FACTOID # 14: North Carolina has a larger Native American population than North Dakota, South Dakota and Montana combined.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Scottish people
Scots
Total population

Scottish
est: 30,000,000
0.43% of World's Population
These figures are estimates based on offical census data of populations and official surveys of identity.

[1][2] Scotland covers an area of 78,782km² or 30,341mi², giving it a population density of 64 people/km². Around 70% of the countrys population live in the Central Lowlands - a broad, fertile valley stretching in a northeast-southwest orientation between the cities of Edinburgh and Glasgow, and including... Look up Scot, scot in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other persons named James Watt, see James Watt (disambiguation). ... Raeburns portrait of Sir Walter Scott in 1822. ... Alexander Graham Bell (3 March 1847 – 2 August 1922) was an eminent scientist, inventor and innovator who is credited with the invention of the telephone. ... For other persons named William Wallace, see William Wallace (disambiguation). ... Mary, Queen of Scots redirects here. ... Sir Thomas Sean Connery (born August 25, 1930) is a Academy Award, Golden Globe, and BAFTA Award-winning Scottish actor and producer who is perhaps best known as the first actor to portray James Bond in cinema, starring in seven Bond films. ...


[3] [4]

Regions with significant populations
Flag of Scotland Scotland 4,459,071
(Scottish descent only)
Flag of the United States United States 9,209,813
(Scottish American)
[5]
[6]
Flag of Canada Canada 4,719,850 [7]
Flag of Australia Australia 1,501,204 [8]
Flag of England England 795,000
Flag of New Zealand New Zealand 10,700 (1996)
12,792 (2001)
est. >1,000,000 with Scottish ancestry
[9]
Language(s)
English, Scottish English, Scottish Gaelic, Scots
Religion(s)
Christianity (mainly Presbyterianism, Roman Catholicism, Episcopalianism); other minority groups, agnostics and atheists.

The Scottish people (Scottish Gaelic: Albannaich (plural)) are a nation[10] and an ethnic group indigenous to Scotland. Image File history File links Flag_of_Scotland. ... This article is about the country. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Scottish Americans or Scots Americans are citizens of the United States whose ancestry originates in the northwest European nation of Scotland. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_England. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_New_Zealand. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Scottish English is usually taken to mean the standard form of the English language used in Scotland, often termed Scottish Standard English[1][2]. It is the language normally used in formal, non-fiction written texts in Scotland. ... // Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages. ... This article is about the Anglic language of Scotland. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Presbyterianism is a family of Christian denominations within the Reformed branch of Protestant Western Christianity. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Logo of the Scottish Episcopal Church with the motto: Evangelical truth and Apostolic order. ... Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages. ... For other uses, see Nation (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country. ...


As an ethnic group, they are a composition of groups such as the Picts, Gaels, Brythons, Angles, and Norse. A replica of the Hilton of Cadboll Stone. ... “Gael” redirects here. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... White cliffs of Dover in England White cliffs of Rugen down the Baltic coast from Schleswig The Angles is a modern English word for a Germanic-speaking people who took their name from the cultural ancestor of Angeln, a modern district located in Schleswig, Germany. ... Norseman redirects here; for the town of the same name see Norseman, Western Australia. ...


In modern use, "Scottish people" or "Scots" refers to anyone born or living in Scotland. In another sense, it applies to people who are descended from the Scots and who identify ethnically as Scottish. While the Latin word Scoti[11] originally applied to a particular, 5th century, Gaelic tribe that inhabited areas in the north of Ireland and western Scotland,[12][dubious ] the term Scots is now used to describe all Scottish people. Though usually considered archaic or pejorative, the term Scotch has also been used for the Scottish people, but this use has been primarily by people outside of Scotland.[13][14][15] This article or section should be merged with ethnic group Ethnicity is the cultural characteristics that connect a particular group or groups of people to each other. ... “Gael” redirects here. ... In language, an archaism is the deliberate use of an older form that has fallen out of current use. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with pejoration. ... Scotch is an obsolescent adjective meaning of Scotland. Common contemporary usage is Scottish or Scots in Britain but Scotch is still in contemporary use outside of England and Scotland. ...


There are people of Scottish descent in many countries other than Scotland. Emigration, influenced by factors such as the Highland and Lowland Clearances, and the formation of the British Empire, has resulted in Scottish people being found throughout the world. Large populations of Scottish people settled the new-world lands of North and South America, Australia and New Zealand, with a large Scottish presence being particularly noticeable in Canada. They took with them their Scottish languages and culture.[16] A memorial statue in Hanko, Finland, commemorating the thousands of emigrants who left the country to start a new life in the United States Emigration is the act and the phenomenon of leaving ones native country or region to settle in another. ... The Highland Clearances (Scottish Gaelic: Fuadaich nan Gàidheal, the expulsion of the Gael) is a name given to the forced displacement of the population of the Scottish Highlands from their ancient ways of warrior clan subsistence farming, leading to mass emigration. ... The Lowland Clearances (Scottish Gaelic: Fuadaich nan Galltachd) in Scotland were one of the results of the British Agricultural Revolution, which changed the traditional system of agriculture which had existed in Lowland Scotland for hundreds of years. ... For a comprehensive list of the territories that formed the British Empire, see Evolution of the British Empire. ... North American redirects here. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Scotland is a land of diverse linguistic and cultural heritage. ... Addressing the haggis during Burns supper : Fair fa your honest, sonsie face, Great chieftain o the puddin-race! Scottish culture is the national culture of Scotland. ...


Scotland has seen migration and settlement of peoples at different periods in its history. The Dalriadic Gaels, the Picts and the Britons had respective origin myths, like most Dark Age European peoples. [17][dubious ] Germanic people such as Angles and Saxons arrived beginning in the 7th century while the Norse settled many regions of Scotland from the 8th century onwards.[dubious ] In the High Middle Ages, from the reign of David I of Scotland, there was some immigration from France, England and the Low Countries. Many famous Scottish family names, including those bearing the names which became Bruce, Balliol, Murray and Stewart came to Scotland at this time. In the 19th, 20th and 21st centuries, people of diverse ethnic origins have settled in Scotland, forming immigrant communities which have integrated into Scottish society. Stirling Castle has stood for centuries atop a volcanic crag defending the lowest ford of the River Forth. ... White cliffs of Dover in England White cliffs of Rugen down the Baltic coast from Schleswig The Angles is a modern English word for a Germanic-speaking people who took their name from the cultural ancestor of Angeln, a modern district located in Schleswig, Germany. ... For other uses, see Saxon (disambiguation). ... Norseman redirects here; for the town of the same name see Norseman, Western Australia. ... Dunnottar Castle in the Mearns occupies one of the best defensive locations in Great Britain. ... Linguistic division in early twelfth century Scotland. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... For information about the confusion between the Low Countries and the Netherlands, see Netherlands (terminology). ... This article is about the name. ... Full name Balliol College Motto - Named after John de Balliol Previous names - Established 1263 Sister College St Johns College, Cambridge Master Andrew Graham (academic) Location Broad Street Undergraduates 403 Graduates 228 Homepage Boatclub Balliol College, founded in 1263, is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford... Murray is a common variation of the word Moray, an anglicisation of the Medieval Gaelic word Muireb (or Moreb); the b here was pronounced as v, hence the Latinization to Moravia. ... Stewart is a common surname and is also used as a male first name. ...

Contents

The indigenous ethnic groups of Scotland

For a genetic and archaeological history of the people of Scotland see Prehistoric settlement of Great Britain and Ireland

In the Early Middle Ages, Scotland had several ethnic or cultural groups labeled as such in contemporary sources, namely the Picts, the Gaels, the Britons, with the Angles settling in the far southeast of the country in smaller numbers. Culturally, these peoples are grouped according to language. Almost all of Scotland until the 13th century spoke Celtic languages and these included, at least initially, the Britons, as well as the Gaels and the Picts.[18] Germanic peoples included the Angles of Northumbria, who settled in southeastern Scotland, and later the Norse arriving from Norway in the north and west. Research into the prehistoric settlement of Great Britain and Ireland is controversial, with differences of opinion from many academic disciplines. ... A replica of the Hilton of Cadboll Stone. ... “Gael” redirects here. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... White cliffs of Dover in England White cliffs of Rugen down the Baltic coast from Schleswig The Angles is a modern English word for a Germanic-speaking people who took their name from the cultural ancestor of Angeln, a modern district located in Schleswig, Germany. ... The Celtic languages are the languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or Common Celtic, a branch of the greater Indo-European language family. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... “Gael” redirects here. ... A replica of the Hilton of Cadboll Stone. ... Thor/Donar, Germanic thunder god. ... Section from Shepherds map of the British Isles about 802 AD showing the kingdom of Northumbria Northumbria is primarily the name of a petty kingdom of Angles which was formed in Great Britain at the beginning of the 7th century, from two smaller kingdoms of Bernicia and Diera, and...


With the arrival of the Gaels, use of the Gaelic language spread throughout nearly the whole of Scotland by the 9th century,[19][20] reaching a peak in the eleventh century.[21] Not all of medieval Scotland was Gaelic-speaking, however. Southeast of the Firth of Forth in Lothian and the Borders, a northern variety of Middle English, also known as Early Scots, was spoken. Eastern Caithness and the Northern Isles were Norn-speaking. From 1200 to 1500 the Early Scots language spread across the lowland parts of Scotland between Galloway and the Highland line. Old Irish is the name given to the oldest form of the Irish language, or, rather, the Goidelic languages, for which extensive written texts are possessed. ... my children are my life ... The Firth of Forth from Calton Hill The Forth Bridges cross the Firth Satellite photo of the Firth and the surrounding area Map of the Firth Firth of Forth (Scottish Gaelic: Linne Foirthe) is the estuary or firth of Scotlands River Forth, where it flows into the North Sea... Lothian (Lowden in Scots, Lodainn in Gaelic) forms a traditional region of Scotland, lying between the southern shore of the Firth of Forth and the Lammermuir Hills. ... Scottish Borders (often referred to locally as The Borders or The Borderland) is one of 35 local government unitary council areas of Scotland. ... Middle English is the name given by historical linguistics to the diverse forms of the English language spoken between the Norman invasion of 1066 and the mid-to-late 15th century, when the Chancery Standard, a form of London-based English, began to become widespread, a process aided by the... Early Scots describes the emerging literary language of the Northern Middle English speaking parts of Scotland in the period before 1450. ... Caithness (Gallaibh in Gaelic)[1] is a committee area of Highland Council, Scotland; a lieutenancy area; and a registration county, Caithness was formerly a district within the Highland region from 1975 to 1996 and a local government county with its own county council from 1890 to 1975. ... The Northern Isles are a chain of islands off the north coast of Scotland. ... Norn is an extinct North Germanic language that was spoken on the Shetland Islands and Orkney Islands, off the coast of Scotland. ... Early Scots describes the emerging literary language of the Northern Middle English speaking parts of Scotland in the period before 1450. ... Galloway (Scottish Gaelic, Gall-Ghàidhealaibh or Gallobha, Lowland Scots Gallowa) is an area in southwestern Scotland. ...


From 1500 until recent years, Scotland was commonly divided by language into two groups of people, the Gaelic-speaking "Highlanders" and the Scots-speaking (later English-speaking) "Lowlanders". Today, immigrants have brought other languages, but almost every adult throughout Scotland is fluent in the English language. // Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages. ... The term highland is used to denote any mountainous region or elevated mountainous plateau. ... This article is about the Anglic language of Scotland. ... Scottish English is usually taken to mean the standard form of the English language used in Scotland, often termed Scottish Standard English[1][2]. It is the language normally used in formal, non-fiction written texts in Scotland. ... The Scottish Lowlands (a Ghalldachd, meaning roughly the non-Gaelic region, in Gaelic), although not officially a geographical area of the country, in normal usage is generally meant to include those parts of Scotland not referred to as the Highlands (or Gàidhealtachd), that is, everywhere due south and east... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


Scottish people abroad

Further information: Highland Clearances, Lowland Clearances and Ulster-Scots
Areas with greatest proportion of reported Scottish ancestry. Does not include those of Scots-Irish ancestry.

Today, Scotland has a population of just over five million people, the majority of whom consider themselves Scottish.[22] In addition, there are many more Scots abroad than in Scotland. In the 2000 Census, 4.8 million Americans reported Scottish ancestry,[23] 1.7% of the total U.S. population. Given Scotland's population (just over 5 million), there are almost as many Scottish Americans as there are native Scots living in their home country. Another 4.3 million reported Scots-Irish ancestry, for a total of 9.2 million Americans of Scottish descent.[5] However, this number is believed to be a serious under-count, as the areas where people reported "American" ancestry are places where, historically, Scottish and Scots-Irish Protestants settled in America , in the interior of the South, and the Applachian region. It is believed that the number of Scots-Irish Americans could be in the region of 27 million.[3] [4] The Highland Clearances (Scottish Gaelic: Fuadaich nan Gàidheal, the expulsion of the Gael) is a name given to the forced displacement of the population of the Scottish Highlands from their ancient ways of warrior clan subsistence farming, leading to mass emigration. ... The Lowland Clearances (Scottish Gaelic: Fuadaich nan Galltachd) in Scotland were one of the results of the British Agricultural Revolution, which changed the traditional system of agriculture which had existed in Lowland Scotland for hundreds of years. ... Ulster-Scots is a term mainly used in Ireland and Britain (Scotch-Irish or Scots-Irishis commonly used in North America) primarily to refer to Presbyterian Scots, or their descendents, who migrated from the Scottish Lowlands to Ulster (the northern province of Ireland), largely across the 17th century. ... Image File history File links Scottish1346. ... Image File history File links Scottish1346. ... 2000 US Census logo The Twenty-Second United States Census, known as Census 2000 and conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States on April 1, 2000, to be 281,421,906, an increase of 13. ... Scots-Irish (formerly Scotch-Irish) is a term used to describe inhabitants of the USA and Canada of Scots-Irish (particularly Ulster-Scots) descent, who formed distinctive communities and had distinctive social characteristics. ... Historic Southern United States. ... The Appalachian Mountains are a vast system of mountains in eastern North America. ... Scots-Irish Americans are descendants of the Scots-Irish immigrants who came to North America in the late 17th and 18th centuries. ...


In Canada, according to the 2001 Census of Canada data, the Scottish-Canadian community accounts for 4,157,210 people.[7] Scottish-Canadians are the 3rd biggest ethnic group in Canada. Scottish culture has particularly thrived in the Canadian province of Nova Scotia (Latin for "New Scotland") where Canadian Gaelic is still spoken by a very small number in Cape Breton. Also the home of the Gaelic College of Celtic Arts and Crafts, both Lowland and Highland Scots settled there in large numbers. Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit (Latin: One defends and the other conquers) Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 11 Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... Canadian Gaelic (Gaelic: Gàidhlig Canadanach, locally just Gaelic or The Gaelic) is the dialect of Scots Gaelic that has been spoken continuously for more than 200 years on Cape Breton Island and in isolated enclaves on the Nova Scotia mainland. ... // The term Cape Breton appears in several different things: Cape Breton Island, a Canadian island on the Atlantic Ocean coast Cape Breton Highlands, a mountain range in northern Cape Breton Island. ... The Gaelic College of Celtic Arts and Crafts (also known informally as the Gaelic College) is a Canadian educational institution located in the community of St. ...


Large numbers of Scottish people reside in other parts of the United Kingdom and in the Republic of Ireland, particularly Ulster where they form the Ulster-Scots community. The number of people of Scottish descent in England and Wales is impossible to quantify due to the ancient and complex pattern of migration within Great Britain. Of the present generation alone, some 800,000 people born in Scotland have emigrated to either England, Wales or Northern Ireland.[24] Ulster-Scots is a term mainly used in Ireland and Britain (Scotch-Irish or Scots-Irishis commonly used in North America) primarily to refer to Presbyterian Scots, or their descendents, who migrated from the Scottish Lowlands to Ulster (the northern province of Ireland), largely across the 17th century. ...


Other European countries have had their share of Scots immigrants. The Scots have been emigrating to mainland Europe for centuries as merchants and soldiers.[25] Many emigrated to France, Poland[26] Italy and Holland.[27] Recently some scholars suggested that up to 250,000 Russians may have Scottish blood.[28] Italian-Scots, or Scots-Italian, designates an ethnic minority of Scottish and Italian descent. ...


Significant numbers of Scottish people also settled in Australia and New Zealand. Approximately 20 percent of the original European settler population of New Zealand came from Scotland, and Scottish influence is still visible around the country.[29] The South Island city of Dunedin, in particular, is known for its Scottish heritage and was named as a tribute to Edinburgh by the city's Scottish founders. In Australia, the Scottish population was fairly evenly distributed around the country. The South Island The South Island is the larger of the two major islands of New Zealand, the other being the more populous North Island. ... Dunedin (ÅŒtepoti in Maori) is the second-largest city in the South Island of New Zealand, and the principal city of the region of Otago. ... For other uses, see Edinburgh (disambiguation). ...


In Latin America there are notable Scottish populations in Brazil, Argentina,[30] Chile[31] and Mexico.


The Scots in Europe

Poland

From as far back as the mid 15th century there were Scots trading and settling in Poland. A Scot's Pedlar Pack in Poland, which became a proverbial expression, usually consisted of cloths, woollen goods and linen handkerchiefs. Itinerants also sold tin and ironware such as scissors and knives. Along with the protection offered by King Stephen in the Royal Grant of 1576 a district in Krakow was assigned to Scots immigrants. For other persons of the same name, see Báthory. ... This article needs cleanup. ...


Records from 1592 reveal Scots settlers being granted citizenship of Krakow giving their employment as trader or merchant. Payment for being granted citizenship ranged from 12 Polish florins to a musket and gunpowder or an undertaking to marry within a year and a day of acquiring a holding.


By the 1600s there were an estimated 30,000 Scots living in Poland. Many came from Dundee and Aberdeen and could be found in Polish towns from Krakow to Lublin. Settlers from Aberdeenshire were mainly Episcopalians or Catholics, but there were also large numbers of Calvinists. As well as Scottish traders there were also many Scottish soldiers in Poland. In 1656 a number of Scottish Highlanders who were disenchanted with Oliver Cromwell's rule went to Poland in the service of the King of Sweden. Panorama of Lublin form Trynitarska Tower Coordinates: , Country Voivodeship Powiat city county Gmina Lublin Established before 12th century City Rights 1317 Government  - Mayor Adam Wasilewski Area  - City 147. ... Charles X Gustav (Karl X Gustav) (November 8, 1622 – February 13, 1660), was King of Sweden from 1654 until his death. ...


The Scots integrated well and many acquired great wealth. They contributed to many charitable institutions in the host country, but did not forget their homeland; for example, in 1701 when collections were made for the restoration fund of the Marischal College, Aberdeen, the Scottish settlers in Poland gave generously. Marschal College viewed from Upper Kirkgate Marischal College was founded in 1593 in Aberdeen by George Keith, 5th Earl Marischal of Scotland. ...


Many Royal Grants and privileges were granted to Scottish merchants until the 1700s at which time the settlers began to merge more and more into the native population. Bonnie Prince Charlie was half Polish, being the son of James Edward Stewart and Clementina Sobieska, granddaughter of Jan Sobieski, King of Poland. [5][6][7]


Italy

By 1592 the Scottish community in Rome was big enough to merit the building of Sant'Andrea degli Scozzesi it was constructed for the Scottish expatriate community in Rome, especially for those intended for priesthood. The adjoining hospice was a shelter for Catholic Scots who escaped their country because of religious persecutions. In 1615 Pope Paul V gave the hospice and the nearby Scottish Seminar to the Jesuits. It was rebuilt in 1645. They became more important when James Francis Edward Stuart, the Old Pretender set his residence in Rome in 1717. It was abandoned during the French occupation of Rome in the late 18th century. In 1820, religious activity was resumed, but no longer by the Jesuits. It was reconstructed in 1869 by Luigi Poletti. The church was deconsecrated in 1962 and incorporated in a bank (Cassa di Risparmio delle Province Lombarde). The Scottish Seminar also moved away. The Feast of St Andrew is still celebrated there on 30 November. Sant Andrea degli Scozzesi (English: St Andrew of the Scots) is a former church in Rome, near Piazza Barberini on Via delle Quattro Fontane. ...


Gurro in Italy is said to populated by the ancestors of Scottish soldiers. According to local legend, Scottish soldiers fleeing the Battle of Pavia arrived in the area were stopped by severe blizzards forcing many or if not all to give up their travels and settle in the town. To this day the town of Gurro is still proud of its Scottish links many of the residents claim that their surnames are Italian translations of Scottish surnames and the town also has a Scottish museum.[8][9]


Culture

Language

Main article: Language in Scotland

Historically, Scottish people have spoken many different languages and dialects. The Pictish language, Norse, Norman-French and Brythonic languages have been spoken by descendants of Scottish people. However, none of these are in use today. The remaining three major languages of the Scottish people are English, Lowland Scots (various dialects) and Gaelic. Of these three, English is the most common form as a first language. There are some other minority languages of the Scottish people, such as Spanish, used by the population of Scots in Argentina. Scotland is a land of diverse linguistic and cultural heritage. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... This article is about the Anglic language of Scotland. ... Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages. ...


The Norn language was spoken in the Northern Isles into the early modern period — the current dialects of Shetlandic and Orcadian are heavily influenced by it, to this day. Norn is an extinct North Germanic language that was spoken on the Shetland Islands and Orkney Islands, off the coast of Scotland. ... The Northern Isles are a chain of islands off the north coast of Scotland. ... Shetlandic is a dialect of Insular Scots, itself a dialect of the Scots language. ...


Scottish English

Main article: Scottish English

After the Union of Crowns in 1603, the Scottish Court moved with James VI & I to London and English vocabulary began to be used by the Scottish upper classes.[32] With the introduction of the printing press, spellings became standardised. Scottish English, a Scottish variation of southern English English, began to replace the Scots Language. Scottish English soon became the dominant language. By the end of the 17th century, Scots Language had practically ceased to exist, at least in literary form.[33] While Scots remained a common spoken language, the southern Scottish English dialect was the preferred language for publications from the 18th century to the present day. Scottish English is usually taken to mean the standard form of the English language used in Scotland, often termed Scottish Standard English[1][2]. It is the language normally used in formal, non-fiction written texts in Scotland. ... James VI of Scotland/James I of England and Ireland (Charles James Stuart) (June 19, 1566 – March 27, 1625) was King of Scots, King of England, and King of Ireland and was the first to style himself King of Great Britain. ... James VI and I (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scots as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James I. He ruled in Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567, when he was only one year old, succeeding his mother Mary... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... The printing press is a mechanical device for printing many copies of a text on rectangular sheets of paper. ... Scottish English is usually taken to mean the standard form of the English language used in Scotland, often termed Scottish Standard English[1][2]. It is the language normally used in formal, non-fiction written texts in Scotland. ... English English is a term that has been applied to the English language as spoken in England. ... This article is about the Anglic language of Scotland. ...


Scots Language

Main article: Scots language
See also: Ulster Scots language

Lowland Scots, also known as Lallans or Doric, is a language of Germanic origin. It has its roots in Northern Middle English. After the wars of independence, the English used by Lowland Scots speakers evolved in a different direction to that of Modern English. Since 1424, this language, known to its speakers as Inglis, was used by the Scottish Parliament in its statutes.[32] By the middle of the 15th century, the language's name had changed from Inglis to Scottis. The reformation, from 1560 onwards, saw the beginning of a decline in the use of Scots forms. With the establishment of the Protestant Presbyterian religion, and lacking a Scots translation of the bible, they used the Geneva Edition.[34] From that point on; God spoke English, not Scots.[35] Scots continued to be used in official legal and court documents throughout the 18th century. However, due to the adoption of the southern standard by officialdom and the Education system the use of written Scots declined. Lowland Scots is still a popular spoken language with over 1.5 million Scots speakers in Scotland.[36] The Scots language is used by about 30,000 Ulster Scots[37] and is known in official circles as Ullans. In 1993, Ulster Scots was recognised, along with Scots, as a variety of the Scots language by the European Bureau for Lesser-Used Languages.[38] This article is about the Anglic language of Scotland. ... Ulster Scots, also known as Ullans, Hiberno-Scots, or Scots-Irish, refers to the variety of Scots (sometimes referred to as Lowland Scots) spoken in parts of the province of Ulster, which spans the six counties of Northern Ireland and three of the Republic of Ireland. ... Lallans ( a variant of the Scots word lawlands meaning the lowlands of Scotland), was also traditionally used to refer to the Scots language as a whole. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Middle English is the name given by historical linguistics to the diverse forms of the English language spoken between the Norman invasion of 1066 and the mid-to-late 15th century, when the Chancery Standard, a form of London-based English, began to become widespread, a process aided by the... The Wars of Scottish Independence were a series of military campaigns fought between Scotland and England in the late 13th and early 14th centuries. ... English is a West Germanic language originating in England. ... For the national legislative body up to 1707, see Parliament of Scotland. ... John Knox regarded as the leader of the Scottish Reformation The Scottish Reformation was Scotlands formal break with the papacy in 1560, and the events surrounding this. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Presbyterianism is part of the Reformed churches family of denominations of Christian Protestantism based on the teachings of John Calvin which traces its institutional roots to the Scottish Reformation, especially as led by John Knox. ... The Geneva Bible was a Protestant translation of the Bible into English. ... Ulster-Scots are an Irish ethnic group descended from mainly Lowland Scots who settled in the Province of Ulster in Ireland, first beginning in large numbers during the 17th century. ... Ulster Scots, also known as Ullans, Hiberno-Scots, or Scots-Irish, refers to the variety of Scots (sometimes referred to as Lowland Scots) spoken in parts of the province of Ulster, which spans the six counties of Northern Ireland and three of the Republic of Ireland. ... European flag The European Bureau for Lesser-Used Languages (EBLUL) is a non-governmental organisation promoting linguistic diversity and languages founded in 1982. ...


Scottish Gaelic

Main article: Scottish Gaelic
See also: Canadian Gaelic
Scottish English and Scottish Gaelic are used on bilingual road signs throughout the Gaelic speaking parts of Scotland, such as this one, seen in village of Mallaig.
Scottish English and Scottish Gaelic are used on bilingual road signs throughout the Gaelic speaking parts of Scotland, such as this one, seen in village of Mallaig.

Scottish Gaelic is a Celtic language with similarities to Irish Gaelic. Scottish Gaelic comes from Old Irish. It was originally spoken by the Gaels of Dál Riata and the Rhinns of Galloway, later being adopted by the Pictish people of central and eastern Scotland. Gaelic (lingua Scottica, Scottis) became the de facto language of the whole Kingdom of Alba, giving its name to the country (Scotia, "Scotland").[citation needed] Meanwhile, Gaelic independently spread west from Galloway into Clydesdale. The predominance of Gaelic began to decline in the 13th century, and by the end of the Middle Ages Scotland was divided into two linguistic zones, the English/Scots-speaking Lowlands and the Gaelic-speaking Highlands and Galloway. Gaelic continued to be spoken widely throughout the Highlands until the 19th century. The Highland clearances and the Education Act of 1872, which actively discouraged the use of Gaelic in schools, caused the numbers of Gaelic speakers to fall.[39] Many Gaelic speakers emigrated to counties such as Canada or moved to the industrial cities of lowland Scotland. Communities where the language is still spoken natively are restricted to the west coast of Scotland; and especially the Hebrides. However, large proportions of Gaelic speakers also live in the cities of Glasgow and Edinburgh in Scotland. The 2001 UK Census showed a total of 58,652 Gaelic speakers in Scotland.[citation needed] Outside Scotland, there are communities of Scottish Gaelic speakers such as the Canadian Gaelic community; though their numbers have also been declining rapidly. The Gaelic language is recognised as a Minority Language by the European Union. The Scottish parliament is also seeking to increase the use of Gaelic in Scotland through the Gaelic Language (Scotland) Act 2005. Gaelic is now used as a first language in some Schools and is prominently seen in use on dual language road signs throughout the Gaelic speaking parts of Scotland. It is recognised as an official language of Scotland with "equal respect" to English.[citation needed] Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages. ... Canadian Gaelic (Gaelic: Gàidhlig Canadanach, locally just Gaelic or The Gaelic) is the dialect of Scots Gaelic that has been spoken continuously for more than 200 years on Cape Breton Island and in isolated enclaves on the Nova Scotia mainland. ... A road sign in Gaelic and English at Mallaig, western Scotland. ... A road sign in Gaelic and English at Mallaig, western Scotland. ... Scottish English is usually taken to mean the standard form of the English language used in Scotland, often termed Scottish Standard English[1][2]. It is the language normally used in formal, non-fiction written texts in Scotland. ... Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages. ... This article is about the country. ... This article is about Mallaig in Scotland. ... Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages. ... The Celtic languages are the languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or Common Celtic, a branch of the greater Indo-European language family. ... Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ... Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages. ... Old Irish is the name given to the oldest form of the Irish language, or, rather, the Goidelic languages, for which extensive written texts are possessed. ... “Gael” redirects here. ... Dál Riata (also Dalriada or Dalriata) was a Goidelic kingdom on the western seaboard of Scotland and the northern coasts of Ireland, situated in the traditional Scottish and Northern Irish counties of Argyll, Bute and County Antrim. ... The Rhinns of Galloway is a hammer-head peninsula in Dumfries and Galloway, Scotland. ... The Picts inhabited Caledonia (Scotland), north of the River Forth. ... The Kingdom of Alba (Gaelic : Rìoghachd na h-Alba) for the purposes of this article pertains to the Kingdom of Scotland between the death of Domnall II in 900, and the death of Alexander III in 1286 which then led indirectly to the Scottish Wars of Independence. ... Galloway (Scottish Gaelic, Gall-Ghàidhealaibh or Gallobha, Lowland Scots Gallowa) is an area in southwestern Scotland. ... The Highland Clearances (Scottish Gaelic: Fuadaich nan Gàidheal, the expulsion of the Gael) is a name given to the forced displacement of the population of the Scottish Highlands from their ancient ways of warrior clan subsistence farming, leading to mass emigration. ... Educational oversight Cabinet Secretary Scottish Government Fiona Hyslop MSP National education budget n/a (2007-08) Primary language(s) English and Scottish Gaelic National system Compulsory education 1872 Literacy (2005 est)  â€¢ Men  â€¢ Women 99% 99% 99% Enrollment  â€¢ Primary  â€¢ Secondary  â€¢ Post-secondary 1,452,240 390,2602 322,980 739,0003... The Scottish Lowlands, although not officially a geographical area of the country, in normal usage is generally meant to include those parts of Scotland not referred to as the Highlands (or Gàidhealtachd), that is, everywhere due south and east of a line (the Highland Boundary Fault) between Stonehaven and... This article is about the Hebrides islands in Scotland. ... For other uses, see Glasgow (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Edinburgh (disambiguation). ... Census 2001 is the name by which the national census conducted in the United Kingdom on Sunday 29 April 2001 is known. ... Canadian Gaelic (Gaelic: Gàidhlig Canadanach, locally just Gaelic or The Gaelic) is the dialect of Scots Gaelic that has been spoken continuously for more than 200 years on Cape Breton Island and in isolated enclaves on the Nova Scotia mainland. ... For the national legislative body up to 1707, see Parliament of Scotland. ... The Gaelic Language (Scotland) Act passed by the Scottish Parliament in 2005 is the first piece of legislation to give formal recognition to the Scottish Gaelic language. ... Roadsign in Mallaig In the Gàidhealtachd (the Gaelic-speaking parts of Scotland) the use of the Gaelic language on road signs instead of, or more often alongside English is now common, but has historically been a controversial issue of symbolic rather than practical significance for people on both sides...

Religion

Main article: Religion in Scotland
Saint Andrew's Cross, the Scottish flag.
Saint Andrew's Cross, the Scottish flag.

Saint Ninian (c. 360–432), is credited with bringing Christianity to Scotland. He was born in the Roman province of Valentia which is either modern day Galloway or Cumberland. At about the age of twenty, he went to Rome to study theology.[40][dubious ] He stayed there for fifteen years and was ordained as a Bishop by Damasus around the end of the 4th century. He was sent back to preach to his native people. He built his church in the Roman province of Valentia in the town of Leucapia, now called Whithorn in Galloway, Scotland. The local tribe was called the Novantes. He constructed the first church in Britain to be made of stone. He named the church Candida Casa, which means "white house". He traveled throughout Scotland, and converted the Picts (aka Caledonians) to Christianity.[41][dubious ] Scotland, in common with the rest of the United Kingdom, is traditionally a Christian nation with around 70% claiming to be Christian. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Scotland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Scotland. ... Saint Ninian (c. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... This article is about the country. ... Valentia can refer to: Valentia Island, off the coast of Ireland Valentia (Roman Britain), a province of Roman Britain Valence, Drôme, France, known in Roman times as Valentia Vibo Valentia, a city in Italy Province of Vibo Valentia, a province of Italy The Roman name of the Spanish city... Galloway (Scottish Gaelic, Gall-Ghàidhealaibh or Gallobha, Lowland Scots Gallowa) is an area in southwestern Scotland. ... Cumberland is one of the 39 traditional counties of England. ... Damasus can refer to: Pope Damasus I Pope Damasus II Damasus, a genus of the Chrysomelidae family of beetles. ... Whithorn is a small burgh in Dumfries and Galloway, Scotland, about ten miles south of Wigtown. ... Galloway (Scottish Gaelic, Gall-Ghàidhealaibh or Gallobha, Lowland Scots Gallowa) is an area in southwestern Scotland. ...


In 431, Saint Palladius was sent by Pope Celestine I to be Primus Episcopus — first bishop of the Scots believing in Christ.[40] At this time, "the Scots" referred to the Gaels of western Scotland and Ireland. Palladius's work is not well recorded and is often confused with Saint Patrick. Some time between 457 and 461, Palladius died. He is thought to have been laid to rest at a place called Forgund or Fordun in the village of Auchenblae in the Mearns district of Scotland.[42][dubious ] Palladius (fl. ... Saint Celestine I was pope from 422 to 432. ... “Gael” redirects here. ... St Patrick redirects here, for other uses, see St. ... , Auchenblae is a village in Aberdeenshire, Scotland. ... Kincardineshire, also known as The Mearns (from A Mhaoirne meaning The Stewartry) is a traditional county on the coast of Northeast Scotland. ...


Saint Patrick (died 17 March 493), is credited with bringing Christianity to Ireland and is the patron Saint of Ireland. In 563, Saint Columba (7 December 5219 June 597) left Ireland with twelve companions and founded a church on the small island of Iona. This became the central hub of Christianity in the Highlands of Scotland. Saint Margaret, Queen of Scotland, was instrumental in moving the Scottish Church closer to Rome.[dubious ] Throughout the Middle Ages, Scotland remained Roman Catholic. St Patrick redirects here, for other uses, see St. ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 25 - Odoacer agrees to a mediated peace with Theodoric the Great, and is later killed by him personally. ... Saint Quentin is the patron saint of locksmiths and is also invoked against coughs and sneezes. ... See Columba (disambiguation) and St Columb for other uses. ... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Future Byzantine emperor Justinian becomes consul. ... is the 160th day of the year (161st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Saint Augustine is created Archbishop of Canterbury. ... Iona is a small island, in the Inner Hebrides, Scotland. ... The Scottish Highlands are the mountainous regions of Scotland north and west of the Highland Boundary Fault. ... Several Saints Margaret exist: Saint Margaret Mary Alacoque Saint Margaret of Cortona Saint Margaret of England Saint Margaret of Scotland Saint Margaret the Virgin Saint Margaret the Widow See also Margaret Sainte-Marguerite This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ...


Lutheran ideas were introduced to Scotland in the 16th century.[dubious ] Although they were initially suppressed and outlawed by the state, Protestant Presbyterianism became popular. This was the Scottish Reformation. Bolstered by reformers such as John Knox, the Reformed Church became the established church in Scotland with an act of 1560. This developed into the Presbyterian church. Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity that identifies with the teachings of the sixteenth-century German reformer Martin Luther. ... John Knox regarded as the leader of the Scottish Reformation The Scottish Reformation was Scotlands formal break with the papacy in 1560, and the events surrounding this. ... For other persons named John Knox, see John Knox (disambiguation). ... The Reformed churches are a group of Protestant denominations historically related by a similar Zwinglian or Calvinist system of doctrine but organizationally independent. ... Presbyterianism is a family of Christian denominations within the Reformed branch of Protestant Western Christianity. ...


Religious ideology was to be a driving force throughout the 17th century. The Covenanters were to play an important role in the wars and in the later reinstatement of Charles II. Though Charles then turned persecutor, trying to stamp out the Covenanters. Many of the Covenanters emigrated to the "new" lands of America and Canada which were then seeing an influx of immigrants. James VI of Scotland (James I of England) was opposed by the Covenanters in his attempt to bring the Anglican Church into Scotland The Covenanters formed an important movement in the religion and politics of Scotland in the 17th century. ... The name Charles II is used to refer to numerous persons in history: Kings Charles the Fat (also known as Charles II of France and Charles III of the Holy Roman Empire) Charles II of England Charles II of Naples Charles II of Navarre Charles II of Romania Charles II... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American...


The 18th century would again see the Scottish people at war, with the mainly Catholic led Jacobite uprisings of 1715 and 1745. Lowland Scots tended to support the English, Protestant Hanoverian King's red coats while the Highlanders and others stood with the Jacobites against the Hanoverian forces. The Jacobite Risings were a series of uprisings, rebellions, and wars in the British Isles occurring between 1688 and 1746. ... The adjective Hanoverian is used to describe British monarchs of the House of Hanover things relating to the Duchy of Hanover things relating to Hanover, Germany and it is a horse breed, see Hanoverian (horse) ... Charles Edward Stuart, Bonnie Prince Charlie, wearing the Jacobite blue bonnet Jacobitism was (and, to a very limited extent, remains) the political movement dedicated to the restoration of the Stuart kings to the thrones of England and Scotland. ...


The modern people of Scotland remain a mix of different religions. The Protestant and Catholic divisions still remain in the society. Immigration of new people to Scotland has led to the establishment of new religions. Scotland has populations of Jews, Hindus, Muslims, Buddhists and other faiths, however, the largest church remains the national Church of Scotland. (see Religion in Scotland) The Church of Scotland (CofS; Scottish Gaelic: ), known informally by its pre-Union Scots name, The Kirk, is the national church of Scotland. ... Scotland, in common with the rest of the United Kingdom, is traditionally a Christian nation with around 70% claiming to be Christian. ...


In the United States, people of Scottish and Scots-Irish descent are chiefly Protestant, with many belonging to the Baptist or Methodist churches, or various Presbyterian denominations. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Baptist is... The Methodist movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity. ... Presbyterianism is part of the Reformed churches family of denominations of Christian Protestantism based on the teachings of John Calvin which traces its institutional roots to the Scottish Reformation, especially as led by John Knox. ...


Literature

Main article: Scottish literature

Scottish literature is literature written in Scotland or by Scottish writers. ...

Folklore

Main article: Scottish folklore

Scottish folklore is the myths and legends historically told by the people of Scotland. ...

Sport

Main article: Sport in Scotland

The Old Course at St Andrews. ...

Cuisine

Main article: Scottish cuisine

Scottish cuisine shares much with that of other parts of the British Isles but has distinctive attributes and recipes of its own, thanks to foreign and local influences both ancient and modern. ...

Clans

Main article: Scottish clan
See also: Tartan and Kilt

Clan map of Scotland Scottish clans (from Old Gaelic clann, children), give a sense of identity and shared descent to people in Scotland and to their relations throughout the world, with a formal structure of Clan Chiefs officially registered with the court of the Lord Lyon, King of Arms which... For the artificial athletic track surface, see tartan track. ... A kilt in the Black Watch tartan A kilt is a traditional garment of modern Scottish and Celtic culture typically worn by men. ...

Anglicisation

Main article: Anglicisation

Many Scottish surnames have become "Anglicised" (made to sound English) over the centuries. Davidson, Bruce (originally Brus), Campbell, Salmond, Marshall, Christie and Joy are just a few of many examples.[citation needed] This reflected the gradual spread of English, also known as Early Scots, from around the 13th century onwards, through Scotland beyond its traditional area in the Lothians. It also reflected some deliberate political attempts to promote the English language in the outlying regions of Scotland, including following the Union of the Crowns, and then the Act of Union of 1707 and the subsequent defeat of rebellions. This does not cite any references or sources. ... Early Scots describes the emerging literary language of the Northern Middle English speaking parts of Scotland in the period before 1450. ... Walter Thomas Monningtons 1925 painting called Parliamentary Union of England and Scotland 1707 hangs in the Palace of Westminster depicting the official presentation of the law that formed the United Kingdom of Great Britain. ...


However, many Scottish surnames have remained predominantly Gaelic albeit written according to English orthographic practice (as with Irish surnames). Thus MacAoidh in Gaelic is Mackay in English, and MacGill-Eain in Gaelic is MacLean; O'Maolagan is Milligan and so on. Mac (sometimes Mc) is common as, effectively, it means "son of". MacDonald, McAuley, Balliol, Gilmore, Gilmour, MacKinley, MacKintosh, MacKenzie, MacNiell, MacRyan, MacPhearson, MacLear, McDonald, McKenzie, MacAra, MacNamara, MacManus, Lauder, Menzies, Galloway and Duncan are just a few of many examples of traditional Scottish surnames. There are, of course, also the many surnames, like Wallace and Morton, stemming from parts of Scotland which were settled by peoples other than the (Gaelic) Scots, and the most common surnames in Scotland are Smith and Brown. [10] // Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages. ... The orthography of a language specifies the correct way of using a specific writing system to write the language. ...


In 1603, the English and Scottish Crowns united under King James VI of Scotland (King James I of England). James VI and I (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scots as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James I. He ruled in Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567, when he was only one year old, succeeding his mother Mary...


Etymology

The word Scotia was used by the Romans, as early as the 1st century CE, as the name of one of the tribes in what is now Scotland.[43] The Romans also used Scotia to refer to the Gaels living in Ireland.[44] The Venerable Bede (c. 672 or 673 – May 27, 735) uses the word Scottorum for the nation from Ireland who settled part of the Pictish lands: "Scottorum nationem in Pictorum parte recipit." This we can infer to mean the arrival of the people, also know as the Gaels, in the Kingdom of Dál Riata, in the western edge of Scotland. It is of note that Bede used the word natio (nation) for the Scots, where he often refers to other peoples, such as the Picts, with the word gens (race).[45] In the 10th century Anglo Saxon Chronicle, the word Scot is mentioned as a reference to the "Land of the Gaels". The word Scottorum was again used by an Irish king in 1005: Imperator Scottorum was the title given to Brian Bóruma by his notary, Mael Suthain, in the Book of Armagh.[46] This style was subsequently copied by the Scottish kings. Basileus Scottorum appears on the great seal of King Edgar (1074–1107).[47] Alexander I (c. 1078–1124) used the words Rex Scottorum on his great seal, as did many of his successors up to and including James II.[48] Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... For other uses, see Bede (disambiguation). ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Abkhazia becomes independent, and will remain such until the 15th century Births Alcuin, missionary and bishop (approximate date) Deaths May 25 - Bede, English Historian and monk Categories: 735 ... The Picts inhabited Caledonia (Scotland), north of the River Forth. ... “Gael” redirects here. ... The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle is a collection of (mainly) secondary source documents narrating the history of the Anglo-Saxons and their settlement in Britain. ... Brian Bóruma mac Cennétig (926 or 941[1]–23 April 1014) (known as Brian Boru in English) was High King of Ireland from 1002 to 1014. ... A silver coin of the Seleucid king Antiochus I Soter. ... Edgar of Scotland (Etgair mac Maíl Coluim) (1074 – January 8, 1107 ), was king of Scotland from 1097 to 1107. ... Alexander I (Alasdair mac Maíl Coluim) (c. ... Look up rex in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... James II of Scotland (October 16, 1430 – August 3, 1460) was king of Scotland from 1437 to 1460. ...


In modern times the words Scot and Scottish are applied mainly to inhabitants of Scotland. The possible ancient Irish connotations are largely forgotten. The language known as Ulster Scots, spoken in parts of northeastern Ireland, is the result of 17th and 18th century immigration to Ireland from Scotland. Ulster-Scots are an Irish ethnic group descended from mainly Lowland Scots who settled in the Province of Ulster in Ireland, first beginning in large numbers during the 17th century. ...


In the English language, the word Scotch is a term to describe a thing from Scotland, such as Scotch whisky. However, when referring to people, the preferred term is Scots. Many Scottish people find the term Scotch to be offensive when applied to people.[49] The Oxford Dictionary describes Scotch as an old-fashioned term for "Scottish".[50] Scotch is an obsolescent adjective meaning of Scotland. Common contemporary usage is Scottish or Scots in Britain but Scotch is still in contemporary use outside of England and Scotland. ... Scots may refer to: people from Scotland (i. ...


See also

This article is about a name for Scotland. ... Caledonia is the Latin name given by the Roman Empire to a northern area of the island of Great Britain. ... “Gael” redirects here. ... Irish-Scots are people who emigrated to Scotland from Ireland, mostly in the 19th and 20th centuries, and their descendants. ... Italian-Scots, or Scots-Italian, designates an ethnic minority of Scottish and Italian descent. ... List of Scots is an incomplete list of notable people from Scotland. ... Research into the prehistoric settlement of Great Britain and Ireland is controversial, with differences of opinion from many academic disciplines. ... Redlegs was a term used to refer to the class of poor whites that lived on colonial Barbados, St. ... Scots-Irish (also called Ulster Scots) is a Scottish ethnic group that historically resided in Ireland which ultimately traces its roots back to settlers from Scotland, and to a lesser extent, England. ... The Scot-Quebecers (French language: Écossais-Québécois), were pioneer settlers who emigrated from their native Scotland to Quebec in British North America beginning in the late 1700s. ... Scottish Americans or Scots Americans are citizens of the United States whose ancestry originates in the northwest European nation of Scotland. ... A large portion of the Canadian population are of Scottish ancestry and they have had a large impact on Canadian culture from colonial times. ... Modern formal Highland black tie, including kilt and Prince Charlie jacket. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Friends Of Scotland
  2. ^ The Ancestral Scotland website states the following: Scotland is a land of 5.1 million people. A proud people, passionate about their country and her rich, noble heritage. For every single Scot in their native land, there are thought to be at least five more overseas who can claim Scottish ancestry - that's many millions spread throughout the globe
  3. ^ History, Tradition and roots, ancestry
  4. ^ Visit Scotland.org
  5. ^ a b The US Census 2000. The [1] American Community Survey 2004 by the US Census Bureau estimates 5,752,571 people claiming Scottish ancestry and 5,323,888 people claiming Scotch-Irish ancestry.
  6. ^ Who are the Scots-Irish
  7. ^ a b 2006 Canadian Census gives a total of 4,719,850 respondents stating their ethnic origin as Scottish. Many respondents may have misunderstood the question and the numerous responses for "Canadian" does not give an accurate figure for numerous groups, particularly those of British Isles origins.
  8. ^ Scottish ancestry2006 Australian Census
  9. ^ [2]
  10. ^ "That I am not exaggerating in calling the Scottish people a great nation must be evident to anyone..."Bulloch (1902). Scottish Notes and Queries. D. Wyllie and son [etc.], Page 40.  and also "The Scottish people are a nation" from Shore, Marlene Gay (February 1st, 2002). The Contested Past. University of Toronto Press, page 105. ISBN. 
  11. ^ Bede used a Latin form of the word Scots as the name of the Gaels of Dál Riata. Reference: Roger Collins, Judith McClure; