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Encyclopedia > Scrotum
Scrotum
The scrotum. On the left side the cavity of the tunica vaginalis has been opened; on the right side only the layers superficial to the Cremaster have been removed.
Gray's subject #258 1237
Artery Anterior scrotal artery & Posterior scrotal artery
Vein Testicular vein
Nerve Posterior scrotal nerves, Anterior scrotal nerves, genital branch of genitofemoral nerve, perineal branches of posterior femoral cutaneous nerve
Lymph Superficial inguinal lymph nodes
Precursor labioscrotal folds
MeSH Scrotum
Dorlands/Elsevier s_06/12726162

In some male mammals the scrotum is a protuberance of skin and muscle containing the testicles. It is an extension of the abdomen, and is located between the penis and anus. In humans and some other mammals, the base of the scrotum becomes covered with pubic hair at puberty. In common speech, the scrotum is often improperly referred to as the testicles, which actually refer to organs encased inside the scrotum. The scrotum is homologous to the labia majora in females. Image File history File links Gray1143. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... The word cremaster can mean more than one thing: In humans, the cremaster muscle is a muscle that is part of genital anatomy. ... Section of an artery For other uses, see Artery (disambiguation). ... In the circulatory system, a vein is a blood vessel that carries blood toward the heart. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Gonadal vein. ... For other uses, see Nerve (disambiguation). ... The posterior scrotal (or labial) branches; superficial peroneal nerves) are two in number, medial and lateral. ... The genital branch of the genitofemoral nerve (external spermatic nerve) passes outward on the Psoas major, and pierces the fascia transversalis, or passes through the abdominal inguinal ring; it then descends behind the spermatic cord to the scrotum, supplies the Cremaster, and gives a few filaments to the skin of... The perineal branches of the posterior femoral cutaneous nerve are distributed to the skin at the upper and medial side of the thigh. ... In mammals including humans, the lymphatic vessels (or lymphatics) are a network of thin tubes that branch, like blood vessels, into tissues throughout the body. ... The superficial inguinal lymph nodes form a chain immediately below the inguinal ligament. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The labioscrotal folds (or labioscrotal swellings) are paired embryonic structures that represent the final stage of development of the caudal end of the external genitals before sexual differentiation. ... Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... Elseviers logo. ... This article is about the Male sex. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the presence of sweat glands, including milk producing sweat glands, and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex... For other uses, see Skin (disambiguation). ... For other uses of Muscles, see Muscles (disambiguation). ... Look up testes in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For the human abdomen, see human abdomen. ... The penis (plural penises, penes) is an external male sexual organ. ... This article is about the bodily orifice. ... Pubic hair is hair in the frontal genital area, the crotch, and sometimes at the top of the inside of the legs; these areas form the pubic region. ... Puberty refers to the process of physical changes by which a childs body becomes an adult body capable of reproduction. ... Parts of a vulva The external genital organs of the female are collectively known as the vulva (also sometimes called the pudenda). ...

Contents

Function

The function of the scrotum appears to be to keep the testes at a temperature slightly lower than that of the rest of the body. For the human, a temperature around 34.4 degrees Celsius (94 degrees Fahrenheit) seems to be ideal; 36.7 degrees Celsius (98 degree Fahrenheit) may be damaging to sperm count. The temperature is controlled by moving the testicles closer to the abdomen when it is cold, and away when hot. This is done by the contracting and relaxing of the cremaster muscle in the abdomen and the dartos fascia (muscular tissue under the skin) in the scrotum. However, this may not be the main function. The volume of sperm produced by the testes is small, (0.1-0.2ml). It has been suggested that if testes were situated within the abdominal cavity that they would be subjected to the regular changes in abdominal pressure that is exerted by the abdominal muscles. This squeezing and relaxing would result in the more rapid emptying of the testes and epididymes of sperm before the spermatozoa were matured sufficiently for fertilisation. Some mammals do keep their testes within the abdomen and there may be mechanisms to prevent this inadvertent emptying e.g. elephants, sea mammals. For other uses, see Temperature (disambiguation). ... The sperm count is a measure of fertility in a man. ... The cremaster muscle is a muscle that covers the testis. ... The dartos is a layer of smooth muscular fiber. ... A spermatozoon or spermatozoan ( spermatozoa), from the ancient Greek σπέρμα (seed) and (living being) and more commonly known as a sperm cell, is the haploid cell that is the male gamete. ...


