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Encyclopedia > Sculpture
Birth of the Muses by Jacques Lipchitz

Sculpture is three-dimensional artwork created by shaping hard or plastic material, commonly stone, metal, or wood. Some sculptures are created directly by carving; others are assembled, built up and fired, welded, molded, or cast. A person who creates sculptures is called a sculptor. Categories: Astronomy stubs | Modern constellations | Constellations | Sculptor constellation ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (800x766, 141 KB) link title Pietà by Michelangelo, St. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (800x766, 141 KB) link title Pietà by Michelangelo, St. ... A pietà (pl. ... For other uses, see Michelangelo (disambiguation). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 1040 KB) Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 1040 KB) Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Birth of the Muses, bronze, 1944-1950. ...


Some common forms of sculpture are:

  • The bust, a representation of a person from the chest up.
  • Equestrian sculpture, typically showing a significant person on horseback.
  • Free-standing sculpture, sculpture that is surrounded on all sides, except the base, by space. It is also known as sculpture "in the round," and is meant to be viewed from any angle.
  • Fountain, in which the sculpture is designed with moving water.
  • Jewellery
  • Mobile (See also Calder's Stabiles.)
  • Relief: sculpture still attached to a background, standing out from that ground in "High Relief" or "Low Relief" (bas relief)
  • Site-specific art
  • Statue

Perhaps, the majority of public art is sculpture. See also sculpture garden. Bust of Richard Bently by Roubiliac A bust is a sculpture depicting a persons chest, shoulders, and head, usually supported by a stand. ... Apotheosis of Saint Louis by Charles H. Niehaus In sculpture, an equestrian (from the Latin equus meaning horse) is a statue consisting of a horse with mounted rider. ... The worlds highest fountain: King Fahds Fountain in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Three traditional fountain features: a low jet, a pair of raised basins, and sculpture with a water theme, here hippocamps (Villa Borghese, Rome) A traditional fountain is an arrangement where water issues from a source (Latin fons... For the Korean music group, see Jewelry (group). ... A simple modern mobile in the style of Alexander Calder A mobile is a type of kinetic sculpture constructed to take advantage of the principle of equilibrium. ... For other persons named Alexander Calder, see Alexander Calder (disambiguation). ... In the art of sculpture, a relief is an artwork where a modelled form projects out of a flat background. ... Bas-relief (pronounced bah-relief, French for low relief) is a method of sculpting which entails carving or etching away the surface of a flat piece of stone or metal creating a sculpture portrayed as a picture. ... Nef pour quatorze reines by Rose-Marie Goulet, a memorial to the École Polytechnique Massacre, featuring sculptural elements integrated into a specially landscaped site Site-specific art is artwork created to exist in a certain place. ... La Joute by Jean-Paul Riopelle, an outdoor kinetic sculpture installation with fire jets, fog machines, and a fountain in Montreal. ... The Esplanade Ernest-Cormier, a sculpture garden in Montreal, with Melvin Charneys work Colonnes allégoriques. ...

Contents

Materials of sculpture through history

Sculptors have generally sought to produce works of art that are as permanent as possible, working in durable and frequently expensive materials such as bronze and stone: marble, limestone, porphyry, and granite. More rarely, precious materials such as gold, silver, jade, and ivory were used for chryselephantine works. More common and less expensive materials were used for sculpture for wider consumption, including woods such as oak, boxwood (Buxus) and lime or linden (Tilia), terra cotta and other ceramics, and cast metals such as pewter and zinc (spelter). Stone sculpture is the result of forming 3-dimensional visually interesting objects from stone. ... For other uses, see Marble (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Limestone (disambiguation). ... A piece of porphyry Porphyry is a variety of igneous rock consisting of large-grained crystals, such as feldspar or quartz, dispersed in a fine-grained feldspathic matrix or groundmass. ... Species About 70 species; see text Buxus is a genus of about 70 species in the family Buxaceae. ... Species About 30; see text A lime-lined avenue in Alexandra Park, London Tilia leaf Tilia is a genus of about 30 species of trees, native throughout most of the temperate Northern Hemisphere, in Asia (where the greatest species diversity is found), Europe and eastern North America; it is absent... General Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ...


Many sculptors seek new ways and materials to make art. Jim Gary used stained glass and automobile parts, tools, machine parts, and hardware. One of Pablo Picasso's most famous sculptures included bicycle parts. Alexander Calder and other modernists made spectacular use of painted steel. Since the 1960s, acrylics and other plastics have been used as well. Andy Goldsworthy makes his unusually ephemeral sculptures from almost entirely natural materials in natural settings. Some sculpture is deliberately short-lived—made of ice, sand, or even gas. Jim Gary (March 17, 1939 – January 14, 2006) was an American sculptor popularly known for his large, colorful creations of dinosaurs made from discarded automobile parts and was recognized internationally for his fine, architectural, landscape, and whimsical monumental art. ... Strictly speaking, stained glass is glass that has been painted with silver stain and then fired. ... Picasso redirects here. ... For other persons named Alexander Calder, see Alexander Calder (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ... The acryl group is one of the functional groups sorted in the chemical class of acryl where one of four hydrogen atoms in ethene is replaced with a different functional group. ... Andy Goldsworthy (born July 26, 1956) is a British sculptor, photographer and environmentalist living in Scotland who produces site-specific sculpture and land art situated in natural and urban settings. ...


Sculptors often build small preliminary works called maquettes of ephemeral materials such as plaster of Paris, wax, clay, or plasticine, as Alfred Gilbert did for 'Eros' at Piccadilly Circus, London. In Retroarchaeology, these materials are generally the end product. Adobe Ceramic maquette model of a tower. ... Sir Alfred Gilbert (August 12, 1854 – November 4, 1934) was an English sculptor and goldsmith who enthusiastically experimented with metallurgical innovations. ... Jobs Lament, a sculpture in the retroarchaeology style Retroarchaeology is a subset of the sensationalist movement in art. ...


Asian

Many different forms of sculpture were used in the many different regions of Asia, often based around the religions of Hinduism and Buddhism. A great deal of Cambodian Hindu sculpture is preserved at Angkor, however organized looting has had a heavy impact on many sites around the country. Also see Angkor Wat. In Thailand, sculpture was almost exclusively of Buddha images. Many Thai sculptures or temples are gilded, and on occasion enriched with inlays. See also Thai art For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... Aerial view of Angkor Wat The main entrance to the temple proper, seen from the eastern end of the Naga causeway Angkor Wat (or Angkor Vat) is a temple at Angkor, Cambodia, built for King Suryavarman II in the early 12th century as his state temple and capital city. ... It has been suggested that Thai contemporary art be merged into this article or section. ...


