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Scythia was an area in African-Eurasian aspect of Earth Eurasia is the combined land mass of Europe and Asia. Eurasia is alternatively considered to be a continent, or a supercontinent composed of the continents of Europe and Asia. Due to the perceived cultural differences between Asia and Europe by Europeans, it was traditional to... Eurasia inhabited in ancient times by an The Indo-Aryan languages form a subgroup of the Indo-Iranian languages, thus belonging to the Indo-European family of languages. The term Indic refers to the same group without the negative connotations of Aryan. Note that in opposition to the generic adjective Indian, Indic is the term used in... Indo-Aryans known as the Scythians. The location and extent of Scythia varied over time from the For the republic in Russia, see Altai Republic. Altai (in Mongolian Altain-ula, the Mountains of Gold), a term used in Asiatic geography with various significations. Shavlo Lake in Northern Tcuski Range Contents // 1 Altai region 1.1 Geographical features 2 Range of the Altai proper 2.1 Geographical features... Altai region where For the region of the same name, see Mongolia (region) Mongolia (Khalkha Mongolian: Монгол Улс) is a landlocked nation in central Asia, bordered by Russia to the north and the Peoples Republic of China to the south. It was the center of... Mongolia, This article is on the geographic and cultural entity. For other meanings, see Country China, a country in East Asia One of the two states that have China in their official title and claim sovereignty over all of China: Peoples Republic of China (governing Mainland China, Hong Kong, and Macau... China, The Russian Federation ( Russian (русский язык) Spoken in: The Russian Federation ( Russian (русский язык) Spoken in: Russia and many other countries Region: Eastern Europe and Asia Total speakers: 280 million Ranking: 4... Russia, and Kazakhstan ( Categories: Language stubs | Turkic languages | Languages of Asia | Languages of China | Languages of Kazakhstan ... Kazakh: Қазақстан, Qazaqstan, This article is about the alphabet officially used in linguistics. The NATO phonetic alphabet (alpha bravo) had informally been called the International Phonetic Alphabet... Kazakhstan come together to the lower For other uses of Danube, see Danube may refer to: The Danube River Danube, New York Danube, Minnesota The Danube class starship from the Star Trek universe A station on the Paris Métro The Blue Danube, a famous waltz composed by Johann Strauss the younger in 1867 Blue Danube... Danube river area and The Republic of Bulgaria is a There is presently an editing dispute over two versions of this page. One version is below; you may also view the other version (http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Republic&oldid={{{1}}}) or the difference (http://en.wikipedia.org... Bulgaria. The Saka are Asian Scythians and were known as The word sai has several meanings: Sai is a village in Aomori, Japan; Sai is a commune of the département of Orne, in France; A sai is an Okinawan weapon; Sai is an Egyptian goddess of fate, also known as Psais Sai is a variant of the game Mancala... Sai to the Chinese: see Saka is also the name of a town in Hiroshima, Japan; for information on this town, see Saka, Hiroshima. The Sakas or Saka race was a group of Iranian people who lived in present day Uzbekistan around 3000 BC. These Sakas followed other Aryans into present day Iran, and returned... Saka.


The most significant Scythian tribes mentioned in antique sources resided in the steppe between the This article is about the river. See also Dnipro launch vehicle for the rocket, or Dnepr (or Dnipro) is a brand of heavy motorcycles produced in Kiev, Ukraine, since 1977. Motorcycles have been produced in Kiev since 1946 at the Kiev Motorcycle plant (KMZ). External link The KMZ official site... Dnieper and There are several rivers named Don: Don River, Russia, one of the main rivers of Russia. River Don, Scotland, a river in Aberdeenshire which rises in the Grampians and flows 131 km (82 miles) eastwards to the North Sea at Aberdeen. River Don, England, a river in South Yorkshire which... Don rivers. The peoples in the periphery The steppe of Western Kazakhstan in early spring In physical geography, steppe (from Slavic step) is a plain without trees (apart from those near rivers and lakes); it is similar to a prairie, although a prairie is generally reckoned as being dominated by tall grasses, while short grasses are said... steppes are usually referred as "Scythians", but they don't speak The Iranian languages are a part of the Indo European language family. The Iranian language group is part of the larger Indo-Iranian language subfamily and accounts for some of the oldest-recorded Indo-European languages. Indo-Iranian languages originated around modern Afghanistan, and split into the Iranian, Indo-Aryan... Iranian languages like the proper Scythians did. For other uses, see There were several classical figures named Priscus: Priscus of Panium, 5th century historian Priscus Attalus, senator and briefly Emperor Gaius Julius Priscus, Roman usurper Helvidius Priscus, Stoic philosopher Tarquinius Priscus, legendary king of Rome This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other... Priscus, the Byzantine emissary to For other uses, see Attila (disambiguation). The Huns, led by Attila (right, foreground), ride into Italy. Attila the Hun (Ic. Atle, Atli; Ge. Etzel; c. 406–453) was the last and most powerful king of the European Huns. He reigned over what was then Europes largest empire, from... Attila referred to Attila's followers repeatedly as "Scythians," so some of them may have Scythian ancestry. However, since most of the significant areas have for a long time been inhabitated by The Indo-Aryan languages form a subgroup of the Indo-Iranian languages, thus belonging to the Indo-European family of languages. The term Indic refers to the same group without the negative connotations of Aryan. Note that in opposition to the generic adjective Indian, Indic is the term used in... Indo-Aryan groups, it is held that the Scythians were of Aryan/Iranian origin. Their language, Scythian and Sarmatian are the names of the East Iranian dialects spoken by the Scythian/Sarmatian tribes of cattlebreeders in Southern Russia between 8th century BC and 5th century AD. The two branches are divided mainly chronologically, rather than geographically: Scythian - archaic version; mainly during classic antiquity Sarmatian Sometimes, the... Scythian is from three words found to have strong similarity with Eastern Iranian.


To the best of our knowledge, the Scythians were a culture with no A writing system, also called a script, is used to visually record a language with symbols. The oldest kind of writing was pictographic or ideographical. Most writing systems can be broadly divided into three categories: logographic, syllabic and alphabetic. The generic word for symbols in a writing system is a... writing system. Most knowledge of the Scythians derives from antique Greek texts.


Etymologically, "Old Iranian Saka, Greek Scythai and Sogdian Sughde, as well as the biblical Hebrew Ashkenaz (via Syrian Askuzai) appear all to derive from *skuza, an ancient Indo-European Indo-European languages Anatolian | Indo-Iranian | Greek | Italic Celtic | Germanic | Armenian Balto-Slavic | Tocharian | Albanian Proto-Indo-European Language | Society | Religion Kurgan | Yamna | BMAC | Aryan Indo-European studies Indo-European is originally a linguistic term, referring to the Indo-European language family. By extension, it became a collective... Indo-European word for archer, cf. English shoot." (Torday, Mounted archers).

