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Encyclopedia > Scramble for Africa
This article is part of
the New Imperialism
series.
Origins of New Imperialism
Imperialism in Asia
The Scramble for Africa
Theories of New Imperialism
Cecil Rhodes: Cape-Cairo railway project. Founder of the De Beers Mining Company, one of the first diamond companies, Rhodes was also the owner of the British South Africa Company, which carved out Rhodesia for itself. He wanted to "paint the map [British] red", and once famously declared: "all of these stars... these vast worlds that remain out of reach. If I could, I would annex other planets".
Cecil Rhodes: Cape-Cairo railway project. Founder of the De Beers Mining Company, one of the first diamond companies, Rhodes was also the owner of the British South Africa Company, which carved out Rhodesia for itself. He wanted to "paint the map [British] red", and once famously declared: "all of these stars... these vast worlds that remain out of reach. If I could, I would annex other planets".[1]

The Scramble for Africa, also known as the Race for Africa, was the proliferation of conflicting European claims to African territory during the New Imperialism period, between the 1880s and World War I. To speak of the "scramble for Africa" is to continue a debate over a century old. In the words of Robert Collins, "The explanations [for the colonization of Africa] are nearly as unsatisfactory as they are numerous. The misconceptions are as enduring as they are erroneous. To scholar and student alike, the search for understanding this dynamic period, which resulted in European colonial rule in Africa and dramatically altered the future of a vast continent, is the Problem of the Partition of Africa."[2] The term New Imperialism refers to the colonial expansion adopted by Europes powers and, later, Japan and the United States, during the late 19th and early 20th centuries; approximately from the Franco-Prussian War to World War I (c. ... The Rise of the New Imperialism overlaps with the Pax Britannica period (1815-1870). ... Western imperialism in Asia traces its roots back to the late 15th century with a series of voyages that sought a sea passage to India in the hope of establishing direct trade between Europe and Asia in spices. ... // The accumulation theory The accumulation theory, conceived largely by J.A. Hobson and later Lenin, centres on the accumulation of surplus capital during the Second Industrial Revolution. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 463 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2069 × 2681 pixel, file size: 242 KB, MIME type: image/png) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): British Empire Imperialism... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 463 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2069 × 2681 pixel, file size: 242 KB, MIME type: image/png) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): British Empire Imperialism... Cecil Rhodes. ... Rhodes: Cape to Cairo The Cape-Cairo Railway is an uncompleted project to cross Africa from south to north by rail. ... The De Beers Group is a Johannesburg- and London-based diamond mining and trading corporation. ... This article is about the gemstone. ... The flag of the British South Africa Company The British South Africa Company (BSAC) was established by Cecil Rhodes through the amalgamation of the Central Search Association and the Exploring Company, Ltd. ... Southern Rhodesia, todays Zimbabwe. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... The term New Imperialism refers to the colonial expansion adopted by Europes powers and, later, Japan and the United States, during the late 19th and early 20th centuries; approximately from the Franco-Prussian War to World War I (c. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ...


The latter half of the 19th century, starting in about the year 1880, saw the transition from the "informal" imperialism of control through military influence and economic dominance to that of direct rule."[3] Attempts to mediate imperial competition, such as the Berlin Conference (1884 - 1885) between Britain, France and Germany, failed to establish definitively the competing powers' claims. These disputes over Africa were among the central factors precipitating World War I. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... The conference of Berlin The Berlin Conference (German: or Congo Conference) of 1884–85 regulated European colonization and trade in Africa during the New Imperialism period, and coincided with Germanys sudden emergence as an imperial power. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ...

Contents

Opening of the continent

Main article: Age of Exploration
David Livingstone, early explorer of the interior of Africa.
David Livingstone, early explorer of the interior of Africa.

The opening of Africa to Western exploration and exploitation had begun in earnest at the end of the 18th century. By 1835, Europeans had mapped most of northwestern Africa. Among the most famous of the European explorers was David Livingstone, who charted the vast interior and Serpa Pinto, who crossed both Southern Africa and Central Africa on a difficult expedition, mapping much of the interior of the continent. Arduous expeditions in the 1850s and 1860s by Richard Burton, John Speke and James Grant located the great central lakes and the source of the Nile. By the end of the century, Europeans had charted the Nile from its source, the courses of the Niger, Congo and Zambezi Rivers had been traced, and the Europe now realized the vast resources of Africa. The so-called Age of Exploration was a period from the early 15th century and continuing into the early 17th century, during which European ships were traveled around the world to search for new trading routes and partners to feed burgeoning capitalism in Europe. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... David Livingstone (19 March 1813 – 4 May 1873) was a Scottish Presbyterian pioneer medical missionary with the London Missionary Society and explorer in central Africa. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... David Livingstone (19 March 1813 – 4 May 1873) was a Scottish Presbyterian pioneer medical missionary with the London Missionary Society and explorer in central Africa. ... Alexandre Alberto da Rocha de Serpa Pinto (April 20, 1846 - December 28, 1900) was a Portuguese explorer and colonial administrator who crossed southern and central Africa on a difficult expedition and mapped the interior of the continent. ... Categories: Africa geography stubs | Southern Africa ... Richard Burton, portrait by Frederic Leighton, National Portrait Gallery, London. ... John Hanning Speke (May 4, 1827 – September 15, 1864) was an officer in the British Indian army, who made three voyages of exploration to Africa. ... James Augustus Grant (April 11, 1827 — February 11, 1892) was a Scottish explorer of eastern equatorial Africa. ... The Great Lakes and the East African coastline as seen from space. ... The Nile (Arabic: , transliteration: , Ancient Egyptian iteru, Coptic piaro or phiaro) is a major north-flowing river in Africa, generally regarded as the longest river in the world. ... Zambezi River in North Western Zambia The Zambezi (also spelled Zambesi) is a river in Southern Africa. ... Natural resources are commodities that are considered valuable in their relatively unmodified (natural) form. ...


However, on the eve of the scramble for Africa, Western nations controlled only 10 percent of the continent. In 1875, the most important holdings were Algeria, held by France; the Cape Colony, held by the United Kingdom; and Angola and Mozambique, held by Portugal. Anthem: God Save the Queen Cape Colony Capital Cape Town Language(s) English and Dutch1 Religion Dutch Reformed Church, Anglican Government Constitutional monarchy Last Monarch King George VI Last Prime Minister  - 1908 – 1910 John X. Merriman Last Governor  - 1901 - 1910 Walter Hely-Hutchinson Historical era 19th century  - Dutch East India...


Technological advancement facilitated overseas expansionism. Industrialization brought about rapid advancements in transportation and communication, especially in the forms of steam navigation, railroads, and telegraphs. Medical advances also were important, especially medicines for tropical diseases. The development of quinine, an effective treatment for malaria, enabled vast expanses of the tropics to be accessed by whites. Paddle steamers — Lucerne, Switzerland. ... French 1912 drawing of typical elements of railways Railway tracks running through a railway station in North East England, UK A railway yard in Portland, Oregon. ... Optical Telegraf of Claude Chappe on the Litermont near Nalbach, Germany Telegraphy (from the Greek words tele (τηλε) = far and graphein (γραφειν) = write) is the long-distance transmission of written messages without physical transport of letters, originally by changing something that could be observed from a distance (optical telegraphy). ... Tropical diseases are infectious diseases that either occur uniquely in tropical and subtropical regions (which is rare) or, more commonly, are either more widespread in the tropics or more difficult to prevent or control. ... Quinine (IPA: ) is a natural white crystalline alkaloid having antipyretic (fever-reducing), antimalarial, analgesic (painkilling), and anti-inflammatory properties and a bitter taste. ... Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease that is widespread in tropical and subtropical regions, including parts of the Americas, Asia, and Africa. ...


Causes of the scramble

Africa and global markets

European claims in Africa, 1914
European claims in Africa, 1914

Sub-Saharan Africa, one of the last regions of the world largely untouched by "informal imperialism" and "civilization", was also attractive to Europe's ruling elites for economic and racial reasons. During a time when Britain's balance of trade showed a growing deficit, with shrinking and increasingly protectionist continental markets due to the Long Depression (1873-1896), Africa offered Britain, Germany, France, and other countries an open market that would garner it a trade surplus: a market that bought more from the metropole than it sold overall.."[4] Britain, like most other industrial countries, had long since begun to run an unfavorable balance of trade (which was increasingly offset, however, by the income from overseas investments). Image File history File links ColonialAfrica_1914. ... Image File history File links ColonialAfrica_1914. ... A political map showing national divisions in relation to deonte Shepard Club Of America Free burgers for new members the ecological break (Sub-Saharan Africa in green) A geographical map of Africa, showing the ecological break that defines the sub-Saharan area Sub-Saharan Africa is the term used to... Cities are a major hallmark of human civilization. ... The balance of trade encompasses the activity of exports and imports, like the work of this cargo ship going through the Panama Canal. ... Protectionism is the economic policy of restraining trade between nations, through methods such as high tariffs on imported goods, restrictive quotas, a variety of restrictive government regulations designed to discourage imports, and anti-dumping laws in an attempt to protect domestic industries in a particular nation from foreign take-over... The Long Depression (1873 – 1896) affected much of the world from the early 1870s until the mid-1890s and was contemporary with the Second Industrial Revolution. ...


As Britain developed into the world's first post-industrial nation, financial services became an increasingly important sector of its economy. Invisible financial exports, as mentioned, kept Britain out of the red, especially capital investments outside Europe, particularly to the developing and open markets in Africa, predominantly white settler colonies, the Middle East, South Asia, Southeast Asia, and Oceania. Investment or investing is a term with several closely-related meanings in finance and economics, related to saving or deferring consumption. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... A family of Russian settlers in the Caucasus region, ca. ... This article refers to a colony in politics and history. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... World map exhibiting a common interpretation of Oceania; other interpretations may vary. ...


In addition, surplus capital was often more profitably invested overseas, where cheap labor, limited competition, and abundant raw materials made a greater premium possible. Another inducement to imperialism, of course, arose from the demand for raw materials unavailable in Europe, especially copper, cotton, rubber, tea, and tin, to which European consumers had grown accustomed and upon which European industry had grown dependent. General Name, Symbol, Number copper, Cu, 29 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 4, d Appearance metallic pinkish red Standard atomic weight 63. ... Cotton ready for harvest. ... Latex being collected from a tapped rubber tree Rubber is an elastic hydrocarbon polymer which occurs as a milky colloidal suspension (known as latex) in the sap of several varieties of plants. ... Tea leaves in a Chinese gaiwan. ... General Name, Symbol, Number tin, Sn, 50 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 5, p Appearance silvery lustrous gray Standard atomic weight 118. ...


However, in Africa — exclusive of what would become the Union of South Africa in 1909 — the amount of capital investment by Europeans was relatively small, compared to other continents, before and after the 1884-85 Berlin Conference. Consequently, the companies involved in tropical African commerce were relatively small, apart from Cecil Rhodes' De Beers Mining Company. Rhodes had carved out Rhodesia for himself, as Léopold II would exploit the Congo Free State. These observations might detract from the pro-imperialist arguments of colonial lobbies such as the Alldeutscher Verband, Francesco Crispi or Jules Ferry, who argued that sheltered overseas markets in Africa would solve the problems of low prices and over-production caused by shrinking continental markets. However, according to the classic thesis of John A. Hobson, exposed in Imperialism (1902), which would influence authors such as Lenin's Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism (1916), Trotsky or Hannah Arendt's The Origins of Totalitarianism (1951), this shrinking of continental markets was a main factor of the global New Imperialism period. Later historians have noted that such statistics only obscured the fact that formal control of tropical Africa had great strategic value in an era of imperial rivalry, while the Suez Canal has remained a strategic location. The 1886 Witwatersrand Gold Rush, which lead to the foundation of Johannesburg and was a major factor of the Second Boer War in 1899, accounted for the "conjunction of the superfluous money and of the superfluous manpower, which gave themselves their hand to quit together the country", which is in itself, according to Hannah Arendt, the new element of the imperialist era. Motto Ex Unitate Vires (Latin: From Unity, strength} Anthem Die Stem van Suid-Afrika Capital Cape Town (legislative) Pretoria (administrative) Bloemfontein (judicial) Language(s) Afrikaans, Dutch, English Government Constitutional monarchy Monarch  - 1952-1961 Queen Elizabeth II Governor-General  - 1959-1961 Charles Robberts Swart Prime Minister  - 1958-1961 Hendrik Frensch Verwoerd... The conference of Berlin The Berlin Conference (German: or Congo Conference) of 1884–85 regulated European colonization and trade in Africa during the New Imperialism period, and coincided with Germanys sudden emergence as an imperial power. ... Cecil Rhodes. ... The De Beers Group is a Johannesburg- and London-based diamond mining and trading corporation. ... Southern Rhodesia, todays Zimbabwe. ... King Léopold II His Majesty King Léopold II of the Belgians (Louis Philippe Marie Victor) (April 9, 1835–December 17, 1909), succeeded his father, Léopold I of Belgium, to the Belgian throne in 1865 and remained king until his death. ... Flag Capital Boma Government Monarchy Ruler and owner Leopold II of Belgium Historical era New Imperialism  - Established 1885  - Annexation by Belgium 15 November, 1908 The Congo Free State was a corporate state privately owned by King Leopold II of Belgium (not in his role as monarch) that included the entire... It has been suggested that Interest representation: Academic overview be merged into this article or section. ... Alldeutscher Verband (German for All German Union or Pangermanic League, 1891-1939) was a German far-right organization which promoted pangermanism and imperialism, created in 1891 in protest to the exchange of Heligoland for Zanzibar. ... Francesco Crispi (October 4, 1819 – August 12, 1901) was a 19th century Italian politician. ... Jules Ferry, French statesman Jules François Camille Ferry (April 5, 1832 – March 17, 1893) was a French statesman. ... John Atkinson Hobson (July 6, 1858 – April 1, 1940) was an English economist and imperial critic, widely popular as a lecturer and writer. ... Imperialism was a political-economic discourse written by John A. Hobson in 1902. ... Vladimir Ilyich Lenin ( Russian: Влади́мир Ильи́ч Ле́нин  listen?), original surname Ulyanov (Улья́нов) ( April 22 (April 10 ( O.S.)), 1870 – January 21, 1924), was a... 1915 passport photo of Trotsky Leon Davidovich Trotsky (Russian: Лев Давидович Троцкий; also transliterated Trotskii, Trotski, Trotzky) (October 26 (O.S.) = November 7 (N.S.), 1879 - August 21, 1940), born Lev Davidovich Bronstein (&#1051... Hannah Arendt (October 14, 1906 – December 4, 1975) was a Jewish-German (later American) political theorist. ... The Origins of Totalitarianism is a book by Hannah Arendt, dedicated to her husband Heinrich Blücher. ... Suez Canal, seen from Earth orbit, NASA. Ships moored at El Ballah during transit The Suez Canal (Arabic: , transliteration: ), is a large artificial canal in Egypt west of the Sinai Peninsula. ... The Witwatersrand Gold Rush and the establishment of Johannesburg, South Africa are closely connected. ... City motto: Unity in Development Province Gauteng Mayor Amos Masondo Area  - % water 1,644 km² 0. ... Combatants British Empire Orange Free State South African Republic Commanders Sir Redvers Buller Lord Kitchener Lord Roberts Paul Kruger Louis Botha Koos de la Rey Martinus Steyn Christiaan de Wet Casualties 5000 - 6000 Battlefield casualties, 15,000 disease related. ...


