάκοι/Πετσενέγοι) or less commonly Πατζινακίται, Hungarian: Besenyő, Latin: Расinасае, Old Turkish (assumed): *Beçenek, Turkish: Peçenekler) were a semi-nomadic Turkic people of the Central Asian steppes speaking the Pecheneg language which belonged to the Turkic language family. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... 2007 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Entholinguistic patchwork of the modern Caucasus - CIA map Ossetic or Ossetian (Ossetic: or , Persian: اوسِتی) is an Iranian language spoken in Ossetia, a region on the slopes of the Caucasus mountains on the borders of Russia and Georgia. ...


Classification

The vast majority of Scythological scholars agree that the Scythian-Sarmatian languages (and Ossetic) belong to the North Eastern branch of the Iranian language family — like the once widespread but now extinct Sogdian language. This Iranian hypothesis relies principally on the fact that the Greek inscriptions of the Northern Black Sea Coast contain several hundreds of Sarmatian names showing a close affinity to the Ossetic language. [6] The Iranian languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family. ... The Sogdian language is a Middle Iranian language spoken in Sogdiana (Zarafshan River Valley) in the modern day republics of Uzbekistan and Tajikistan (chief cities: Samarkand, Panjikent, Ferghana). ... The Entholinguistic patchwork of the modern Caucasus - CIA map Ossetic or Ossetian (Ossetic: or , Persian: اوسِتی) is an Iranian language spoken in Ossetia, a region on the slopes of the Caucasus mountains on the borders of Russia and Georgia. ...


Minority views, often fuelled by ethnic nationalism, have proposed affiliation with Turkic [7], Ugric[citation needed] or Proto-Slavic. [8] A more moderate proposal by Boris Rybakov suggests a Proto-Slavic substrate. [9] Ethnic nationalism is the form of nationalism in which the state derives political legitimacy from historical cultural or hereditary groupings (ethnicities); the underlying assumption is that ethnicities should be politically distinct. ... The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean to Siberia and Western China, and are traditionally considered to be part of the proposed Altaic language family. ... Ugric languages or Ugrian languages are generally held to be a branch of Finno-Ugric languages. ... Proto-Slavic is the proto-language from which Old Church Slavonic and other Slavic languages later emerged. ... Boris Alexandrovich Rybakov (1908-2001) was an orthodox Soviet historian who personified the anti-Normanist vision of Russian history. ... Look up substrate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Divisions

Historians normally divide the Scytho-Sarmatian group chronologically rather than geographically:

  • Scythian (ca. 800 - 300 BC), mainly evidenced in Classical Greek authors
  • Sarmatian (ca. 300 BC - AD 400), mainly evidenced in Hellenistic and Roman inscriptions
  • Alanic (ca. AD 400 - 1000), mainly evidenced in Byzantine Greek authors

Some scholars [10] detect a division of Scytho-Sarmatian into two dialects: a western, more conservative dialect, and an eastern, more innovative one. The innovative dialect may correspond to Sarmatian, whereas the conservative dialect may continue the dialect spoken by the old Scythians before the invasion of the Sarmatians.


The Scytho-Khotanese group sub-divides into:

Mosque in Khotan. ... Tumxuk (Chinese: 图木舒克, Pinyin: Túmùshūkè; Uyghur: تۇمشۇق شەھرى / ; also known as Tumushuk, Tumshuq, etc. ...

Sources of the Scythian language

Inscriptions

Some scholars ascribe certain inscribed objects found in the Carpathian Basin and in Central Asia to the Scythians, but the interpretation of these inscriptions remains disputed (given that nobody has definitively identified the alphabet or translated the content). The Pannonian plain is a large plain in central/south-eastern Europe that remained when the Pliocene Pannonian Sea (see below) dried out. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ...


An inscription from Saqqez written in the Hieroglyphic Hittite script may represent Scythian: [11] Saqqez or Saghez (in Persian: سقز, in Kurdish: Seqiz,) is a city located at , in Kurdistan Province of Iran. ... Hieroglyphic Hittite was once thought to be a version of the Hittite language, which was ordinarily written in cuneiform script. ...

