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Encyclopedia > Scud
Polish missile wz. 8K14 from R-17 system (SS-1c Scud-B)

Scud is a series of tactical ballistic missiles developed by the Soviet Union during the Cold War and exported widely to other countries. The term comes from the NATO reporting name SS-1 Scud which was attached to the missile by Western intelligence agencies. The Russian names for the missile are the R-11 (the first version), R-17 and R-300 Elbrus (later developments). The name Scud has been used by media and other entities to refer to not only these missiles but to the wide variety of missiles developed in other countries based on the Soviet design. Occasionally in the United States news media, Scud is applied to any country's ballistic missiles not of Western origin.[citation needed] Scud is the popularized term for a series of tactical ballistic missiles developed by the Soviet Union during the Cold War. ... photo by Radomil Binek (Radomil) May 29, 2004 Muzeum Uzbrojenia (Museum of armament) - Cytadela, Poznan. ... photo by Radomil Binek (Radomil) May 29, 2004 Muzeum Uzbrojenia (Museum of armament) - Cytadela, Poznan. ... A tactical ballistic missile is a ballistic missile designed for short-range battlefield use. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... NATO reporting names are unclassified code names for Soviet and Chinese military equipment. ... An intelligence agency is a governmental organization devoted to gathering of information by means of espionage (spying), communication interception, cryptoanalysis, cooperation with other institutions, and evaluation of public sources. ...

Contents

Soviet development

9P117 Launcher with 8K14 rocket of 9K72 missile complex «Elbrus» (Scud B)
9P117 Launcher with 8K14 rocket of 9K72 missile complex «Elbrus» (Scud B)

The first use of the term Scud was in the NATO name SS-1b Scud-A, applied to the R-11 ballistic missile. The earlier R-1 missile had carried the NATO name SS-1 Scunner, but was of a very different design, almost directly a copy of the German V-2. The R-11 used technology gained from the V-2 as well, but was a new design, smaller and differently shaped than the V-2 and R-1 weapons. The R-11 was developed by the Makeyev OKB and entered service in 1957. The most revolutionary innovation in the R-11 was the engine, designed by A.M. Isaev. Far simpler than the V-2's multi-chamber design, and employing an anti-oscillation baffle to prevent chugging, it was a forerunner to the larger engines used in Russia's space rockets. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3072 × 2304 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3072 × 2304 pixel, file size: 2. ... The R-1 rocket (NATO reporting name SS-1 Scunner) (and its evolved version R-2 or SS-2 Sibling) was a copy of the German V-2 rocket manufactured by the Soviet Union. ... German test launch. ... The Makeyev Design Bureau (also known as Makeyev OKB) is a Russian missile design facility. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... Aleksei Mihailovich Isaev (October 24, 1908, Saint Petersburg–June 10, 1971, Moscow) was a Russian rocket engineer. ...


Further developed variants were the R-300 Elbrus / SS-1c Scud-B in 1961 and the SS-1d Scud-C in 1965, both of which could carry either a conventional high-explosive, a 5 to 80 kiloton nuclear, or a chemical (thickened VX) warhead. The SS-1e Scud-D variant developed in the 1980s can deliver a conventional high-explosive warhead, a fuel-air warhead, 40 runway-penetrator sub-munitions, or 100 × 5 kg anti-personnel bomblets. Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter. ... Dressing the wounded during a gas attack by Austin O. Spare, 1918. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A high-impulse thermobaric weapon (HIT), also known as a fuel-air explosive (FAE or FAX), a heat and pressure weapon, or a vacuum bomb, consists of a container of a volatile liquid, in some designs including a finely powdered explosive component as a slurry, and (typically) two separate explosive... Honest John missile warhead cutaway, showing M139 Sarin bomblets (photo circa 1960) Cluster munitions are air-dropped or ground launched shells that eject multiple small submunitions (bomblets). ...


All models are 11.25 meters long (except Scud-A, which is one meter shorter) and 0.88 meters in diameter. They are propelled by a single engine burning either kerosene and nitric acid - IRFNA and UDMH (Russian TG-02 like German Tonka 250) as liquid igniter (self ignition with IRFNA) in all models. Kerosene or paraffin oil (British English, not to be confused with the waxy solid also called paraffin wax or just paraffin) is a flammable hydrocarbon liquid. ... RFNA is a rocket fuel (a storeable oxidiser): red fuming nitric acid. ... Unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH) (1,1-Dimethylhydrazine) is a hypergolic rocket fuel ingredient, often used in combination with the oxidiser nitrogen tetroxide. ...