In most biological males, the cremaster muscle itself cannot be controlled voluntarily. Contraction of the abdominal muscles, and changes in intraabdominal pressure, often can lift and lower the testicles within the scrotum. Contraction of the muscle fibers of the dartos tunic (or fascia) is completely involuntary and results in the appearance of increased wrinkling and thickening of the scrotal skin. The testicles are not directly attached to the skin of the scrotum, so this dartos contraction results in their sliding toward the abdomen. The dartos is a layer of smooth muscular fiber. ... The dartos is a layer of smooth muscular fiber. ...

The human scrotum, which contains the testicles.
The human scrotum, which contains the testicles.

Although the ideal temperature for sperm growth varies between species, it usually appears, in warm-blooded species, to be a bit cooler than internal body temperature, necessitating the scrotum. Since this leaves the testicles vulnerable in many species, there is some debate on the evolutionary advantage of such a system. One theory is that the impregnation of females who are ill is less likely when sperm is highly sensitive to elevated body temperatures.


An alternative explanation is to protect the testes from jolts and compressions associated with an active lifestyle. Animals that have 'stately' movements - such as elephants, whales and marsupial moles - have internal testes and no scrotum.[1]


Health issues

A common problem of the scrotum is the development of masses. Common scrotal masses include

Other conditions include: Close-up of an infected sebaceous cyst that has abscessed, located behind the ear lobe. ... ICD-10 L72. ... A hydrocele denotes a pathological accumulation of serous fluid in a bodily cavity. ... A hematocele is a collection of blood around the testicle. ... Spermatocele is a retention cyst of a tubule of the rete testis or the head of the epididymis distended with a milky fluid that contains spermatozoa. ... Cross section showing the pampiniform plexus Varicocele is an abnormal enlargement of the veins in the scrotum draining the testicles. ...

  • contact dermatitis: may cause redness, swelling, and itching of the entire scrotum. Can result from soaps, solvents, detergents, and natural irritants such as poison ivy.
  • inguinal hernia
  • yeast infection
  • swelling resulting from conditions external to the scrotum, including:

Contact dermatitis is a term for a skin reaction resulting from exposure to allergens or irritants. ... Candidiasis, commonly called yeast infection or thrush, is a fungal infection of any of the Candida species, of which Candida albicans is probably the most common. ...

References

  1. ^ Science : Bumpy lifestyle led to external testes - 17 August 1996 - New Scientist. Retrieved on 2007-11-06.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Additional images

See also

Look up scrotum in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... The perineal raphe extends from the anus, through the mid-line of the scrotum (scrotal raphe) and upwards through the posterior mid-line aspect of the penis (penile raphe). ... A sex organ, or primary sexual characteristic, as narrowly defined, is any of those anatomical parts of the body which are involved in sexual reproduction and constitute the reproductive system in a complex organism; in mammals, these are: Female: Bartholins glands, cervix, clitoris, Fallopian tubes, labia, ovaries, Skenes... Castration (also referred as: gelding, neutering, orchiectomy, orchidectomy, and oophorectomy) is any action, surgical, chemical, or otherwise, by which a male loses the functions of the testes or a female loses the functions of the ovaries. ... Blue balls is a slang term for a temporary fluid congestion in the testicles and prostate region caused by prolonged sexual arousal in the human male. ... A pictorial illustration of the human female reproductive system. ... The cervix (from Latin neck) is the lower, narrow portion of the uterus where it joins with the top end of the vagina. ... The clitoris is a sexual organ that is present in biologically female mammals. ... In a female human anatomy, the clitoral hood, (also called preputium clitoridis and clitoral prepuce), is a fold of skin that surrounds and protects the clitoral glans. ... The Fallopian tubes, also known as oviducts, uterine tubes, and salpinges (singular salpinx) are two very fine tubes leading from the ovaries of female mammals into the uterus. ... The Bartholins glands (also called Bartholin glands or greater vestibular glands) are two glands located slightly below and to the left and right of the opening of the vagina in women. ... ... For the Greek god of marriage, see Hymenaios. ... Mammary glands are the organs that, in the female mammal, produce milk for the sustenance of the young. ... // For ovary as part of plants see ovary (plants) An ovary is an egg-producing reproductive organ found in female organisms. ... In human anatomy, the Skenes glands (also known as the lesser vestibular, periurethral glands, or paraurethral glands[1]) are glands located on the upper wall of the vagina, around the lower end of the urethra. ... In anatomy, the urethra is a tube which connects the urinary bladder to the outside of the body. ... This article is about female reproductive anatomy. ... The vagina, (from Latin, literally sheath or scabbard ) is the tubular tract leading from the uterus to the exterior of the body in female placental mammals and marsupials, or to the cloaca in female birds, monotremes, and some reptiles. ... The external genital organs of the female are collectively known as the vulva (plural vulvae or vulvas)[1]. In common speech, the term vagina is often used improperly to refer to the vulva or female genitals generally, even though, strictly speaking, the vagina is a specific internal structure, whereas the... In anatomy, the urethra is a tube which connects the urinary bladder to the outside of the body. ... Look up testes in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Male Anatomy The spermatic cord is the name given to the cord-like structure formed by the vas deferens and surrounding tissue (veins, arteries, nerves, and lymphatic vessels) that run from the abdomen down to each testicle. ... Male Anatomy The epididymis is part of the human male reproductive system and is present in all male mammals. ... Human male anatomy The testicles, known medically as testes (singular testis), are the male generative glands in animals. ... A Sertoli cell (a kind of sustentacular cell) is a nurse cell of the testes which is part of a seminiferous tubule. ... Rete testis is an anastomosing network of delicate tubules located in the hilum of the testicle (mediastinum testis) that carries sperm from the seminiferous tubules to the vasa efferentia. ... The efferent ducts are part of the testes and connect the rete testis with the epididymis. ... The vas deferens (plural: vasa deferentia), also called ductus deferens, (Latin: carrying-away vessel) is part of the male anatomy of some species, including humans. ... The seminal vesicles are a pair of simple tubular glands posterinferior to the urinary bladder of males. ... The Ejaculatory ducts are part of the human male anatomy, which cause the reflex action of ejaculation. ... The penis (plural penises, penes) is an external male sexual organ. ... A corpus cavernosum is one of a pair of a sponge-like regions of erectile tissue which contain most of the blood in the male penis during erection. ... The glans penis (or simply glans) is the sensitive tip of the penis. ... The fundiform ligament is a specialization of the superficial (Scarpas) fascia of the abdomen. ... The foreskin or prepuce (a technically broader term that also includes the clitoral hood, the homologous structure in women) is a retractable double-layered fold of skin and mucous membrane that covers the glans penis and protects the urinary meatus when the penis. ... A frenulum (or frenum, plural: frenula or frena, from the Latin frÄ“nulum, little bridle, the diminutive of frÄ“num ) is a small fold of tissue that secures or restricts the motion of a mobile organ in the body. ... The prostate is a compound tubuloalveolar exocrine gland of the male mammalian reproductive system. ... A bulbourethral gland (or Cowpers gland) is one of two small exocrine glands present in the reproductive system of human males. ... List of bones of the human skeleton Human anatomy is primarily the scientific study of the morphology of the adult human body. ... For other uses of the word