Transliteration: pa-tì-na-sa-nà tà-pá wa-s₆-na-m₅ XL was-was-ki XXX ár-s-tí-m₅ ś₃-kar-kar (HA) har-s₆-ta₅ LUGAL | par-tì-ta₅-wa₅ ki-ś₃-a₄-á KUR-u-pa-ti QU-wa-a₅ | i₅-pa-ś₂-a-m₂
Transcription: patinasana tapa. vasnam: 40 vasaka 30 arzatam šikar. UTA harsta XŠAYAL. | Partitava xšaya DAHYUupati xva|ipašyam
Translation: "Delivered dish. Value: 40 calves 30 silver šiqlu. And it was presented to the king. | King Partitavas, the masters of the land property."

King Partitava equates to the Scythian king called Prototyēs in Herodotus (1.103) and known as Par-ta-tu-a in the Assyrian sources.


The Issyk inscription, found in a Scythian kurgan dating approximately to the 4th century BC, remains undeciphered, but some authorities assume that it represents Scythian. The Issyk kurgan, in south-eastern Kazakhstan, less than 20 km east from the Talgar alluvial fan, near Issyk, was discovered in 1969. ... Sarmatian Kurgan 4th c. ...


Personal names

The primary sources for Scythian words remain the Scythian toponyms, tribal names, and numerous personal names in the ancient Greek texts and in the Greek inscriptions found in the Greek colonies on the Northern Black Sea Coast. These names suggest that the Scythian-Sarmatian language had close similarities to modern Ossetian. For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ...


Some scholars believe that many toponyms and hydronyms of the Russian and Ukrainian steppe have Scythian links. For example, Vasmer associates the name of the river Don with an assumed/reconstructed unattested Scythian word *dānu "water, river", and with Ossetic don and Avestan dānu-. [12] The river names Don, Dnieper, and Dniester may also belong with the same word-group. [13] The Don (Дон) is one of the major rivers of Russia. ... The term Don may refer to Donald, a Western name Don (honorific), a Spanish, Portuguese and Italian title, given as a mark of respect A crime boss Don, Nord, a commune of the Nord département in northern France Don (TN), a comune in the province of Trento, in northern... This article is about the river. ... The Dniester (Ukrainian: translit. ...


Herodotus' Scythian etymologies

The Greek historian Herodotus provides another source of Scythian; he reports that the Scythians called the Amazons Oiorpata, and explains the name as a compound of oior, meaning "man", and pata, meaning "to kill" (Hist. 4,110). Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: Hērodotos Halikarnāsseus) was a Greek historian from Ionia who lived in the 5th century BC (ca. ... The Amazons (in Greek, ) were a mythical ancient nation of all-female warriors. ...

  • Most scholars associate oior "man" with Avestan vīra- "man, hero", Sanskrit vīra-, PIE *u̯iHro-. Various explanations account for pata "kill":
    1. Avestan paiti- "lord", Sanskrit pati-, PIE *poti- (i.e. "man-ruler");[14]
    2. Ossetic maryn "kill", Sanskrit mārayati, PIE *mer- "die" (confusion of Greek Μ and Π);[15]
    3. Ossetic fædyn "cleave", Sanskrit pātayati "fell", PIE *peth₂- "fall".[16]
  • Alternatively, Herodotus has got it all wrong; one scholar suggests Iranian aiwa- "one" + warah- "breast",[17] the Amazons having a single breast according to ancient folk-lore as reflected in Greek folk-etymology: a- (privative) + mazos, "without breast".

Elsewhere Herodotus explains the name of the mythical one-eyed tribe Arimaspoi as a compound of the Scythian words arima, meaning "one", and spu, meaning "eye" (Hist. 4,27). Look up Μ, μ in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Pi (disambiguation) Pi (upper case Π, lower case π or ϖ) is the sixteenth letter of the Greek alphabet. ... Folk etymology is a term used in two distinct ways: A commonly held misunderstanding of the origin of a particular word, a false etymology. ... The privative a (or a privativum) is the prefix a- expressing negation (e. ... For other uses, see Breast (disambiguation). ... A satyr (left), a griffin (centre) and an Arimaspus (right), detail of a red-figure calyx-krater, ca. ...