Download high resolution version (1006x382, 89 KB)From 1900 edition of Encyclopedie Larousse Illustree. This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. This applies worldwide. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del...
Download high resolution version (1006x382, 89 KB)From 1900 edition of Encyclopedie Larousse Illustree. This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. This applies worldwide. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del... Enlarge
Scythian warriors, drawn after figures on an Electrum is a naturally occurring alloy of gold, silver, and lesser amounts of copper. It has a pale yellow color, and was used in some of the earliest coins in the world. Composition Most commonly, electrum consists of approximately 75% gold, the remainder mostly silver, with some copper and other... electrum cup from the Kul'Oba kurgan burial near Kerch (in Russian (русский язык) Spoken in: The Russian Federation ( Russian (русский язык) Spoken in: Russia and many other countries Region: Eastern Europe and Asia Total speakers: 280 million Ranking: 4-7... Kerch ( The Winter Palace overlooks the Neva River. The Hermitage Museum (Эрмитаж) in St. Petersburg, Russia is one of the largest, oldest and most important art galleries in the world. The vast Hermitage collections are displayed in four buildings, the main one being the Winter... Hermitage Museum, St Petersburg)
Contents

Scythian society

The Scythians formed a network of nomadic tribes of horse-riding conquerors. See There are a number of theories regarding the domestication of the horse. Although horses began appearing in cave art as early as 30,000 BCE, these were truly wild horses, and were probably hunted for meat; how and when they became domesticated is less clear. The most common date of... Domestication of the horse. They invaded many areas in the The steppe of Western Kazakhstan in early spring In physical geography, steppe (from Slavic step) is a plain without trees (apart from those near rivers and lakes); it is similar to a prairie, although a prairie is generally reckoned as being dominated by tall grasses, while short grasses are said... steppes of Eurasia, including areas in present-day Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan and southern Russia. Ruled by small, closely-allied élites, Scythians had a reputation for their Archers in Competition Archery is the practice of using a bow to shoot arrows. Archery has historically been used in hunting and combat, and has become a precision sport. Contents // 1 Modern competitive archery 1.1 Rules 1.2 Scoring 1.3 Other competition 2 Hunting 3 History 3.1... archers, and many gained employment as For other uses, see Mercenary (disambiguation). A mercenary is a soldier who fights, or engages in warfare exclusively for money, without any regard for ideological, national or political considerations. When the term is used to refer to a soldier in a regular national army, it is usually considered an insult... mercenaries. Scythian elite were buried in This article is about Bronze Age burial mounds and the Kurgan culture. See Kurgan, Kurgan Oblast for a Russian city of that name. See Highlander for the fictional character called Kurgan. Indo-European Indo-European languages Anatolian | Indo-Iranian | Greek | Italic Celtic | Germanic | Armenian Balto-Slavic | Tocharian | Albanian Proto-Indo... kurgans, high barrows heaped over chamber-tombs of This article is about larch trees. For other uses, see Larch (disambiguation). Larch Siberian Larch, Larix sibirica Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Division: Pinophyta Class: Pinopsida Order: Pinales Family: Pinaceae Genus: Larix Species About 12; see text Larches are conifers in the genus Larix, in the family Pinaceae. They are deciduous... larch-wood, a wood that may have had special significance as a tree of life-renewal, since it is a deciduous conifer that stands out starkly in winter against other evergreens, but returns to life every spring. Burials at Pazyryk is a local name for a valley in the Altai Mountains lying in Siberian Russia south of the modern city of Novosibirsk, near the borders with China, Kazakhstan and Mongolia. It includes (or is part of) the Ukok plateau, where many ancient Bronze Age barrow-like tomb mounds of... Pazyryk in the For the republic in Russia, see Altai Republic. Altai (in Mongolian Altain-ula, the Mountains of Gold), a term used in Asiatic geography with various significations. Shavlo Lake in Northern Tcuski Range Contents // 1 Altai region 1.1 Geographical features 2 Range of the Altai proper 2.1 Geographical features... Altai Mountains have included some spectacularly-preserved Scythians of the "Pazyryk culture" including the "Ice Maiden" of the (6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC - other centuries) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) Contents // 1 Events 2 Significant persons 3 Inventions, discoveries, introductions 4 Decades and years Events Demotic becomes the dominant script of ancient Egypt Persians invade Greece twice (Persian Wars) Battle... 5th century BC.


Scythian warrior-women may have inspired tales of the This article is about the Amazon women of Greek mythology. For other uses, see Amazons (disambiguation). In Greek mythology, the Amazons were either an ancient legendary nation of female warriors or a contemporary land of women at the outer edges of the world. The legends appear to have a nugget... Amazons in Topics in Greek mythology Gods: Primordial gods and Titans Zeus and the Olympians Pan and the nymphs Apollo and Dionysus Sea-gods and Earth-gods Heroes: Heracles and his Labors Achilles and the Trojan War Jason and the Argonauts Perseus and the Gorgon Oedipus and Thebes Theseus and the Minotaur... Greek myth.


A Pazyryk burial found in the These pages contain the trends of millennia and centuries. The individual century pages contain lists of decades and years. See history for different organizations of historical events. See Calendar and List of calendars for other groupings of years. For earlier time periods see cosmological timeline, geologic timescale, evolutionary timeline, pleistocene... 1990s seems to confirm at least part of the legend. It contained the skeletons of a man and a woman, each with weapons, arrowheads, and an axe. "The woman was dressed exactly like a man. This shows that certain women, probably young and unmarried, could be warriors, literally Amazons. It didn't offend the principles of nomadic society", according to one of the Archaeology or sometimes in American English archeology (from the Greek words αρχαίος = ancient and λόγος = word/speech) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains, including architecture, artefacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes... archaeologists interviewed for the 1998 is a This is the calendar for any common year starting on Thursday (dominical letter D). (A common year is a year with 365 days -- in other words, not a leap year.) January February March Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa... 1998 NOVA documentary "The Ice Mummies".


History

To date no certain explanation exists to account for the origin of the Scythians or details of how they migrated to the Caucasus and Ukraine (Україна, Ukrayina in The neutrality of this article is disputed. Please see the relevant discussion on the talk page. Ukrainian (українська мова / Ukraïnska Mova) Spoken in: Ukraine, Poland, Slovakia Region... Ukraine, but the majority of scholars believe that they migrated westward from Map of Central Asia outlined in orange showing one set of possible borders Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast A landlocked country is one that has no coastline. There are 42 landlocked countries in the world. A landlocked sea is a sea... Central Asia between Centuries: 10th century BC - 9th century BC - 8th century BC Decades: 850s BC 840s BC 830s BC 820s BC 810s BC - 800s BC - 790s BC 780s BC 770s BC 760s BC 750s BC Events and Trends 804 BC - Hadad-nirari IV of Assyria conquers Damascus. 804 BC - Death of Pedubastis... 800 BC and Centuries: 8th century BC - 7th century BC - 6th century BC Decades: 650s BC 640s BC 630s BC 620s BC 610s BC - 600s BC - 590s BC 580s BC 570s BC 560s BC 550s BC Events and Trends Fall of the Assyrian Empire and Rise of Babylon 609 BC _ King Josiah... 600 BC.


