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Encyclopedia > Scribal abbreviation

Scribal abbreviations were used by medieval scribes writing in Latin. These were a set of conventional marks to save themselves parchment, ink, and time. These often consisted of tildes, macrons, and marks that resembled apostrophes above letters. Other modifications included cross-bars and extended strokes. Such abbreviations were mostly for prefixes and verb, noun, and adjectival suffixes. They are not to be confused with the forms of abbreviation that do not use unusual marks, some of which have survived, such as i.e., loc. cit. (viz, however, is actually an abbreviation for "videlicet", vi + an abbreviation mark resembling the letter z or the number 3). Latin is the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... The tilde is a grapheme which has several uses, described below. ... A macron (from Gr. ... The word apostrophe can refer to several things: A form of punctuation, see Apostrophe (mark). ... The word viz has a number of meaning: viz, an abbreviation for the Latin videlicet Viz, a British adult comic VIZ Media, an American publisher of manga and anime Examples of the UK Viz Comics can be found here [1]http://www. ...


Scribal abbreviations have entered the news in the twenty-first century because the recently revived Scottish Parliament needs to find out what the old codes of Scottish law written in Latin say. Those who have learned Latin without having also learned Latin palaeography find these abbreviations incomprehensible. At a recent count, there were well over fourteen thousand abbreviations. The Scottish Parliament (Pàrlamaid na h-Alba in Gaelic, Scots Pairlament in Scots) is the national unicameral legislature of Scotland. ... Palaeography, literally old writing, (from the Greek words paleos = old and grapho = write) is the study of script. ...


Besides scribal abbreviations, in old texts one will find some variant characters including digraphs, the long s, and the half r, which are difficult enough to understand. "U" and "v", and "i" and "j", were not distinguished from each other in medieval writing. Nowadays, variant letters and the scribal abbreviations are systematically replaced with the full Latin spellings by most publishers who still print Latin works, and the confusable letters are rendered such that the characters "j" and "v" are not used for vowels. Digraph has several meanings: Directed graph, or digraph Digraph (orthography) Digraph (computing) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The long or medial s (Å¿) is a form of the minuscule letter s that was formerly used when the s occurred within or at the beginning of the word, for example Å¿infulneÅ¿s (sinfulness). The modern letterform was called the terminal or short s. ... Between the middle ages and today, many ways of writing alphabetical characters were lost. ...


One remaining scribal abbreviation is the ampersand, for the Latin (or French) word, et, meaning "and". There were several other ways of writing the word et; one, derived from the ancient Latin Tironian note, resembles an Arabic numeral "7", though at x-height. Although in the nineteenth century, the way to write an ampersand was taught, it is no longer mandated. The roman ampersand on the left is stylised, but the italic one on the right is clearly similar to et. This article is about the roman character, ampersand, to learn about the group called Ampersand, see Team_Ampersand An ampersand (&) is a logogram representing the word and. ... Tironian notes (notae Tironianae) is a system of shorthand invented by Ciceros scribe Marcus Tullius Tiro. ... Arabic numerals (also called Hindu numerals or Hindu-Arabic numerals) are by far the most common form of symbolism used to represent numbers. ... In typography, the x-height or corpus size refers to the height of the lowercase letter x in any font, which is usually the same for a, c, e, m, n, o, r, s, u, v, w, and z. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Technically, the ampersand (&) is a ligature. When printing with movable type appeared in the fifteenth century, founders made many different ligatures to go with each set of type they produced. Such sets were called "record type". Manuscripts of ancient Greek, a language that entered Western Europe with the Renaissance, used similar abbreviations which had to be converted into ligatures as well. This was to imitate the scribal form of writing to which the readership was accustomed. But the scribal abbreviations did not apply to the vernacular languages of Europe. As works got published in these languages, a development that is often imagined as being due to the Reformation, scribal abbreviations disappeared. In writing and typography, a ligature occurs where two or more letterforms are written or printed as a unit. ... By Region: Italian Renaissance Northern Renaissance -French Renaissance -German Renaissance -English Renaissance The Renaissance was an influential cultural movement which brought about a period of scientific revolution and artistic transformation, at the dawn of modern European history. ... The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Informat.io on Scribal Abbreviation (894 words)
Scribal abbreviations (sigla) were abbreviations used by ancient and medieval scribes writing in Latin.
The use of abbreviations is due, in part, to exigencies arising from the nature of the materials employed in the making of records, whether stone, marble, bronze, or parchment.
Besides scribal abbreviations, in old texts one will find some variant characters including digraphs, the long s, and the half r, which are difficult enough to understand.
Manuscript Studies: Paleography: Scribal Abbreviations (1069 words)
These abbreviations were such an established part of transcribing and reading Latin for so long that the system was carried over wholesale into early printed books, and fifteenth- and sixteenth-century printed Latin texts present the same challenges as medieval Latin manuscripts.
Abbreviations are also used in copying vernacular texts, but to nowhere near the same elaborate complexity as the system developed for transcribing Latin.
Manuscript abbreviations are of basically two types: marks to indicate missing letters (suspensions) and marks which represent a whole word ("notae," such as in Tiro's shorthand system).
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