Strategic rivalry

Poster for the 1906 Colonial Exhibition in Marseilles (France).
Poster for the 1906 Colonial Exhibition in Marseilles (France).

While tropical Africa was not a large zone of investment, other regions overseas were. The vast interior — between the gold- and diamond-rich Southern Africa and Egypt, had, however, key strategic value in securing the flow of overseas trade. Britain was thus under intense political pressure, especially among supporters of the Conservative Party, to secure lucrative markets such as British Raj India, Qing Dynasty China, and Latin America from encroaching rivals. Thus, securing the key waterway between East and West — the Suez Canal— was crucial. The rivalry between the UK, France, Germany and the other European powers account for a large part of the colonization. Thus, while Germany, which had been unified under Prussia's rule only after the 1866 Battle of Sadowa and the 1870 Franco-Prussian War, was hardly a colonial power before the New Imperialism period, it would eagerly participate in the race. A rising industrial power close on the heels of Britain, it hadn't yet had the chance to control oversea territories, mainly due to its late unification, its fragmentation in various states, and its absence of experience in modern navigation. This would change under Bismarck's leadership, who implemented the Weltpolitik (World Policy) and, after putting in place the bases of France's isolation with the Dual Alliance with Austria-Hungary and then the 1882 Triple Alliance with Italy, called for the 1884-85 Berlin Conference which set the rules of effective control of a foreign territory. Germany's expansionism would lead to the Tirpitz Plan, implemented by Admiral von Tirpitz, who would also champion the various Fleet Acts starting in 1898, thus engaging in an arms race with Britain. By 1914, they had given Germany the second largest naval force in the world (roughly 40% smaller than the Royal Navy). According to von Tirpitz, this aggressive naval policy was supported by the National Liberal Party rather than by the conservatives, thus demonstrating that the main supports of the European nation states' imperialism were the rising bourgeoisie classes.[5] Image File history File links 1906_Colonial_Exhibition. ... Image File history File links 1906_Colonial_Exhibition. ... The Colonial Exhibitions were supposed to bolster popular support for the various colonial empires. ... Marseilles redirects here. ... Categories: Africa geography stubs | Southern Africa ... The Conservative Party (officially the Conservative and Unionist Party) is the second largest political party in the United Kingdom in terms of sitting Members of Parliament (MPs), the largest in terms of public membership, and is the second oldest extant political party in the world. ... The flag of British India British India, circa 1860 The British Raj (Raj in Hindi meaning Rule; from Sanskrit Rajya) was the British rule between 1858 and 1947 of the Indian Subcontinent, which included the present-day India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, and Burma (Myanmar), whereby these lands were under the colonial... The Qing Dynasty (Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ching chao; Manchu: daicing gurun; Mongolian: Манж Чин), occasionally known as the Manchu Dynasty, was the ruling Chinese Dynasties. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... Suez Canal, seen from Earth orbit, NASA. Ships moored at El Ballah during transit The Suez Canal (Arabic: , transliteration: ), is a large artificial canal in Egypt west of the Sinai Peninsula. ... Motto: Suum cuique Latin: To each his own Prussia at its peak, as leading state of the German Empire Capital Königsberg, later Berlin Political structure Duchy, Kingdom, Republic Duke1  - 1525–68 Albert I  - 1688–1701 Frederick III King1  - 1701–13 Frederick I  - 1888–1918 William II Prime Minister1,2... painting of the battle by Georg Bleibtreu (1869) In the Battle of Königgrätz or Battle of Sadowa of July 3, 1866, the Austro-Prussian War was decided in favor of Prussia. ... Combatants Second French Empire North German Confederation allied with south German states (later German Empire) Commanders Napoleon III Otto Von Bismarck, Helmuth von Moltke the Elder Strength 400,000 at the beginning of the war 1,200,000 Casualties 150,000 dead or wounded 284,000 captured 350,000 civilian... A Watt steam engine. ... Table of geography, hydrography, and navigation, from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. ... “Bismarck” redirects here. ... The Weltpolitik (world policy) strategy was adopted by Germany in the late 19th century, replacing the earlier Realpolitik approach. ... ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... , Italian: Triplice Alleanza) was the treaty by which Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy pledged on 20 May 1882 to support each other militarily in against any of them by two or more great powers. ... Expansionism is the doctrine of expanding the territorial base (or economic influence) of a country, usually by means of military aggression. ... The Tirpitz Plan, formulated by Admiral Alfred von Tirpitz, was Germanys strategic aim to build the second largest navy in the world after the United Kingdom, thereby advancing itself as a world power. ... Alfred von Tirpitz Alfred von Tirpitz (March 19, 1849 – March 6, 1930) was a German Admiral, Minister of State and Commander of the Kaiserliche Marine in World War I from 1914 until 1916. ... The Fleet Acts were four separate laws passed by the German Empire, in 1898, 1900, 1908, and 1912. ... The term arms race in its original usage describes a competition between two or more parties for military supremacy. ... The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore the Senior Service). ... The National Liberal Party (Nationalliberale Partei) was a German political party which flourished between 1867 and 1918. ... This article is about the political concept. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Bismarck's Weltpolitik

Behanzin, eleventh king of Dahomey in 1894, year of its conquest by France.

Germany began its world expansion in the 1880s under Bismarck's leadership, encouraged by the national bourgeoisie. Some of them, claiming themselves of Friedrich List's thought, advocated expansion in the Philippines and in Timor, other proposed to set themselves in Formosa (modern Taiwan), etc. In the end of the 1870s, these isolated voices began to be relayed by a real imperialist policy, known as the Weltpolitik ("World Policy"), which was backed by mercantilist thesis. In 1881, Hübbe-Schleiden, a lawyer, published Deutsche Kolonisation, according to which the "development of national consciousness demanded an independent oversea policy".[6] Pan-germanism was thus linked to the young nation's imperialist drives. In the beginning of the 1880s, the Deutscher Kolonialverein was created, and got its own magazine in 1884, the Kolonialzeitung. This colonial lobby was also relayed by the nationalist Alldeutscher Verband. 1894 photo of King of Dahomey, Behanzin This image is in the public domain in the United States and possibly other jurisdictions. ... 1894 photo of King of Dahomey, Behanzin This image is in the public domain in the United States and possibly other jurisdictions. ... Behanzin in 1894 Behanzin (d. ... Dahomey was a kingdom in Africa, situated in what is now the nation of Benin. ... Friedrich List (August 6, 1789 - November 30, 1846) was a leading 19th Century German economist who believed in the National System. // He was born at Reutlingen, Württemberg. ... Timor is an island at the south end of the Malay Archipelago, divided between the independent state of East Timor, and West Timor, part of the Indonesian province of East Nusa Tenggara with the surface of 11,883 sq mi (30,777 km²). The name is a variant of timur... This article is about the history, geography, and people of the island known as Taiwan. ... The Weltpolitik (world policy) strategy was adopted by Germany in the late 19th century, replacing the earlier Realpolitik approach. ... A painting of a French seaport from 1638, at the height of mercantilism. ... Consciousness is a quality of the mind generally regarded to comprise qualities such as subjectivity, self-awareness, sentience, sapience, and the ability to perceive the relationship between oneself and ones environment. ... Pan-Germanism, one of the ethnically-charged political movements of the 19th century for unity of the German-speaking peoples of Europe. ... Alldeutscher Verband (German for All German Union or Pangermanic League, 1891-1939) was a German far-right organization which promoted pangermanism and imperialism, created in 1891 in protest to the exchange of Heligoland for Zanzibar. ...


Germany thus became the third largest colonial power in Africa, acquiring an overall empire of 2.6 million square kilometers and 14 million colonial subjects, mostly in its African possessions (Southwest Africa, Togoland, the Cameroons, and Tanganyika). The scramble for Africa led Bismarck to propose the 1884-85 Berlin Conference. Following the 1904 Entente cordiale between France and the UK, Germany tried to isolate France in 1905 with the First Moroccan Crisis. This led to the 1905 Algeciras Conference, in which France's influence on Morocco was compensated by the exchange of others territories, and then to the 1911 Agadir Crisis. Along with the 1898 Fashoda Incident between France and the UK, this succession of international crisis proves the bitterness of the struggle between the various imperialisms, which ultimately led to World War I. The Entente Cordiale (cordial understanding) is a series of agreements signed on 8 April 1904 between the United Kingdom and France. ... The First Moroccan Crisis (also known as the Tangier Crisis) refers to the international crisis over the colonial status of Morocco between March 1905 and May 1906. ... The Algeciras Conference of 1906 took place in Algeciras, Spain, and lasted from January 16 to April 7. ... The Agadir Crisis, also called the Second Moroccan Crisis, was the international tension sparked by the deployment of the German gunboat Panther, to the Moroccan port of Agadir on July 1, 1911. ... The Fashoda Incident (1898) was the climax of imperial territorial disputes between the United Kingdom and France in Eastern Africa. ... An international crisis is a crisis between nations. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ...


Clash of rival imperialisms

Francesco Crispi, the Prime Minister of Italy (1887-1891;1893-96). Crispi opposed himself to Radical Felice Cavallotti over the Triple Alliance and the abandon of the Eritrean colony. He resigned after the 1896 defeat at Adowa during the First Italo–Ethiopian War.

While de Brazza was exploring the Kongo Kingdom for France, Stanley also explored it in the early 1880s on behalf of Léopold II of Belgium, who would have his personal Congo Free State. While pretending to advocate humanitarianism and denounce slavery, Leopold II used the most inhumane tactics to exploit his newly acquired lands. His crimes were revealed by 1905, but he remained in control until 1908, when he was forced to turn over control to the Belgian government. Image File history File links Francesco Crispi File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Francesco Crispi File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Francesco Crispi (October 4, 1819 – August 12, 1901) was a 19th century Italian politician. ... In Italy, the President of the Council of Ministers (Italian: Presidente del Consiglio dei Ministri) is the countrys prime minister or head of government, and occupies the fourth-most important state office. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... , Italian: Triplice Alleanza) was the treaty by which Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy pledged on 20 May 1882 to support each other militarily in against any of them by two or more great powers. ... Anthem Ertra, Ertra, Ertra Capital (and largest city) Asmara Official languages none at national level1 Government Transitional government  -  President Isaias Afewerki Independence from Ethiopia   -  de facto May 24, 1991   -  de jure May 24, 1993  Area  -  Total 117,600 km² (100th) 45,405 sq mi   -  Water (%) negligible Population  -  July 2005 estimate... Combatants Ethiopia Kingdom of Italy Commanders Ras Makonnen Oreste Baratieri Strength ~100,000 (80,000 with firearms), Unknown number of artillery and machine guns 17,700 (all with firearms), 56 artillery guns Casualties 4,000-6,000 killed, 8,000 wounded[1] 7,000 killed, 1,500 wounded, 3,000... Combatants Italy Ethiopia Commanders Oreste Baratieri Menelik II Strength 17,000 100,000 (estimated) Casualties 13,133 17,000 The First Italo–Ethiopian War was fought between Italy and Ethiopia in 1895-1896. ... Pierre Savorgnan de Brazza in his version of native dress, photographed by Félix Nadar. ... The Empire Kongo The Kongo Kingdom was an African kingdom located in southwest Africa in what are now northern Angola, Cabinda, Republic of the Congo, and the western portion of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. ... Sir Henry Morton Stanley, also known in the Congo as Bula Matari (Breaker of Rocks or, alternatively, Sledge Hammer) , born John Rowlands (January 28, 1841 – May 10, 1904), was a journalist and explorer famous for his exploration of Africa and his search for David Livingstone. ... King Léopold II His Majesty King Léopold II of the Belgians (Louis Philippe Marie Victor) (April 9, 1835–December 17, 1909), succeeded his father, Léopold I of Belgium, to the Belgian throne in 1865 and remained king until his death. ... Flag Capital Boma Government Monarchy Ruler and owner Leopold II of Belgium Historical era New Imperialism  - Established 1885  - Annexation by Belgium 15 November, 1908 The Congo Free State was a corporate state privately owned by King Leopold II of Belgium (not in his role as monarch) that included the entire... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Slave redirects here. ...