Actually old recordings say, that the land where the Scythians originated, was called Gerrhos. They would prepare their dead and travel with them long distances to bring them for burial in Gerrhos.


The Scythians never had a A writing system, also called a script, is used to visually record a language with symbols. The oldest kind of writing was pictographic or ideographical. Most writing systems can be broadly divided into three categories: logographic, syllabic and alphabetic. The generic word for symbols in a writing system is a... writing system, so until recent archaeological developments most of our information about them came from the History of Greece series Aegean Civilization before 1600 BC Mycenaean Greece ca. 1600–1200 BC Greek Dark Ages ca. 1200–800 BC Ancient Greece 776–323 BC Hellenistic Greece 323 BC–146 BC Roman and Byzantine Greece 146 BC–1453 AD Ottoman Greece 1453–... Greeks. For other uses, see Homer (disambiguation). Homer (Greek Ὅμηρος Hómēros) was a legendary (or perhaps mythical) early Greek poet and rhapsode traditionally credited with authorship of the major Greek epics Iliad and Odyssey, the comic mini-epic Batrachomyomachia (The Frog-Mouse War... Homer called them "the mare-milkers"; Herodotus was an ancient historian who lived in the 5th century BC (484 BC - c. 425 BC). He is famous for the descriptions he wrote of different places and people he met on his travels and his many books about the Persian invasion in Greece. Contents // 1 Overview 2 Opinions... Herodotus described them in detail: their costume consisted of padded and quilted leather trousers tucked into boots, and open tunics. They rode with no Haniwa horse statuette, complete with saddle and stirrups, 6th century, Kofun period, Japan. For other uses of the word stirrup, see Stirrup (disambiguation). The stirrup is a ring with a flat bottom, usually hung from each side of a saddle to create a footrest for the rider on a horse... stirrups or saddles, just saddlecloths. Herodotus' histories allegedly report that Saka is also the name of a town in Hiroshima, Japan; for information on this town, see Saka, Hiroshima. The Sakas or Saka race was a group of Iranian people who lived in present day Uzbekistan around 3000 BC. These Sakas followed other Aryans into present day Iran, and returned... Saka Scythians used Cannabis is a plant which is consumed by humans as a psychoactive drug. Cannabis sativa discusses the physiology and scientific properties of this plant. Cannabis (drug) discusses the pharmacological properties of the plant and its use by humans as a drug. This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid... marijuana, but the specific reference is unclear. The Scythian philosopher Anacharsis He marvelled that among the Greeks, those who were skillful in a thing vie in competition; those who have no skill, judge —Diogenes Laertius, of Anacharsis. Anacharsis was a Scythian philosopher who travelled from his homeland on the northern shores of the Black Sea to Athens in the... Anacharsis visited For other uses, see Athens (disambiguation). The Acropolis in central Athens is home to ancient monuments of Athens — a mainstay of its thriving tourism industry Athens (Greek: Αθήνα Athína) is the capital of Greece, and also the capital of the Attica region of Greece... Athens in the (7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC - other centuries) (600s BC - 590s BC - 580s BC - 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - other decades) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) Events Cyrus the Great conquered many... 6th century BC and became a legendary sage. Scythians were also known for their useage of barbed arrows, Communities of nomadic people move from place to place, rather than settling down in one location. Many cultures have been traditionally nomadic, but nomadic behaviour is increasingly rare in industrialised countries. Typically there are two kinds of nomad, pastoral nomads and peripatetic nomads. Pastoralists raise herds and move with them... nomadic life centered around horses -- "fed from horse-blood" according to a Roman historian -- and skill in History of warfare Eras Prehistoric warfare Ancient warfare Medieval warfare Early modern warfare Modern warfare Types Naval warfare Siege warfare Trench warfare Guerrilla warfare Aerial warfare Nuclear warfare Lists List of wars List of battles List of sieges Guerrilla (also called a partisan) is a term borrowed from Spanish (from... guerilla warfare. The Scythians are thought to have been the first to tame the horse and use it in combat as well.


The Scythians became entangled in Mesopotamian politics during the 7th century BC. At the request of Assurbanipal in a relief from the north palace at Nineveh There were several Assyrian kings named Assur-bani-pal, also spelled Asurbanipal, Assurbanipal (most commonly), Ashurbanipal and Ashshurbanipal, but the best known was Assurbanipal IV.  Ashurbanipal, or Assurbanipal, (reigned 668 - 627 BCE), the son of Esarhaddon and Naqia... Ashurbanipal of Assyria, the Scythians invaded the Median Empire in the 650s BC. Their campaigns were so effective that a Scythian, Madius, became ruler of the Medes for twenty-eight years ( Centuries: 8th century BC - 7th century BC - 6th century BC Decades: 700s BC 690s BC 680s BC 670s BC 660s BC - 650s BC - 640s BC 630s BC 620s BC 610s BC 600s BC Events and Trends Occupation begins at Maya site of Piedras Negras, Guatemala 657 BC - Cypselus becomes the... 653 BC - Centuries: 8th century BC - 7th century BC - 6th century BC Decades: 670s BC 660s BC 650s BC 640s BC 630s BC - 620s BC - 610s BC 600s BC 590s BC 580s BC 570s BC Events and Trends 627 BC - Death of Assurbanipal, king of Assyria; he is succeeded by Assur_etel_ilani (approximate... 625 BC) and temporarily elimated the Medes as a threat to Assyria. After 625, however, the Scythians left the Median Empire - whether they did so voluntarily or were expelled is debated. At any rate, following the Median sack of Ancient Mesopotamia Euphrates – Tigris Assyriology Cities / Empires Sumer: Uruk – Ur – Eridu Kish – Lagash – Nippur Akkadian Empire: Agade Babylon – Isin – Susa Assyria: Assur – Nineveh Nuzi – Nimrud Babylonia – Chaldea – Elam – Amorites Hurrians – Mitanni – Kassites Chronology Kings of Sumer... Assur in Centuries: 8th century BC - 7th century BC - 6th century BC Decades: 660s BC 650s BC 640s BC 630s BC 620s BC - 610s BC - 600s BC 590s BC 580s BC 570s BC 560s BC Events and Trends 619 BC - Alyattes becomes king of Lydia 619 BC _ Death of Zhou xiang... 614 BC, they were compelled to switch sides and ally with the Medes. They comprised part of the force that sacked This article is about the ancient Middle Eastern city of Nineveh. The name is also applied to places in New York and Indiana, USA: see Nineveh, Indiana and Nineveh, New York. Ancient Mesopotamia Euphrates – Tigris Assyriology Cities / Empires Sumer: Uruk – Ur – Eridu Kish – Lagash – Nippur... Nineveh Centuries: 8th century BC - 7th century BC - 6th century BC Decades: 660s BC 650s BC 640s BC 630s BC 620s BC - 610s BC - 600s BC 590s BC 580s BC 570s BC 560s BC Events and Trends 619 BC - Alyattes becomes king of Lydia 619 BC _ Death of Zhou xiang... 612 BC. Some time afterwards, the Scythians returned to the steppes.