  • Some scholars connect arima "one" with Ossetic ærmæst "only", Avestic airime "quiet", Greek erēmos "empty", PIE *h₁(e)rh₁mo-?, and spu "eye" with Avestic spas- "foretell", Sanskrit spaś-, PIE *speḱ- "see".[18]
  • However, Iranian usually expresses "one" and "eye" with words like aiwa- and čašman- (Ossetic īw and cæst).
  • Other scholars reject Herodotus' etymology and derive the ethnonym Arimaspoi from Iranian aspa- "horse" instead.[19]
  • Or the first part of the name may reflect something like Iranian arjat- "rich", cf. Arəjatāspa (later Arjasp, a nomad king in Zoroastrian mythology;.[20]

A satyr (left), a griffin (centre) and an Arimaspus (right), detail of a red-figure calyx-krater, ca. ... Zoroastrianism is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra, Zartosht). ...

Herodotus' Scythian theonyms

Herodotus also gives a list of Scythian theonyms (Hist. 4.59):

  • Tabiti = Hestia. Perhaps related to Sanskrit Tapatī, a heroine in the Mahābhārata, literally "the burning (one)".[21]
  • Papaios = Zeus. Either "father" (Herodotus) or "protector", Avestan, Sanskrit pā- "protect", PIE *peh₃-.[22]
  • Api = Gaia. Either "mother"[23] or "water", Avestan, Sanskrit āp-, PIE Hep-[24]
  • Goitosyros or Oitosyros = Apollo. Perhaps Avestan gaēθa- "animal" + sūra- "rich".[25]
  • Argimpasa or Artimpasa = Aphrodite Urania. To Ossetic art "fire", Avestan āθra-.[26]
  • Thagimasadas = Poseidon.

Interpretatio graeca is a Latin term for the common tendency of ancient Greek writers to equate foreign divinities to members of their own pantheon. ... In Greek mythology, virginal Hestia (ancient Greek ) is the goddess of the hearth, of the right ordering of domesticity and the family, who received the first offering at every sacrifice in the household. ... For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film). ... For other uses, see Zeus (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Gaia. ... For other uses, see Apollo (disambiguation). ... The Birth of Venus, (detail) by Sandro Botticelli, 1485 For other uses, see Aphrodite (disambiguation). ... Neptune reigns in the city of Bristol. ...

Alanic

The Alanic language as spoken by the Alans from about the 5th to the 11th centuries AD formed a dialect directly descended from the earlier Scytho-Sarmatian languages, and forming in its turn the ancestor of the Ossetic language. Byzantine Greek authors recorded only a few fragments of this language.[27] The Alans, Alani, Alauni or Halani were an Iranian nomadic group among the Sarmatian people, warlike nomadic pastoralists of varied backgrounds, who spoke an Iranian language and to a large extent shared a common culture. ... A dialect (from the Greek word διάλεκτος, dialektos) is a variety of a language characteristic of a particular group of the languages speakers. ... The Entholinguistic patchwork of the modern Caucasus - CIA map Ossetic or Ossetian (Ossetic: or , Persian: اوسِتی) is an Iranian language spoken in Ossetia, a region on the slopes of the Caucasus mountains on the borders of Russia and Georgia. ... Byzantine Greek is an archaic variant of Greek language derived from Koine which was used by the administration of the Byzantine Empire from 395 until the fall of Constantinople in 1453. ...


