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Encyclopedia > Scratching

Scratching is a DJ or turntablist technique used to produce sounds for some types of music. It was originated by Grand Wizard Theodore, an early hip hop DJ from New York (AMG). Theodore developed scratching from DJ Grandmaster Flash, who describes scratching as, "nothing but the back-cueing that you hear in your ear before you push it [the recorded sound] out to the crowd." (Toop, 1991) Kool Herc was also an important early figure. The technique is designed to accentuate the work of the DJ by creating an assortment of sounds through the rhythmic manipulation of a vinyl record, and has spread from hip hop music to a number of other musical forms. Within hip hop culture, scratching is still of great importance in determining the skill of a DJ, and a number of competitions are held across the globe in which DJs battle one another in displays of great virtuosity. In recorded hip-hop songs it is common to have a scratched hook where lines from different rap songs are scratched in succession. DJ or dj may stand for Disc jockey, dinner jacket The DeadJournal website, or Djibouti. ... Turntablism is the art ofSubscript text manipulating sounds and creating music using phonograph turntables and an audio mixer. ... Sound is a disturbance of mechanical energy that propagates through matter as a wave. ... // Music is an art form consisting of sound and silence expressed through time. ... Grand Wizard Theodore (left). ... Hip hop music is a style of music which came into existence in the United States during the mid-1970s, and became a large part of modern pop culture during the 1980s. ... NY redirects here. ... Grandmaster Flash (born Joseph Saddler on January 1, 1958 in Barbados) is a hip hop musician and DJ; one of the pioneers of hip-hop DJing, cutting, and mixing. ... A cue is a short term for the cue stick or the cue ball. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... Categories: People stubs | Hip hop musicians | Hip hop DJs | 1955 births ...

Contents

Techniques for sound pitch weaving

Almost all scratches are produced by moving a vinyl record back and forth with the hand while it is playing on a turntable. This creates a distinctive sound that has come to be one of the most recognizable features of hip hop music. Ideally, scratching does not damage a record because the needle stays within the groove and does not move horizontally across the record's surface. The basic equipment setup for scratching includes two turntables, and a mixer with a crossfader. When scratching, this crossfader is utilized in conjunction with the "scratching hand" to cut in and out of the scratched record. CD players and computer hardware/software combinations have emerged which allow DJs to produce scratch sounds without vinyl records by manipulating digitally recorded sounds. Other alternatives to turntable scratching include recording information into magnetic stripes and disassembling a cassette tape recorder to wave the magnetic stripe on. A gramophone record, (also phonograph record - often simply record) is an analog sound recording medium: a flat disc rotating at a constant angular velocity, with inscribed spiral grooves in which a stylus or needle rides. ... Edison cylinder phonograph ca. ... In hip hop music, cutting is a disc jockey technique, originated by DJ Grandmaster Flash, which is manually queueing up duplicate copies of the same record in order to play the same passage, cutting back and forth between them. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ...


Sounds and techniques

Sounds that are frequently scratched include but are not limited to drum beats, horn stabs, spoken word samples, and lines from other songs. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ...


Any sound recorded to vinyl can be used, and CD players providing a turntable-like interface allow DJs to scratch not only material that was never released on vinyl, but also field recordings and samples from television and movies that have been burned to CD-R. Some DJs and anonymous collectors release 12-inch singles called battle records that include trademark, novel or hard-to-find scratch fodder. A Compact Disc or CD is an optical disc used to store digital data, originally developed for storing digital audio. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... 12 single for U2s Beautiful Day The 12-inch [30 cm] single gramophone record came into existence with the advent of disco music in the 1970s. ... Battle records are vinyl records made up of brief samples from songs, film dialogue, sound effects, and drum loops for use by a DJ. The samples and drum loops are used for scratching and performances by turntablists. ...


There are lots of scratching techniques, which differ in how the movements of the record is combined with opening and closing the crossfader (or another fader or switch, where "open" means that the signal is audible, and "closed" means that the signal is inaudible). The terminology is not unique, we shall employ terminology consistent with the terminology used by DJ Q-Bert on his Do It Yourself Scratching DVD. DJ Q-Bert Q-Bert (born 1969) is the performing name of Richard Quitevis, a Filipino-American DJ and music-writer. ...

  • Baby scratch - The simplest scratch form, and the basis for all other scratch forms, the baby scratch is performed with the scratching hand only, moving the record back and forth in continuous movements while the crossfader is in the open position.
  • Forward & Backward scratch - The forward scratch, also referred to as "cutting", is a baby scratch where the crossfader is closed during the backwards movement of the record. If the record is let go instead of being pushed forward it is also called "release scratch". Cutting out the forward part of the record movement instead of the backward part gives a "backward scratch".
  • Tear Scratch - Tear scratches are scratches where the record is moved in a staggered fashion, dividing the forward and backward movement into two or more movements. This allows creating sounds similar to Flare scratches without use of the crossfader. It also allows complex rhythmic patterns. The term "tear scratch" can also refer to a simpler, slower version of the chirp. For example: the fader is cut in, the record is dragged forwards, the fader is cut out then back in again as the record is dragged backwards. The fader is then cut out and the pattern continues.
  • Scribble scratch - The scribble scratch is performed without the crossfader, and is performed by tensing the forearm muscles of the scratching hand and rapidly jiggling the record back and forth in minute movements.
  • Chirp scratch - The chirp scratch involves cutting of the reversing sound with the crossfader while performing a baby scratch. When performed quickly, this creates a distinctive "chirping" noise. When performed on drums this allows creating the illusion of doubled scratching speed. This illusion is due to the attack created by cutting in the crossfader on the backward movement.
  • Transformer scratch - The transformer scratch starts with the crossfader closed, and involves moving the record with the scratching hand while periodically "tapping" the crossfader open and immediately closing it again.
  • Flare scratch - A flare begins with the crossfader open, and involves moving the record while briefly closing the fader one or more times to cut the sound out. This produces a staggering sound which can make a single Flare sound like a very fast series of Chirps or tears. The number of times the fader is closed ("clicks") during the record's movement is usually used as a prefix to distinguish the variations. E.g. a two-click flare is a flare where the fader is closed two times during each the backward and the forward movement of the record, a 2-1-Flare is a flare where the fader clicks twice during the forward movement and once during the backward movement. The flare allows a DJ to scratch continuously with less hand fatigue than transforming as the fader hand can briefly rest during continuous scratching. The flare can be combined with the crab for an extremely rapid continuous series of scratches.
  • Crab scratch - The crab scratch consists of moving the record while quickly tapping the crossfader open with each finger of the crossfader hand. In this method, the thumb acts as a spring, immediately pushing the crossfader closed after each tap. In this way, DJs are able to perform transforms or flares much faster than they could by manipulating the crossfader with the whole hand. A precursor to the crab scratch was the twiddle scratch, where the first and middle finger tap the crossfader in rapid succession.
  • Orbit scratch - An orbit scratch, describes any scratch, most commonly flares, repeated during the forward and backward movement of the record. Orbit is also used as a shorthand for 2-click flares.
  • Tweak scratch - The tweak scratch is performed with the turntable's motor off. The record platter is set in motion manually, then "tweaked" faster and slower to create a songlike scratch. This scratch form is best performed with long, sustained sounds.
  • Euro scratch - This scratch is a variation of the Flare scratch in which two faders are used simultaneously with one hand to cut the sound much faster.

The various different record movements can be combined with the various fader movements creating a wide variety of different scratch sounds. A tear is a type of scratch used by turntablists. ... An ADSR envelope is a parameter used in synthesizers, including those that produce sound by subtractive synthesis, to control the sound produced. ... A transform is a type of scratch used by turntablists. ... Flare is a type of scratch used by turntablists. ... A crab is a type of scratch used by turntablists. ... A crab is a type of scratch used by turntablists. ... An orbit is a type of scratch used by turntablists. ...


World of Scratching

Since the 1990s, the use of scratching in popular music has seen a substantial increase. Some examples of this would be within Nu-Metal acts (especially Linkin Park and Limp Bizkit) and in some pop music (Nelly Furtado). DJs are also often included as 'stage-props' (especially in the urban genre) where they stand behind turntables pretending to emulate scratching and mixing. The majority of these DJs are there simply to add effect to the stage and create more of an atmosphere. Nu metal has origins in the mid 1990s. ... Linkin Park is a band from Agoura Hills, California. ... Limp Bizkit (alternately written as limpbizkit) is a nu metal band from Jacksonville, Florida. ... Nelly Kim Furtado (born December 2, 1978) is a Canadian singer, songwriter, record producer, and instrumentalist of Portuguese descent. ...


Because of this, many people perceive scratching as an easy and simple skill to acquire where all one needs to do is move your hand back and forth to create the associated "wikki-wikki" sound. The reality is, scratching is a skill that requires considerable practice.


While scratching is becoming more and more popular within pop music, the art-form itself is still predominantly underground. One of the most influential groups to the world of scratching would be the Invisibl Skratch Piklz hailing from the San Francisco area. Forming in 1994 as DJs Q-Bert, Disk & Shortkut and later Mix Master Mike the group took scratching to a whole new level. With their focus primarily on scratching, the group displayed exactly what the turntable is capable of. Invisibl Scratch Piklz The Invisibl Skratch Piklz were a group of Filipino-American turntablists. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar). ... DJ Q-Bert Q-Bert (born 1969) is the performing name of Richard Quitevis, a Filipino-American DJ and music-writer. ... DJ Disk is a San Francisco Bay Area turntablist of Panamanian and Nicaraguan descent. ... Mix Master Mike (born April 4, 1970 [1]) is an American turntablist and contributing member of the Beastie Boys. ...


"The turntable is the most versatile instrument. You can be a drummer, you can be a guitarist, you can be a lead vocalist — anything." DJ Shortkut


With the departure of DJ Disk, enter two new members, Yogafrog followed by D-Styles. DJ A-Trak from Canada was also a guest member of the group after winning the Technics' DMC World Finals in 1997. After releasing their Shiggar Fraggar CD series and touring various countries around the world the group disbanded in 2001. Yogafrog was born Ritchie Desuasido on September 26, 1974. ... D-Styles (born July, 1972 in the Philippines) is generally regarded as the most skilled scratch DJ in the world. ... Alain Macklovitch (Born March 30, 1982) is a Montreal-based DJ and turntablist. ... Technics is a brand name of the Japanese company Matsushita Electric Industrial Co. ... Disco Mixing Club (DMC) is a worldwide name to all professional and amateur disc jockeys, especially those involved in the avant-garde music genre known as turntablism. ... Year 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1997 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ...


Each of its members however have continued to prove they are at the forefront of the scene by pursuing their own projects. In 1998, DJ Qbert made scratch history by composing the first ever album made entirely by scratching [citation needed] - from the beats to the sound effects. The album was entitled 'Wave Twisters' and was later released in 2001 as a feature length movie. DJ D-Styles (now a member of the Beat Junkies crew from Los Angeles), who contributed the 'Razorblade Alcohol Slide' chapter to Wave Twisters was at the same time working in his own 'scratch music' album entitled 'Phantazmagorea' - released in 2001. Both these albums displayed an array of new scratches & techniques, further proof that these guys were still out there pushing the boundaries. In 1996, while both still a part of the ISP group, DJs Qbert & Yogafrog set up their own company — Thud Rumble — dedicated to the art of scratching. Their main goal was to spread the art of scratching on a global scale. They released their own videos called Turntable TV where DJs from around the world would hang out and scratch. Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... The (World Famous) Beat Junkies is a crew of 7 hip-hop DJs. ... Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ...


In July of 2000, San Francisco’s Yerba Buena Center for the Arts held Skratchcon2000, the first DJ Skratch forum that provided “the education and development of skratch music literacy”. By bringing the globe’s important DJs together in one arena, professional and amateur DJs were given the chance to learn and utilize various skills, techniques, and styles. In the past, Thud Rumble was involved in the facilitation of important historical DJ events like ITF (International Turntablist Federation) and the Vestax World DJ Championships. After being praised by Source Magazine as the “Greatest DJ event of all time”, Thud Rumble had successfully added Skratchcon2000 to the list. 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Yerba Buena Center for the Arts (YBCA) is a contemporary arts center in San Francisco, California. ... The Source Magazine The Source is a monthly full-color magazine covering hip-hop music, politics, and culture. ...


In 2001, Thud Rumble opened their office doors to become an independent company that managed and maintained the production and distribution of their own products. By working with various DJ artists to produce and distributed scratch records, Thud Rumble was able to provide a wider range of practice and/or performances tools for DJs. Thud Rumble have close ties with many of the leading electrical DJ equipment companies and have often been approached to help design new products for the DJ community. Most notable of all these is the Vestax QFO released in 2004. The QFO is a turntable/mixer in one, allowing DJs a portable device able to set up literally anywhere. Designed mainly for this reason it has met mixed reviews however since its release many of Qberts shows have seen him using only the QFO. Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In 2004, Scratch Magazine, the first publication about hip-hop DJs and producers, released its debut issue. Nas, The Game and will. ...


Outside hip hop

Scratching has been incorporated into a number of other musical genres, including Pop, Rock, Jazz, and Classical music performances. Two of the earliest such examples were released in 1983: scratches by Grand Mixer DXT on Herbie Hancock's hit song "Rockit", and, more obscurely, on a few songs the first Golden Palominos record, where Bill Laswell or M.E. Miller scratched. Scratching (and sampling) also gained mainstream popularity in the UK and Europe from the 1987 hit "Pump Up The Volume" by M/A/R/R/S. Image File history File links Derived from public domain images featured at: http://commons. ... For popular forms of music in general, see Popular music. ... Rock and roll (also spelled Rock n Roll, especially in its first decade), also called rock, is a form of popular music, usually featuring vocals (often with vocal harmony), electric guitars and a strong back beat; other instruments, such as the saxophone, are common in some styles. ... For other uses, see Jazz (disambiguation). ... Classical music is a broad, somewhat imprecise term, referring to music produced in, or rooted in the traditions of, European art, ecclesiastical and concert music, encompassing a broad period from roughly 1000 to the present day. ... Year 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar). ... DJ Grand Mixer DXT (formerly Grand Mixer D.St as in Delancey Street, born Derek Howells) is credited with inventing turntablism, the rhythmic scratching of a record on a turntable, then using different velocities to alter the pitch of the note or sound on the recording, making the turntable a... Herbert Jeffrey Hancock (born April 12, 1940) is an Academy Award and multiple Grammy Award-winning jazz pianist and composer from Chicago, Illinois, U.S. Hancock is one of jazz musics most important and influential pianists and composers. ... Rockit was a single from Herbie Hancocks 1983 album Future Shock. ... The Golden Palominos was an American musical group headed by drummer and composer Anton Fier that was first formed in 1981. ... Bill Laswell (born February 12, 1955 in Salem, Illinois and raised in Albion, Michigan) is an American bassist, producer and record label owner. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ... Pump up the Volume (1987) was the only single released by British recording act M/A/R/R/S. It was a number-one hit in the United Kingdom and is generally regarded as a significant milestone in the development of British house music and sampling culture. ... MARRS (or M/A/R/R/S or M|A|R|R|S) was a one-off recording act from 1987 whose sole release was the single Pump Up The Volume, which was a UK number one hit and a significant milestone in the development of British house music and...


For recording use, samplers are often used instead of physically scratching a vinyl record. An AKAI MPC2000 sampler Playing a Yamaha SU10 Sampler A sampler is an electronic music instrument closely related to a synthesizer. ...


The beatmania music video game series simulates scratching with a "turntable" on the side. For the Playstation 2 North America beatmania release, based on beatmania IIDX, see beatmania (North America). ... Open source music video game StepMania A music video game, also commonly known as a music game or rhythm game, is a video game where the gameplay is oriented almost entirely around the players ability to follow a musical beat and stay with the rhythm of the games...


In the video game Katamari Damacy, the King of All Cosmos speaks in record scratches. Katamari Damacy , Katamari Damashii) is a third-person puzzle-action video game published and developed by Namco for the PlayStation 2 video game console. ...


Scratch is a documentary film about the origin of scratching and its modern practitioners. Scratch is a 2001 documentary film, directed by Doug Pray, that examines cultural and historical perspectives on the birth and evolution of hip-hop disc jockeys (DJs), scratching and turntablism and includes interviews with some of hip-hops most famous and respected DJs. ... Documentary film is a broad category of visual expression that is based on the attempt, in one fashion or another, to document reality. ...


Christian Marclay was one of the earliest and one of the most notable musicians to scratch outside hip hop. Christian Marclay (born 1955) is a visual artist and musical composer based in New York, who is exploring the pattern languages connecting sound, photography, video, and film. ...


In the anime Samurai Champloo, a record scratch is used instead of the common bleep to cover expletives, keeping with the Hip-hop soundtrack. Samurai Champloo ) is an anime series consisting of twenty-six episodes. ... Hip hop music is a style of music which came into existence in the United States during the mid-1970s, and became a large part of modern pop culture during the 1980s. ...


Audioslave (and former Rage Against the Machine) guitarist Tom Morello is known for his scratching-inspired guitar solos, which he creates by rubbing his fingers on the strings over the pick ups with and using the pickup selector switch on the guitar, typically run through a wah or auto-wah, and one or more envelope filters. Audioslave was an alternative/hard rock supergroup that consisted of the instrumentalists of Rage Against the Machine: Tom Morello (guitar), Tim Commerford (bass and back-up vocals) and Brad Wilk (drums), together with Chris Cornell of Soundgarden (lead vocals and rhythm guitar) as their lead singer. ... Rage Against the Machine (a. ... Tom Morello (born May 30, 1964, as Thomas Baptist Morello) is a Grammy Award-winning American guitarist who played in Audioslave and Rage Against the Machine. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


In Meteos, the planet Luna=Luna has a hip-hop soundtrack, with dull piano music and record scratching for Meteos launches. Meteos (Japanese: メテオス (Meteosu)) is an action puzzle video game for the Nintendo DS portable gaming system. ...


A scratch is also typically used in comedy as an abrupt stopping gesture, as if someone had said or done something unexpected suddenly. The word comedy has a classical meaning (comical theatre) and a popular one (the use of humor with an intent to provoke laughter in general). ...


A programming language from MIT, Scratch, is named after the technique. Computer programming (often shortened to programming or coding) is the process of writing, testing, and maintaining the source code of computer programs. ... The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private, coeducational research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts. ... Wikibooks has a book on the topic of Scratch Scratch is an interpreted dynamic visual programming language based on and implemented in Squeak. ...


See also

This electric violin, made by Leo Fender in the late 1950s, has a non-traditional design. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ...

Sources

Grandmaster Flash (born Joseph Saddler on January 1, 1958 in Barbados) is a hip hop musician and DJ; one of the pioneers of hip-hop DJing, cutting, and mixing. ... David Toop (born 1949) is a musician, author, and as of 2001 was visiting Research Fellow at the London Media School. ...

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Scratching
Hip Hop and Rap Music
Music: Production - Rapping - Beatboxing - Beats - DJing - Turntablism

Culture: Breakdance - Graffiti - Fashion - Dance Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is a sister project of Wikipedia, using the same MediaWiki software. ... Hip hop music is a style of music which came into existence in the United States during the mid-1970s, and became a large part of modern pop culture during the 1980s. ... Hip hop music is a style of music which came into existence in the United States during the mid-1970s, and became a large part of modern pop culture during the 1980s. ... Rapping, also known as Emceeing, MCing, Rhyme spitting, Spitting, or just Rhyming, is the rhythmic delivery of rhymes, one of the central elements of hip hop music and culture. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... For other meanings of DJ, see DJ (disambiguation). ... Turntablism is the art ofSubscript text manipulating sounds and creating music using phonograph turntables and an audio mixer. ... Hip hop is a subculture, which is said to have begun with the work of DJ Kool Herc, Grandmaster Flash & the Furious Five, and Afrika Bambaattaa. ... A boy hitting (holding) a pike Breakdance (media coined phrase), also known as breaking, b-girling or b-boying, is a street dance style that evolved as part of the hip hop movement that originated among African American youths in the South Bronx of New York City during the early... Graffiti (strictly, as singular, graffito, from the Italian — graffiti being the plural) are images or letters applied without permission to publicly viewable surfaces such as walls or bridges. ... Faada Freddy of the Senegalese rap crew Daara J in Germany, 2005. ... Breakdance, the original hip hop dance style, performed at MTV Street Festival, Thailand. ...


People: Rappers - DJs and Producers - Groups - Beatboxers


History: Roots - Old School - Golden Age - New School - 2007 in hip hop // In Hip hop music, people individually and separately vocalize over beats, instrumental tracks, usually consisting of repeated phrases. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Old school hip hop is a term used to describe the very earliest hip hop music to come out of the block parties of New York City in the 1970s and 1980s. ... The golden age of hip hop, derivative of old school hip hop, was probably introduced with the popularity of Run-DMCs 1986 album Raising Hell. ... New school hip hop is a rarely-heard term referring to hip hop created later in the forms development, contrasted with old school hip hop. ... 2007, the year in hop hip. ...


Genres: Abstract - Alternative - Bounce - Chopped & Screwed - Christian - Conscious - Country - Crunk - Dirty - Dirty South - Electro - Emo - Freestyle - Gangsta - G-funk - Ghettotech - Glitch hop - Hardcore - Hip hop soul - Hip house - Horrorcore - Hyphy - Instrumental - Jazz - Latin - Mafioso - Merenrap - Miami bass - Mobb - Neo soul - Nerdcore - New jack swing - Political - Pop - Rapcore - Ragga - Reggaetón - Snap - Urban Pasifika Hip hop music can be subdivided into subgenres, fusions with other genres and regional hip hop scenes. ... Abstract hip hop is a subgenre of alternative hip hop that differs from other hip hop music largely in the content of the lyrics. ... Alternative hip hop (also known as alternative rap) is a genre that is defined in greatly varying ways. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Chopped and screwed (also known as screwed and chopped, slowed and throwed, Houston music, H-Town music, screw music, screw, and S.L.A.B. (Slow Loud And Bangin)) all refer to a technique of remixing hip hop music by slowing the tempo and applying various DJ techniques such as... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Conscious hip hop is a subgenre of alternative hip hop which focuses on social issues. ... Country-rap is the fusion of country music with hip hop music. ... Crunk is a type of hip hop music, classified as a subdivision of Memphis rap and Dirty South. ... Dirty rap, also known as booty rap or sex rap, is a subgenre of hip hop music that contains lyrical content revolving mainly around sex and sexual subjects. ... For other uses of the term Dirty South, see The Dirty South Dirty South is a style of rap music that popped up in the latter half of the 1990s and is based in southern cities and states such as Memphis, Nashville, New Orleans, Atlanta, Miami or South Florida, Mississippi... Electro, short for electro funk (also known as robot hip hop and Electro hop) is an electronic style of hip hop directly influenced by Kraftwerk and funk records (unlike earlier rap records which were closer to disco). ... Music sample: Nelly Over and Over (2004) ( file info) — 27 second sample from Nellys Over and Over. Problems listening to the file? See media help. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For the Ice T album, see Gangsta Rap (album). ... G-funk, an abbreviation of Gangsta-funk, is a type of hip hop music that emerged from West Coast gangsta rap in the early 1990s. ... Two of the heavy hitters of the genre DJ Funk (l) DJ Assault (r). ... Glitch (also known as Clicks and Cuts from a representative compilation series by the German record label Mille Plateaux) is a genre of electronic music that became popular in the late 1990s with the increasing use of digital signal processing, particularly on computers. ... Hardcore hip hop is a form of hip hop music characterized by confrontation and aggression in its subject matter, heavy beats, raw sampling and production, or any combination thereof. ... Hip hop soul is the second major subgenre of contemporary R&B. The term generally describes a style of music that blends soulful R&B singing and raw hip hop production. ... Hip house, also known as house rap, is a mixture of house music and hip-hop which arose during the 1980s in New York. ... Horrorcore is a subgenre of hip hop music. ... Hyphy (pronounced HI-fee; IPA: ) is a style of music and dance primarily associated with the Bay Area hip hop culture. ... Instrumental hip hop is hip hop music without vocals. ... Jazz rap is a fusion of alternative hip hop music and jazz, developed in the very late 1980s and early 1990s. ... Latin rap is not a homogeneous musical style but rather a term that covers all Rap music recorded by artists of Latino origin. ... Mafioso rap is a hip hop sub-genre which flourished in the mid-1990s. ... Merenrap, or meren-rap, is a style of hip hop music which was formed from the fusion of Dominican merengue music with rapping. ... Miami bass (also known as booty music, a term that may also include other genres, such as dirty rap), is a type of hip hop music that became popular in the 1980s and 1990s. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Neo soul (also known as nu soul) is a musical genre of the late 1990s and early 2000s that fuses contemporary R&B, 1970s style soul, classical music, jazz, and elements of alternative-hip hop. ... This article or section includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Rapcore is a musical genre that fuses the techniques of hip hop, hardcore punk (hence the core in the name), heavy metal, alternative rock and sometimes funk. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Daddy Yankee, a reggaeton artist. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Urban Pasifika is a sub-genre of hip-hop which combines American style hip-hop or R&B rhyming and beats with Pacific Island or Maori instrumentation (such as ukelele samples) and Pacific Island or Maori language singing/rapping. ...


World hip hop: African - Arabic - Asian - European - Latin American - Middle Eastern - Albanian - Algerian - American - Angolan - Australian - Azerbaijani - Bahraini - Belgian - Bosnian and Herzegovinan - Botswana - Brazilian - British - Bulgarian - Canadian - Cape Verdean - Chinese (Hong Kong) - Congolese - Cuban - Czech - Danish - Dominican - Dutch - Egyptian - Filipino - Finnish - French - Gambian - German - Ghanaian - Greek - Greenlandic - Guinean - Hungarian - Icelandic - Indian - Indonesian - Iranian - Irish - Israeli - Italian - Ivoirian - Japanese - Kenyan - Korean - Macedonian - Malagasy - Malaysian - Malian - Mexican - Moroccan - Native American - Nepalese - New Zealand - Nigerian - Norwegian - Polish - Portuguese - Romanian - Russian - Rwandan - Salvadoran - Senegalese - Serbian - Slovak - Slovenian - South African - Spanish - Swedish - Swiss - Taiwanese - Tanzanian - Togolese - Turkish - Ugandan - Ukrainian - Zimbabwean Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Hip hop music has been popular in Africa since the early 1980s due to widespread American influence. ... Cover of sampler CD (2003) Arabic hip hop is hip hop music and culture originating in the Arabic-speaking world. ... Asian Hip Hop is a heterogeneous musical genre that covers all hip hop music as recorded and produced by artists of Asian origin. ... European hip hop is hip hop music created by European musicians. ... Latin rap is not a homogeneous musical style but rather a term that covers all Rap music recorded by artists of Latino origin. ... Middle Eastern hip hop is hip hop music and culture originating in the Middle East. ... Hip hop is quite a new style of music for Bosnia and Herzegovina, but it has nevertheless proven very popular. ... The capital of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kinsasha, has long been a major home for pan-African styles of popular music like rumba, soukous and kwassa kwassa. ... Ivoirian hip hop is a major part of the popular music of Côte dIvoire, and has been fused with many of the countrys native styles, such as zouglou. ... Native American hip hop is popular among Native Americans in the United States and the First Nations of Canada. ... Serbian hip hop started in the early 80s, with the birth of b-boy crews and their battles which have spread over the country in no time. ... Taiwanese hip hop music started in the early 1990s, popularized by early hip hop trio L.A. Boyz. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Scratching - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1839 words)
Scratching is a DJ or turntablist technique originated by Grand Wizard Theodore, an early hip hop DJ from New York (AMG).
Theodore developed scratching from DJ Grandmaster Flash, who describes scratching as, "nothing but the back-cueing that you hear in your ear before you push it [the recorded sound] out to the crowd." (Toop, 1991) Kool Herc was also an important early figure.
When scratching, this crossfader is utilized in conjunction with the "scratching hand" to cut in and out of the scratched record.
Disc Jockey 101: Scratching (1553 words)
Scratching records is a form of turntablism, which is the manipulation of a turntable, pre-recorded music, and mixer in a "free-form" manner (i.e., like jazz musicians that improvise).
Scratch records are usually made with a better grade of vinyl (such as "regrind") and are less likely to become damaged.
To practice transformer scratching, find a constant note (often found in made for scratch records) and while that note is playing, move the upfader on the mixer up-and-down as quick as possible.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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