FACTOID # 9: The bookmobile capital of America is Kentucky.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Scurvy" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Scurvy
Scurvy
Classification & external resources
Scorbutic gums, a symptom of scurvy
ICD-10 E54.
ICD-9 267
OMIM 240400
DiseasesDB 13930
MedlinePlus 000355
eMedicine med/2086  derm/521 ped/2073 radio/628
MeSH D012614

Scurvy (N.Lat. scorbutus) is a deficiency disease that results from insufficient intake of vitamin C, which is required for correct collagen synthesis in humans. The scientific name of vitamin C, ascorbic acid, is derived from the Latin name of scurvy, scorbutus. Scurvy leads to the formation of liver spots on the skin, spongy gums, and bleeding from all mucous membranes. The spots are most abundant on the thighs and legs, and a person with the ailment looks pale, feels depressed, and is partially immobilized. In advanced scurvy there are open, suppurating wounds and loss of teeth. Image File history File links Scorbutic_gums. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision (ICD-10) is a coding of diseases and signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or diseases, as classified by the World Health Organization (WHO). ... // E00-E35 - Endocrine diseases (E00-E07) Disorders of thyroid gland (E00) Congenital iodine-deficiency syndrome (E01) Iodine-deficiency-related thyroid disorders and allied conditions (E02) Subclinical iodine-deficiency hypothyroidism (E03) Other hypothyroidism (E030) Congenital hypothyroidism with diffuse goitre (E031) Congenital hypothyroidism without goitre (E032) Hypothyroidism due to medicaments and other... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... The Mendelian Inheritance in Man project is a database that catalogues all the known diseases with a genetic component, and - when possible - links them to the relevant genes in the human genome. ... The Disease Bold textDatabase is a free website that provides information about the relationships between medical conditions, symptoms, and medications. ... MedlinePlus (medlineplus. ... eMedicine is an online clinical medical knowledge base that was founded in 1996. ... Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... Many diseases are thought to be directly or indirectly related to nutrition (see Dr. Joel Fuhrman). ... This article is about the nutrient. ... Tropocollagen triple helix. ... The mucous membranes (or mucosae; singular: mucosa) are linings of mostly endodermal origin, covered in epithelium, and are involved in absorption and secretion. ... Pus is a whitish-yellow or yellow substance produced during inflammatory responses of the body that can be found in regions of pyogenic bacterial infections. ... Types of teeth Molars are used for grinding up foods Carnassials are used for slicing food. ...


Scurvy was at one time common among sailors, pirates and others who were on ships that were out to sea longer than perishable fruits and vegetables could be stored and by soldiers who were similarly separated from these foods for extended periods. It was described by Hippocrates (c. 460 BC–c. 380 BC). Its cause and cure have been known in many native cultures since prehistory. For example, in 1536, the French explorer Jacques Cartier, exploring the St. Lawrence River, used the local natives' knowledge to save his men who were dying of scurvy. He boiled the needles of the arbor vitae tree (Eastern White Cedar) to make a tea that was later shown to contain 50 mg of vitamin C per 100 grams.[1][2] However it was a Scottish surgeon in the British Royal Navy, James Lind who first proved it could be treated with citrus fruit in experiments he described in his 1753 book, A Treatise of the Scurvy. This article is about maritime crew. ... Look up pirate and piracy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Ship (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Vegetable (disambiguation). ... This article is about a military rank. ... For other uses, see Hippocrates (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Jacques Cartier (disambiguation). ... a broat veiew of the St LAwrence River, with a Quebec City on a background The Saint Lawrence River (In French: fleuve Saint-Laurent) is a large south west-to-north east flowing river in the middle latitudes of North America, connecting the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean. ... Species Thuja koraiensis Thuja occidentalis Thuja plicata Thuja standishii Thuja sutchuenensis Thuja (pronounced thoo-ya or thoo-ja) is a genus of coniferous trees in the Cupressaceae (cypress family). ... This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ... James Lind (1716 in Edinburgh – 1794 in Gosport) was the pioneer of naval hygiene in the Royal Navy. ... Species & major hybrids Species Citrus maxima - Pomelo Citrus medica - Citron Citrus reticulata - Mandarin & Tangerine Major hybrids Citrus x aurantifolia - Lime Citrus x aurantium - Bitter Orange Citrus x bergamia - Bergamot Citrus x hystrix - Kaffir Lime Citrus x ichangensis - Ichang Lemon Citrus x limon - Lemon Citrus x limonia - Rangpur Citrus x paradisi... 1753 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...