Notes

  1. ^ "The languages of the eastern group, moreover, cannot have been themselves mutually intelligible. The main known languages of this group are Chorasmian, Sogdian and Saka. Less well-known are Old Ossetic (Scytho-Sarmatian) and Bactrian, but from what is known it would seem likely that these languages were equally distinctive" - Encyclopedia Britannica 15th edition - Macropedia on Languages of the World
  2. ^ Encyclopedia Britannica 15th edition - Macropedia on Languages of the World, "The Iranian Languages"
  3. ^ Scythian, member of a normadic people originally of Iranian stock who migrated from Central Asia to southern Russia in the 8th and 7th centuries BC - Encyclopedia Britannica 15th edition - Micropaedia on "Scythian"
  4. ^ The languages of the Scytho-Sarmatian inscription may represent dialects of a language family of which Modern Ossetic is a continuation, but does not simply represent the same language at an earlier time - Encyclopedia Britannica 15th edition - Macropedia on Languages of the World
  5. ^ Schmitt, Rüdiger (ed.), Compendium Linguarum Iranicarum, Reichert, 1989.
  6. ^ Compare L. Zgusta, Die griechischen Personennamen griechischer Städte der nördlichen Schwarzmeerküste [The Greek personal names of the Greek cities of the northern Black Sea coast], 1955.
  7. ^ Zakiev, Mirfatykh Z. 1995. Ethnic roots of the Tatar people. A chapter from "Tatars: problems of the history and language", Kazan, 1995.
  8. ^ S.V. Rjabčikov, Drevnie texty slavjan i adygov [Ancient texts of the Slavs and the Adyghe], Krasnodar 1998; Skifo-sarmatskie istoki slavjanskoj kul’tury: Materialy Južnorossijskoj fol’klorno-ėtnografičeskoj ekspedicii [Scytho-Sarmatian sources of Slavic culture: Materials of the South-Russian folkloric-ethnographic expedition], Krasnodar 2002; see also the homepage of Rjabčikov on the Slavonic Antiquity.
  9. ^ B.A. Rybakov, Gerodotova Skifija. Istoriko-geografičeskij analiz [Herodotian Scythia:a historical-geographic analysis], Moscow 1979.
  10. ^ E.g. Harmatta 1970.
  11. ^ Text and translation in J. Harmatta, "Herodotus, historian of the Cimmerians and the Scythians", in: Hérodote et les peuples non grecs, Vandœuvres-Genève 1990, pp. 115-130.
  12. ^ M. Vasmer, Untersuchungen über die ältesten Wohnsitze der Slaven. Die Iranier in Südrußland, Leipzig 1923, 74.
  13. ^ P. Kretschmer, "Zum Balkan-Skythischen", Glotta 24 (1935), 1-56, here: 7ff.
  14. ^ Vasmer, Die Iranier in Südrußland, 1923, 15.
  15. ^ V.I. Abaev, Osetinskij jazyk i fol’klor, Moscow / Leningrad 1949, vol. 1, 172, 176, 188.
  16. ^ L. Zgusta, "Skythisch οἰόρπατα «ἀνδροκτόνοι»", Annali dell’Istituto Universario Orientale di Napoli 1 (1959) pp. 151-156.
  17. ^ Hinge, Glotta 81 (2005) 94-98.
  18. ^ J. Marquart, Untersuchungen zur Geschichte von Eran, Göttingen 1905, 90-92; Vasmer, Die Iranier in Südrußland, 1923, 12; H.H. Schaeder, Iranica. I: Das Auge des Königs, Berlin 1934, 16-19.
  19. ^ W. Tomaschek, "Kritik der ältesten Nachrichten über den skythischen Norden", Sitzungsberichte der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften 116 (1888), 715-780, here: 761; K. Müllenhoff, Deutsche Altertumskunde, Berlin 1893, vol. 3, 305-306; R. Grousset, L’empire des steppes, Paris 1941, 37 n. 3; I. Lebedensky, Les Scythes. La civilisation des steppes (VIIe-IIIe siècles av. J.-C.), Paris 2001, 93.
  20. ^ Hinge, Glotta 81 (2005) 89-94.
  21. ^ W. Brandenstein, "Die Abstammungssagen der Skythen", Wiener Zeitschrift für die Kunde des Morgenlandes 52 (1953) 183-211, here: 191; Ė.A. Grantovskij & D.S. Raevskij, "Ob iranojazyčnom i «indoarijskom» naselenii Severnogo Pričernomor’ja v antičnuju ėpochu", in: Ėtnogenez narodov Balkan i Severnogo Pričernomor’ja. Lingvistika, istorija, archeologija, Moscow 1984, 47-66, here: 53-55; G. Dumézil, Romans de Scythie et d’alentour, Paris 1978, 125-145; Dumézil offers a different interpretation in La courtisane et les seigneurs colorés. Esquisses de mythologie, Paris 1983, 124-125.
  22. ^ Vasmer, Die Iranier in Südrußland, 1923, 15; L. Zgusta, "Zwei skythische Götternamen", Archiv orientální 21 (1953), pp. 270-271; Grantovskij and Raevskij, in: Ėtnogenez narodov Balkan i Severnogo Pričernomor’ja, 1984, 54.
  23. ^ L. Zgusta, "Zwei skythische Götternamen", Archiv orientální 21 (1953), pp. 270-271.
  24. ^ Vasmer, Die Iranier in Südrußland, 1923, 11; Brandenstein, Wiener Zeitschrift für die Kunde des Morgenlandes 52 (1953) 190-191; Grantovskij and Raevskij, in: Ėtnogenez narodov Balkan i Severnogo Pričernomor’ja, 1984, 54.
  25. ^ Vasmer, Die Iranier in Südrußland, 1923, 13; other interpretations in Dumézil, La courtisane et les seigneurs colorés, 1983, 121-122; Grantovskij and Raevskij, in: Ėtnogenez narodov Balkan i Severnogo Pričernomor’ja, 1984, 54-55.
  26. ^ Dumézil, La courtisane et les seigneurs colorés, 1983.
  27. ^ Ladislav Zgusta, "The old Ossetic Inscription from the River Zelenčuk" (Veröffentlichungen der Iranischen Kommission = Sitzungsberichte der österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Philosophisch-historische Klasse 486) Wien: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1987. ISBN 3-7001-0994-6 in Kim, op.cit., 54.