India

The first sculptures in India date back to the Indus Valley civilization (3300–1700 B.C.) which can now be found in Mohenjodaro and Harrapa in the country of Pakistan. These are among the earliest instances of sculpture in the world. Later, as Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism developed further, India produced bronzes and stone carvings of great intricacy, such as the famous temple carvings which adorn various Hindu, Jain and Buddhist shrines. Some of these, such as the cave temples of Ellora and Ajanta, were carved out of solid rock, making them perhaps the largest and most ambitious sculptural schemes in the world. Excavated ruins of Mohenjo-daro. ... hinduism also involves the exchange of male pun. ... A statue of the Sakyamuni Buddha in Tawang Gompa, India. ... Jain and Jaina redirect here. ... Kailasanatha Temple Ellora is an ancient village 30 km from the city of Aurangabad in the Indian state of Maharashtra famous for its magnificent rock cut architecture comprising of Buddhist, Hindu and Jaina cave temples and monasteries built between the 6th and 10th century A.D. These structures were excavated... Ajanta takes the name after the village AjinÅ£hā in Aurangabad district in the state of Maharashtra(N. lat. ...

During the 2nd to 1st century B.C. in far northern India, in what is now southern Afghanistan and northern Pakistan, sculptures became more anatomically realistic, often representing episodes of the Buddha’s life and teachings. Although India had a long sculptural tradition and a mastery of rich iconography, the Buddha was never represented in human form before this time, but only through symbols such as the stupa. This alteration in style may have occurred because Gandharan Buddhist sculpture in ancient Afghanistan acquired Greek and Persian influence. Artistically, the Gandharan school of sculpture is characterized by wavy hair, drapery covering both shoulders, shoes and sandals, and acanthus leaf decorations, amongst other things. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 442 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1131 × 1533 pixel, file size: 243 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (All user names refer to en. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 442 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1131 × 1533 pixel, file size: 243 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (All user names refer to en. ... Polychrome is one of the terms used to describe the use of multiple colors in one entity. ... The Malla Dynasty was a Newari Dynasty that ruled Nepal from the twelfth century AD to the seventeenth century AD. Topics of Newar They were the ruling dynasty in the kathmandu. ... Media:Example. ... The Great Stupa at Sanchi. ... Gandhāra (Sanskrit: गन्धार, Persian; Gandara, Waihind) (Urdu: گندھارا) is the name of an ancient Indian Mahajanapada, currently in northern Pakistan (the North-West Frontier Province and parts of northern Punjab and Kashmir) and eastern Afghanistan. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ...


The pink sandstone sculptures of Mathura evolved during the Gupta period 4th to 6th century to reach a very high fineness of execution and delicacy in the modeling. Gupta period art would later influence Chinese styles during the Sui dynasty, and the artistic styles across the rest of eastern Asia. Newer sculptures in Afghanistan, in stucco, schist or clay, display very strong blending of Indian post-Gupta mannerism and Classical influence. The celebrated bronzes of the Chola dynasty (c. A.D. 850 - 1250) from Southern India are of particular note; the iconic figure of Nataraja being the classic example. The traditions of Indian sculpture continue into the 20th and 21st centuries with for instance, the granite carving of Mahabalipuram derived from the Pallava dynasty. Contemporary Indian sculpture is typically polymorphous but includes celebrated figures such as Dhruva Mistry. , Mathura   (Hindi: मथुरा, Urdu: متھرا) is a holy city in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. ... Gupta (Hindi: गुप्ता) is a surname of Indian origin. ... The Cholas were the most famous of the three dynasties that ruled ancient Tamil Nadu. ... Bronze Chola Statue of Nataraja Nataraja (literally, The King of Dance) is the dancing posture of Lord Åšiva, the aspect of God as the Destroyer in Hinduism. ... Shore Temple, rescued from the sea Mahabalipuram (Tamil:மகாபலிபுரம்) (also known as Mamallapuram) is a town in Kancheepuram district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. ... The Pallava kingdom (Tamil: பல்லவர்) was an ancient South Indian kingdom. ... River, part of a set of sculptures in Victoria Square, Birmingham Dhruva Mistry, (b 1957) is a sculptor, born in Kanjari, Gujarat, India and who, having worked in Great Britain between 1981 and 1997, returned to Vadodara. ...

China

A Liao Dynasty polychrome wood-carved statue of Guan Yin, Shanxi Province, China, (907–1125 AD)
A Liao Dynasty polychrome wood-carved statue of Guan Yin, Shanxi Province, China, (907–1125 AD)

Chinese artifacts date back as early as 10,000 BC -- and skilled, Chinese artisans have been active up to the present time -- but the bulk of what is displayed as sculpture in Euro-culture museums come from a few, select, historical periods. The first period of interest has been the Western Zhou Dynasty (1050-771 BC), from which come a variety of intricate cast bronze vessels. The next period of interest was the Han Dynasty (206 BC-220 AD) -- beginning with the spectacular Terracotta army assembled for the tomb of the first emperor of the very brief Qin Dynasty that preceded it (Qin Shi Huang) in 210–209 BC.) Tombs excavated from the Han period have revealed many figures found to be vigorous, direct, and appealing 2000 years later. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (960 × 1280 pixel, file size: 445 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Bodhisattva Guan Yin Sculpture Song Dynasty... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (960 × 1280 pixel, file size: 445 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Bodhisattva Guan Yin Sculpture Song Dynasty... The Liao Dynasty (Traditional Chinese: , Simplified Chinese: , pinyin: Liáo Cháo), 907-1125, also known as the Khitan Empire, was an empire in northern China that ruled over the regions of Manchuria, Mongolia, and parts of northern China proper. ... Polychrome is one of the terms used to describe the use of multiple colors in one entity. ... For the Chen Dynasty empress whose Buddhist nun name was Guanyin, see Empress Shen Wuhua. ... Not to be confused with the neighboring province of Shaanxi Shanxi (Chinese: 山西; pinyin: Shānxī; Wade-Giles: Shan-hsi; Postal System Pinyin: Shansi) is a northern province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... This article is about the ancient Chinese dynasty. ... Han Dynasty in 87 BC Capital Changan (202 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–190 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 - 24  - Abdication to Cao Wei 220... Qin Dynasty in 210 BC Capital Xianyang Language(s) Chinese Government Monarchy History  - Unification of China 221 BC  - Death of Qin Shi Huangdi 210 BC  - Surrender to Liu Bang 206 BC The Qin Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chin Chao) (221 BC - 206 BC) was preceded by the... The monarch known now as Qin Shi Huang (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chin Shih-huang) (259 BCE – September 10, 210 BCE),[1] personal name Yíng Zhèng, was king of the Chinese State of Qin from 247 BCE to 221 BCE (officially still under the Zhou Dynasty), and...


The first Buddhist sculpture is found dating from the Three Kingdoms period (third century), while the sculpture of the Longmen Grottoes (Wei dynasty, 5th and 6th century, located near Luoyang, Henan Province) has been widely recognized for its special elegant qualities. The Three Kingdoms period (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a period in the history of China, part of an era of disunity called the Six Dynasties. ... The Longmen Grottoes (ch. ...