During the (6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC - other centuries) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) Contents // 1 Events 2 Significant persons 3 Inventions, discoveries, introductions 4 Decades and years Events Demotic becomes the dominant script of ancient Egypt Persians invade Greece twice (Persian Wars) Battle... 5th to (4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - other centuries) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) Contents // 1 Events 2 Significant persons 3 Inventions, discoveries, introductions 4 Decades and years Events The first two Punic Wars between Carthage and Rome over dominance in western Mediterranean Rome... 3rd centuries BC the Scythians prospered. When Herodotus wrote his Histories in the 5th century BC, Greeks distinguished a 'Greater Scythia' that extended a 20-day ride from the For other uses of Danube, see Danube (disambiguation). Danube Danube in Budapest Length 2 860 km Elevation of the source - m Average discharge 6 400 m³/s Area watershed 817 000 km² Origin In the Black Forest (Germany) Mouth Black Sea (Romania) Basin countries Romania (28.9%), Hungary (11.7... Danube River in the west, across the steppes of today's Ukraine to the lower This article is about the river in Western Russia. For other rivers with the same name, see There are at several rivers named Don: Don River, Russia Don River, Toronto River Don, England River Don, Aberdeenshire This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that... Don basin from ' Schythia Minor was in ancient times the region sorrounded by Danube at north and west and the Black Sea at east, corresponding to todays Dobruja (a part in Romania and a smaller part in Bulgaria). Contents // Categories: Stub | Ancient Roman provinces ... Scythia Minor'. The Don, then known as Tanais, the Greek name for the River Don in antiquity, was also the name of the city on the river situated in the Don river delta that reaches into the northeasternmost part of the Sea of Azov, which the Greeks called Lake Maeotis. The site of ancient Tanais is about... Tanaïs, has been a major trading route ever since. The Scythians apparently obtained their wealth from their control over the This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. If an article link referred you here, you might want to go back and fix it to point directly to the intended page. For specific articles on the slave trade... slave trade from the north to Greece through the Greek Download high resolution version (1300x1000, 315 KB)Satellite image of the Black Sea Source: http://visibleearth.nasa.gov/cgi-bin/viewrecord?25334 Copyright info: http://visibleearth.nasa.gov/help.html This image page contains items that originally came from a NASA website or publication. All works created by NASA are... Black Sea Colonies in antiquity were city-states founded from a mother-city, not from a territory-at-large. Bonds remained close, and took specific forms, discussed in the individual sections below. Phoenician colonies The Phoenicians were the major trading power in the Mediterranean in the early part of the Egypt and... colonial ports. They also grew grain, and shipped wheat, flocks, and cheese to Greece.


Philip II of Macedon delivered a setback in Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC - 330s BC - 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC Years: 344 BC 343 BC 342 BC 341 BC 340 BC - 339 BC - 338 BC 337 BC... 339 BC.


Although the Scythians allegedly disappeared in the (2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century - other centuries) The 1st century BC starts on January 1, 100 BC and ends on December 31, 1 BC. An alternative name for this century is the last century BC. (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) Contents // 1 Events... 1st century BC, Eastern Romans continued to speak conventionally of "Scythians" to designate mounted African-Eurasian aspect of Earth Eurasia is the combined land mass of Europe and Asia. Eurasia is alternatively considered to be a continent, or a supercontinent composed of the continents of Europe and Asia. Due to the perceived cultural differences between Asia and Europe by Europeans, it was traditional to... Eurasian nomadic barbarians in general: in 448 CE the emissary For other uses, see There were several classical figures named Priscus: Priscus of Panium, 5th century historian Priscus Attalus, senator and briefly Emperor Gaius Julius Priscus, Roman usurper Helvidius Priscus, Stoic philosopher Tarquinius Priscus, legendary king of Rome This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other... Priscus is led to For other uses, see Attila (disambiguation). The Huns, led by Attila (right, foreground), ride into Italy. Attila the Hun (Ic. Atle, Atli; Ge. Etzel; c. 406–453) was the last and most powerful king of the European Huns. He reigned over what was then Europes largest empire, from... Attila's encampment in Position of the Roman province of Pannonia Pannonia is an ancient country bounded north and east by the Danube, conterminous westward with Noricum and upper Italy, and southward with Dalmatia and upper Moesia. Pannonia was located in the territory of present-day countries: Austria, Croatia, Hungary, Serbia and Montenegro, Slovenia... Pannonia by two mounted "Scythians" who are distinguished from the Goths and Many historians consider the Huns (meaning person in Mongolian language) the first The term Mongolian can refer to: a person, place or item from Mongolia a member of the Mongolian people, known as the Mongols the Mongolian language or the Mongolian alphabet Also, the pejorative terms mongoloid and mongolism were... Huns who also followed Attila. Some scholars believe that the Sarmatian horseman Sarmatians, Sarmatae or Sauromatae (the second form is mostly used by the earlier Greek writers, the other by the later Greeks and the Romans) were a people whom Herodotus (4.21-117) in the 5th century BC put on the eastern boundary of Scythia beyond the Tanais (Don... Sarmatians, the The Alans or Alani were an Iranian nomadic group among the Sarmatian people, warlike nomadic pastoralists of mixed backgrounds, who spoke an Iranian language and shared, in a broad sense, a common culture. Contents // 1 Early Alans 2 The western Alans and Vandals 3 Alans and Slavs 4 The eastern... Alans, and finally the Ossetians descend from them. The latter, the only Iranians who still live in Europe, call their country Iron, and are mostly This article is about the religious people known as Christians. For other uses, see This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. If an article link referred you here, you might want to go back and fix it... Christians. They speak an Eastern Iranian language, Ossetic, called by them Ironig or Ironski (i.e. Iranian), which maintains some remarkable features of Gathic Yasna 28.1 (Bodleian MS J2) Avestan is an Eastern Old Iranian language that was used to compose the hymns of the Zoroastrian holy book, the Avesta. Iranian Languages are part of the Indo-Iranian Language group which includes the Indo-Aryan languages such as Sanskrit. The Indo-Iranian language... Avestan language. At the same time, it has a number of words remarkably similar to their modern German (Deutsch) Spoken in: Germany, Switzerland, Austria, and 38 other countries. Region: Europe Total speakers: 120 million Ranking: 9 Genetic classification: Indo-European  Germanic   West Germanic    Old High German    Middle High German    Modern German Official status Official language... German equivalents, such as THAU (tauen, to thaw, as snow) and GAU (district, region). Legends of the indigenous The Picts inhabited Caledonia (Scotland), north of the River Forth. The name Pict comes from the Romans: in Latin the word Picti means painted folk or possibly tattooed ones and may be akin to the Welsh word Pryd meaning to mark or draw. Julius Caesar mentions the Celtic custom of... Picts of Scotland also include mention of Scythian origins.