1913 advertisement for the 11th edition, with the slogan When in doubt — look it up in the Encyclopædia Britannica The Encyclopædia Britannica (properly spelled with æ, the ae-ligature) was first published in 1768–1771 as The Britannica was an important early English-language general encyclopedia and is still... 1913 advertisement for the 11th edition, with the slogan When in doubt — look it up in the Encyclopædia Britannica The Encyclopædia Britannica (properly spelled with æ, the ae-ligature) was first published in 1768–1771 as The Britannica was an important early English-language general encyclopedia and is still... 1913 advertisement for the 11th edition, with the slogan When in doubt — look it up in the Encyclopædia Britannica The Encyclopædia Britannica (properly spelled with æ, the ae-ligature) was first published in 1768–1771 as The Britannica was an important early English-language general encyclopedia and is still... 1913 advertisement for the 11th edition, with the slogan When in doubt — look it up in the Encyclopædia Britannica The Encyclopædia Britannica (properly spelled with æ, the ae-ligature) was first published in 1768–1771 as The Britannica was an important early English-language general encyclopedia and is still... Boris Alexandrovich Rybakov (1908-2001) was an orthodox Soviet historian who personified the anti-Normanist vision of Russian history. ... Max Vasmer (1886 – 1962), German linguist. ... Paul Kretschmer (1866-1956) was a German linguist who studied the earliest history and interrelations of the Indo-European languages and showed how they were influenced by non-Indo-European languages, such as Etruscan. ... Vasilij Ivanovich Abaev (Ossetian: Васо Абайты, Russian: Василий Иванович Абаев, also transilterated as Abaity and Abayev; 15 December 1900 in Kobi, Georgia — 18 March 2001 in Saint Petersburg) was an Ossetian linguist specializing in Ossetian and Iranian linguistics. ... Ladislav Zgusta is a historical linguist and lexicographer. ... Karl Viktor Mullenhoff (September 8, 1818 – February 19, 1884) was a German philologist. ... René Grousset (1885-1952) was a French historian specializing in Asiatic and Oriental history. ... Georges Dumézil (March 4, 1898 - October 11, 1986) was a French comparative philologist best known for his analysis of sovereignty and power in Indo-European religion and society. ... Ladislav Zgusta is a historical linguist and lexicographer. ... Ladislav Zgusta is a historical linguist and lexicographer. ...

Literature

  • Harmatta, J.: Studies in the History and Language of the Sarmatians, Szeged 1970.
  • Zgusta, L.: Die griechischen Personennamen griechischer Städte der nördlichen Schwarzmeerküste. Die ethnischen Verhältnisse, namentlich das Verhältnis der Skythen und Sarmaten, im Lichte der Namenforschung, Prague 1955.

János Harmatta (1917- 2004) was a Hungarian linguist. ... Ladislav Zgusta is a historical linguist and lexicographer. ...

Links

  • Scythian language A brief overview of the Scythian and Ossetian languages (in Spanish)
  • Herodot zur skythischen Sprache About Herodotus' Scythian etymologies (in German)
  • The Slavonic Antiquity: Scythians, Sarmatians, Meotians and Slavs A collection of idiosyncratic articles by Sergei V. Rjabchikov on the decipherment of the Scythian/Sarmatian language and script.
  • Rjabchikov, S.V., 2005. "On Scythian, Sarmatian and Meotian Records about Thunderstorm". AnthroGlobe Journal, 2005.
  • Rjabchikov, S.V., 2001. "The Scythian and Sarmatian Sources of the Russian Mythology and Fairy-Tales". AnthroGlobe Journal, 2001.

 
 

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