A wooden Bodhisattva from the Song Dynasty (960-1279 AD)
A wooden Bodhisattva from the Song Dynasty (960-1279 AD)

The period now considered to be China's golden age is the Tang Dynasty (coinciding with what in Europe is sometimes called "The Dark Ages"). Decorative figures like those shown below became very popular in 20th century Euro-American culture, and were made available in bulk as warlords in the Chinese civil wars exported them to raise cash. Considered especially desirable, and even profound, was the Buddhist sculpture, often monumental, begun in the Sui Dynasty, inspired by the Indian art of the Gupta period, and many are considered treasures of world art. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 658 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Wood Bodhisattva, Song Dynasty, photoed by Mountain at Shanghai Museum File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 658 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Wood Bodhisattva, Song Dynasty, photoed by Mountain at Shanghai Museum File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other... Lands Bhutan â€¢ China â€¢ Korea Japan â€¢ Tibet â€¢ Vietnam Taiwan â€¢ Mongolia Doctrine Bodhisattva â€¢ Bodhicitta Karuna â€¢ Prajna Sunyata â€¢ Buddha Nature Trikaya â€¢ Eternal Buddha Scriptures Prajnaparamita Sutra Avatamsaka Sutra Lotus Sutra Nirvana Sutra VimalakÄ«rti Sutra Lankavatara Sutra History 4th Buddhist Council Silk Road â€¢ Nagarjuna Asanga â€¢ Vasubandhu Bodhidharma      A statue of a Bodhisattva, Akasagarbha. ... Northern Song in 1111 AD Capital Bianjing (汴京) (960–1127) Linan (臨安) (1127–1276) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 960–976 Emperor Taizu  - 1126–1127 Emperor Qinzong  - 1127–1162 Emperor Gaozong  - 1278–1279 Emperor Bing History  - Zhao Kuangyin taking over the throne of the Later Zhou... For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ...


Following the Tang, Western interest in Chinese artifacts drops off dramatically, except for what might be considered as ornamental furnishings, and especially objects in jade. Pottery from many periods has been collected, and again the Tang period stands out apart for its free, easy feeling. Chinese sculpture has no nudes --other perhaps than figures made for medical training or practice -- and very little portraiture compared with the European tradition. One place where sculptural portraiture was pursued, however, was in the monasteries.


Almost nothing, other than jewelry, jade, or pottery is collected by art museums after the Ming Dynasty ended in the late 17th century -- and absolutely nothing has yet been recognized as sculpture from the tumultuous 20th century, although there was a school of Soviet-influenced social realist sculpture in the early decades of the Communist regime, and as the century turned, Chinese craftsmen began to dominate commercial sculpture genres (the collector plates, figurines, toys, etc) and avant garde Chinese artists began to participate in the Euro-American enterprise of contemporary art. For other uses, see Ming. ...

Japan

See also: Japanese art and Japanese sculpture
A frog and lizard battle in this contemporary sculpture in Matsumoto, Japan.
A frog and lizard battle in this contemporary sculpture in Matsumoto, Japan.

Countless paints and sculpture were made, often under governmental sponsorship. Most Japanese sculpture is associated with religion, and the medium' use declined with the lessening importance of traditional Buddhism. During the Kofun period of the third century, clay sculptures called haniwa were erected outside tombs. Inside the Kondo at Hōryū-ji is a Shaka Trinity (623), the historical Buddha flanked by two bodhisattvas and also the Guardian Kings of the Four Directions The wooden image ( 9th c.) of Shakyamuni, the "historic" Buddha, enshrined in a secondary building at the Muro-ji, is typical of the early Heian sculpture, with its ponderous body, covered by thick drapery folds carved in the hompa-shiki (rolling-wave) style, and its austere, withdrawn facial expression. The Kei school of sculptors, particularly Unkei, created a new, more realistic style of sculpture. Bronze statue of Amida Buddha at Kotokuin in Kamakura (1252 A.D.) Japanese art covers a wide range of art styles and media, including ancient pottery, sculpture in wood and bronze, ink painting on silk and paper, and a myriad of other types of works of art. ... Japanese sculpture derived from Shinto funerary and Buddhist religious arts. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1792x1200, 527 KB) A frog and lizard battle in a Japanese sculpture in Matsumoto. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1792x1200, 527 KB) A frog and lizard battle in a Japanese sculpture in Matsumoto. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Kofun Haniwa soldier. ... Horyu-ji. ... The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Heian Period. ...


Africa

See also: African art

African art has an emphasis on Sculpture - African artists tend to favor three-dimensional artworks over two-dimensional works. Although anthropologists argue that the earliest known sculptures in Africa are from the Nok culture of Nigeria that date around 500 BC, the art of Pharaonic Africa date much earlier than the Nok period. Metal sculptures from the eastern portions of west Africa such as Benin, are considered among the best ever produced. Yoruba bronze head sculpture, Ife, Nigeria c. ...


Art plays an essential role in the lives of the African peoples and communities across the continent. The beauty of African art is simply in meaning. These objects mean a great deal to the people and they are of significant meaning to the traditions that produce them. Their beauty and content protect the community and the individual artists, and tell much of the artists who use them. Later exhibitions of African art in the West have been able to get much detailed catalogues that attempt to cover the art of the whole continent. Yoruba bronze head sculpture, Ife, Nigeria c. ...


African Sculptures


Sculptures are created to symbolize and reflect the regions from which they are made. Right from the materials and techniques used, the pieces have functions that are very different from one region to the other.


In West Africa, the figures have elongated bodies, angular shapes, and facial features that represent an ideal rather than an individual. These figures are used in religious rituals. They are made to have surfaces that are often coated with materials placed on them for ceremonial offerings. In contrast to these sculptures of West Africa are the ones of Mande-speaking peoples of the same region. The Mande pieces are made of wood and have broad, flat surfaces. Their arms and legs are shaped like cylinders.


In Central Africa, however, the key characteristics include heart shaped faces that are curve inward and display patterns of circles and dots. Although some groups prefer more of geometric and angular facial forms, not all pieces are exactly the same. Also, not all pieces are made of the same material. The materials used range from mostly wood all the way to ivory, bone, stone, clay, and metal. Overall, though, the Central African region has very striking styles that is very easy to identify. With the distinctive style, one can easily tell which area the sculpture was produced in.


Eastern Africa is not known for their sculptures but one type that is done in this area is pole sculptures. These are a pole carved in a human shape and decorated with geometric forms, while the tops are carved with figures of animals, people, and various objects. These poles are then placed next to graves and are associated with death and the ancestral world.


Southern Africa’s oldest known clay figures date from 400 to 600 A.D. and have cylindrical heads. These clay figures have a mixture of human and animal features. Other than clay figures, there are also wooden headrests that were buried with their owners. The headrests had styles ranging from geometric shapes to animal figures. Each region had a unique style and meaning to their sculptures. The type of material and purpose for creating sculpture in Africa reflect the region from which the pieces are created.