In infants, scurvy is sometimes referred to as Barlow's disease, named after Sir Thomas Barlow,[3] a British physician who described it. (N.B. Barlow's disease may also refer to mitral valve prolapse.) Other eponyms include Moeller's disease and Cheadle's disease. Sir Thomas Barlow (4 November 1845 — 1945) was a British royal physician. ... For other uses, see Doctor. ... Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is a heart valve condition marked by the displacement of an abnormally thickened mitral valve leaflet into the left atrium during systole. ...

Contents

Symptoms

Girl with a scorbutic tongue
Girl with a scorbutic tongue

Image File history File links Scorbutic_tongue. ... Image File history File links Scorbutic_tongue. ... Spots (also known as spotting, blades, dots or hot knives) is a method of smoking cannabis, where small pieces of the plant are placed between two very hot knives and the smoke produced is inhaled. ... For other uses, see Skin (disambiguation). ... In an extended sense, a leg is any part of an object that supports it off the ground. ... The mucous membranes (or mucosa) are linings of ectodermic origin, covered in epithelium, that line various body cavities and internal organs. ... Pallor is a reduced amount of oxyhemoglobin in skin or mucous membrane, a pale color which can be caused by illness, emotional shock or stress, avoiding excessive exposure to sunlight, anaemia or genetics. ... A scar results from the biologic process of wound repair in the skin and other tissues of the body. ... Internal and external views of an arm with a compound fracture, both before and after surgery A bone fracture is a medical condition in which a bone becomes cracked, splintered, or bisected as a result of physical trauma. ...

Prognosis

Untreated scurvy is invariably fatal. However, since all that is required for a full recovery is the resumption of normal vitamin C intake, death from scurvy is rare in modern times. This article is about the nutrient. ...


Pathophysiology

Normal collagen synthesis depends upon the hydroxylation of proline and lysine residues in the endoplasmic reticulum, to form hydroxyproline and hydroxylysine, respectively. Prolyl and lysyl hydroxylase, the enzymes that catalyze the hydroxylation, require ascorbic acid (vitamin C) to function correctly. With no ascorbic acid, the enzymes cannot hydroxylate proline and lysine, and so normal collagen synthesis cannot be performed. Hydroxylation is any chemical process that introduces one or more hydroxyl groups (-OH) into a compound (or radical) thereby oxidising it. ... Proline is an α-amino acid with the chemical formula HO2CCH(NH[CH2)3]. L-Proline is one of the twenty DNA-encoded amino acids. ... Lysine is one of the 20 amino acids normally found in proteins. ... Structure of hydroxyproline 4-Hydroxyproline, or hydroxyproline (C5H9O3N), is an uncommon amino acid, abbreviated as HYP, e. ... Hydroxylysine is an amino acid, C6H14N2O3. ... Lysyl hydroxylase (or procollagen-lysine 5-dioxygenase) is an oxygenase enzyme associated with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. ...


History

Scurvy was probably first observed as a disease by Hippocrates.[4] In the 13th century the Crusaders suffered from scurvy frequently, and it has inflicted terrible losses on both besieged and besieger in times of war. Scurvy was one of the limiting factors of marine travel, often killing large numbers of the passengers and crew on long-distance voyages. It even played a significant role in World War I. (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ...