Operational use

Scud Transporter Erector Launcher (TEL) with rocket in ready to fire position
Scud Transporter Erector Launcher (TEL) with rocket in ready to fire position

Scud missile (including derivatives) is one of the few ballistic missiles to be used in actual warfare, second only to V2 in terms of combat launches (the SS-21 being the only other ballistic missile fired "in anger"). Libya responded to US airstrikes in 1986 by firing several Scud missiles at a US Coast Guard station on the nearby Italian island of Lampedusa. Scud missiles were used in several regional conflicts that included use by Soviet and Afghan Communist forces in Afghanistan, and Iranians and Iraqis against one another in the so-called "War of the cities" during the Iran-Iraq War. Scuds were also used by Iraq during the Persian Gulf War against Israel and coalition targets in Saudi Arabia. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 506 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (804 × 953 pixel, file size: 199 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Image of a Scud TEL created from a digital photograph taken by myself (Veedar). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 506 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (804 × 953 pixel, file size: 199 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Image of a Scud TEL created from a digital photograph taken by myself (Veedar). ... SS-21 (NATO reporting name Scarab, Russian designation 9K79, or OTR-21) was a Soviet short-ranged tactical ballistic missile. ... Combatants United States Libya Commanders Ronald Reagan Muammar al-Gaddafi Casualties 1 F-111 2 aircrew KIA 3-5 IL-76 transport planes 14 Mig-23 Floggers 2 Helicopters[1] 15 Libyan civilians The United States bombing of Libya (code-named Operation El Dorado Canyon) comprised the joint United States... Coast Guard shield The United States Coast Guard is the coast guard of the United States. ... The Mediterranean island of Lampedusa ( ) is the largest of the Pelagie Islands and is situated 205 km from Sicily and 113 km from Tunisia. ... Combatants  Iran Iraq Commanders Ruhollah Khomeini, Abolhassan Banisadr, Ali Shamkhani, Mostafa Chamran Saddam Hussein, Ali Hassan al-Majid Strength 305,000 soldiers 500,000 Passdaran and Basij militia 900 tanks 1,000 armored vehicles 3,000 artillery pieces 470 aircraft 750 helicopters[1] 190,000 soldiers 5,000 tanks 4... See also: 2003 invasion of Iraq and Gulf War (disambiguation) C Company, 1st Battalion, The Staffordshire Regiment, 1st UK Armoured Division The Persian Gulf War was a conflict between Iraq and a coalition force of 34 nations led by the United States. ...


More than a dozen Scuds were fired from Afghanistan at targets in Pakistan in 1988. There was also a small number of Scud missiles used in the 1994 civil war in Yemen and by Russian forces in Chechnya in 1996 and onwards. Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar). ... The Chechen Republic (IPA: ; Russian: , Chechenskaya Respublika; Chechen: , Noxçiyn Respublika), or, informally, Chechnya (; Russian: ; Chechen: , Noxçiyçö), sometimes referred to as Ichkeria, Chechnia, Chechenia or Noxçiyn, is a federal subject of Russia. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ...


Countries that possess or have possessed Scud-Bs are: Afghanistan, Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bulgaria, Georgia, Hungary, Kazakhstan, Iran, Iraq, Libya, Poland, Slovakia, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, the United Arab Emirates, Vietnam and Yemen. The Democratic Republic of Congo and Egypt have purchased Scud-Cs in addition to Scud-Bs. Syria has acquired the Scud-D, and Iraq's Al Hussein missile also has a Scud-D range. North Korea also has Scud missiles after the 2006 missile tests. Al Hussein or al-Husayn is a designation of an Iraqi missile During 1988-90, the Iraqis made strides in their indigenous rocket program, which was centered on upgrading the performance of the Scud. ...