Egypt

See also: Art of Ancient Egypt

The ancient art of Egyptian sculpture evolved to represent the ancient Egyptian gods, and Pharaohs, the divine kings and queens, in physical form. Very strict conventions were followed while crafting statues: male statues were darker than the female ones; in seated statues, hands were required to be placed on knees and specific rules governed appearance of every Egyptian god. Artistic works were ranked according to exact compliance with all the conventions, and the conventions were followed so strictly that over three thousand years, very little changed in the appearance of statutes except during a brief period during the rule of Akhenaten and Nefertiti when naturalistic portrayal was encouraged. This article has been tagged since January 2007. ... For other uses, see Akhenaten (disambiguation). ... Bust of Nefertiti from Berlins Altes Museum. ...


The Americas

See also: Sculpture of the United States

Sculpture in Latin America developed in two separate and distinct areas, Mexico in the north and Peru in the south. In both areas, sculpture was initially of stone, and later of terra cotta and metal as the civilizations in these areas became more technologically proficient. [1] In North America, wood was sculpted for totems, totem poles, masks, tools, and boats. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Terra cotta is a hard semifired waterproof ceramic clay used in pottery and building construction. ... A totem is any entity which watches over or assists a group of people, such as a family, clan or tribe (Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary [1] and Websters New World College Dictionary, Fourth Edition). ... Totem poles are carved from great trees, most often Western Redcedar, along the Pacific coast of North America. ...

Keys To Community (2007) by James Peniston in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, is a bust of Benjamin Franklin that is textured with casts of keys, putting a modern twist on traditional figurative sculpture. 39°57′09″N 75°08′47″W / 39.952414, -75.146301
Keys To Community (2007) by James Peniston in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, is a bust of Benjamin Franklin that is textured with casts of keys, putting a modern twist on traditional figurative sculpture. 39°57′09″N 75°08′47″W / 39.952414, -75.146301

The history of sculpture in the United States after Europeans' arrival reflects the country's 18th-century foundation in Roman republican civic values and Protestant Christianity. American sculpture of the mid- to late-19th century was often classical, often romantic, but showed a bent for a dramatic, narrative, almost journalistic realism. Public buildings of the first half of the 20th century often provided an architectural setting for sculpture, especially in relief. By the 1950s, traditional sculpture education would almost be completely replaced by a Bauhaus-influenced concern for abstract design. Minimalist sculpture often replaced the figure in public settings. Modern sculptors use both classical and abstract inspired designs. Beginning in the 1980s, there was a swing back toward figurative public sculpture; by 2000, many of the new public pieces in the United States were figurative in design. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Penistons 2007 Keys To Community stands in Girard Fountain Park in the Old City neighborhood of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. ... Nickname: City of Brotherly Love, Philly, the Quaker City Motto: Philadelphia maneto (Let brotherly love continue) Location in Pennsylvania Coordinates: Country United States State Pennsylvania County Philadelphia Founded October 27, 1682 Incorporated October 25, 1701 Mayor John F. Street (D) Area    - City 369. ... A bust can be one of: Bust (sculpture), a sculpture depicting a persons chest, shoulders, and head, usually supported by a stand. ... Benjamin Franklin (January 17 [O.S. January 6] 1706 – April 17, 1790) was one of the most well known Founding Fathers of the United States. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ... For the British gothic rock band, see Bauhaus (band). ... Kazimir Malevich, Black square 1915 Abstract art is now generally understood to mean art that does not depict objects in the natural world, but instead uses color and form in a non-representational way. ... This article is about minimalism in art and design. ...


Europe

The Emperor Tiberius enamelled terracotta bust at the Victoria and Albert Museum, 19th century
Moses of Choren, historic sculpture by Aytsemik Urartu at Matenadaran in Yerevan
Lady with Kittens at Delapré Abbey
Lady with Kittens at Delapré Abbey

Download high resolution version (960x1280, 184 KB)Tiberius enamelled terracotta bust at the Victoria and Albert Museum. ... Download high resolution version (960x1280, 184 KB)Tiberius enamelled terracotta bust at the Victoria and Albert Museum. ... For other persons named Tiberius, see Tiberius (disambiguation). ... Terra cotta is a hard semifired waterproof ceramic clay used in pottery and building construction. ... Bust of Richard Bently by Roubiliac A bust is a sculpture depicting a persons chest, shoulders, and head, usually supported by a stand. ... The Victoria and Albert Museum (often abbreviated as the V&A) in London is the worlds largest and finest museum of decorative arts and design, housing a permanent collection of over 4. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Moses of Choren. ... The Matenadaran Institute building in Yerevan Mesrop Mashtots Matenadaran Institute of Ancient Manuscripts in Yerevan, Armenia, is one of the richest depositories of manuscripts and books in the world. ... Location of Yerevan in Armenia Coordinates: , Country Established 782 BC Government  - Mayor Yervand Zakharyan Area  - City 227 km²  (87. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (3428x2176, 1222 KB) Summary Picture taken at Delapre Abbey by R Neil Marshman 18 Oct 2005 Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (3428x2176, 1222 KB) Summary Picture taken at Delapre Abbey by R Neil Marshman 18 Oct 2005 Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Delapré Abbey - the south front Delapré Abbey, Northampton, was one of only two Cluniac nunneries built in England (the other being at Arthington in Yorkshire); the Cluniac order was a branch of the Benedictines and fell under the rule of the great abbey at Cluny in Burgundy. ...

Greek-Roman-classical

Main article: Classical sculpture
See also: Ancient Greek sculpture

Features unique to the European Classical tradition: Classical sculpture refers to the forms of sculpture from Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome. ... This is a suggested outline for the article, please amend. ...

  1. full figures: using the young, athletic male or full-bodied female nude
  2. portraits: showing signs of age and strong character
  3. use of classical costume and attributes of classical deities
  4. Concern for naturalism based on observation, often from live models.

Features that the European Classical tradition shares with many others:

  1. characters present an attitude of distance and inner contentment
  2. details do not disrupt a sense of rhythm between solid volumes and the spaces that surround them
  3. pieces feel solid and larger than they really are
  4. ambient space feels sacred or timeless

The topic of Nudity


An unadorned figure in Greek classical sculpture was a reference to the status or role of the depicted person, deity or other being. Athletes, priestesses and gods could be identified by their adornment or lack of it.


The Renaissance preoccupation with Greek classical imagery, such as the 4th century B.C. Doryphoros of Polykleitos, led to nude figurative statues being seen as the 'perfect form' of representation for the human body. Subsequently, nudity in sculpture and painting has represented a form of ideal, be it innocence, openness or purity. Nude sculptures are still common. As in painting, they are often made as exercises in efforts to understand the anatomical structure of the human body and develop skills that will provide a foundation for making clothed figurative work. This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... The Doryphoros of Polykleitos The Doryphoros (Greek δορυφόρος, lit. ... Polykleitos (or Polycletus, Polyklitos, Polycleitus, Polyclitus) the Elder was a Greek sculptor of the 5th century BC and the early 4th century BC. Next to famous Phidias, Myron and Kresilas he is the most important sculptor of the Classical antiquity. ... For other uses , see Painting (disambiguation). ... Human heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ...