France occupied Tunisia in May 1881 (and Guinea in 1884), which partly convinced Italy to adhere in 1882 to the German-Austrian Dual Alliance, thus forming the Triple Alliance. The same year, Britain occupied the nominally Ottoman Egypt, which in turn ruled over the Sudan and parts of Somalia. In 1870 and 1882, Italy took possession of the first parts of Eritrea, while Germany declared Togoland, the Cameroons and South West Africa to be under its protection in 1884. French West Africa (AOF) was founded in 1895, and French Equatorial Africa (AEF) in 1910. The Dual Alliance between Germany and Austria-Hungary was created by treaty on October 7, 1879. ... , Italian: Triplice Alleanza) was the treaty by which Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy pledged on 20 May 1882 to support each other militarily in against any of them by two or more great powers. ... Togoland was a German protectorate in West Africa. ... South-West Africa is the former name (1884-1990) of Namibia under German (as German South-West Africa, Deutsch Süd-West Afrika) and (from 1915) South African administration when it was conqured from the Germans during World War I. Following the war, the Treaty of Versailles declared the territory... Location of French West Africa French West Africa (French: ) was a federation of eight French territories in Africa: Mauritania, Senegal, French Sudan (now Mali), French Guinea (now Guinea), Côte dIvoire, Niger, Upper Volta (now Burkina Faso) and Dahomey (now Benin). ... Location of French Equatorial Africa. ...


Italy continued its conquest to gain its "place in the sun". Following the defeat of the First Italo–Ethiopian War (1895-96), it acquired Somaliland in 1899-90 and the whole of Eritrea (1899). In 1911, it engaged in a war with the Ottoman Empire, in which it acquired Tripolitania and Cyrenaica (modern Libya). Enrico Corradini, who fully supported the war, and later merged his group in the early fascist party (PNF), developed in 1919 the concept of Proletarian Nationalism, supposed to legitimize Italy's imperialism by a surprising mixture of socialism with nationalism: "We must start by recognizing the fact that there are proletarian nations as well as proletarian classes; that is to say, there are nations whose living conditions are subject...to the way of life of other nations, just as classes are. Once this is realized, nationalism must insist firmly on this truth: Italy is, materially and morally, a proletarian nation."[7] The Second Italo-Abyssinian War (1935-36), ordered by Mussolini, would actually be one of the last colonial wars (that is, intended to colonize a foreign country, opposed to wars of national liberation), occupying Ethiopia for 5 years, which had remained the last African independent territory. The Spanish Civil War, marking for some the beginning of the European Civil War, would begin in 1936. A place in the sun is a term which commonly refers to the 19th century European colonial empires and their possessions. ... Combatants Italy Ethiopia Commanders Oreste Baratieri Menelik II Strength 17,000 100,000 (estimated) Casualties 13,133 17,000 The First Italo–Ethiopian War was fought between Italy and Ethiopia in 1895-1896. ... Motto لا إله إلا الله محمد رسول الله  (Arabic) Lā ilāhā illā-llāhu; muhammadun rasÅ«lu-llāhi  (transliteration) There is no God but Allah; Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah And also : Justice, Peace, Freedom, Democracy and Success for All Anthem Saamo ku waar Capital Hargeisa (1941-1960) (1991 - present) Official languages Somali and... Combatants Italy Ottoman Empire Commanders Luigi Caneva Ismail Enver Mustafa Kemal Ataturk Strength 100,000 28,000 Casualties 3,380 dead 4,220 wounded 14,000 dead 5,370 wounded The Italo-Turkish or Turco-Italian War (also known in Italy as guerra di Libia, the Libyan war, and in... Tripolitania is a historic region of western Libya, centered around the coastal city of Tripoli. ... The Roman Empire ca. ... Enrico Corradini (1865, near Montelupo Fiorentino—1931, Rome) was an Italian novelist, essayist, journalist, and nationalist political figure. ... The National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista; PNF) was an Italian party, created by Benito Mussolini as the political expression of Fascism (previously represented by groups known as Fasci; see also Italian fascism). ... Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (July 29, 1883 – April 28, 1945) was the prime minister and dictator of Italy from 1922 until 1943, when he was overthrown. ... It has been suggested that Colonial war be merged into this article or section. ... Combatants Spanish Republic With the support of: Soviet Union[1] Nationalist Spain With the support of: Italy Germany Commanders Manuel Azaña Francisco Largo Caballero Juan Negrín Francisco Franco Gonzalo Queipo de Llano Emilio Mola José Sanjurjo Casualties 500,000[2] The Spanish Civil War was a major conflict... The European Civil War is a debated period in history between the beginning of the Franco-Prussian War on July 19, 1870 and end of the European portion of World War II on May 8, 1945. ...


On the other hand, the British abandoned their splendid isolation in 1902 with the Anglo-Japanese Alliance, which would enable the Empire of Japan to be victorious during the war against Russia (1904-05). The UK then signed the Entente cordiale with France in 1904, and, in 1907, the Triple Entente which included Russia, thus pitted against the Triple Alliance which Bismarck had patiently assembled. Splendid Isolation is the foreign policy pursued by Britain during the late 19th century, under the premierships of Benjamin Disraeli and The Marquess of Salisbury. ... The first Anglo-Japanese Alliance was signed in London on January 30, 1902 by Lord Lansdowne (British foreign secretary) and Hayashi Tadasu (Japanese minister in London). ... Anthem Kimi ga Yo Imperial Reign Slogan: Fukoku Kyohei Enrich the Country, Strengthen the Military (a. ... Combatants Russian Empire Montenegro Empire of Japan Commanders Emperor Nicholas II Aleksey Kuropatkin Stepan Makarov† Emperor Meiji Oyama Iwao Heihachiro Togo Greater Manchuria, Russian (outer) Manchuria is region to upper right in lighter Red; Liaodong Peninsula is the wedge extending into the Yellow Sea Georges Ferdinand Bigot, Japan fights against... The Entente Cordiale (cordial understanding) is a series of agreements signed on 8 April 1904 between the United Kingdom and France. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... “Bismarck” redirects here. ...


The American Colonization Society and the foundation of Liberia

Main articles: American Colonization Society and History of Liberia

The United States took part, marginally, in this enterprise, through the American Colonization Society (ACS), established in 1816 by Robert Finley. The ACS offered emigration to Liberia ("Land of the Free"), a colony founded in 1820, to free black slaves; emancipated slave Lott Cary actually became the first American Baptist missionary in Africa. This colonization attempt was resisted by the native people. The American Colonization Society (in full, The Society for the Colonization of Free People of Color of America) founded Liberia, a colony on the coast of West Africa in 1817 and transported free blacks there, in an effort to remove them from the United States. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The American Colonization Society (in full, The Society for the Colonization of Free People of Color of America) founded Liberia, a colony on the coast of West Africa in 1817 and transported free blacks there, in an effort to remove them from the United States. ... For the musician Robert Finley, who is famous for sequencing MIDI recordings of classical music, please see Robert Finley (musician). ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Lott Cary (1780-1828) was an African American slave, born in Charles City County, Virginia. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Baptist is a term describing individuals belonging... A missionary is traditionally defined as a propagator of religion who works to convert those outside that community; someone who proselytizes. ...

James Monroe, first president of the American Colonization Society and US president (1817-1825). He invented the Monroe Doctrine, base of the US isolationism during the 19th century.
James Monroe, first president of the American Colonization Society and US president (1817-1825). He invented the Monroe Doctrine, base of the US isolationism during the 19th century.

The American Colonization Society was led by Southerners, and its first president was James Monroe, from Virginia, who became the fifth president of the United States from 1817 to 1825. Thus, ironically one of the main proponents of American colonization of Africa was the same man who proclaimed, in his 1823 State of the Union address, the US opinion that European powers should no longer colonize the Americas or interfere with the affairs of sovereign nations located in the Americas. In return, the US planned to stay neutral in wars between European powers and in wars between a European power and its colonies. However, if these latter type of wars were to occur in the Americas, the U.S. would view such action as hostile toward itself. This famous statement became known as the Monroe Doctrine and was the base of the US' isolationism during the 19th century. National Portrait Gallery. ... National Portrait Gallery. ... James Monroe (April 28, 1758 – July 4, 1831) was the fifth President of the United States (1817-1825), and the fourth Virginian to hold the office. ... The American Colonization Society (in full, The Society for the Colonization of Free People of Color of America) founded Liberia, a colony on the coast of West Africa in 1817 and transported free blacks there, in an effort to remove them from the United States. ... For the pop band, see Presidents of the United States of America. ... U.S. President James Monroe The Monroe Doctrine is a U.S. doctrine which, on December 2, 1823, proclaimed that European powers would no longer colonize or interfere with the affairs of the nations of the Americas. ... Non-interventionism, the diplomatic policy whereby a nation seeks to avoid alliances with other nations, has had a long history in the United States. ... Historic Southern United States. ... James Monroe (April 28, 1758 – July 4, 1831) was the fifth President of the United States (1817-1825), and the fourth Virginian to hold the office. ... Official language(s) English Capital Richmond Largest city Virginia Beach Area  Ranked 35th  - Total 42,793 sq mi (110,862 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 430 miles (690 km)  - % water 7. ... The presidential seal is a well-known symbol of the presidency. ... Alternative meanings in State of the Union (disambiguation) The State of the Union Address is an annual event in which the President of the United States reports on the status of the country, normally to a joint session of the U.S. Congress (the House of Representatives and the Senate). ... Territories in the Americas colonized or claimed by a European great power in 1750. ... Look up sovereign in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... U.S. President James Monroe The Monroe Doctrine is a U.S. doctrine which, on December 2, 1823, proclaimed that European powers would no longer colonize or interfere with the affairs of the nations of the Americas. ... Non-interventionism, the diplomatic policy whereby a nation seeks to avoid alliances with other nations, has had a long history in the United States. ...


Although the Liberia colony never became quite as big as envisaged, it was only the first step in the American colonization of Africa, according to its early proponents. Thus, Jehudi Ashmun, an early leader of the ACS, envisioned an American empire in Africa. Between 1825 and 1826, he took steps to lease, annex, or buy tribal lands along the coast and along major rivers leading inland. Like his predecessor Lt. Robert Stockton, who in 1821 established the site for Monrovia by "persuading" a local chief referred to as "King Peter" to sell Cape Montserado (or Mesurado) by pointing a pistol at his head, Ashmun was prepared to use force to extend the colony's territory. In a May 1825 treaty, King Peter and other native kings agreed to sell land in return for 500 bars of tobacco, three barrels of rum, five casks of powder, five umbrellas, ten iron posts, and ten pairs of shoes, among other items. In March 1825, the ACS began a quarterly, The African Repository and Colonial Journal, edited by Rev. Ralph Randolph Gurley (1797-1872), who headed the Society until 1844. Conceived as the Society's propaganda organ, the Repository promoted both colonization and Liberia. Jehudi Ashmun (April 21, 1794 - August 25, 1828) was a religious leader and social reformer. ... Robert Field Stockton (20 August 1795–7 October 1866) was a United States naval officer, notable in the capture of California during the Mexican-American War, who was from a notable political family also served as a U.S. Senator from New Jersey. ... Monrovia in the 1800s. ... Ralph Randolph Gurley (May 26, 1797 - July 30, 1872) was a clergyman, an advocate of the separation of the races and a major force in the American Colonization Society, which offered passage to their colony in west Africa (now Liberia), to free black Americans. ...


The Society controlled the colony of Liberia until 1847 when, under the perception that the British might annex the settlement, Liberia was proclaimed a free and independent state, thus becoming the first African decolonised state. By 1867, the Society had sent more than 13,000 emigrants. After the American Civil War (1861-1865), when many blacks wanted to go to Liberia, financial support for colonization had waned. During its later years the society focused on educational and missionary efforts in Liberia rather than further emigration. Decolonization generally refers to a movement following the Second World War in which the various European colonies of the world were granted independence. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total...


A succession of crises in the period to World War I

The colonization of the Congo

Henry Morton Stanley
Henry Morton Stanley
Pierre Savorgnan de Brazza in his version of "native" dress, photographed by Félix Nadar.

David Livingstone's explorations, carried on by Henry Morton Stanley excited European imaginations. But at first, Stanley's grandiose ideas for colonization found little support owing to the problems and scale of action required, except from Léopold II of Belgium, who in 1876 had organized the International African Association. From 1879 to 1884, Stanley was secretly sent by Léopold II to the Congo region, where he made treaties with several African chiefs along the Congo River and by 1882 had sufficient territory to form the basis of the Congo Free State. Léopold II personally owned the colony from 1885 and exploited it for ivory and rubber. Henry Morton Stanley (source) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Henry Morton Stanley (source) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Sir Henry Morton Stanley, also known in the Congo as Bula Matari (Breaker of Rocks or, alternatively, Sledge Hammer) , born John Rowlands (January 28, 1841 – May 10, 1904), was a journalist and explorer famous for his exploration of Africa and his search for David Livingstone. ... Image File history File links Pierre_Savorgnan_de_Brazza. ... Image File history File links Pierre_Savorgnan_de_Brazza. ... Pierre Savorgnan de Brazza in his version of native dress, photographed by Félix Nadar. ... Nadar (self-portrait) Nadar (Gaspard-Félix Tournachon) - Self-portrait For the Tamil caste, see Nadar caste. ... David Livingstone (19 March 1813 – 4 May 1873) was a Scottish Presbyterian pioneer medical missionary with the London Missionary Society and explorer in central Africa. ... Sir Henry Morton Stanley, also known in the Congo as Bula Matari (Breaker of Rocks or, alternatively, Sledge Hammer) , born John Rowlands (January 28, 1841 – May 10, 1904), was a journalist and explorer famous for his exploration of Africa and his search for David Livingstone. ... King Léopold II His Majesty King Léopold II of the Belgians (Louis Philippe Marie Victor) (April 9, 1835–December 17, 1909), succeeded his father, Léopold I of Belgium, to the Belgian throne in 1865 and remained king until his death. ... The Association Internationale Africaine (French) was an organization created by King Leopold II of Belgium for supposedly furthering humanitarian projects in the area of Central Africa that was to become the Congo Free State and subsequently todays Democratic Republic of the Congo. ... Flag Capital Boma Government Monarchy Ruler and owner Leopold II of Belgium Historical era New Imperialism  - Established 1885  - Annexation by Belgium 15 November, 1908 The Congo Free State was a corporate state privately owned by King Leopold II of Belgium (not in his role as monarch) that included the entire... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Latex being collected from a tapped rubber tree Rubber is an elastic hydrocarbon polymer which occurs as a milky colloidal suspension (known as latex) in the sap of several varieties of plants. ...


While Stanley was exploring Congo on behalf of Léopold II of Belgium, the French marine officer Pierre de Brazza traveled into the western Congo basin and raised the French flag over the newly founded Brazzaville in 1881, thus occupying today's Republic of the Congo. Portugal, which also claimed the area due to old treaties with the native Kongo Empire, made a treaty with Britain on February 26, 1884 to block off the Congo Society's access to the Atlantic. Pierre Savorgnan de Brazza in his version of native dress, photographed by Félix Nadar. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Empire Kongo The Kongo Kingdom was an African kingdom located in southwest Africa in what are now northern Angola, Cabinda, Republic of the Congo, and the western portion of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. ... February 26 is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1884 (MDCCCLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


By 1890 the Congo Free State had consolidated its control of its territory between Leopoldville and Stanleyville and was looking to push south down the Lualaba River from Stanleyville. At the same time the British South Africa Company of Cecil Rhodes was expanding north from the Limpopo River, and attention was drawn to the land where their expansions would meet, Katanga, site of the Yeke Kingdom of Msiri. As well as being the most powerful ruler militarily in the area, Msiri traded large quantities of copper, ivory and slaves, and rumours of gold reached European ears. The scramble for Katanga was a prime example the period. Rhodes and the BSAC sent two expeditions to Msiri in 1890 led by Alfred Sharpe, who was rebuffed, and Joseph Thomson who failed to reach Katanga. In 1891 Leopold sent four CFS expeditions. The Le Marinel Expedition could only extract a vaguely-worded letter. The Delcommune Expedition was rebuffed. The well-armed Stairs Expedition had orders to take Katanga with or without Msiri's consent; he refused, was shot, and the expedition cut off his head and stuck it on a pole as a 'barbaric lesson' to the people. The Bia Expedition finished off the job of establishing an administration of sorts and a 'police presence' in Katanga. Kinshasa (formerly Léopoldville) is the capital and largest city of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. ... Kisangani, formerly Stanleyville, (population 500,000) is a city in the Democratic Republic of the Congo in Central Africa. ... The Lualaba is the headstream of the Congo River, running from the vicinity of Lubumbashi north to Kisangani, where the Congo officially begins. ... The flag of the British South Africa Company The British South Africa Company (BSAC) was established by Cecil Rhodes through the amalgamation of the Central Search Association and the Exploring Company, Ltd. ... Cecil Rhodes. ... Course and Watershed of the Limpopo River The Limpopo River rises in the interior of Africa, and flows generally eastwards towards the Indian Ocean. ... Capital Lubumbashi Created June 1960 Dissolved January 1963 Demonym Katangan Currency Katanga franc Katanga is the southern province of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, regional capital Lubumbashi (formerly Elizabethville). ... The Yeke Kingdom (also called the Garanganze or Garenganze kingdom) in Katanga, DR Congo was short-lived, existing from about 1856 to 1891 under one king, Msiri, but it became for a while the most powerful state in south-central Africa, controlling a territory of about half a million square... MSiri (c. ... Sir Alfred Sharpe (1853—1935) was a professional hunter who became a British colonial administrator and Commissioner (a de facto Governor) of the British Central Africa Protectorate from 1896 until 1910 (it changed its name to Nyasaland in 1907). ... ... Captain William Stairs, leader of the expedition Map of Central and East Africa showing route of the Stairs Expedition to Msiris Yeke Kingdom in Katanga in 1891–2. ...


The half million square kilometres of Katanga came into Leopold's possession and brought his African realm up to 2,300,000 km², about 75 times larger than Belgium. The Congo Free State imposed such a terror regime on the colonized people, including mass killings with millions of victims, and slave labour, that Belgium, under pressure from the Congo Reform Association, ended Leopold II's rule and annexed it in 1908 as a colony of Belgium, known as the Belgian Congo. See Congo Free State for further details including numbers of victims. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Congo Reform Association exposed gross and rampant abuses of labor in King Leopold II of Belgiums Congo Free State, leading to the annexation of Congo by Belgium in 1908. ... Motto: Travail et Progres (Work and Progress) The Belgian Congo Capital Léopoldville/Leopoldstad Political structure Colony Governor  - 1908-1910 Baron Wahis  - 1946-1951 Eugène Jacques Pierre Louis Jungers  - 1958-1960 Henri Arthur Adolf Marie Christopher Cornelis History  - Established 15 November, 1908  - Congolese independence 30 June, 1960 The Belgian... Flag Capital Boma Government Monarchy Ruler and owner Leopold II of Belgium Historical era New Imperialism  - Established 1885  - Annexation by Belgium 15 November, 1908 The Congo Free State was a corporate state privately owned by King Leopold II of Belgium (not in his role as monarch) that included the entire...


Suez Canal

Main article: Suez Canal

Ferdinand de Lesseps had obtained concessions from Isma'il Pasha, the ruler of Egypt, in 1854-56, to build the Suez Canal. Some sources estimate the workforce at 30,000,[8] but others estimate that 120,000 workers died over the ten years of construction due to malnutrition, fatigue and disease, especially cholera.[9] Shortly before its completion in 1869, Isma'il Pasha, the ruler of Egypt, borrowed enormous sums from French and English bankers at high rates of interest. By 1875, he was facing financial difficulties and was forced to sell his block of shares in the Suez Canal. The shares were snapped up by the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Benjamin Disraeli, who sought to give his country practical control in the management of this strategic waterway. When Isma'il Pasha repudiated Egypt's foreign debt in 1879, Britain and France assumed joint financial control over the country, forcing the Egyptian ruler to abdicate. The Egyptian ruling classes did not relish foreign intervention. The Urabi Revolt broke out against the Khedive and European influence in 1882, a year after the Mahdist revolt. Muhammad Ahmad, who had proclaimed himself the Mahdi, redeemer of Islam, in 1881, led the rebellion and was defeated only by Kitchener in 1898. Britain then assumed responsibility for the administration of the country. Suez Canal, seen from Earth orbit, NASA. Ships moored at El Ballah during transit The Suez Canal (Arabic: , transliteration: ), is a large artificial canal in Egypt west of the Sinai Peninsula. ... Ferdinand de Lesseps. ... Ismail Pasha Ismail Pasha, known as Ismail the Magnificent (December 31, 1830–March 2, 1895) (Arabic: إسماعيل باشا), was khedive of Egypt from 1863 until he was removed at the behest of the British in 1879. ... Cholera (frequently called Asiatic cholera or epidemic cholera) is a severe diarrheal disease caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. ... Ismail Pasha Ismail Pasha, known as Ismail the Magnificent (December 31, 1830–March 2, 1895) (Arabic: إسماعيل باشا), was khedive of Egypt from 1863 until he was removed at the behest of the British in 1879. ... This page lists the rulers and heads of state of Egypt since 1805. ... The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is, in practice, the political leader of the United Kingdom. ... Benjamin Disraeli, 1st Earl of Beaconsfield (December 21, 1804 - April 24, British Conservative Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and author. ... The Urabi Revolt was an uprising in Egypt in 1881-82 against the Khedive and European influence in the country. ... Khedive (from Persian for lord) was a title created in 1867 by the Ottoman Sultan Abd-ul-Aziz for the then-governor of Egypt, Ismail Pasha. ... Muhammad Ahmad ibn as Sayyid Abd Allah (otherwise known as The Mahdi or Mohammed Ahmed) (12 August 1844–June 22, 1885) was a Muslim religious leader, a faqir, in the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan. ... Image:Mahdi3. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Muhammad al-Mahdi. ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ... The Earl Kitchener The Right Honourable Horatio Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener, KG, KP, GCB, OM, GCSI, GCMG, GCIE, ADC, PC (24 June 1850–5 June 1916) was a British Field Marshal, diplomat and statesman. ...


Berlin Conference

Main article: Berlin Conference

The occupation of Egypt and the acquisition of the Congo were the first major moves in what came to be a precipitous scramble for African territory. In 1884, Otto von Bismarck convened the 1884-85 Berlin Conference to discuss the Africa problem. The diplomats put on a humanitarian façade by condemning the slave trade, prohibiting the sale of alcoholic beverages and firearms in certain regions, and by expressing concern for missionary activities. More importantly, the diplomats in Berlin laid down the rules of competition by which the great powers were to be guided in seeking colonies. They also agreed that the area along the Congo River was to be administered by Léopold II of Belgium as a neutral area, known as the Congo Free State, in which trade and navigation were to be free. No nation was to stake claims in Africa without notifying other powers of its intentions. No territory could be formally claimed prior to being effectively occupied. However, the competitors ignored the rules when convenient and on several occasions war was only narrowly avoided. The conference of Berlin The Berlin Conference (German: or Congo Conference) of 1884–85 regulated European colonization and trade in Africa during the New Imperialism period, and coincided with Germanys sudden emergence as an imperial power. ... “Bismarck” redirects here. ... Slave redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... An assortment of modern hand-held firearms using fixed ammunition, including military assault rifles, a sporting shotgun (fourth from bottom), a tactical shotgun (third from bottom), and a sporting rifle (top). ... Location of Berlin within Germany / EU Coordinates Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE3 City subdivisions 12 boroughs Governing Mayor Klaus Wowereit (SPD) Governing parties SPD / Left. ... King Léopold II His Majesty King Léopold II of the Belgians (Louis Philippe Marie Victor) (April 9, 1835–December 17, 1909), succeeded his father, Léopold I of Belgium, to the Belgian throne in 1865 and remained king until his death. ... Flag Capital Boma Government Monarchy Ruler and owner Leopold II of Belgium Historical era New Imperialism  - Established 1885  - Annexation by Belgium 15 November, 1908 The Congo Free State was a corporate state privately owned by King Leopold II of Belgium (not in his role as monarch) that included the entire...


Britain's occupation of Egypt and South Africa

Boer women and children in a concentration camp during the Second Boer War (1899-1902).
Boer women and children in a concentration camp during the Second Boer War (1899-1902).

Britain's occupations of Egypt and the Cape Colony contributed to a preoccupation over securing the source of the Nile River. Egypt was occupied by British forces in 1882 (although not formally declared a protectorate until 1914, and never a colony proper); Sudan, Nigeria, Kenya and Uganda were subjugated in the 1890s and early 1900s; and in the south, the Cape Colony (first acquired in 1795) provided a base for the subjugation of neighboring African states and the Dutch Afrikaner settlers who had left the Cape to avoid the British and then founded their own republics. In 1877, Theophilus Shepstone annexed the South African Republic (or Transvaal — independent from 1857 to 1877) for the British. The UK consolidated its power over most of the colonies of South Africa in 1879 after the Anglo-Zulu War. The Boers protested and in December 1880 they revolted, leading to the First Boer War (1880-1881). British Prime Minister William Gladstone signed a peace treaty on March 23, 1881, giving self-government to the Boers in the Transvaal. The Second Boer War was fought between 1899 to 1902; the independent Boer republics of the Orange Free State and of the South African Republic (Transvaal) were this time defeated and absorbed into the British empire. Photograph of Boer women and children in a British concentration camp. ... Photograph of Boer women and children in a British concentration camp. ... This article is about the Boer people (Boerevolk). ... It has been suggested that Internment be merged into this article or section. ... Combatants British Empire Orange Free State South African Republic Commanders Sir Redvers Buller Lord Kitchener Lord Roberts Paul Kruger Louis Botha Koos de la Rey Martinus Steyn Christiaan de Wet Casualties 5000 - 6000 Battlefield casualties, 15,000 disease related. ... Anthem: God Save the Queen Cape Colony Capital Cape Town Language(s) English and Dutch1 Religion Dutch Reformed Church, Anglican Government Constitutional monarchy Last Monarch King George VI Last Prime Minister  - 1908 – 1910 John X. Merriman Last Governor  - 1901 - 1910 Walter Hely-Hutchinson Historical era 19th century  - Dutch East India... There is also Nile, a death metal band from South Carolina, USA. The Nile in Egypt Length 6 695 km Elevation of the source 1 134 m Average discharge 2 830 m³/s Area watershed 3 400 000 km² Origin Africa Mouth the Mediterranean Basin countries Uganda - Sudan - Egypt The... Anthem: God Save the Queen Cape Colony Capital Cape Town Language(s) English and Dutch1 Religion Dutch Reformed Church, Anglican Government Constitutional monarchy Last Monarch King George VI Last Prime Minister  - 1908 – 1910 John X. Merriman Last Governor  - 1901 - 1910 Walter Hely-Hutchinson Historical era 19th century  - Dutch East India... Afrikaners are an ethnic group of Northwestern European ancestry and associated with Southern Africa and the Afrikaans language. ... Sir Theophilus Shepstone (January 8, 1817 - June 23, 1893), British South African statesman, was born at Westbury near Bristol, England. ... Flag Location of the Transvaal in pre-1994 South Afica Capital Pretoria Language(s) Dutch, English, Afrikaans Religion Dutch Reformed Church Government Republic President  - 1883-1902 Paul Kruger  - 1900-1902 Schalk Willem Burger (acting) History  - Established June 27, 1857  - British annexation 1877-1881  - Second Boer War October 11, 1899  - Treaty... Combatants United Kingdom Zulu Nation Commanders Sir Bartle Frere, Frederick Augustus Thesiger, 2nd Baron Chelmsford Cetshwayo Strength 14,800 (6,400 Europeans 8,400 Africans) 40,000 Casualties 1,727 killed, 256 wounded 8,250+ killed, 3,000+ wounded The Anglo-Zulu War was fought in 1879 between the United... The First Boer War (Dutch: Eerste Boerenoorlog, Afrikaans: Eerste Vryheidsoorlog, literally First Freedom War) also known as the First Anglo-Boer War or the Transvaal War, it was fought from 16 December 1880 until 23 March 1881. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of a cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... William Ewart Gladstone (29 December 1809 – 19 May 1898) was a British Liberal Party statesman and Prime Minister (1868–1874, 1880–1885, 1886 and 1892–1894). ... March 23 is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Combatants British Empire Orange Free State South African Republic Commanders Sir Redvers Buller Lord Kitchener Lord Roberts Paul Kruger Louis Botha Koos de la Rey Martinus Steyn Christiaan de Wet Casualties 5000 - 6000 Battlefield casualties, 15,000 disease related. ... Flag of the Orange Free State Capital Bloemfontein Language(s) Afrikaans, English Religion Dutch Reformed Church Government Republic President  - 1854 - 1855 Josias P. Hoffman  - 1855 - 1859 Jacobus Nicolaas Boshoff  - 1859 - 1863 Marthinus Wessel Pretorius (also President of the South African Republic from 1857 to 1871). ...


Fashoda Incident

Main article: Fashoda Incident

The 1898 Fashoda Incident was one of the most crucial conflicts on Europe's way of consolidating holdings in the continent. It brought Britain and France to the verge of war but ended in a major strategic victory for Britain, and provided the basis for the 1904 Entente Cordiale between the two rival countries. It stemmed from battles over control of the Nile headwaters, which caused Britain to expand in the Sudan. The Fashoda Incident (1898) was the climax of imperial territorial disputes between the United Kingdom and France in Eastern Africa. ... The Entente Cordiale (cordial understanding) is a series of agreements signed on 8 April 1904 between the United Kingdom and France. ...

Jules Ferry, French Republican who, as prime minister, directed the negotiations which led to the establishment of a protectorate in Tunis (1881), prepared the December 17, 1885 treaty for the occupation of Madagascar; directed the exploration of the Congo and of the Niger region; and organized the conquest of Indochina. He resigned after the 1885 Tonkin incident.
Jules Ferry, French Republican who, as prime minister, directed the negotiations which led to the establishment of a protectorate in Tunis (1881), prepared the December 17, 1885 treaty for the occupation of Madagascar; directed the exploration of the Congo and of the Niger region; and organized the conquest of Indochina. He resigned after the 1885 Tonkin incident.

The French thrust into the African interior was mainly from West Africa (modern day Senegal) eastward, through the Sahel along the southern border of the Sahara, a territory covering modern day Senegal, Mali, Niger, and Chad. Their ultimate aim was to have an uninterrupted link between the Niger River and the Nile, thus controlling all trade to and from the Sahel region, by virtue of their existing control over the Caravan routes through the Sahara. The British, on the other hand, wanted to link their possessions in Southern Africa (modern South Africa, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Lesotho, Swaziland, and Zambia), with their territories in East Africa (modern Kenya), and these two areas with the Nile basin. Sudan (which in those days included modern day Uganda) was obviously key to the fulfillment of these ambitions, especially since Egypt was already under British control. This 'red line' through Africa is made most famous by Cecil Rhodes. Along with Lord Milner (the British colonial minister in South Africa), Rhodes advocated such a "Cape to Cairo" empire linking by rail the Suez Canal to the mineral-rich Southern part of the continent. Though hampered by German occupation of Tanganyika until the end of World War I, Rhodes successfully lobbied on behalf of such a sprawling East African empire. Image File history File links Julesferry. ... Image File history File links Julesferry. ... Jules Ferry, French statesman Jules François Camille Ferry (April 5, 1832 – March 17, 1893) was a French statesman. ... Republicanism is the ideology of governing a nation as a republic, with an emphasis on liberty, rule by the people, and the civic virtue practiced by citizens. ... This article is about states protected and/or dominated by a foreign power. ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Indochina 1886 Indochina, or the Indochinese Peninsula, is a region in Southeast Asia. ... Combatants France Qing Dynasty Black Flag Army Annam Strength 15,000 to 20,000 soldiers (including Spanish and Filipino volunteers) 25,000 to 35,000 soldiers (from the provinces of Guangdong, Guangxi, Fujian, Zhejiang and Yunnan) Casualties 2,100 killed or wounded 10,000 killed or wounded The 1884 Battle...  Western Africa (UN subregion)  Maghreb[1] West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of the African continent. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Map of Niger River with Niger River basin in green The Niger River is the principal river of western Africa, extending over 2500 miles (about 4180 km). ... Categories: Africa geography stubs | Southern Africa ...  Eastern Africa (UN subregion)  East African Community  Central African Federation (defunct)  geographic, including above East Africa or Eastern Africa is the easternmost region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics. ... Cecil Rhodes. ... Alfred Milner, 1st Viscount Milner (23 March 1854 _ 13 May 1925), was British statesman and colonial administrator. ... Flag of Tanganyika Tanganyika was an East African republic within the Commonwealth of Nations, named after Lake Tanganyika, which formed its western border. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ...


If one draws a line from Cape Town to Cairo (Rhodes' dream), and one from Dakar to the Horn of Africa (now Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti, and Somalia), (the French ambition), these two lines intersect somewhere in eastern Sudan near Fashoda, explaining its strategic importance. In short, Britain had sought to extend its East African empire contiguously from Cairo to the Cape of Good Hope, while France had sought to extend its own holdings from Dakar to the Sudan, which would enable its empire to span the entire continent from the Atlantic Ocean to the Red Sea. City motto: Spes Bona (Latin: Good Hope) Location of the City of Cape Town in Western Cape Province Province Western Cape Mayor Helen Zille Area  - % water 2,499 km² N/A Population  - Total (2004)  - Density Not ranked 2,893,251 1,158/km² Established 1652 Time zone SAST (UTC+2... Nickname: Egypt: Site of Cairo (top center) Coordinates: Government  - Governor Dr. Abdul Azim Wazir Area  - City 214 km²  (82. ... (City of Dakar, divided into 19 communes darrondissement) City proper (commune) Région Dakar Département Dakar Mayor Pape Diop (PDS) (since 2002) Area 82. ... The Horn of Africa. ... The Fashoda Incident (1898) was the climax of imperial territorial disputes between the United Kingdom and France in Eastern Africa. ... The Cape of Good Hope; looking towards the west, from the coastal cliffs above Cape Point. ... Location of the Red Sea The Red Sea is an inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. ...


A French force under Jean-Baptiste Marchand arrived first at the strategically located fort at Fashoda soon followed by a British force under Lord Kitchener, commander in chief of the British army since 1892. The French withdrew after a standoff, and continued to press claims to other posts in the region. In March 1899 the French and British agreed that the source of the Nile and Congo Rivers should mark the frontier between their spheres of influence. Colonel Marchand Major Jean-Baptiste Marchand (1863-1934) was a French emissary in Africa. ... Horatio Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener of Khartoum Horatio Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener of Khartoum PC, KBE, KCB, ADC ( June 24, 1850 - June 5, 1916) was a British Field Marshal and statesman. ... The Congo River (for a time known as Zaire River) is the largest river in Western Central Africa. ...


Moroccan crisis

Although the 1884-85 Berlin Conference had set the rules for the scramble for Africa, it hadn't weakened the rival imperialisms. The 1898 Fashoda Incident, which had seen France and the UK on the brink of war, ultimately led to the signature of the 1904 Entente cordiale, which reversed the influence of the various European powers. As a result, the new German power decided to test the solidity of the influence, using the contested territory of Morocco as a battlefield. The First Moroccan Crisis (also known as the Tangier Crisis) refers to the international crisis over the colonial status of Morocco between March 1905 and May 1906. ... The Agadir Crisis, also called the Second Moroccan Crisis, was the international tension sparked by the deployment of a German warship to the Moroccan port of Agadir on July 1, 1911. ...


Thus, on March 31, 1905 Kaiser Wilhelm II visited Tangiers and made a speech in favor of Moroccan independence, challenging French influence in Morocco. France's influence in Morocco had been reaffirmed by Britain and Spain in 1904. The Kaiser's speech bolstered French nationalism and with British support the French foreign minister, Théophile Delcassé, took a defiant line. The crisis peaked in mid-June 1905, when Delcassé was forced out of the ministry by the more conciliation minded premier Maurice Rouvier. But by July 1905 Germany was becoming isolated and the French agreed to a conference to solve the crisis. Both France and Germany continued to posture up to the conference, with Germany mobilizing reserve army units in late December and France actually moving troops to the border in January 1906. March 31 is the 90th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (91st in leap years), with 275 days remaining. ... 1905 (MCMV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... German Emperor Wilhelm (born Friedrich Wilhelm Viktor Albrecht, Prince of Prussia 27 January 1859–4 June 1941), was the last German Emperor and King of Prussia (de: Deutscher Kaiser und König von Preußen), ruling from 15 June 1888 to 9 November 1918. ... Tangier (in Berber and Arabic Tanja, in Spanish Tánger and in French Tanger) is a city of northern Morocco with a population of 350,000, or 550,000 including suburbs. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Théophile Delcassé, French diplomat and statesman Théophile Delcassé (March 1, 1852 - February 22, 1923) was a French statesman. ... Maurice Rouvier, French statesman Maurice Rouvier (April 17, 1842 - June 7, 1911) was a French statesman. ...


The 1906 Algeciras Conference was called to settle the dispute. Of the thirteen nations present the German representatives found their only supporter was Austria-Hungary. France had firm support from Britain, Russia, Italy, Spain, and the U.S. The Germans eventually accepted an agreement, signed on May 31, 1906, where France yielded certain domestic changes in Morocco but retained control of key areas. The Algeciras Conference of 1906 took place in Algeciras, Spain, and lasted from January 16 to April 7. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... May 31 is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...


However, five years later the second Moroccan crisis (or Agadir Crisis) was sparked by the deployment of the German gunboat Panther, to the port of Agadir on July 1, 1911. Germany had started to attempt to surpass Britain's naval supremacy — the British navy had a policy of remaining larger than the next two naval fleets in the world combined. When the British heard of the Panther's arrival in Morocco, they wrongly believed that the Germans meant to turn Agadir into a naval base on the Atlantic. The Agadir Crisis, also called the Second Moroccan Crisis, was the international tension sparked by the deployment of the German gunboat Panther, to the Moroccan port of Agadir on July 1, 1911. ... The Panther was the gun-boat that Germany deployed to the Moroccan port of Agadir, during the Second Moroccan Crisis (also called the Tangier Crisis) of 1911. ... Panorama of the seaside from the Kasbah Agadir (Arabic: أكادير, Berber (Amazigh): ) is a city in southwest Morocco, capital of the Souss-Massa-Dra region. ... July 1 is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The British Royal Navy does not have a well-defined moment of formation; it started out as a motley assortment of Kings ships during the Middle Ages, assembled only as needed and then dispersed, began to take shape as a standing navy during the 16th century, and became a...


The German move was aimed at reinforcing claims for compensation for acceptance of effective French control of the North African kingdom, where France's pre-eminence had been upheld by the 1906 Algeciras Conference. In November 1911 a convention was signed under which Germany accepted France's position in Morocco in return for territory in the French Equatorial African colony of Middle Congo (now the Republic of the Congo).  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, generally divided by the formidable barrier of the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... Location of French Equatorial Africa. ... The Republic of the Congo, also known as Middle Congo, Congo-Brazzaville, and Congo (but not to be confused with the Democratic Republic of the Congo, formerly Zaire, which was also at one time known as the Republic of the Congo), is a former French colony of west-central Africa. ...


France subsequently established a full protectorate over Morocco (March 30, 1912), ending what remained of the country's formal independence. Furthermore, British backing for France during the two Moroccan crises reinforced the Entente between the two countries and added to Anglo-German estrangement, deepening the divisions which would culminate in World War I. This article is about states protected and/or dominated by a foreign power. ... March 30 is the 89th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (90th in leap years). ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


Colonial encounter

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Colonial consciousness and exhibitions

Pygmies and a European explorer. Some pygmies would be exposed in human zoos, such as Ota Benga displayed by eugenicist Madison Grant in the Bronx Zoo.
Pygmies and a European explorer. Some pygmies would be exposed in human zoos, such as Ota Benga displayed by eugenicist Madison Grant in the Bronx Zoo.