The British civilian medical profession of 1614 knew that it was the acidic principle of citrus fruit which was lacking, although they considered any acid as acceptable when ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) was unavailable. In 1614 John Woodall (Surgeon General of the East India Company) published his book "The Surgion's Mate" as a handbook for apprentice surgeons aboard the company's ships. In it he described scurvy as resulting from a dietary deficiency. His recommendation for its cure was fresh food or, if not available, oranges, lemons, limes and tamarinds, or as a last resort, Oil of Vitriol (sulfuric acid).[5] Frontispiece of the 1639 edition of Military and Domestic Surgery by John Woodall. ... The British East India Company, sometimes referred to as John Company, was the first joint-stock company (the Dutch East India Company was the first to issue public stock). ... R-phrases S-phrases , , , Flash point Non-flammable Related Compounds Related strong acids Selenic acid Hydrochloric acid Nitric acid Related compounds Hydrogen sulfide Sulfurous acid Peroxymonosulfuric acid Sulfur trioxide Oleum Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ...


In 1734, the Leiden-based physician Johann Bachstrom published a book on scurvy in which he stated that "scurvy is solely owing to a total abstinence from fresh vegetable food, and greens; which is alone the primary cause of the disease." and urged the use of fresh fruit and vegetables as a cure. However, it was not until 1747 that James Lind formally proved that scurvy could be treated and prevented by supplementing the diet with citrus fruit such as lemons and lime. Although James Cook succeeded in circumnavigating the world (1768-71) in HM Bark Endeavour without losing a single man to scurvy, his suggested methods, including a diet of sauerkraut and wort of malt, did not reproduce his success, and British sailors throughout the American Revolutionary period continued to suffer from scurvy, particularly in the Channel Fleet. The eradication of scurvy from the Royal Navy was finally due to the chairman of the Navy's Sick and Hurt Board, Gilbert Blane, who finally put Bachstrom and Lind's long-ignored prescription of fresh lemons to use during the Napoleonic Wars. Other navies soon adopted this successful solution.[5] Coordinates: , Country Province Area (2006)  - Municipality 23. ... Johann Friedrich Bachstrom, (24 December 1688 - ? 1742) was a Dutch writer, scientist and Lutheran theologian who lived in Leyden. ... Year 1747 (MDCCXLVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... James Lind (1716 in Edinburgh – 1794 in Gosport) was the pioneer of naval hygiene in the Royal Navy. ... This article is about the fruit. ... Binomial name Citrus X aurantifolia {{{author}}} Limes cut in half Lime (Citrus X aurantifolia) is a citrus tree originating from the Malay Achipelago. ... This article is about the British explorer. ... HMB Endeavour was a small 18th century British sailing ship, famous for being the vessel commanded by Lt. ... Sauerkraut and sausage on a plate Pickled Eisbein, served with Sauerkraut Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Combatants Austria[a] Portugal Prussia[a] Russia[b] Sicily[c] Sardinia  Spain[d]  Sweden[e] United Kingdom French Empire Holland[f] Italy Etruria[g] Naples[h] Duchy of Warsaw[i] Confederation of the Rhine[j] Bavaria Saxony Westphalia Württemberg Denmark-Norway[k] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack...


The plant known as "scurvy grass" acquired its name from the observation that it cured scurvy, but this was of no great help to those who spent months at sea. During sea voyages, it was discovered that sauerkraut was of extremely limited use in preventing scurvy. In the Royal Navy's Arctic expeditions in the 19th century it was widely believed that scurvy was prevented by good hygiene on board ship, regular exercise, and maintaining the morale of the crew, rather than by a diet of fresh food, so that Navy expeditions continued to be plagued by scurvy even while fresh meat was well-known as a practical antiscorbutic among civilian whalers and explorers in the Arctic. At the time Robert Falcon Scott made his two expeditions to the Antarctic in the early 20th century, the prevailing medical theory was that scurvy was caused by "tainted" canned food. It was not until 1932 that the connection between vitamin C and scurvy was established.[citation needed] Species About 25 species, see text Scurvy-grass (Cochlearia species; a. ... The red line indicates the 10°C isotherm in July, commonly used to define the Arctic region border Artificially coloured topographical map of the Arctic region The Arctic is the region around the Earths North Pole, opposite the Antarctic region around the South Pole. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Scott of the Antarctic redirects here. ... Greek ἀνταρκτικός, opposite the arctic) is a continent surrounding the Earths South Pole. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... Year 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1932 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The use of limes by the Royal Navy to prevent scurvy gave rise to the name "limey" for a British sailor, which has been since extended to all British in American slang.[citation needed] For other uses, see Slang (disambiguation). ...


Modern incidence

Scurvy or subclinical scurvy is caused by the lack of vitamin C. In modern western society, scurvy is rarely present in adults, although infants and elderly people are affected.[6] Vitamin C is destroyed by the process of pasteurization, so babies fed with ordinary bottled milk sometimes suffer from scurvy if they are not provided with adequate vitamin supplements. Virtually all commercially available baby formulas contain added vitamin C for this reason; however heat and storage destroy vitamin C. Human breast milk contains sufficient vitamin C, if the mother has an adequate intake to prevent scurvy on her own. Pasteurisationis the process of heating liquids for the purpose of destroying viruses and harmful organisms such as bacteria, protozoa, molds, and yeasts. ... It has been suggested that the section Benefits for the infant from the article Breastfeeding be merged into this article or section. ...


Scurvy is one of the accompanying diseases of malnutrition (other such micronutrient deficiencies are beriberi or pellagra) and thus is still widespread in areas of the world depending on external food aid.[7] Though rare, there are also documented cases of scurvy due to poor dietary choices by people living in industrialized nations.[8] Percentage of population affected by malnutrition by country, according to United Nations statistics. ... Beriberi is a nervous system ailment caused by thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency. ... Pellagra is a vitamin deficiency disease caused by dietary lack of niacin (vitamin B3) and protein, especially proteins containing the essential amino acid tryptophan. ...


Prevention

Scurvy can be prevented by a diet that includes certain citrus fruits such as oranges or lemons. Other good sources of vitamin C are fruits such as blackcurrants, guava, kiwi, papaya, tomatoes and strawberries. It can also be found in some vegetables, such as bell peppers, broccoli, potatoes, cabbage, spinach and paprika, as well as some pickled vegetables. Though redundant in the presence of a balanced diet,[9] various nutritional supplements are available that provide ascorbic acid well in excess of that required to prevent scurvy,[10] and even some candies contain vitamin C.[11] Binomial name (L.) Osbeck Orange—specifically, sweet orange—refers to the citrus tree Citrus sinensis (syn. ... Binomial name Ribes nigrum L. The blackcurrant is a temperate shrub which produces small edible berries with a high natural vitamin C content, which are very dark purple/blue in colour—almost black—hence the name. ... Species About 100 species, see text. ... Species See text. ... Binomial name L. This article is about the fruit. ... Binomial name Solanumlycopersicum Linnaeus ref. ... Strawberries Promo Strawberries is an album by The Damned released October 1982 on Bronze Records (catalogue #BRON 542). ... Species   (incl. ... Broccoli is a plant of the Cabbage family, Brassicaceae (formerly Cruciferae). ... Binomial name Solanum tuberosum L. The potato (Solanum tuberosum) is a perennial plant of the Solanaceae, or nightshade, family, grown for its starchy tuber. ... Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Binomial name Spinacia oleracea L. Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Capsicum fruit which comes in various shapes and colours can be used to make paprika. ... It has been suggested that Brining be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see Candy (disambiguation). ...