There is no evidence that all the Scythians or Saka people spoke an Iranian language.They may have had an Iranian speaking elite (who may or may not be genetically related to the original Iranians).The mother tongue of these people may have been Proto-Germanic ,Proto-Slavic or even Tocharian (this would explain the presence of Tocharian in the east). (See [1] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Non-Indo-European_roots_of_Germanic_languages) Non-Indo-European_roots_of_Germanic_languages )


Archaeology and artifacts

Archaeological remains of the Scythians include elaborate tombs containing For other uses, see Gold can mean: Gold, a chemical element with atomic number 79. Gold (color), a dark yellow color. A gold medal, a prize in sporting competitions. In music Gold can refer to: Gold, a 2001 music album by Ryan Adams. Gold, a hit single by Spandau Ballet... gold, Silk (< OE sioloc probably < L. SERICVS / Gr. σηρικóς (silken) < L. SERES / Gr. Σηρες (Chinese) or alternatively < Ch. 丝 or 絲(pronounced sì) meaning silk, the pictogram representing two strands of silk.) is a natural protein fiber that... silk, horses and Human sacrifice was practiced in many ancient For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). The word culture comes from the Latin root colere (to inhabit, to cultivate, or to honor). In general, it refers to human activity; different definitions of culture reflect different theories for understanding, or criteria for valuing, human... human sacrifices. Mummification techniques and This article is about frozen ground. For other meanings, see Permafrost (disambiguation). In geology, permafrost or permafrost soil is soil that stays in a frozen state for more than two years in a row. The extent of permafrost can vary as the climate changes, approximately 20% of the Earths... permafrost have aided in the relative preservation of some remains.


"Pazyryk culture"

Enlarge
Horseman, Pazyryk felt artifact, c.300 BC.
Further information is at Pazyryk is a local name for a valley in the Altai Mountains lying in Siberian Russia south of the modern city of Novosibirsk, near the borders with China, Kazakhstan and Mongolia. It includes (or is part of) the Ukok plateau, where many ancient Bronze Age barrow-like tomb mounds of... Pazyryk.

One of the first The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. The Bronze Age is part of the Three-age system for prehistoric societies and follows the Neolithic in... Bronze Age Scythian burials documented by a modern archaeologist were the kurgans at Pazyryk is a local name for a valley in the Altai Mountains lying in Siberian Russia south of the modern city of Novosibirsk, near the borders with China, Kazakhstan and Mongolia. It includes (or is part of) the Ukok plateau, where many ancient Bronze Age barrow-like tomb mounds of... Pazyryk, Ulagan district of the Gorno-Altai Republic, south of Novosibirsk (Russian Новосиби́рск, pop. 1,425,600), after Moscow and Saint Petersburg Russias third largest city, is located in the southwest of Siberian Federal District. It was founded in 1893 as the future site of the Trans-Siberian... Novosibirsk. The name The Pazyryk culture (ca. 5th century BC) refers to an archaeological culture identified by excavated artefacts and mummified humans in the Siberian permafrost. The mummies are buried in long barrows (or kurgans) similar to the tomb mounds of westertn Scythian culture in modern Ukraine. Archaeologists associate the sites with the... Pazyryk culture was attached to the finds, five large burial mounds and several smaller ones between Years: 1922 1923 1924 - 1925 - 1926 1927 1928 Decades: 1890s 1900s 1910s - 1920s - 1930s 1940s 1950s Centuries: 19th century - 20th century - 21st century 1925 in topic: Arts Architecture - Art - Film - Literature - Music Science and technology Aviation - Rail transport - Science - Television Other topics Canada - Sport Lists of leaders: State leaders - Religious... 1925 and 1949 is a common year starting on Saturday. Years: 1946 1947 1948 - 1949 - 1950 1951 1952 Decades: 1910s 1920s 1930s - 1940s - 1950s 1960s 1970s Centuries: 19th century - 20th century - 21st century 1949 in topic: Arts Architecture - Art - Film - Literature - Music Science and technology Aviation - Rail transport - Science - Television Other topics... 1949 opened in Years: Years: 1941 is also the title of a Steven Spielberg movie made in 1979 see 1941 (film). Years: 1938 1939 1940 - 1941 - 1942 1943 1944 Decades: 1910s 1920s 1930s - 1940s - 1950s 1960s 1970s Centuries: 19th century - 20th century - 21st century 1941 in topic: Arts Architecture - Art - Film - Literature - Music... 1947 by a Russian archeologist, Sergei Rudenko; Pazyryk is in the For the republic in Russia, see Altai Republic. Altai (in Mongolian Altain-ula, the Mountains of Gold), a term used in Asiatic geography with various significations. Shavlo Lake in Northern Tcuski Range Contents // 1 Altai region 1.1 Geographical features 2 Range of the Altai proper 2.1 Geographical features... Altai Mountains of southern Siberia. The burial mounds concealed chambers of larch logs covered over by large cairns of boulders and stones.


It flourished between the 7th and 3rd centuries BC mountain fastness of a group of Scythians that may have called themselves Sacae. It was the seat of the larger of two related Scythian groups.


All the things a person might use or need in this life were placed in the tomb as grave goods for use in the next. Among the rich or powerful, horses were sacrificed and buried with them. With the ordinary Pazyryks were only ordinary utensils, but in one was found among other treasures the famous Pazyryk Carpet, the oldest surviving wool pile oriental rug. Rudenko summed up the cultural context at one point:

All that is known to us at the present time about the culture of the population of the High Altai, who have left behind them the large cairns, permits us to refer them to the Scythian period, and the Pazyryk group in particular to the fifth century BC. This is supported by radiocarbon dating.

In the Soviet redirects here. For other uses, see Soviet (disambiguation). The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) .( Russian (русский язык) Spoken in: The Russian Federation ( Russian (русский язык) Spoken in: Russia and many... Soviet culture, Rudenko could not stress the cultural similarities between Pazyryk and Scythians from the Kuban and lower Dneiper Valley in European Russia. Even in more modern times the blond hair and white skin and the frozen "Ice Maiden" and other burials may be seen, but are not mentioned in the Nova segment devoted to these burials. That the ancient culture he studied has become the basis of nomadic tribes of today including modern Altaians, Kirgiz, and Kazakhs is now a source of considerable pride for the Gorno-Altai Republic.