head, see head (disambiguation). ... In humans, the adult skull is normally made up of 22 bones. ... In human anatomy, the forehead or brow is the bony part of the head above the eyes. ... For other uses, see Eye (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Ear (disambiguation). ... The visible part of the human nose is the protruding part of the face that bears the nostrils. ... Sagittal section of nose mouth, pharynx, and larynx. ... For other uses, see Tongue (disambiguation). ... Teeth redirects here. ... The mandible (from Latin mandibÅ­la, jawbone) or inferior maxillary bone is, together with the maxilla, the largest and strongest bone of the face. ... For other uses, see Face (disambiguation). ... This article is about the anatomical feature. ... This article is about the part of the face. ... Image File history File links Human body features (external) Created by Vsion. ... For other uses, see Neck (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Throat (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Adams apple (disambiguation). ... The human torso Torso is an anatomical term for the greater part of the human body without the head and limbs. ... This article is about the body part. ... The vertebral column seen from the side Different regions (curvatures) of the vertebral column The vertebral column (backbone or spine) is a column of vertebrae situated in the dorsal aspect of the abdomen. ... For other uses, see Breast (disambiguation). ... The Tail of Spence (or Spences tail) is an extension of the tissue of the breast which extends into the axilla (armpit). ... Male Chest The chest is a part of the anatomy of humans and various other animals. ... The human rib cage. ... The human abdomen (from the Latin word meaning belly) is the part of the body between the pelvis and the thorax. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A sex organ, or primary sexual characteristic, as narrowly defined, is any of those anatomical parts of the body which are involved in sexual reproduction and constitute the reproductive system in a complex organism; in mammals, these are: Female: Bartholins glands, cervix, clitoris, Fallopian tubes, labia, ovaries, Skenes... The clitoris is a sexual organ that is present in biologically female mammals. ... The vagina, (from Latin, literally sheath or scabbard ) is the tubular tract leading from the uterus to the exterior of the body in female placental mammals and marsupials, or to the cloaca in female birds, monotremes, and some reptiles. ... The penis (plural penises, penes) is an external male sexual organ. ... Look up testes in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In anatomy, the hip is the bony projection of the femur which is known as the greater trochanter, and the overlying muscle and fat. ... This article is about the bodily orifice. ... Bottom commonly refers to the human buttocks but also has other uses. ... A limb (from the Old English lim) is a jointed, or prehensile (as octopus tentacles or new world monkey tails), appendage of the human or animal body; a large or main branch of a tree; a representative, branch or member of a group or organization. ... Look up ARM in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the joint in the arm. ... // The Human Forearm The forearm is the structure on the upper limb, between the elbow and the wrist. ... For the municipality in Germany, see Wrist, Germany. ... For other uses, see Hand (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Thumb (disambiguation). ... The second digit of a human hand is also referred to as the index finger, pointer finger, forefinger, trigger finger, digitus secundus, or digitus II. It is located between the first and third digits - that is, between the thumb and the middle finger. ... This article is about the vulgar gesture. ... The ring finger is the fourth digit of the human hand, and the second most ulnar finger, located between the middle finger and the little finger. ... The little finger, often called the pinky in American English and pinkie in Scottish English (from the Dutch word pink, meaning little finger), is the most ulnar and usually smallest finger of the human hand, opposite the thumb, next to the ring finger. ... In common usage, a human leg is the lower limb of the body, extending from the hip to the ankle, and including the thigh, the knee, and the cnemis. ... Manuel Márquez de León International Airport (IATA: LAP, ICAO: MMLP) is an international airport located at La Paz, Baja California Sur, Mexico. ... In humans the thigh is the area between the pelvis and buttocks and the knee. ... For other uses, see Knee (disambiguation). ... The calf or gastrosoleus is a pair of muscles—the gastrocnemius and soleus—at the back of the lower human leg. ... For other uses, see Heel (disambiguation). ... For a review of anatomical terms, see Anatomical position and Anatomical terms of location. ... For other uses, see Foot (disambiguation). ... This article is about the body part. ... Toes on foot. ... For other uses, see Skin (disambiguation). ... For the 1968 stage production, see Hair (musical), for the 1979 film, see Hair (film). ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Scrotal Ultrasound (1144 words)
Ultrasound imaging of the scrotum is the primary imaging method used to evaluate disorders of the testicles and surrounding areas.
If the scrotum is very tender some discomfort may occur from the slight pressure of the transducer.
Ultrasound of the scrotum is the primary imaging method used to evaluate disorders of the testicles and surrounding areas.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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