Scurvy in animals

Like humans, primates and guinea pigs lack the gene that makes vitamin C and thus require vitamin C in the diet to prevent the development of scurvy. Scurvy is sometimes seen in pet guinea pigs that are not fed an adequate diet. To prevent scurvy in guinea pigs, they can be fed guinea pig food such as guinea pig pellets supplemented with fresh fruit and vegetables or vitamin c drops in their water.[12] Families 15, See classification A primate is any member of the biological order Primates, the group that contains all the species commonly related to the lemurs, monkeys, and apes, with the latter category including humans. ... Species Cavia porcellus Cavia aperea Cavia tschudii Cavia guianae Cavia anolaimae Cavia nana Cavia fulgida Cavia magna Guinea pigs (also called cavies) are rodents belonging to the family Caviidae and the genus Cavia. ...


See also

Species About 25 species, see text Scurvy-grass (Cochlearia species; a. ...

References

  1. ^ Jacques Cartier's Second Voyage , 1535 Winter & Scurvy
  2. ^ Jacques Cartier witnesses a treatment for scurvy. NCBI Pb Med, 2002 Jun, Martini E.
  3. ^ (December 17, 1983) "Medical History - Infantile scurvy: the centenary of Barlow's disease" (PDF). British Medical Journal 287. 
  4. ^ Stone, Irwin (1966). "On the Genetic Etiology of Scurvy". Acta Geneticae Medicae et Gemellologiae 15: 345–350. 
  5. ^ a b Bown, Stephen R. "SCURVY: How a Surgeon, a Mariner and a Gentleman Solved the Greatest Medical Mystery of the Age of Sail", Viking 2003
  6. ^ Hampl JS, Taylor CA, and Johnston CS. (2004). "Vitamin C Deficiency and Depletion in the United States: The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988 to 1994". American Journal of Public Health 94 (5): 870–875. PMID 15117714. 
  7. ^ WHO (June 4, 2001). "Area of work: nutrition. Progress report 2000" (PDF).
  8. ^ Davies IJ, Temperley JM (1967). "A case of scurvy in a student.". Postgraduate Medical Journal 43 (502): 549–50. PMID 6074157. 
    Sthoeger ZM, Sthoeger D. Scurvy from self-imposed diet. Harefuah. 1991 Mar 15;120(6):332-3.
    Ellis CN, Vanderveen EE, Rasmussen JE. Scurvy. A case caused by peculiar dietary habits. Arch Dermatol. 1984 Sep;120(9):1212-4.
    McKenna KE, Dawson JF. Scurvy occurring in a teenager. Clin Exp Dermatol. 1993 Jan;18(1):75-7.
  9. ^ Rivers, Jerry M., "Safety of High-level Vitamin C Ingestion", Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 498 (1): 445-454, <http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1749-6632.1987.tb23780.x>
  10. ^ Nutrition information for "Emergen-C" product
  11. ^ Nutrition information for "Halls Defense" product
  12. ^ http://www.petplace.com/small-mammals/vitamin-c-deficiency-scurvy-in-guinea-pigs/page1.aspx

  Results from FactBites:
 
Scurvy - LoveToKnow 1911 (981 words)
SCURVY (Scorbutus), a constitutional disease, characterized by debility, morbid conditions of the blood, spongy gums, impairment of the nutritive functions, and the occurrence of haemorrhagic extravasations in the tissues of the body.
Sir Almroth Wright in 1895 published his conclusions that scurvy was due to an acid intoxication, while Torup of Christiania believes it to be a direct poisoning from damaged and badly preserved meat.
Infantile Scurvy (Scurvy Rickets, Barlow's disease), a disease of childhood due to a morbid condition of the blood and tissues from defects of diet, was first observed in England in 1876 by Sir T. Smith, and later fully investigated by Sir Thomas Barlow.
Scurvy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1132 words)
Scurvy was at one time common among sailors whose ships were out to sea longer than perishable fruits and vegetables could be stored and by soldiers who were similarly separated from these foods for extended periods.
Scurvy was one of the limiting factors of marine travel, often killing large numbers of the passengers and crew on long-distance voyages.
Scurvy is one of the accompanying diseases of malnutrition (other such micronutrient deficiencies are beriberi or pellagra) and thus is still widespread in areas of the world depending on external food aid.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m