Scythian Gelonus (Belsk)

Recent digs in Belsk, Ukraine uncovered a vast city believed to be the Scythian capital Gelonus, also spelled Helonus, is home of the Geloni. The English transliteration of the Ukrainian letter G is H. There still exists in the Poltava region of the Ukraine a brewery that produces HELON brand beer. This article is a substub, the first step on the way to becoming a... Gelonus described by Herodotus. The city's commanding ramparts and vast 40 square kilometers exceeded even the outlandish size reported by Herodotus. Its location at the northern edge of Ukraine (Україна, Ukrayina in The neutrality of this article is disputed. Please see the relevant discussion on the talk page. Ukrainian (українська мова / Ukraïnska Mova) Spoken in: Ukraine, Poland, Slovakia Region... Ukraine's The steppe of Western Kazakhstan in early spring In physical geography, steppe (from Slavic step) is a plain without trees (apart from those near rivers and lakes); it is similar to a prairie, although a prairie is generally reckoned as being dominated by tall grasses, while short grasses are said... steppe would have allowed strategic control of the north-south -1... Wiktionary is a sister project to Wikipedia intended to be a free wiki dictionary (thesaurus, lexicon therein) in every language. Following through with Daniel Alstons idea, it was set up on December 12, 2002. On March 29, 2004 the first multilingual Wiktionaries were developed in French (http://fr... trade. Judging by the finds dated to the (6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC - other centuries) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) Contents // 1 Events 2 Significant persons 3 Inventions, discoveries, introductions 4 Decades and years Events Demotic becomes the dominant script of ancient Egypt Persians invade Greece twice (Persian Wars) Battle... 5th and (5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - other centuries) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) Contents // 1 Events 2 Significant persons 3 Inventions, discoveries, introductions 4 Decades and years Events Invasion of the Celts into Ireland Kingdom of Macedon conquers Persian empire Romans build first... 4th centuries BC, craft workshops and Greek pottery abounded, and perhaps so did slaves destined for Greece.


The Ryzhanovka kurgan

A This article is about Bronze Age burial mounds and the Kurgan culture. See Kurgan, Kurgan Oblast for a Russian city of that name. See Highlander for the fictional character called Kurgan. Indo-European Indo-European languages Anatolian | Indo-Iranian | Greek | Italic Celtic | Germanic | Armenian Balto-Slavic | Tocharian | Albanian Proto-Indo... kurgan or burial mound near the village of Ryzhanovka in Ukraine, 75 miles south of Kiev (Київ, Kyiv, in Ukrainian; Киев, Kiev, in Russian) is the capital and largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper river. As of 2003, Kiev officially had 2,642,486 inhabitants, although the large number... Kyiv, has revealed one of the only unlooted tombs of a Scythian chieftain, who was ruling in the forest-steppe area of the western fringe of Scythian lands. There at a late date in Scythian culture (ca. Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC - 250s BC - 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC Years: 255 BC 254 BC 253 BC 252 BC 251 BC - 250 BC - 249 BC 248 BC... 250 - Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC - 220s BC - 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC Years: 230 BC 229 BC 228 BC 227 BC 226 BC - 225 BC - 224 BC 223 BC... 225 BC), a recently nomadic aristocratic class was gradually adopting the agricultural life-style of their subjects: the tomb contained a mock hearth, the first ever found in a Scythian context, symbolic of the warmth and comfort of a farmhouse.


Ryzhanovka links

  • Archaeology abstract of 1997 article (http://www.archaeology.org/magazine.php?page=9709/abstracts/scythians)
  • the Ryzhanovka Kurgan in Ukraine (http://www2.uj.edu.pl/IRO/NEWSLET/IRC9/Chochorowski.html)

"Scythian gold"

Scythian contacts with craftsmen in Greek colonies along the northern shores of the Black Sea resulted in the famous Scythian gold adornments that are among the most glamorous prestige artifacts of world museums. Ethnographically extremely useful also, the gold depicts Scythian men as bearded, long-haired caucasoids (though such images may simply have been the Psychological projection (or projection bias) can be defined as unconsciously assuming that others share the same or similar thoughts, beliefs, values, or positions on any given subject. According to the theories of Sigmund Freud, it is a psychological defense mechanism whereby one projects ones own undesirable thoughts, motivations, desires... projections of the Greek artisans onto the works they were commissioned for). "Greco-Scythian" works depicting Scythians within a much more For other uses, see Greece (disambiguation). Greece, formally called the Hellenic Republic (Greek: Ελληνική Δημοκρατία), is a country in the southeast of Europe on the southern tip of the Balkan peninsula. It has land... Hellenic style date from a much later period when Scythians had already much mixed with Greeks, clouding the issue of their origins.


Scythians had a taste for elaborate personal jewelry, weapon ornaments and horse trappings. They executed Central Asian animal motifs with Greek realism: winged griffins attacking horses, battling stags, deer, and eagles, combined with everyday motifs like milking ewes.


In This page is about the year 2000. See Note: This is an article about the British comic book 2000 AD, rather than the year 2000 2000 AD logo 2000 AD is a weekly British science fiction oriented comic. The publication, which serialises a number of separate stories each prog (see... 2000 the touring exhibition 'Scythian Gold' introduced North Americans to the objects made for Scythian nomads by Greek craftsmen north of the Black Sea, and buried with their Scythian owners under burial mounds on the flat plains of what is now Ukraine (Україна, Ukrayina in The neutrality of this article is disputed. Please see the relevant discussion on the talk page. Ukrainian (українська мова / Ukraïnska Mova) Spoken in: Ukraine, Poland, Slovakia Region... Ukraine, most of which researchers unearthed after 1980 is a leap year starting on Tuesday. Years: 1977 1978 1979 - 1980 - 1981 1982 1983 Decades: 1950s 1960s 1970s - 1980s - 1990s 2000s 2010s Centuries: 19th century - 20th century - 21st century 1980 in topic: Arts Architecture - Art - Film - Literature - Music Science and technology Aviation - Rail transport - Science - Television Other topics... 1980.


In This article is about the year 2001. For information on the movie 2001: A Space Odyssey, see A movie poster from the original release of 2001 2001: A Space Odyssey (1968) is an immensely popular and influential science fiction film and book; the film directed by Stanley Kubrick and the... 2001 a discovery of an undisturbed royal Scythian burial barrow illustrated for the first time Scythian animal-style gold that lacked the direct influence of Greek styles. Forty-four pounds of gold weighed down the royal couple in this burial, discovered near Kyzyl (Кызы́л, meaning red in Tuvan language) is a town in Russia, capital of the republic of Tuva. Kyzyl is located exactly in the geographical center of Asia. It was founded in 1914 as Belotsarsk (Белоца́рск... Kyzyl, capital of the Siberian Russia is a federation which consists of 89 subjects (Russian: субъект(ы); English transliteration: subyekty, sing. subyekt). These subjects are of equal federal rights in the sense that they have equal representation—two delegates each—in the Federation Council (upper house... Siberian republic of Tuva or Tyva (Russian: Республика Тыва [Тува], Respublika Tyva [Tuva]) (pop. 310,300, census 2002) is a constituent republic of Russian Federation, 170,500 km² (65,830 mi², ranked 24th), located in extreme southern Siberia... Tuva.