Scud hunting

All "Scud" versions derive from the German V-2 rocket, as were most early American missiles and rockets. They are highly inaccurate due to their construction. In this respect, Scud can be considered an area bombing weapon. The Iraqi modifications increased range, at the cost of accuracy. The Vergeltungswaffe 2 (V-2) (Reprisal weapon 2 Propaganda name given by Joseph Goebbels) , also known, in the Development Process as the A4 (Aggregat 1-4), was the first and till date has the most lethal combat record of any ballistic missile. ...


As with some other missiles, the military advantage of this weapon consists in its ease of transportation, on a transporter-erector-launcher vehicle. This mobility allows for a choice of firing position and increases the survivability of the weapon system (to such an extent that, of the approximately 100 launchers claimed destroyed by coalition pilots and special forces in the Gulf War, not a single destruction could be confirmed afterwards). TEL is a three-letter acronym Tetra-ethyl lead, a gasoline additive to make leaded gasoline Tokyo Electron, a semiconductor equipment manufacturer Transporter erector launcher Technology Enhanced Learning Category: ...


The name "Scud" is also used to refer to an Iraqi modification of the same missile, the Al Hussein. Altered for greater range, it came to particular prominence during the "War of the cities" when Iraq fired 190 Scud missiles at Iranian cities including Tehran.[1] These were also used during the Gulf War, when a number of missiles were fired at Israel (40) and Saudi Arabia (46). The US-made Patriot missile system claimed successes in shooting down the missiles, but many critics (see Ted Postol) claim that the accuracy of the Patriot missiles has been greatly exaggerated and they were actually 95% unsuccessful. One problem was the Scud missile disintegrated as it approached the target, making it difficult for the Patriots to know which pieces were the warhead and which were other debris. The missiles were one of Iraq's most threatening offensive weapons, especially to Israel. There was great concern that they would be armed with chemical or biological warheads. Al Hussein or al-Husayn is a designation of an Iraqi missile During 1988-90, the Iraqis made strides in their indigenous rocket program, which was centered on upgrading the performance of the Scud. ... Four Patriot missiles like the one shown here can be fired from this mobile launcher between loadings. ... Theodore Postol is a Professor of Science, Technology, and International Security at MIT and a prominent critic of the effectiveness of missile defense. ... Dressing the wounded during a gas attack by Austin O. Spare, 1918. ... For the use of biological agents by terrorists, see bioterrorism. ...


In the end the Scuds were responsible for most of the coalition deaths outside of Iraq and Kuwait. They killed one Israeli directly and one Saudi security guard. Twenty-eight US soldiers were killed when one struck a United States Army barracks in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia. The United States Army is the largest branch of the armed forces of the United States. ... A barracks housing conscripts of Norrbottens regemente in Boden, Sweden. ... This article is about Dhahran, the city. ...


Scuds were the only weapon Iraq had capable of striking back at coalition and strategic targets. Coalition forces in the Persian Gulf War found it difficult to find and destroy mobile Scud launchers operating in western Iraq. Aircraft rarely identified targets well enough to deliver ordnance. The hunt for Scuds used up some one third of the Coalition air power, using A-10s by day and the advanced F-15E at night. The missiles were carried on the backs of transporter-erector-launcher (TEL) trucks, easily hidden in various shelters and under bridges and were hard to track down by air. Ground based special forces from the United States and the United Kingdom were sent to scout for launchers behind enemy lines, in some cases attacking them directly with man-portable missiles.[2] Removing the threat of Scuds was of particular importance to the said parties, as Israel had threatened to enter the war against Iraq if attacks continued, which might have split anti-Israel Arab states in the alliance. One says "might" because Syria, Egypt, and the other not-very-active members of the Coalition feared Saddam even more than they hated Israel, and said publicly that Israeli retaliation would not occasion their defection. See also: 2003 invasion of Iraq and Gulf War (disambiguation) C Company, 1st Battalion, The Staffordshire Regiment, 1st UK Armoured Division The Persian Gulf War was a conflict between Iraq and a coalition force of 34 nations led by the United States. ... A Russian SA-4 TEL. Photo by GulfLINK. A Russian SA-8 TELAR. Photo by Naval Expeditionary Warfare Training. ...