Nude statues are usually widely accepted by most societies, largely due to the length of tradition that supports this form. Occasionally, the nude form draws objections, often by fundamentalist moral or religious groups. Classic examples of this are the removal of penises from the Vatican collection of Greek sculpture and the addition of a fig leaf to a plaster cast of Michelangelo's sculpture of David for Queen Victoria's visit to the British Museum. For other uses, see Michelangelo (disambiguation). ... Queen Victoria redirects here. ... London museum | name = British Museum | image = British Museum from NE 2. ...

Ancient Greek sculpture. A portion of the Parthenon Pediment, displayed in the British Museum.
Ancient Greek sculpture. A portion of the Parthenon Pediment, displayed in the British Museum.

The topic of social status Image File history File linksMetadata British_Musuem_Greek_&_Rome_11. ... Image File history File linksMetadata British_Musuem_Greek_&_Rome_11. ... Metope from the Elgin marbles depicting a Centaur and a Lapith fighting. ...


Worldwide, sculptors are usually tradesmen whose work is unsigned. But in the Classical tradition, some sculptors began to receive individual recognition in Periclean Athens and more so in the Renaissance revival 2000 years later, culminating in the career of Michelangelo who entered the circle of princes. Sculpture was still a trade, but exceptional sculptors were recognized on a level with exceptional poets and painters. In the 19th century, sculpture also became a bourgeois/upper class avocation, as poetry and painting had been, and the classical work of women sculptors began to appear.

Gothic sculpture, late 15th century.
Gothic sculpture, late 15th century.

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1352x790, 551 KB) Summary FR:Sculture Gothic, XVeme sciecle, Cathedrale dAmiens, France. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1352x790, 551 KB) Summary FR:Sculture Gothic, XVeme sciecle, Cathedrale dAmiens, France. ...

Gothic

Main article: Gothic art

Gothic sculpture evolved from the early stiff and elongated style, still partly Romanesque, into a spatial and naturalistic feel in the late 12th and early 13th century. The architectural statues at the Western (Royal) Portal at Chartres Cathedral (c. 1145) are the earliest Gothic sculptures and were a revolution in style and the model for a generation of sculptors. Prior to this there had been no sculpture tradition in Ile-de-France—so sculptors were brought in from Burgundy. The Bamberg Cathedral had the largest assemblage of 13th century sculpture. In England sculpture was more confined to tombs and non-figurine decorations. In Italy there was still a Classical influence, but Gothic made inroads in the sculptures of pulpits such as the Pisa Baptistery pulpit (1269) and the Siena pulpit. Dutch-Burgundian sculptor Claus Sluter and the taste for naturalism signaled the beginning of the end of Gothic sculpture, evolving into the classicistic Renaissance style by the end of the 15th century. The Western (Royal) Portal at Chartres Cathedral ( 1145). ... Bamberg Cathedral The Bamberg Cathedral (German: Bamberger Dom, official name Bamberger Dom St. ...


Renaissance

See also: Renaissance
Donatello's David (replica)
Donatello's David (replica)

Although the Renaissance began at different times around Europe (some areas created art longer in the Gothic style than other areas) the transition from Gothic to Renaissance in Italy was signalled by a trend toward naturalism with a nod to classical sculpture. One of the most important sculptors in the classical revival was Donatello. The greatest achievement of what art historians refer to as his classic period is the bronze statue entitled David (not to be confused with Michelangelo's David), which is currently located at the Bargello in Florence. At the time of its creation, it was the first free-standing nude statue since ancient times. Conceived fully in the round and independent of any architectural surroundings, it is generally considered to be the first major work of Renaissance sculpture. This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x1380, 268 KB) Painted plaster replica of Donatellos bronze David in the Cast Courts of the Victoria and Albert Museum, London. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x1380, 268 KB) Painted plaster replica of Donatellos bronze David in the Cast Courts of the Victoria and Albert Museum, London. ... Statue of Habacuc (popularly known as Zuccone) for the Giottos Bell Tower. ... Download high resolution version (500x711, 63 KB)Subject: David by Michelangelo Location: Accademia Gallery, Florence Source: [1] File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (500x711, 63 KB)Subject: David by Michelangelo Location: Accademia Gallery, Florence Source: [1] File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... For other uses, see Michelangelo (disambiguation). ... Michelangelos David, finished by Michelangelo Buonarroti in 1504 (started in 1501) is a masterpiece of Renaissance sculpture and one of Michelangelos two greatest works of sculpture, along with the Pietà. David portrays the Biblical David at the moment that he decides to engage Goliath. ... Statue of Habacuc (popularly known as Zuccone) for the Giottos Bell Tower. ...



During the High Renaissance, the time from about 1500 to 1520, Michelangelo was an active sculptor with works such as David and the Pietà, as well as the Doni Virgin, Bacchus, Moses, Rachel, Orgetorix, and members of the Medici family. Michelangelo's David is possibly the most famous sculpture in the world, which was unveiled on September 8, 1504. It is an example of the contrapposto style of posing the human figure, which again borrows from classical sculpture. Michelangelo's statue of David differs from previous representations of the subject in that David is depicted before his battle with Goliath and not after the giant's defeat. Instead of being shown victorious over a foe much larger than he, David looks tense and ready for combat. For other uses, see Michelangelo (disambiguation). ... Michelangelos David, finished by Michelangelo Buonarroti in 1504 (started in 1501) is a masterpiece of Renaissance sculpture and one of Michelangelos two greatest works of sculpture, along with the Pietà. David portrays the Biblical David at the moment that he decides to engage Goliath. ... The Doryphoros of Polyclitus, an early example of classical contrapost. ...


Mannerist

Main article: Mannerist
"Giambologna, Rape of the Sabine Women, 1583, Florence, Italy, 13' 6" high, Marble"
"Giambologna, Rape of the Sabine Women, 1583, Florence, Italy, 13' 6" high, Marble"

Benvenuto Cellini created a salt cellar of gold and ebony in 1540 featuring Neptune and Amphitrite (earth and water) in elongated form and uncomfortable positions. These positions were a trademark of the Mannerist style. During the Mannerist peroid more abstract representations were praised, giving more thought to color and composition rather than realistic portrayal of the subjects in the piece. This is exemplified in Giambologna's Abduction/Rape of the Sabine Women, where the figures are not positioned in a way which is at all comfortable, or even humanly possible, but the position and emotion still come across. Mannerism is the usual English term for an approach to all the arts, particularly painting but not exclusive to it, a reaction to the High Renaissance, emerging after the Sack of Rome in 1527 shook Renaissance confidence, humanism and rationality to their foundations, and even Religion had split apart. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 348 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (372 × 640 pixels, file size: 85 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 348 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (372 × 640 pixels, file size: 85 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Portrait of Giovanni Bologna by Hendrick Goltzius Giambologna, born as Jean Boulogne, also known as Giovanni Da Bologna and Giovanni Bologna (1529 - 1608) was a sculptor who best known for his marble statuary and works in bronze. ... For other uses, see Marble (disambiguation). ... Gold Salt cellar by Cellini. ... Genoese admiral Andrea Doria as Neptune, by Agnolo Bronzino. ... Mosaic from Herculaneum depicting Poseidon and Amphitrite In ancient Greek mythology, Amphitrite (not to be confused with Aphrodite) was a sea-goddess. ... Portrait of Giovanni Bologna by Hendrick Goltzius Giambologna, born as Jean Boulogne, also known as Giovanni Da Bologna and Giovanni Bologna (1529 - 1608) was a sculptor who best known for his marble statuary and works in bronze. ...

Baroque

Main article: Baroque
King Zygmunt Vasa column in Warsaw, Poland
King Zygmunt Vasa column in Warsaw, Poland

In Baroque sculpture, groups of figures assumed new importance, and there was a dynamic movement and energy of human forms— they spiralled around an empty central vortex, or reached outwards into the surrounding space. For the first time, Baroque sculpture often had multiple ideal viewing angles. The characteristic Baroque sculpture added extra-sculptural elements, for example, concealed lighting, or water fountains. Often, Baroque artists fused sculpture and architecture seeking to create a transformative experience for the viewer. Gianlorenzo Bernini was undoubtedly the most important sculptor of the Baroque period. His first works were inspired by Hellenistic sculpture of ancient Greece and imperial Rome. One of his most famous works is Ecstasy of St Theresa For other uses, see Baroque (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1932 × 2576 pixel, file size: 370 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Statue of King Zygmunt III Waza on top of Zygmunts Column in Warsaw. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1932 × 2576 pixel, file size: 370 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Statue of King Zygmunt III Waza on top of Zygmunts Column in Warsaw. ... Sigismund III Vasa (Polish: ) (20 June 1566 – 30 April 1632 N.S.) was King of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth from 1587 to 1632, and King of Sweden (where he was known simply as Sigismund) from 1592 until he was deposed in 1599. ... For other uses, see Warsaw (disambiguation) and Warszawa (disambiguation). ... , by Gian Lorenzo Bernini The Ecstasy of St Theresa (alternatively St Teresa in Ecstasy or Transverberation of St Teresa) is a marble masterpiece sculpture by Gian Lorenzo Bernini, which is part of his complete architectural design, construction, and decoration the Cornaro Chapel of Santa Maria della Vittoria in Rome completed...

Neo-Classical

Main article: Neoclassicism
Falconet's statue of Tsar Peter I has become one of the symbols of St. Petersburg
Falconet's statue of Tsar Peter I has become one of the symbols of St. Petersburg

The sculpture examples they actually embraced were more likely to be Roman copies of Hellenistic sculptures. In sculpture, the most familiar representatives are the Italian Antonio Canova, the Englishman John Flaxman and the Dane Bertel Thorvaldsen. The European neoclassical manner also took hold in the United States, where its high tide occurred somewhat later and is exemplified in the sculptures of William Henry Rinehart (1825-1874). Late Baroque classicizing: G. P. Pannini assembles the canon of Roman ruins and Roman sculpture into one vast imaginary gallery (1756) Neoclassicism (sometimes rendered as Neo-Classicism or Neo-classicism) is the name given to quite distinct movements in the decorative and visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture that... The monument to Peter the Great, designed by Etienne Maurice Falconet, was opened in Saint Petersburg in 1782. ... The monument to Peter the Great, designed by Etienne Maurice Falconet, was opened in Saint Petersburg in 1782. ... Falconets awesome statue of Peter I has become one of the symbols of St Petersburg Étienne Maurice Falconet (1716 - 1791), is counted among the first rank of French Rococo sculptors, patronized by Mme de Pompadour. ... Peter the Great or Pyotr Alexeyevich Romanov (Russian: Пётр I Алексеевич Pyotr I Alekse`yevich, Пётр Великий Pyotr Veli`kiy) (9 June 1672 – 8 February 1725 [30 May 1672–28 January 1725 O.S.][1]) ruled Russia from 7 May (27 April O.S.) 1682 until his death, jointly ruling before 1696 with his... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and... Self-portrait by Canova, 1792. ... John Flaxman (July 6, 1755 - December 7, 1826), was an English sculptor and draughtsman. ... Bertel Thorvaldsen. ... William Henry Rinehart, American sculptor, was born in Maryland in 1825 and died in 1874. ...


Modernism

Modern Classicism contrasted in many ways with the classical sculpture of the 19th century which was characterized by commitments to naturalism (Antoine-Louis Barye) -- the melodramatic (François Rude) sentimentality (Jean Baptiste Carpeaux)-- or a kind of stately grandiosity (Lord Leighton) Several different directions in the classical tradition were taken as the century turned, but the study of the live model and the post-Renaissance tradition was still fundamental to them. Antoine-Louis Barye (September 24, 1796-June 25, 1875) was a French sculptor. ... François Rude: 1888 engraving François Rude (June 4, 1784 - November 3, 1855) was a French sculptor. ... Jean-Baptiste Carpeaux, sometimes called Jules Carpeaux (May 11, 1827 - October 12, 1875) was a French sculptor who studied under François Rude. ... Frederic Leighton, 1st Baron Leighton (December 31, 1830 - January 25, 1896) was an English painter and sculptor. ...

Auguste Rodin was the most renowned European sculptor of the early 20th century. He might be considered as sui generis -- that is, if anyone successfully composed in his turbulent, virtuosic style, they have yet to be discovered. But he is often considered a sculptural Impressionist, as are Medardo Rosso, Count Troubetski, and Rik Wouters, attempting to frame the charm of a fleeting moment of daily life. The Burghers of Calais by Auguste Rodin, in Calais, France Image by ChrisO File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Burghers of Calais by Auguste Rodin, in Calais, France Image by ChrisO File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Rodins The Burghers of Calais in Calais, France The Burghers of Calais (Les Bourgeois de Calais) is one of the most famous sculptures by Auguste Rodin, completed in 1888. ... Calais (Kales in Dutch) is a town in northern France, located at 50°57N 1°52E. It is in the département of Pas-de-Calais, of which it is a sous-préfecture. ... Auguste Rodin - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... See also Impressionist (entertainment): A girl with a watering can by Renoir, 1876 Impressionism was a 19th century art movement, which began as a private association of Paris-based artists who exhibited publicly in 1874. ... Medardo Rosso (born 21 June 1858, Turin, Italy - died 31 March 1928, Milan) was an Italian sculptor. ... Rik Wouters (1882-1916) was a Belgian fauvist painter and sculptor. ...

Fragment of the grave of Cyprian Kamil Norwid in the Bards' crypt in Wawel Cathedral, Cracow by sculptor Czesław Dźwigaj
Fragment of the grave of Cyprian Kamil Norwid in the Bards' crypt in Wawel Cathedral, Cracow by sculptor Czesław Dźwigaj

Modern Classicism showed a lesser interest in naturalism and a greater interest in formal stylization. Greater attention was paid to the rhythms of volumes and spaces - as well as greater attention to the contrasting qualities of surface (open, closed, planar, broken etc) while less attention was paid to story-telling and convincing details of anatomy or costume. Greater attention was given to psychological realism than to physical realism. Greater attention was given to showing what was eternal and public, rather than what was momentary and private. Greater attention was given to examples of ancient and Medieval sacred arts:Egyptian, Middle Eastern, Asian, African, and Meso-American. Grandiosity was still a concern, but in a broader, more world-wide context. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Categories: Literature stubs | 1821 births | 1883 deaths | Polish painters | Polish poets | Polish writers ... Wawel Cathedral Wawel Cathedral Wawel Cathedral – in full, the Cathedral Basilica of St Stanislaus and St Wenceslaus – is Polands national sanctuary. ... Motto: none Voivodship Lesser Poland Municipal government Rada miasta Kraków Mayor Jacek Majchrowski Area 326,8 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 757,500 (2004 est. ... Fragment of the grave of Cyprian Kamil Norwid CzesÅ‚aw Dźwigaj (born June 18, 1950 in Nowy WiÅ›nicz) - artist, sculptor, professor, student of Antoni Hajdecki. ...


Early masters of modern classicism included: Aristide Maillol, Alexander Matveev, Joseph Bernard, Antoine Bourdelle, Georg Kolbe, Libero Andreotti, Gustav Vigeland, Jan Stursa, Constantin Brancusi. Image:The mountain. ... Alexander Matveev (1878-1960) was the leading Russian sculptor of his generation, working in a the simple, vigorous, modern classical style similar to Aristide Maillol of France. ... Joseph Bernard (1866-1931) was a modern classical French sculptor, featured on the frontispiece of Elie Faures 1927 survey of modern art, Spirit of Forms External links [1] web gallery of 20th Century figure sculpture ... Antoine Bourdelle (October 30, 1861 _ October 1, 1929) was a French sculptor and teacher. ... Georg Kolbe (1877-1947) was the leading German figure sculptor of his generation, in a vigorous, modern, simplified classical style similar to Aristide Maillol of France. ... Libero Andreotti (1875-1933) was the foremost Italian sculptor at the beginning of the twentieth century. ... Gustav Vigeland (April 11, 1869 – March 12, 1943) was a Norwegian sculptor. ... Jan Stursa (1880 - 1925) was a Czechoslovakian sculptor. ... Constantin Brancusi Constantin Brancusi (February 19, 1876 – March 16, 1957, originally Constantin Brâncuşi IPA: ), was a Romanian sculptor, born in Hobiţa, Gorj, near Târgu Jiu, where he placed his sculptural ensemble with The Table of Silence, The Gate of the Kiss and The Endless Column. ...


As the century progressed, modern classicism was adopted as the national style of the two great European totalitarian empires: Nazi Germany and Soviet Russia, who co-opted the work of early masters, like Kolbe and Arno Breker in Germany, and Matveev in Russia. Nazi Germany had a 15-year run; but over the 70 years of the USSR, new generations of sculptors were trained and chosen within their system, and a distinct style, socialist realism, developed, that returned to the 19th century's emphasis on melodrama and naturalism. Breker (right) with Speer and Hitler in Paris, 23 June 1940. ... Roses for Stalin, Boris Vladimirski, 1949 For other meanings of the term realism, see realism (disambiguation). ...

Henry Moore was famous for his Reclining Figure, and many other sculptures
Henry Moore was famous for his Reclining Figure, and many other sculptures

In the rest of Europe, the modern classical became either more decorative/art deco (Paul Manship, Carl Milles) or more abstractly stylized (Henry Moore, Alberto Giacometti, Julio González) or more expressive (and Gothic) (Anton Hanak, Wilhelm Lehmbruck, Ernst Barlach, Arturo Martini) -- or turned more to the Renaissance (Giacomo Manzu, Venanzo Crocetti) or stayed the same (Charles Despiau, Marcel Gimond). Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1176x640, 298 KB) Henry Moore, Reclining Figure (1951), painted plaster. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1176x640, 298 KB) Henry Moore, Reclining Figure (1951), painted plaster. ... Reclining Figure (1951) outside the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, is characteristic of Moores sculptures, with an abstract female figure intercut with voids. ... Paul Howard Manship (December 24, 1885 - January 28, 1966) was a prominent American sculptor of the early 20th century. ... Triton Blowing a Shell, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN Carl Milles, born Carl Emil Wilhelm Andersson son of lieutenant Emil Mille Andersson and his wife Walborg Tisell, (June 23, 1875–September 19, 1955) was a Swedish sculptor, best known for his fountains. ... Reclining Figure (1951) outside the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, is characteristic of Moores sculptures, with an abstract female figure intercut with voids. ... Cat by Alberto Giacometti, 1954, Metropolitan Museum of Art Alberto Giacometti (October 10, 1901 – January 11, 1966) was a Swiss sculptor, painter, draftsman, and printmaker. ... Monsieur Cactus, 1939. ... Anton Hanak (1875-1934) is the best known Austrian sculptor from the early 20th century. ... Die Kniende (kneeing woman), 1911 Wilhelm Lehmbruck (* January 4, 1881 in Duisburg, † March 25, 1919 in Berlin) was a German sculptor. ... The young Ernst Barlach Ernst Barlach, (born January 2, 1870 in Wedel, Pinneberg, Germany; died October 24, 1938 in Rostock, Germany) was a famous German expressionist sculptor. ... Arturo Martini (1889-1947) was a leading Italian sculptor between World War I and II. He moved between a very vigorous (almost ancient Roman) classicism and, later, modernism. ... see Giacomo Manzù ... Venanzo Crocetti (1913-2003 ) Italian sculptor 1913 Born in Jurianova, Teramo, Italy 1938 Received the Grand Prize in the 19th Venezia Biennale 1966 Finished The Grand Door of Sacrament of the St. ... Charles Despiau (1874 – 1946) was a French sculptor. ... Marcel Gimond Born in the Ardeche region of France in 1894 and died in 1961 - Sculptor. ...


Classical training was rooted out of art education in Western Europe (and the Americas) by 1970 and the classical variants of the 20th century were marginalized in the history of modernism. But classicism continued as the foundation of art education in the Soviet academies until 1990, providing a foundation for expressive figurative art throughout eastern Europe and parts of the Middle East.


By the year 2000, the European classical tradition maintains a wide appeal to viewers - especially tourists - and especially for the ancient, Renaissance, Baroque, and 19th century periods -- but awaits an educational tradition to revive its contemporary development.


Modernist movements included Cubism, Futurism, Minimalism, Installation art, and Pop-Art.


Post-modernism

Post-modern sculpture occupies a broader field of activities than Modernist sculpture, as Rosalind Krauss has observed. Her idea of sculpture in the expanded field identified a series of oppositions that describe the various sculpture-like activities that are post-modern sculpture:

Site-Construction is the intersection of landscape and architecture
Axiomatic Structures is the combination of architecture and not-architecture
Marked sites is the combination of landscape and not-landscape
Sculpture is the intersection of not-landscape and not-architecture

Krauss' concern was creating a theoretical explanation that could adequately fit the developments of Land art, Minimalist sculpture, and Site-specific art into the category of sculpture. To do this, her explanation created a series of oppositions around the work's relationship to its environment. The Spiral Jetty from atop Rozel Point, in mid-April 2005. ... For other uses, see Minimalism (disambiguation). ... Nef pour quatorze reines by Rose-Marie Goulet, a memorial to the École Polytechnique Massacre, featuring sculptural elements integrated into a specially landscaped site Site-specific art is artwork created to exist in a certain place. ...


Contemporary genres

The Spire of Dublin - 120 metres (393 ft) in height and lit from the top. It is the tallest sculpture in the world.

Some modern sculpture forms are now practiced outdoors, and often in full view of spectators, thus giving them kinship to performance art in the eyes of some. Ice sculpture is a form of sculpture that uses ice as the raw material. It's popular in China, Japan, Canada, Sweden, and Russia. Ice sculptures feature decoratively in some cuisines, especially in Asia. Kinetic sculptures are sculptures that are designed to move, which include Mobiles. Snow sculptures are usually carved out of a single block of snow about 6 to 15 feet on each side and weighing about 20 - 30 tons. The snow is densely packed into a form after having been produced by artificial means or collected from the ground after a snowfall. Sound sculptures take the form of indoor sound installations, outdoor installations such as aeolian harps, automatons, or be more or less near conventional musical instruments. Sound sculpture is often site-specific. A Sand castle can be regarded as a sand sculpture. Weightless Sculpture (in outer space) as a concept is created in 1985 by the Dutch artist Martin Sjardijn. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x681, 148 KB) Summary Night time photo of OConnell Street, Dublin, Ireland showing the Spire and GPO Author is Peter Guthrie who has given this image Creative Commons 2. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x681, 148 KB) Summary Night time photo of OConnell Street, Dublin, Ireland showing the Spire and GPO Author is Peter Guthrie who has given this image Creative Commons 2. ... Looking south along OConnell Street at night: the Spires tip is illuminated. ... This article is about Performance art. ... Ice sculpting on the streets of Gamla Stan, Stockholm Ice sculpture is a form of sculpture that uses ice as the raw material. ... Kinetic sculptures are sculptures that are designed to move. ... A simple modern mobile in the style of Alexander Calder A mobile is a type of kinetic sculpture constructed to take advantage of the principle of equilibrium. ... Snow sculpture is a sculpture form comparable to ice sculpture in that most of it is now practiced outdoors, and often in full view of spectators, thus giving it kinship to performance art in the eyes of some. ... Sound sculpture (related to sound art and sound installation) is a multimedia artform in which sculpture produces sound or the reverse. ... “Sandcastle” redirects here. ... Martin Sjardijn (born 1947) is a painter, sculptor, digital artist and conceptual artist, who has created the Weightless Sculpture Project. ... Martin Sjardijn was born in 1947, The Hague, The Netherlands. ...


Other arts which can be regarded as sculptures include:

Yarkand ladies summer fashions. ... For other uses, see Doll (disambiguation). ... Floral design is the art of using materials and flowers found in nature to create a pleasing and balanced composition for the enjoyment of people. ... Ikebana arrangement A Japanese hanging scroll (kakemono) and Ikebana Ikebana arranged flower),[1] is the Japanese art of flower arrangement, also known as kadō , the way of flowers) In contrast to the decorative form of flower arranging in western countries, Japanese flower arrangement emphasizes the linear aspects. ... Glassblowing is the process of forming glass into useful shapes while the glass is in a molten, semi-liquid state. ... This article is about the photographic technique. ... For other uses, see Mask (disambiguation). ... Unfired green ware pottery on a traditional drying rack at Conner Prairie living history museum. ... Sugar sculpture, the art of producing artistic centerpieces entirely composed of sugar and sugar derivatives, is an art that is rapidly garnering support. ... For other uses, see Jack-o-lantern (disambiguation). ...

Notes

  1. ^ Castedo, Leopoldo, A History of Latin American Art and architecture, Frederick A. Praeger, Publisher, New York, 1969

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Sculptures
Sculpture on the Discoveries Age and Portuguese navigators in Lisbon, Portugal
Sculpture on the Discoveries Age and Portuguese navigators in Lisbon, Portugal

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Basic topics in sculpture include: // Main article: Sculpture Miniature figure Statue Main article: History of sculpture Armature -- Assemblage -- Bronze -- Bust -- Casting -- Chisel -- Earth art -- Environmental sculpture -- Found object -- Installation -- Kinetic sculpture -- Marble -- Mass and void -- mobile -- model -- Readymade -- Relief sculpture -- Sculpture -- Terracotta -- The Nude -- Patina Michaelangelo Jay Hall Carpenter Frederick... Rare, water preserved Greek Athlete 310. ... The equestrian Marcus Aurelius on Capitoline Hill displayed uninterruptedly for eighteen centuries was the prototype of Renaissance equestrian sculptures An equestrian sculpture (from the Latin equus meaning horse) is a statue of a mounted rider. ... The history of sculpture is varied and is illustrative of how sculpture has changed extensively over the ages. ... This is a partial list of sculptors. ... Depictions of nudity refers to nudity in all the artistic disciplines including vernacular and historical depictions. ... Marble sculpture is the art of creating three-dimensional forms from marble. ... Petroglyphs on a Bishop Tuff tableland Petroglyph on Petroglyph Point Petroglyphs on Petroglyph Point Petroglyphs on Petroglyph Point Petroglyphs on Newspaper Rock State Historic Monument Petroglyphs from Scandinavia (Häljesta, Västmanland in Sweden). ... Stone sculpture is the result of forming 3-dimensional visually interesting objects from stone. ... The craft of the stonemason has existed since the dawn of civilization - creating buildings, structures and sculpture using stone from the earth. ... Glassblowing is the process of forming glass into useful shapes while the glass is in a molten, semi-liquid state. ... The term environmental sculpture is variously defined. ... Picture taken by User:Abelson in July 2003. ... Picture taken by User:Abelson in July 2003. ... For other uses, see Lisbon (disambiguation). ...

External Links


  Results from FactBites:
 
ArtLex on Sculpture (262 words)
"After painting comes Sculpture, a very noble art, but one that does not in the execution require the same supreme ingenuity as the art of painting, since in two most important and difficult particulars, in foreshortening and in light and shade, for which the painter has to invent a process, sculpture is helped by nature.
Baroque goldsmith and sculptor, in a letter to Benedotto Varchi, January 28, 1547.
"Sculptures are drawings you fall over in the dark." Al Hirschfeld (1904-2003), American caricaturist.
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Sculpture (6648 words)
sculpture, especially in stone, was predominantly subordinated to architecture and served almost exclusively for ecclesiastical purposes.
Sculpture in the United States is a development of the last three quarters of the nineteenth century.
sculpture was ushered in by the Centennial Exposition at
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