Indo-Scythians

Enlarge
Silver coin of the The Indo-Scythian King of Kings Azes II (c. 35-12 BCE). The Indo-Scythians are a branch of the Indo-European Sakas (Scythians), who migrated into Bactria, Sogdiana, Kashmir and finally into Arachosia and then India from the middle of the 2nd century BCE to the 1st century BCE... Indo-Scythian King Azes II (r.c. 35-12 BC).

Main article: The Indo-Scythian King of Kings Azes II (c. 35-12 BCE). The Indo-Scythians are a branch of the Indo-European Sakas (Scythians), who migrated into Bactria, Sogdiana, Kashmir and finally into Arachosia and then India from the middle of the 2nd century BCE to the 1st century BCE... Indo-Scythians


The Indo-Scythians are a branch of the Scythians, who migrated into Bactria (Bactriana) was the ancient Greek name of the country between the range of the Hindu Kush (Caucasus Indicus) and the Amu Darya (Oxus), with the capital Bactra (now Balkh). To the east, it was bordered by the ancient region of Gandhara in the Indian subcontinent. Bactrias inhabitants spoke... Bactria, Sogdiana (Sugdiane, O. Pers. Sughuda) was a province of the Achaemenian Empire, the eighteenth in the list in the Behistun Inscription of Darius the Great (i. 16), corresponding to the modern districts of Samarkand and Bokhara (in modern day Uzbekistan). It lays north of Bactria between the Oxus (Amu Darya... Sogdiana, For other uses, see Kashmir (disambiguation). Map of Kashmir showing the Line of Control and disputed areas Market boats on Mar Canal, Srinigar by E. Molyneux, c. 1908 Kashmir is a region in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent. The term Kashmir historically described the valley just to the... Kashmir, Buddhas First Sermon at Sarnath, Kushan Period, ca. 3rd century Pakistan (ancient region of Gandhara) Gandhāra (also Ghandara, Ghandahra) is the ancient name of a region in eastern Afghanistan and north-west Pakistan centered on the Swat River (see Udyana) and Kabul River, tributaries of the Indus... Gandhara, and finally into Arachosia is the ancient name of an area that corresponds to the southern part of today s Afghanistan, around the city of Kandahar. It is directly to the south of Bactria, but is separated from it by the Hindu Kush. The main inhabitants of Arachosia were Pactyans, an ancient Iranian... Arachosia and then northwest The Indian subcontinent is the peninsular region of larger South Asia in which the nations of India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Sri Lanka as well as parts of Nepal, Bhutan, Myanmar and some disputed territory currently controlled by China are located. It is also known as the Indian Subcontinent and, primarily in... Indian subcontinent, from the middle of the 2nd century BC to the 1st century BC.


They were displaced from Central Asia by the 175-125 BC migrations of the Indo-European The migrations of the Yueh-Chih. Yuezhi (Chinese 月氏; Wade-Giles: Yüeh-Chih) is the Chinese name for an ancient Central Asian people. They are believed to have been the same as or closely related to the Tocharians, who spoke an Indo-European language called Tocharian. They were... Yuezhi tribes, who originally lived in the Categories: China geography stubs | Geography of China ... Tarim Basin (modern شىنجاڭ ٸۇيغۇر ٸاپتونوم رايون Shinjang Uyghur Aptonom Rayon 新疆维吾尔自治区 Xīnjiāng Wéiwúěr Zìzhìqū... Xinjiang and This article or section should include material from Gansu, China 甘肃省 Gānsù Shěng Abbreviations: 甘 or 陇 (pinyin: Gān or Lǒng) Origin of Name 甘 gān - Ganzhou (Zhangye) 肃 sù - Suzhou (Jiuquan) Administration Type Province Capital and Largest... Kansu areas) before being expelled by the Xiongnu (匈奴; meaning Xiongs slaves, Xiong being a Chinese transliteration of a national name but also meaning savage/raucous/ferocious, however some argued that the two words are both transliteration, in this case the sense of slaves does not exist) was the term given by the Chinese to... Xiongnu ( Many historians consider the Huns (meaning person in Mongolian language) the first The term Mongolian can refer to: a person, place or item from Mongolia a member of the Mongolian people, known as the Mongols the Mongolian language or the Mongolian alphabet Also, the pejorative terms mongoloid and mongolism were... Huns) tribes.


The The Indo-Scythian King of Kings Azes II (c. 35-12 BCE). The Indo-Scythians are a branch of the Indo-European Sakas (Scythians), who migrated into Bactria, Sogdiana, Kashmir and finally into Arachosia and then India from the middle of the 2nd century BCE to the 1st century BCE... Indo-Scythians, led by their king Silver tetradrachm of the Indo-Scythian King Maues (85-60 BCE). Obv: Probable likeness of Maues, with Greek royal headband, in the pose of Zeus standing with a sceptre. Greek legend: BASILEOS BASILEON MEGALOU MAUOU (of the) Great King of Kings Maues. Rev: Nike standing, holding a wreath. Kharoshthi legend... Maues, ultimately settled in modern day The Islamic Republic of Pakistan (پاکستان in Urdu), or Pakistan, is a country located in South Asia. Pakistan borders India, Iran, Afghanistan, China and the Arabian Sea. With over 150 million inhabitants it is the sixth most populous country in the world. It also... Pakistan from around Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC - 80s BC - 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC Years: 90 BC 89 BC 88 BC 87 BC 86 BC - 85 BC - 84 BC 83 BC 82... 85 BC, where they replaced the kingdom of the Maximum extent of Indo-Greek territory circa 175 BCE. The Indo-Greeks (or sometimes Greco-Indians) designate a series of Greek kings, who invaded and controlled parts of northwest and northern India from 180 BCE to around 10 BCE. They are the continuation of the Greco-Bactrian dynasty of Greek... Indo-Greeks by the time of Azes II. Their were again overrun by the The migrations of the Yueh-Chih. Yuezhi (Chinese 月氏; Wade-Giles: Yüeh-Chih) is the Chinese name for an ancient Central Asian people. They are believed to have been the same as or closely related to the Tocharians, who spoke an Indo-European language called Tocharian. They were... Yuezhi (this time, federated under the name of Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. 150 The Kushan Empire (c. 1st- 3rd centuries) was a state that at its height, about 105 - 250, stretched from Tajikistan to the Caspian Sea to Afghanistan and down into the Ganges river valley. The empire was created by Tocharians from modern Xinjiang, China... Kushan) in the (1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century - other centuries) The 1st century was that century which lasted from 1 to 99. Contents // 1 Events 2 Significant persons 3 Inventions, discoveries, introductions 4 Decades and years Events Beginning of Christianity Spread of the Roman Empire Masoretes adds vowel pointings to the... 1st century, but their rule persisted in some areas of Central The Republic of India is the This is a list of countries by population. The data are generally a projection for July 2005 made by the US Census Bureau, unless specified. Rank Country Population — World 6,445,398,968 1 China 1,306,313,812 2 India 1,080... India until the ( (3rd century - 4th century - 5th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 4th century was that century which lasted from 301 to 400. Contents // 1 Events 2 Significant persons 3 Inventions, discoveries, introductions 4 Decades and years Events Definitive declaration of biblical canon: Council... 5th century.