The Iraqis developed four versions: Scud, longer-range Scud or Scud LR, Al Hussein, and Al Abbas. Apart from the almost unmodified weapon, these were not successful missiles as they tended to break up in flight and had small warheads. Al Hussein or al-Husayn is a designation of an Iraqi missile During 1988-90, the Iraqis made strides in their indigenous rocket program, which was centered on upgrading the performance of the Scud. ... The Al Abbas was a domestically produced missile of Iraq that was tested in April 1988. ...


Other nations

The North Korean, Iranian, and Pakistani missile programs have used Scud technology to develop missiles with ranges of 1000 kilometers or more. The Rodong-1 (spelled Nodong-1 in South Korea) is a single stage, mobile liquid propellant medium range ballistic missile developed by North Korea. ...


General characteristics

NATO Scud-A Scud-B Scud-C Scud-D
U.S. DIA SS-1b SS-1c SS-1d SS-1e
Deployment Date 1957 1965 1965 1980s
Withdrawn 1978
Range 130 km 300 km 575-600 km 700 km
CEP (NATO estimate) 4000 m 900 m 900 m 50 m

The Defense Intelligence Agency, or DIA, is a major producer and manager of military intelligence for the United States Department of Defense. ... In the military science of ballistics, Circular Error Probability or circular error probable (CEP) is a simple measure of a weapon systems precision. ...

Trivia

  • Mark Philippoussis, Australian tennis player, has had the name 'Scud' attached to him because of his consistently fast serves in excess of 200 km/h.
  • Sometimes used as a slang term for singing a song with the intent of making it stick in the mind of another.

Mark Anthony Philippoussis (born November 7, 1976) is an Australian tennis player. ... Arthur Ashe Stadium at Flushing Meadows, New York Tennis is a game played between two players (singles) or between two teams of two players (doubles). ... Slang is the use of highly informal words and expressions that are not considered standard in the speakers dialect or language. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Jane’s Intelligence Review (June 1995). Strategic Delivery Systems. Federation of American Scientists. Retrieved on 2006-06-20.
  2. ^ http://www.rand.org/pubs/monograph_reports/MR1408/MR1408.ch3.pdf] Rand monograph: COALITION SCUD-HUNTING IN IRAQ, 1991

Janes Information Group (often referred to as Janes) was founded by John F.T. Jane in 1898. ... The Federation of American Scientists (FAS)[1] is a non-profit organization formed in 1945 by scientists from the Manhattan Project who felt that scientists, engineers and other innovators had an ethical obligation to bring their knowledge and experience to bear on critical national decisions. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

Look up scud in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Scud

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Below is a list of (links to pages on) missiles, sorted alphabetically by name. ... The Shahab-1 was the foundation of the long-range Iranian missile program. ...

External links


Russian and former Soviet surface-to-surface missiles

The SS designation sequence:
SS-1 Scud | SS-2 Sibling | SS-3 Shyster | SS-4 Sandal | SS-5 Skean | SS-6 Sapwood | SS-7 Saddler | SS-8 Sasin | SS-9 Scarp | SS-10 Scrag | SS-11 Sego | SS-12 Scaleboard | SS-13 Savage | SS-14 ScampScapegoat | SS-15 Scrooge | SS-16 Sinner | SS-17 Spanker | SS-18 Satan | SS-19 Stiletto | SS-20 Saber | SS-21 Scarab | SS-22 Scaleboard | SS-23 Spider | SS-24 Scalpel | SS-25 Sickle | SS-26 Stone | SS-27 | Soviet redirects here. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The R-1 rocket (NATO reporting name SS-1 Scunner) (and its evolved version R-2 or SS-2 Sibling) was a copy of the German V-2 rocket manufactured by the Soviet Union. ... The R-5 (also known as the 8K51 and by the NATO reporting name SS-3 Shyster) was a Soviet IRBM designed by the Korolev Design Bureau. ... // Overview The R-12 was an intercontinental ballistic missile designed in the Soviet Union, operated by the Strategic Rocket Forces. ... For other uses, see R-14. ... R-7 with Sputnik 2 The R-7 Semyorka was the worlds first intercontinental ballistic missile and was deployed by the Soviet Union during the Cold War from 1959 to 1968. ... An R-16 Missile The R-16 was the first successful ICBM deployed by the Soviet Union. ... SS-8 Sasin is a NATO reporting name that was mistakenly applied to two different Soviet missile systems. ... The R-36 is a family of intercontinental ballistic missile and space launch vehicle designs created by the Soviet Union during the Cold War. ... UR-200 / SS-X-10 SCRAG Central Committee of the Communist Party and Council of Soviet Ministers released an initiative that called for the creation of a Fractional Orbital Bombardment System (FOBS) capable of sending a nuclear warhead into a 150 km high orbit around the Earth. ... The UR-100 was an intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) developed and deployed by the Soviet Union from 1966 to 1996. ... The TR-1 Temp was a mobile theatre ballistic missile developed and deployed by the Soviet Union during the Cold War. ... The RT-2 was an intercontinental ballistic missile deployed by the Soviet Union from 1969 through 1996. ... The RT-15 was a mobile theatre ballistic missile deployed by the Soviet Union during the Cold War. ... The RT-20 was an intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) developed but not deployed by the Soviet Union during the Cold War. ... The RT-21 Temp 2S was a mobile intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) developed by the Soviet Union during the Cold War. ... The MR-UR-100 Sotka was a MIRV-warhead intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) developed and deployed by the Soviet Union from 1975 to 1991. ... The R-36 is a family of intercontinental ballistic missile and space launch vehicle designs created by the Soviet Union during the Cold War. ... The UR-100N is an intercontinental ballistic missile in service with Russia. ... The RSD-10 Pioneer was a medium-range ballistic missile with a nuclear warhead deployed by the Soviet Union from 1976 to 1988. ... OTR-21 Tochka (Russian: ; English: , tochka is point in English) is a Soviet short-range tactical ballistic missile. ... The TR-1 Temp was a mobile theatre ballistic missile developed and deployed by the Soviet Union during the Cold War. ... The R-400 Oka (Russian: ; named after Oka River) was a mobile theatre ballistic missile deployed by the Soviet Union near the end of the Cold War. ... SS-24 Scalpel (NATO designation) or RT-23 is a Russian ICBM, developed and produced by the Soviet Union before 1991. ... // Overview The RT-2PM Topol is a mobile intercontinental ballistic missile designed in the Soviet Union and in service with Russias Strategic Rocket Forces. ... Iskander Missile Iskander (NATO reporting name SS-26 Stone) is a short range, solid fuel propelled, theater quasiballistic missile produced in Russia. ... The RT-2UTTH Topol-M is the most recent intercontinental ballistic missile to be deployed by Russia, and the first to be developed after the dissolution of the Soviet Union. ...

List of Russian and former Soviet missiles
Missiles


It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with List of missiles by nation. ... A missile (British English: miss-isle; U.S. English: missl) is, in general, a projectile—that is, something thrown or otherwise propelled. ...

 v  d  e 
Russian and former Soviet R designation sequence
R-1/R-2 | R-3 | R-4 | R-5 | R-7 | R-8 | R-9 | R-11, R-300 Elbrus | R-12 | R-13 | R-14 Dvina, R-14 Chusovaya | R-15, Tumansky R-15 | R-16 | R-21 | R-23 | R-26 | R-27, Vympel R-27 | R-29 | R-33 | R-36 | R-37 | R-39 | R-40 | R-46, GR-1 | R-60 | R-73 | R-77 | 81R | R-101 | R-103 | R-172 | R-400
Other: | TR-1 | RS-24 | RS-82 | RT-2 | RT-2PM | RT-2UTTH | RT-15 | RT-20 | RT-21 | RT-23 | RT-25 | RSM-56 | RKV-500A, RK-55 | KSR-5 | RSS-40 | UR-100 | UR-100 | UR-100N

  Results from FactBites:
 
Scud - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1086 words)
In the end the Scuds were responsible for the death of one Israeli directly, one Saudi security guard and for the deaths of 28 US soldiers (the missile struck a United States Army barracks in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia).
Scud missile (including derivatives) is one of the few ballistic missiles to be used in actual warfare, second only to V2 in terms of combat launches (the SS-21 being the only other ballistic missile fired "in anger").
Besides the aforementioned Gulf War, Scud missiles were used in several regional conflicts, most prominently by Soviet forces in Afghanistan, and by the Iranians and the Iraqis in so called "War of the cities".
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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