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1382x2112, 1273 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Pygmy Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1382x2112, 1273 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Pygmy Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... Baka dancers in the East Province of Cameroon Batwa dancers in Uganda Pygmies (singular: Pygmy) refers to various peoples of central Africa whose adults have an average height of 150 centimetres (4 feet 11 inches) or shorter[1]. The term is also sometimes applied to the so-called Negrito peoples... Human Zoo (Völkerschau) in Stuttgart (Germany) in 1928 For other uses, see Human zoo (disambiguation). ... Ota Benga in 1904, showing his sharpened teeth. ... The word eugenics (from the Greek εὐγενής, for well-born) was coined in 1883 by Sir Francis Galton, a cousin of Charles Darwin, to refer to the study and use of selective breeding (of animals or humans) to improve a species over generations, specifically... Madison Grant in the early 1920s. ... This article is about the zoo, for the tv series see The Bronx Zoo (TV). ...

The "colonial lobby"

In its early stages imperialism was mainly the act of individual explorers and some adventurous merchantmen. The metropoles were a long way from approving without any dissent the expensive adventures carried out abroad, and various important political leaders such as Gladstone opposed colonization in its first years. However, during his second premiership in 1880–1885 he could not resist the colonial lobby, and thus did not execute his electoral promise to disengage from Egypt. Although Gladstone was personally opposed to imperialism, the social tensions caused by the Long Depression pushed him to favor jingoism: the imperialists had become the "parasites of patriotism" (Hobson[10]). In France, then Radical politician Georges Clemenceau also adamantly opposed himself to it: he thought colonization was a diversion from the "blue line of the Vosges" mountains, that is revanchism and the patriotic urge to reclaim the Alsace-Lorraine region which had been annexed by the 1871 Treaty of Frankfurt. Clemenceau actually made Jules Ferry's cabinet fall after the 1885 Tonkin disaster. According to Hannah Arendt's classic The Origins of Totalitarianism (1951), this unlimited expansion of national sovereignty on oversea territories contradicted the unity of the nation-state which provided citizenship to its population. Thus, a tension between the universalist will to respect human rights of the colonized people, as they may be considered as "citizens" of the nation-state, and the imperialist drives to cynically exploit populations deemed inferior began to surface. Some rare voices in the metropoles opposed what they saw as unnecessary evils of the colonial administration, left to itself and described in Joseph Conrad's Heart of Darkness (1899) — contemporary of Kipling's The White Man's Burden — or in Céline's Journey to the End of the Night (1932). The Metropole was the name given to the English metropolitan center of the British Empire, i. ... William Ewart Gladstone (29 December 1809 – 19 May 1898) was a British Liberal Party statesman and Prime Minister (1868–1874, 1880–1885, 1886 and 1892–1894). ... Class conflict is both the friction that accompanies social relationships between members or groups of different social classes and the underlying tensions or antagonisms which exist in society. ... The Long Depression (1873 – 1896) affected much of the world from the early 1870s until the mid-1890s and was contemporary with the Second Industrial Revolution. ... Jingoism is a term describing chauvinistic patriotism, usually with a hawkish political stance. ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... John Atkinson Hobson (July 6, 1858 – April 1, 1940) was an English economist and imperial critic, widely popular as a lecturer and writer. ... The Radical-Socialist Party (Parti Républicain, Radical et Radical-Socialiste, more commonly called Parti Radical-Socialiste - Republican, Radical and Radical-Socialist Party), was a major French political party of the early to mid 20th century, originally considered radical due to its anti-clericalism, a main trait of republicans during... Georges Clemenceau, by Nadar. ... Typical landscape in Vosges mountains (Chajoux valley, La Bresse, France) Waterfall in eastern Vosges mountains Glacial lake in Vosges mountains (Lac de Schiessrothried) The Vosges Mountains is a range in eastern France, stretching along the west side of the Rhine valley in a NNE direction, from Belfort to Saverne. ... Revanchism (from French revanche, revenge) is a term used since the 1870s to describe political campaigns to reverse territorial losses incurred by a country during previous wars and strifes, sometimes quite distant in time. ... Imperial Province of Elsaß-Lothringen Alsace-Lorraine (German: , generally Elsass-Lothringen) was a territorial entity created by the German Empire in 1871 after the annexation of most of Alsace and parts of Lorraine in the Franco-Prussian War. ... The Treaty of Frankfurt was signed May 10, 1871, at theend of the Franco-Prussian War. ... Jules Ferry, French statesman Jules François Camille Ferry (April 5, 1832 – March 17, 1893) was a French statesman. ... Combatants France Qing Dynasty Black Flag Army Annam Strength 15,000 to 20,000 soldiers (including Spanish and Filipino volunteers) 25,000 to 35,000 soldiers (from the provinces of Guangdong, Guangxi, Fujian, Zhejiang and Yunnan) Casualties 2,100 killed or wounded 10,000 killed or wounded The 1884 Battle... Hannah Arendt (October 14, 1906 – December 4, 1975) was a Jewish-German (later American) political theorist. ... The Origins of Totalitarianism is a book by Hannah Arendt, dedicated to her husband Heinrich Blücher. ... Sovereignty is the exclusive right to exercise supreme political (e. ... The term nation-state, while often used interchangeably with the terms unitary state and independent state, refers properly to the parallel occurence of a state and a nation. ... Citizenship is membership in a political community (originally a city or town but now usually a country) and carries with it rights to political participation; a person having such membership is a citizen. ... In comparative religion, a universalist religion is one that holds itself true for all people; it thus allows all to join, regardless of ethnicity. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... The term exploitation may carry two distinct meanings: The act of utilizing something for any purpose. ... // Joseph Conrad (born Teodor Józef Konrad Korzeniowski, 3 December 1857 – 3 August 1924) was a Polish-born novelist. ... Heart of Darkness is a novella by Joseph Conrad. ... This article is about the British author. ... The white mans burden - a satiric take This advertisement for soap uses the theme of the White Mans Burden, encouraging white people to teach cleanliness to members of other races The White Mans Burden is a poem by the English poet Rudyard Kipling. ... Seline redirects here. ... Journey to the End of the Night (Voyage au bout de la nuit, 1932) is the first novel of Louis-Ferdinand Céline. ...


Thus, colonial lobbies were progressively set up to legitimize the Scramble for Africa and other expensive oversea adventures. In Germany, in France, in Britain, the bourgeoisie began to claim strong oversea policies to insure the market's growth. In 1916, Lenin would publish his famous Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism to explain this phenomenon. Even in lesser powers, voices like Corradini began to claim a "place in the sun" for so-called "proletarian nations", bolstering nationalism and militarism in an early prototype of fascism. It has been suggested that Interest representation: Academic overview be merged into this article or section. ... Vladimir Ilyich Lenin ( Russian: Влади́мир Ильи́ч Ле́нин  listen?), original surname Ulyanov (Улья́нов) ( April 22 (April 10 ( O.S.)), 1870 – January 21, 1924), was a... Enrico Corradini (1865, near Montelupo Fiorentino—1931, Rome) was an Italian novelist, essayist, journalist, and nationalist political figure. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Militarism or militarist ideology is the doctrinal view of a society as being best served (or more efficient) when it is governed or guided by concepts embodied in the culture, doctrine, system, or people of the military. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ...


Colonial propaganda and jingoism

However, by the end of World War I the colonized empires had become very popular almost everywhere: public opinion had been convinced of the needs of a colonial empire, although many of the metropolitans would never see a piece of it. Colonial exhibitions had been instrumental in this change of popular mentalities brought about by the colonial propaganda, supported by the colonial lobby and by various scientists. Thus, the conquest of territories were inevitably followed by public displays of the indigenous people for scientific and leisure purposes. Karl Hagenbeck, a German merchant in wild animals and future entrepreneur of most Europeans zoos, thus decided in 1874 to exhibit Samoa and Sami people as "purely natural" populations. In 1876, he sent one of his collaborators to the newly conquered Egyptian Sudan to bring back some wild beasts and Nubians. Presented in Paris, London and Berlin, these Nubians were very successful. Such "human zoos" could be found in Hamburg, Antwerp, Barcelona, London, Milan, New York, Warsaw, etc., with 200,000 to 300,000 visitors attending each exhibition. Tuaregs were exhibited after the French conquest of Timbuktu (discovered by René Caillé, disguised as a Muslim, in 1828, who thus won the prize offered by the French Société de Géographie); Malagasy after the occupation of Madagascar; Amazons of Abomey after Behanzin's mediatic defeat against the French in 1894... Not used to the climatic conditions, some of the indigenous exposed died, such as some Galibis in Paris in 1892.[11] “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Public Opinion is a book on media and democracy by Walter Lippmann. ... The Colonial Exhibitions were supposed to bolster popular support for the various colonial empires. ... Soviet Propaganda Poster during the Great Patriotic War. ... Indigenous peoples are: Peoples living in an area prior to colonization by a state Peoples living in an area within a nation-state, prior to the formation of a nation-state, but who do not identify with the dominant nation. ... Giraffes in Sydneys Taronga Zoo A zoological garden, zoological park, or zoo is a facility in which animals are confined within enclosures and displayed to the public, and in which they may also be bred. ... The Sami people (also Sámi, Saami, Lapps, sometimes also Laplanders) are the indigenous people of Sápmi, which today encompasses parts of northern Sweden, Norway, Finland and the Kola Peninsula of Russia. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... // Human zoos (also called ethnological expositions or negro villages) were common until at least the 1930s. ... For other uses, see Tuareg (disambiguation). ... Timbuktu (Archaic English: Timbuctoo; Koyra Chiini: Tumbutu; French: Tombouctou) is a city in Tombouctou Region, Mali. ... René Caillié René Caillié (September 19, 1799 - May 17, 1838) was a French explorer, and the first European to return alive from the town of Timbuktu. ... The Dahomey Amazons were a Fon all-female military regiment of the Kingdom of Dahomey (now Benin) which lasted until end of the 19th century. ... Abomey is a town in Benin, formerly the capital of the ancient kingdom of Dahomey. ... Behanzin in 1894 Behanzin (d. ... The Galibi were a Cariban-speaking people who lived in the Lesser Antilles and northern South America at the time of European settlement. ...

English-edition cover of Hergé's Tintin in the Congo (1930-31). Le Petit Vingtième magazine staged a triumphant return of "Tintin" and "Snowy" to Brussels on July 9, 1931. They were accompanied by ten Congolese and met by Hergé himself.
English-edition cover of Hergé's Tintin in the Congo (1930-31). Le Petit Vingtième magazine staged a triumphant return of "Tintin" and "Snowy" to Brussels on July 9, 1931. They were accompanied by ten Congolese and met by Hergé himself.

Geoffroy de Saint-Hilaire, director of the Parisian Jardin d'acclimatation, decided in 1877 to organize two "ethnological spectacles", presenting Nubians and Inuit. The public of the Jardin d'acclimatation doubled, with a million paying entrances that year, a huge success for these times. Between 1877 and 1912, approximatively thirty "ethnological exhibitions" were presented at the Jardin zoologique d'acclimatation.[12] "Negro villages" would be presented in Paris' 1878 and 1879 World's Fair; the 1900 World's Fair presented the famous diorama "living" in Madagascar, while the Colonial Exhibitions in Marseilles (1906 and 1922) and in Paris (1907 and 1931) would also display human beings in cages, often nudes or quasi-nudes.[13] Nomadic "Senegalese villages" were also created, thus displaying the power of the colonial empire to all the population. Image File history File links English-edition cover of Tintin in the Congo. ... Image File history File links English-edition cover of Tintin in the Congo. ... Georges Remi (May 22, 1907 – March 3, 1983), better known by the pen name Hergé, was a Belgian comics writer and artist. ... English-edition cover Tintin in the Congo (Tintin au Congo) is one of a series of classic comic-strip albums, written and illustrated by Belgian writer and illustrator Hergé, featuring young reporter Tintin as a hero. ... Nickname: Map showing the location of Brussels in Belgium Coordinates: Country Belgium Region Brussels-Capital Region Founded 979 Founded (Region) June 18, 1989 Government  - Mayor (Municipality) Freddy Thielemans Area  - Region 162 km²  (62. ... July 9 is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 175 days remaining. ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Inuit (disambiguation). ... A diorama is any of the two display devices mentioned below. ...


In the U.S. Madison Grant, head of the New York Zoological Society, exposed Pygmy Ota Benga in the Bronx Zoo alongside the apes and others in 1906. At the behest of Grant, a prominent scientific racist and eugenicist, zoo director Hornaday, placed Ota Benga in a cage with an orangutan and labeled him "The Missing Link" in an attempt to illustrate Darwinism, and in particular that Africans like Ota Benga were closer to apes than were Europeans. Madison Grant in the early 1920s. ... Baka dancers in the East Province of Cameroon Batwa dancers in Uganda Pygmies (singular: Pygmy) refers to various peoples of central Africa whose adults have an average height of 150 centimetres (4 feet 11 inches) or shorter[1]. The term is also sometimes applied to the so-called Negrito peoples... Ota Benga in 1904, showing his sharpened teeth. ... This article is about the zoo, for the tv series see The Bronx Zoo (TV). ... Scientific racism is any publication or propaganda with the veneer of science which was fabricated to support a racist paradigm. ... The word eugenics (from the Greek εὐγενής, for well-born) was coined in 1883 by Sir Francis Galton, a cousin of Charles Darwin, to refer to the study and use of selective breeding (of animals or humans) to improve a species over generations, specifically... Charles Darwin Darwinism is a term for the underlying theory in those ideas of Charles Darwin concerning evolution and natural selection. ...


Such colonial exhibitions, which include the 1924 British Empire Exhibition and the successful 1931 Paris Exposition coloniale, were doubtlessly a key element of the colonisation project and legitimized the ruthless Scramble for Africa, in the same way that the popular comic-strip The Adventures of Tintin, full of clichés, were obviously carrier of an ethnocentric and racist ideology which was the condition of the masses' consent to the imperialist phenomenon. Hergé's work attained summits with Tintin in the Congo (1930-31) or The Broken Ear (1935). The British Empire Exhibition was held at Wembley, London in 1924. ... The main characters and others from The Castafiore Emerald, one of the later books The Adventures of Tintin (French: ) is a series of Belgian comic books created by Belgian artist Hergé, the pen name of Georges Remi (1907–1983). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Ethnocentrism is the tendency to look at the world primarily from the perspective of ones own culture. ... Because racism carries connotations of race-based bigotry, prejudice, violence, oppression, stereotyping or discrimination, the term has varying and often hotly contested definitions. ... Political Ideologies Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      An ideology is an organized collection of ideas. ... Georges Remi (May 22, 1907 – March 3, 1983), better known by the pen name Hergé, was a Belgian comics writer and artist. ... English-edition cover Tintin in the Congo (Tintin au Congo) is one of a series of classic comic-strip albums, written and illustrated by Belgian writer and illustrator Hergé, featuring young reporter Tintin as a hero. ... The Broken Ear (LOreille cassée) is one of the The Adventures of Tintin, a series of classic comic-strip albums, written and illustrated by Belgian writer and illustrator Hergé, featuring young reporter Tintin as a hero. ...


While comic-strips played the same role as westerns to legitimize the Indian Wars in the United States, colonial exhibitions were both popular and scientific, being an interface between the crowds and serious scientific research. Thus, anthropologists such as Madison Grant or Alexis Carrel built their pseudo-scientific racism, inspired by Gobineau's An Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races (1853-55). Human zoos provided both a real-size laboratory for these racial hypothesis and a demonstration of their validity: by labelling Ota Benga as the "missing link" between apes and Europeans, as was done in the Bronx Zoo, social Darwinism and the pseudo-hierarchy of races, grounded in the biologization of the notion of "race", were simultaneously "proved", and the layman could observe this "scientific truth." i like western films The Western is an American genre in literature and film. ... Combatants Indian Nationss Colonial America/United States of America Indian Wars is the name generally used in the United States to describe a series of conflicts between the Americans and the Indian Nations. ... See Anthropology. ... Madison Grant in the early 1920s. ... Alexis Carrel Alexis Carrel (June 28, 1873 – November 5, 1944) was a French surgeon and biologist. ... Joseph Arthur Comte de Gobineau (July 14, 1816 - October 13, 1882) was a French aristocrat who became famous for advocating White Supremacy and developing the racialist theory of the Aryan master race in his book An Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races (1853-1855). ... An Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races by Joseph Arthur Comte de Gobineau is an early and significant work defining the concept of Scientific racism and White supremacy. ... For other uses of lab, see Lab. ... Ota Benga in 1904, showing his sharpened teeth. ... Families Hylobatidae Hominidae Apes are the members of the Hominoidea superfamily of primates, including humans. ... World map showing Europe Political map Europe is one of the seven traditional continents of Earth; the term continent here referring to a cultural and political distinction, rather than a physiographic one, thus leading to various perspectives about Europes precise borders. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... For other uses, see Race (disambiguation). ...


Anthropology, the daughter of colonisation, participated in this so-called scientific racism based on social Darwinism by supporting, along with social positivism and scientism, the claims of the superiority of the Western civilization over "primitive cultures". However, the discovery of ancient cultures would dialectically lead anthropology to criticize itself and revalue the importance of foreign cultures. Thus, the 1897 Punitive Expedition led by the British Admiral Harry Rawson captured, burned, and looted the city of Benin, incidentally bringing to an end the highly sophisticated West African Kingdom of Benin. However, the sack of Benin distributed the famous Benin bronzes and other works of art into the European art market, as the British Admiralty auctioned off the confiscated patrimony to defray costs of the Expedition. Most of the great Benin bronzes went first to purchasers in Germany, though a sizable group remain in the British Museum. The Benin bronzes then catalyzed the beginnings of a long reassessment of the value of West African culture, which had strong influences on the formation of modernism. Anthropology (from Greek: ἀνθρωπος, anthropos, human being; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the comparative study of the physical and social characteristics of humanity through the examination of historical and present geographical distribution, cultural history, acculturation, and cultural relationships. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... This article describes the term positivism as used in social sciences, especially within the science of sociology. ... Scientism is a term mainly used as a pejorative[1][2][3] to accuse someone of holding that science has primacy over all other interpretations of life such as religious, mythical, spiritual, or humanistic explanations. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Broadly speaking, a dialectic (Greek: διαλεκτική) is an exchange of propositions (theses) and counter-propositions (antitheses) resulting in a disagreement. ... The Punitive Expedition of 1897 was a military excursion by a British force of 1,200 under Admiral Sir Harry Rawson that captured, burned, and looted the city of Benin, incidentally bringing to an end the highly sophisticated West African Kingdom of Benin. ... Admiral Sir Harry Holdsworth Rawson, KCB (1843-1910), is chiefly remembered now for having overseen the British Punitive Expedition of 1897 that burned and looted the city of Benin, now in Nigeria. ...  Western Africa (UN subregion)  Maghreb[1] West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of the African continent. ... --168. ... The Benin Bronzes are a collection of more than 1,000 brass plaques from the royal palace of the Kingdom of Benin. ... For the international law of the sea, see Admiralty law. ... The British Museum in London is one of the worlds greatest museums of human history and culture. ... For Modernism in an American context, see American modernism. ...


Several contemporary studies have thus focused on the construction of the racist discourse in the 19th century and its propaganda as a precondition of the colonization project and of the Scramble of Africa, made with total disconcern for the local population, as exemplified by Stanley, according to whom "the savage only respects force, power, boldness, and decision." Anthropology, which was related to criminology, thrived on these explorations, as had geography before them and ethnology — which, along with Claude Lévi-Strauss' studies, would theorize the ethnocentric illusion — afterwards. According to several historians, the formulation of this racist discourse and practices would also be a precondition of "state racism" (Michel Foucault) as incarnated by the Holocaust (see also Olivier LeCour Grandmaison's description of the conquest of Algeria and Sven Lindqvist, as well as Hannah Arendt). The invention of concentration camps during the Second Boer War would also be an innovation used by the Third Reich. Sir Henry Morton Stanley, also known in the Congo as Bula Matari (Breaker of Rocks or, alternatively, Sledge Hammer) , born John Rowlands (January 28, 1841 – May 10, 1904), was a journalist and explorer famous for his exploration of Africa and his search for David Livingstone. ... Look up savage in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Criminology is the scientific study of crime as an individual and social phenomenon. ... Ethnology (from the Greek ethnos, meaning people) is the branch of anthropology that compares and analyses the origins, distribution, technology, religion, language, and social structure of the racial or national divisions of humanity. ... Claude Lévi-Strauss Claude Lévi-Strauss (IPA pronunciation ); born November 28, 1908) is a Jewish-French anthropologist who developed structuralism as a method of understanding human society and culture. ... State racism is a concept used by French philosopher Michel Foucault to designate the reappropriation of the historical and political discourse of race struggle, In the late seventeenth century. ... Michel Foucault (IPA pronunciation: ) (October 15, 1926 – June 25, 1984) was a French philosopher and historian. ... For other uses, see Holocaust (disambiguation) and Shoah (disambiguation). ... Olivier LeCour Grandmaison (September 19, 1960, Paris) is a French historian. ... French rule in Algeria lasted from 1830 to 1962, under a variety of governmental systems. ... Sven Lindqvist (born April 28, 1932) is a Swedish author and professor. ... It has been suggested that Internment be merged into this article or section. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ...


The extermination of the Namaka and the Herero

A 19th century caricature of the "Hottentot Venus". Saartje Baartman, a Khoisan woman, was exhibited naked and in a cage as a sideshow attraction in England, fueling the African Association's indignation. After her death, her genitals were dissected and cast in wax. Nelson Mandela formally requested France to return her remains, which had been kept at the Parisian Musée de l'Homme until 1974.
Surviving Herero, emaciated, after their escape through the Omaheke desert.
Surviving Herero, emaciated, after their escape through the Omaheke desert.

In 1985, the United Nations' Whitaker Report recognized Germany's turn of the century attempt to exterminate the Herero and Namaqua peoples of South-West Africa as one of the earliest attempts at genocide in the 20th century. In total, some 65,000 Herero (80 percent of the total Herero population), and 10,000 Namaqua (50 percent of the total Namaqua population) were killed between 1904 and 1907. Characteristic of this genocide was death by starvation and the poisoning of wells for the Herero and Namaqua population who were trapped in the Namib Desert. Surviving Herero after the escape through the arid desert of Omaheke. ... Saartje Baartman This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Saartje Baartman This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... For the book of comics by Daniel Clowes see Caricature (Daniel Clowes collection) A common caricature of Charles Darwin focuses on his beard, eyebrows, and baldness, while often giving him the features of an ape or monkey. ... Saartjie Baartman (1789-1815) was the most famous of at least two Hottentot women who were exhibited as sideshow attractions in 19th century Europe under the name Hottentot Venus . ... A caricature of Baartman drawn in the early 19th century Saartjie Baartman (1789-1815) was the most famous of at least two Khoikhoi women who were exhibited as sideshow attractions in 19th century Europe under the name Hottentot Venus. ... Khoisan (increasingly commonly spelled Khoesan or Khoe-San) is the name for two major ethnic groups of southern Africa. ... Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela (IPA pronunciation: //) (born July 18, 1918) was the first President of South Africa to be elected in fully-representative democratic elections. ... The Musée de lHomme (French for Museum of Man) was created in 1937 by Paul Rivet, for the event of the Worlds Fair. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (933x612, 159 KB) Summary Surviving Herero after the escape through the arid desert of Omaheke. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (933x612, 159 KB) Summary Surviving Herero after the escape through the arid desert of Omaheke. ... A group of Herero women. ... Area: 84,732 km² (32,715 mi²) Population: 67,496 (2001), 52,735 (1991) Population density 0. ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... A group of Herero women. ... Nama (in older sourses also Namaqua) are a pastoral people of South Africa, Namibia and Botswana speaking the Nama language which belongs to the Khoe-Kwadi language family (previously known as Central Khoisan). ... South-West Africa is the former name (1884-1990) of Namibia under German (as German South-West Africa, Deutsch Süd-West Afrika) and (from 1915) South African administration when it was conquered from the Germans during World War I. Following the war, the Treaty of Versailles declared the territory... Genocide is the mass killing of a group of people as defined by Article 2 of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (CPPCG) as any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnic, racial or... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... Dune 7, one of the highest sand dunes in the world (ca. ...


Conclusions

During the New Imperialism period, by the end of the century, Europe added almost 9 million square miles (23,000,000 km²) — one-fifth of the land area of the globe — to its overseas colonial possessions. Europe's formal holdings now included the entire African continent except Ethiopia, Liberia, and Saguia el-Hamra, the latter of which would be integrated into Spanish Sahara. Between 1885 and 1914 Britain took nearly 30% of Africa's population under its control, to 15% for France, 9% for Germany, 7% for Belgium and only 1% for Italy[citation needed]. Nigeria alone contributed 15 million subjects, more than in the whole of French West Africa or the entire German colonial empire. It was paradoxical that Britain, the staunch advocate of free trade, emerged in 1914 with not only the largest overseas empire thanks to its long-standing presence in India, but also the greatest gains in the "scramble for Africa", reflecting its advantageous position at its inception. In terms of surface area occupied, the French were the marginal victors but much of their territory consisted of the sparsely-populated Sahara. This region of Western Sahara makes up the northern third of the country. ... Spanish Sahara was the name used for the modern territory of Western Sahara when it was ruled by Spain, created from the Spanish territories of Rio de Oro and La Aguera in 1924. ... Location of French West Africa French West Africa (French: ) was a federation of eight French territories in Africa: Mauritania, Senegal, French Sudan (now Mali), French Guinea (now Guinea), Côte dIvoire, Niger, Upper Volta (now Burkina Faso) and Dahomey (now Benin). ...


The political imperialism followed the economic expansion, with the "colonial lobbies" bolstering chauvinism and jingoism at each crisis in order to legitimize the colonial enterprise. The tensions between the imperial powers led to a succession of crisis, which finally exploded in August 1914, when previous rivalries and alliances created a domino situation that drew the major European nations into the war. Austria-Hungary attacked Serbia to avenge the murder by Serbian agents of Austrian crown prince Francis Ferdinand, Russia would mobilize to assist its slavic brothers in Serbia, Germany would intervene to support Austria-Hungary against Russia. Since Russia had a military alliance with France against Germany, the German General Staff, led by General von Moltke decided to realize the well prepared Schlieffen Plan to invade France and quickly knock her out of the war before turning against Russia in what was expected to be a long campaign. This required an invasion of Belgium which brought Britain into the war against Germany, Austria-Hungary and their allies. German U-Boat campaigns against ships bound for Britain eventually drew the United States into what had become the First World War. Moreover, using the Anglo-Japanese Alliance as an excuse, Japan leaped onto this opportunity to conquer German interests in China and the Pacific to become the dominating power in Western Pacific, setting the stage for the Second Sino-Japanese War (starting in 1937) and eventually the Second World War. Chauvinism is extreme and unreasoning partisanship on behalf of a group to which one belongs, especially when the partisanship includes malice and hatred towards a rival group. ... Jingoism is a term describing chauvinistic patriotism, usually with a hawkish political stance. ... The German General Staff, (Großer Generalstab, literally, Great General Staff) was an institution whose rise and development gave the German military a decided advantage over its adversaries. ... Helmuth von Moltke Chief of the General Staff Helmuth Johann Ludwig von Moltke (May 25, 1848–June 18, 1916), also known as Moltke the Younger, was a nephew of Field Marshal Count Moltke and served as the Chief of the German General Staff from 1906 to 1914. ... Alfred Graf von Schlieffen For the French counter-plan, see Plan XVII The Schlieffen Plan was the German General Staffs overall strategic plan for victory on the Western Front against France, and was executed to near victory in the first month of World War I; however, a French counterattack... U-boat is also a nickname for some diesel locomotives built by GE; see List of GE locomotives October 1939. ... For other meanings of Pacific, see Pacific (disambiguation). ... Combatants Republic of China Empire of Japan Commanders Chiang Kai-shek, Chen Cheng, Yan Xishan, Feng Yuxiang, Li Zongren, Xue Yue, Mao Zedong, Peng Dehuai Fumimaro Konoe, Hideki Tojo, Matsui Iwane, Jiro Minami, Kesago Nakajima, Toshizo Nishio, Yasuji Okamura, Umezu Yoshijiro Strength 5,600,000 4,100,000 (including 900... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ...


African colonies listed by colonizing power

Belgium

Congo Free State and Belgian Congo (now Democratic Republic of Congo)

Flag Capital Boma Government Monarchy Ruler and owner Leopold II of Belgium Historical era New Imperialism  - Established 1885  - Annexation by Belgium 15 November, 1908 The Congo Free State was a corporate state privately owned by King Leopold II of Belgium (not in his role as monarch) that included the entire... Motto: Travail et Progres (Work and Progress) The Belgian Congo Capital Léopoldville/Leopoldstad Political structure Colony Governor  - 1908-1910 Baron Wahis  - 1946-1951 Eugène Jacques Pierre Louis Jungers  - 1958-1960 Henri Arthur Adolf Marie Christopher Cornelis History  - Established 15 November, 1908  - Congolese independence 30 June, 1960 The Belgian...

France

Algeria
Tunisia
Morocco
French West Africa
Mauritania
Senegal
French Sudan (now Mali)
Guinea
Côte d'Ivoire
Niger
Upper Volta (now Burkina Faso)
Dahomey (now Benin).
French Equatorial Africa
Gabon
Middle Congo (now the Republic of the Congo)
Oubangi-Chari (now the Central African Republic)
Chad
French Somaliland (now Djibouti)
Madagascar
Comoros

Location of French West Africa French West Africa (French: ) was a federation of eight French territories in Africa: Mauritania, Senegal, French Sudan (now Mali), French Guinea (now Guinea), Côte dIvoire, Niger, Upper Volta (now Burkina Faso) and Dahomey (now Benin). ... French Sudan (Fr. ... Map showing the Volta river in Upper Volta Upper Volta (French: ) was the name of the African country now called Burkina Faso. ... Dahomey was a kingdom in Africa, situated in what is now the nation of Benin. ... Location of French Equatorial Africa. ... The Republic of the Congo, also known as Middle Congo, Congo-Brazzaville, and Congo (but not to be confused with the Democratic Republic of the Congo, formerly Zaire, which was also at one time known as the Republic of the Congo), is a former French colony of west-central Africa. ... The Republic of Djibouti (جيبوتي) is a country in eastern Africa, located in the Horn of Africa. ...

Germany

German Kamerun (now Cameroon)
German East Africa (now Burundi, Rwanda, and Tanzania)
German South-West Africa (now Namibia)
German Togoland

The Republic of Cameroon is a unitary republic of central Africa. ... German East Africa (German: Deutsch-Ostafrika) was Germanys colony in East Africa, including what is now Burundi, Rwanda, and Tanganyika, the mainland part of present Tanzania. ... Flag German South-West Africa (black), other German colonies in red Capital Windhoek (from 1891) Political structure Colony Governor  - 1898-1905 Theodor von Leutwein  - 1905-1907 Friedrich von Lindequist  - 1907-1910 Bruno von Schuckmann  - 1910-1915 Theodor Seitz Historical era The Scramble for Africa  - Established 7 August, 1884  - Genocide 1904... Togoland was a German protectorate in West Africa. ...

Italy

Italian North Africa (now Libya)
Eritrea
Italian Somaliland (now Somalia)

Italian North Africa was the aggregate of territories and colonies controlled by Italy in North Africa from 1911 until World War II, which later became independent as Libya. ... Italian Somaliland was an Italian colony that lasted, apart from a brief interlude of British rule, from the late 19th century until 1960 in the territory of the modern-day East African nation of Somalia. ...

Portugal

Angola
Portuguese Cabinda
Portuguese East Africa (now Mozambique)
Portuguese Guinea (now Guinea-Bissau)
Cape Verde Islands
São Tomé and Príncipe

Cabinda is a territory, ocupied by Angola. ... Mozambique is a country in Southern Africa, bordering South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Malawi, Zambia and Zimbabwe. ... Portuguese Guinea was the name for what is today Guinea-Bissau from 1446 to September 10, 1974. ...

Spain

Spanish Sahara (now Western Sahara, composed of:)
Río de Oro
Saguia el-Hamra
Spanish Morocco
Tarfaya Strip
Ifni
Spanish Guinea (now Equatorial Guinea, composed of:)
Fernando Poo
Río Muni
Annobon

Spanish Sahara was the name used for the modern territory of Western Sahara when it was ruled by Spain, created from the Spanish territories of Rio de Oro and La Aguera in 1924. ... Río de Oro (Spanish for Gold River, Arabic: wādī-ð-ðahab, often transliterated as Oued Edhahab), is, with Saguia el-Hamra, one of the two territories that formed the Spanish province of Spanish Sahara after 1969. ... This region of Western Sahara makes up the northern third of the country. ... Spanish Morocco, was the area of Morocco ruled by Spain from up to 1956, when France and Spain recognised Moroccan independence. ... The southernmost region in Morocco, the Tarfaya Strip was one of the last holdings in current-day Morocco ceeded by the Spanish before Moroccan integration. ... Ifni was a Spanish province on the African coast in what is now Morocco, south of Agadir and across from the Canary Islands. ... Spanish Guinea was an African colony of Spain that became the independent nation of Equatorial Guinea. ... Bioko is an island off the west coast of Africa in the Gulf of Guinea, formerly called Fernando Po or Fernando Poo. ... Rio Muni (called Mbini in Fang), mainland geographical region of Equatorial Guinea, covering 26,000 km². Rio Muni was ceded by Portugal to Spain in 1778. ... Annob n is an island south of S o Tom Island (S o Tom and ncipe), belonging to Equatorial Guinea. ...

Britain

The British were primarily interested in maintaining secure communication lines to India, which led to initial interest in Egypt and South Africa. Once these two areas were secure, it was the intent of British colonialists such as Cecil Rhodes to establish a Cape-Cairo railway. Cecil Rhodes. ... Rhodes: Cape to Cairo The Cape-Cairo Railway is an uncompleted project to cross Africa from south to north by rail. ...

Egypt
Anglo-Egyptian Sudan (now Sudan)
British East Africa
Kenya
Uganda
British Somaliland
Southern Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe)
Northern Rhodesia (now Zambia)
Bechuanaland (now Botswana)
Orange Free State
British South Africa
The Gambia
Sierra Leone
Nigeria
British Gold Coast (now Ghana)
Nyasaland (now Malawi)

Anglo-Egyptian Sudan was the name of Sudan between 1899 and 1956, when it was a condominium of the United Kingdom and Egypt. ... British East Africa was a British protectorate in East Africa, covering generally the area of present-day Kenya and lasting from 1890 to 1920, when it became the colony of Kenya. ... The British Somaliland was a British protectorate in the north part of the Horn of Africa, and later part of Somalia and presently the unrecognized Republic of Somaliland. ... Southern Rhodesia was the name of the British colony situated immediately to the north of South Africa, known today as Zimbabwe. ... Flag of Northern Rhodesia. ... The Bechuanaland Protectorate (BP) was a protectorate established in 1885 by Britain in the area of what is now Botswana. ... Flag of the Orange Free State Capital Bloemfontein Language(s) Afrikaans, English Religion Dutch Reformed Church Government Republic President  - 1854 - 1855 Josias P. Hoffman  - 1855 - 1859 Jacobus Nicolaas Boshoff  - 1859 - 1863 Marthinus Wessel Pretorius (also President of the South African Republic from 1857 to 1871). ... Motto Ex Unitate Vires (Latin: From Unity, strength} Anthem Die Stem van Suid-Afrika Capital Cape Town (legislative) Pretoria (administrative) Bloemfontein (judicial) Language(s) Afrikaans, Dutch, English Government Constitutional monarchy Monarch  - 1952-1961 Queen Elizabeth II Governor-General  - 1959-1961 Charles Robberts Swart Prime Minister  - 1958-1961 Hendrik Frensch Verwoerd... The Republic of Ghana is a nation of Africa, specifically West Africa within Côte dIvoire to the west, Burkina Faso in the north, Togo to the east, and borders the Gulf of Guinea to its south. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ...

Independent states

Liberia, founded by the United States' American Colonization Society in 1821. Declared independence 1847.
Ethiopia (Abyssinia), had its borders re-drawn with Italian Eritrea and French Somaliland (modern Djibouti), briefly occupied by Italy from 1936-41 during World War II's Abyssinia Crisis

The American Colonization Society (in full, The Society for the Colonization of Free People of Color of America) founded Liberia, a colony on the coast of West Africa in 1817 and transported free blacks there, in an effort to remove them from the United States. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Abyssinia Crisis was a pre-WW2 diplomatic crisis originating in the conflict between Italy and Ethiopia (then called Abyssinia by the British). ...

References

  1. ^ S. Gertrude Millin, Rhodes, London, 1933, p.138
  2. ^ Robert O. Collins, Historical Problems of Imperial Africa, (Princeton: Markus Wiener Publishers, 1994), 7
  3. ^ Kevin Shillington, History of Africa: Revised Second Edition, (New York: Macmillian Publishers Limited, 2005), 301
  4. ^ Kevin Shillington, History of Africa: Revised Second Edition, (New York: Macmillian Publishers Limited, 2005), 301
  5. ^ Alfred von Tirpitz, Erinnerungen (1919), quoted by Hannah Arendt, The Origins of Totalitarianism, section on Imperialism, chapter I, part 3
  6. ^ German colonial imperialism: a late and short-term phenomenon (PDF) by Bernard Poloni, in "Imperialism, hegemony, leadership", March 26, 2004 Conference in the Sorbonne University, Paris (French)
  7. ^ Enrico Corradini, Report to the First Nationalist Congress: Florence, December 3, 1919.
  8. ^ L'Aventure Humaine: Le canal de Suez, Article de l'historien Uwe Oster.
  9. ^ BBC News website:The Suez Crisis — Key maps.
  10. ^ John A. Hobson, Imperialism, 1902, p.61 (quoted by Arendt)
  11. ^ From human zoos to colonial apotheoses: the era of exhibiting the Other, by Pascal Blanchard, Nicolas Bancel, and Sandrine Lemaire
  12. ^ "These human zoos of the Colonial Republic", Le Monde diplomatique, August 2000, (French) (Translation (English))
  13. ^ February 2003, the end of an era

Sarah Gertrude Millin, born Sarah Gertrude Liebson (1889 - 1968) was a Lithuania-born South African writer. ... Alfred von Tirpitz Alfred von Tirpitz (March 19, 1849 – March 6, 1930) was a German Admiral, Minister of State and Commander of the Kaiserliche Marine in World War I from 1914 until 1916. ... Hannah Arendt (October 14, 1906 – December 4, 1975) was a Jewish-German (later American) political theorist. ... The Origins of Totalitarianism is a book by Hannah Arendt, dedicated to her husband Heinrich Blücher. ... ... Enrico Corradini (1865, near Montelupo Fiorentino—1931, Rome) was an Italian novelist, essayist, journalist, and nationalist political figure. ... John Atkinson Hobson (July 6, 1858 – April 1, 1940) was an English economist and imperial critic, widely popular as a lecturer and writer. ... Imperialism was a political-economic discourse written by John A. Hobson in 1902. ... Le Monde diplomatique (nicknamed Le Diplo by its French readers) is a monthly publication offering analysis and opinion on politics, culture, and current affairs. ...

Further reading

Primm, JT. "Causes/Effects of Imperialism" DK Publications, 1999. Hannah Arendt (October 14, 1906 – December 4, 1975) was a Jewish-German (later American) political theorist. ... The Origins of Totalitarianism is a book by Hannah Arendt, dedicated to her husband Heinrich Blücher. ... Eric John Earnest Hobsbawm CH (born June 8, 1917 in Alexandria, Egypt) is a British Marxist historian and author. ... Sven Lindqvist (born April 28, 1932) is a Swedish author and professor. ... Thomas Francis Dermot Pakenham, 8th Earl of Longford (born 14 August 1933), known simply as Thomas Pakenham, is an Anglo-Irish historian and arborist who has authored several prize winning books on the diverse subjects of Victorian and post-Victorian British history and trees. ... The Scramble for Africa: The White Mans Conquest of the Dark Continent from 1876 to 1912 is a comprehensive but popular history of the Scramble for Africa by Thomas Pakenham. ...


See also

This is a non-exhaustive chronology of colonialism-related events, which may recensed political events, cultural events, as well as important global events which have influenced the colonization and the decolonization. ... It has been suggested that Benign colonialism be merged into this article or section. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Human Zoo (Völkerschau) in Stuttgart (Germany) in 1928 For other uses, see Human zoo (disambiguation). ... This article refers to the evaluation of Western colonialism. ... It has been suggested that Race science be merged into this article or section. ... White African people are descendants of Europeans who settled on the continent of Africa under colonial rule. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... The Congo Reform Association exposed gross and rampant abuses of labor in King Leopold II of Belgiums Congo Free State, leading to the annexation of Congo by Belgium in 1908. ...

External links

  • Belgium exhumes its colonial demons

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