The idea of Scythia

Genetic research in modern populations reveals that the same Y chromosome haplogroup (R1a) represents a genetic lineage currently found in central, western and south Asia, and in Slavic populations of Eastern Europe. The simplest explanation of this distribution is that this Y-chromosome mutation will have originated in people of the kurgan-building culture of traditional Scythia (see link).


However Haplogroup H,J2 R1b and L are also found in population of Iran,Central Asia and India,the idea that R1a1 originates from Kurgan Culture is questionable since there seem to be a complete absence of haplogroup I and E in India (which is common in the Ukraine and Europe.).One must await genetic studies of burial remains (which themselves are probably a result of cultural mixing).[2] (http://evolutsioon.ut.ee/publications/Kivisild2003b.pdf)and on Sarmatian (a related Iranian group) trade and ethnic connections[3] (http://www.nbz.or.jp/eng/pdffiles/hallandyablonsky1998.pdf).


Aside from the findings of modern archaeology and genetics, most of what subesquent generations "knew" of Scythia and Scythians was at second hand, a matter of literary conventions. In the 19th century, the " Barbarian was originally a Greek term applied to any foreigner, one not sharing a recognized culture or degree of polish with the speaker or writer employing the term. The word expressed with mocking duplication (bar-bar) alleged attempts by outsiders to speak a real language. A barbarism in language, especially... barbarian" Scythians of literature were transformed into the wild and free hardy and democratic ancestors of all the blond Indo-Europeans. Some modern groups claim to be descended from the Scythians. The Scythians feature in national origin mythologies even of Celts: they are claimed by some Liberty leading the people, embodying the Romantic view of the French Revolution of 1830; its painter Eugène Delacroix also served as an elected deputy Romantic nationalism (also organic nationalism, identity nationalism) is the form of nationalism in which the state derives its political legitimacy as an organic consequence of... romantic nationalist writers to have figured in the formation of the empire of the The neutrality and factual accuracy of this article are disputed. Please see the relevant discussion on the talk page. History of Iran also referred to as Persia Elamite Empire Median Empire Achaemenid dynasty Seleucid dynasty Parthian Empire Sassanid dynasty Samanid dynasty Buwayhid empire Seljuk Turkish empire Khwarezmid Empire Ilkhanate Safavid... Medes and likewise of Caucasian Albania, the precursor in Antiquity of the modern-day Azerbaijan or Azerbeijan (Azerbaijani: Azərbaycan, Azərbeycan) is a country in the Caucaus region, adjacent to the Caspian Sea. It borders Russia in the north, Georgia, Armenia, in the west and Iran in the south. The Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic (an exclave) borders on Armenia, Iran, and Turkey... Azerbaijan Republic.


Modern mythological uses of "Scythian"— when they stray far from the archaeologists' findings— tend often to be as a covert euphemism for the currently deprecated " For the ancient For other uses of the term Christian, see This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. If an article link referred you here, you might want to go back and fix it to point directly... Aryan." A skeptical reader will judge these uses on a case-by-case basis.


Owing to their reputation as promulgated by Greek historians, the Scythians served as an epitome of savagery and barbarism in the early modern period. Specifically, the early modern English discourse on A true colour image of Ireland captured by a NASA satellite on January 4, 2003. Image by Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC. This image page contains items that originally came from a NASA website or publication. All works created by NASA are in the public... Ireland frequently resorted to comparisons with this people to prove that the indigenous population of Ireland were descendants of these ancient "bogeymen" and as barbaric as their alleged ancestors. Edmund Spenser Edmund Spenser (c. 1552 - January 13, 1599) was an English poet, and a contemporary of William Shakespeare. The Faerie Queene is his major contribution to English poetry. It is mostly a poem seeking (successfully) the favour of Queen Elizabeth I. The poem is a long allegory of Christian... Edmund Spenser wrote that "the Chiefest [nation that settled in Ireland] I Suppose to be Scithians ... which firste inhabitinge and afterwarde stretchinge themselves forthe into the lande as theire numbers increased named it all of themselues Scuttenlande which more brieflye is Called Scuttlande or Scotlande" (A View of the Present State of Ireland, c. 1596). Among the proofs Spenser names for this origin are the alleged Irish customs of blood-drinking, nomadic lifestyle, the wearing of mantles and certain haircuts and "Cryes [or wailings] allsoe vsed amongeste the Irishe which savor greatlye of the Scythyan Barbarisme". William Camden William Camden (May 2, 1551 - November 9, 1623) was an English antiquarian and historian. He wrote the first topographical survey of Britain and the first detailed historical account of the reign of Elizabeth I. Contents // 1 Early years 2 Britannia 3 Annales 4 Final years 5 References 6... William Camden, one of Spenser's main sources, comments on this myth of origin that "to derive descent from a Scythian stock, cannot be thought any waies dishonourable, seeing that the Scythians, as they are most ancient, so they have been the Conquerours of most Nations, themselves alwaies invincible, and never subject to the Empire of others" (Britannia, 1586 etc., Engl. transl. 1610).

References

  • Torday, Laszlo (1998). Mounted Archers: The Beginnings of Central Asian History. Durham Academic Press. ISBN 1-90-083803-6.
  • Davis-Kimball, Jeannine. 2002. Warrior Women: An Archaeologist's Search for History's Hidden Heroines. Warner Books, New York. 1st Trade printing, 2003. ISBN 0-446-67983-6 (pbk).

External links and notes


  Results from FactBites:
 
Britain.tv Wikipedia - Scythians (5549 words)
Scythians lived in confederated tribes, a political form of voluntary association which regulated pastures and organized a common defence against encroaching neighbors for the pastoral tribes of mostly equestrian herdsmen.
Scythians also had reputations for their usage of barbed and poisoned arrows of several types, for a nomadic life centered around horses — "fed from horse-blood"?title=according to Herodotus — and for skill in guerrilla warfare.
"The ethnic of the Sakas (Scythians)" by I. P'iankov
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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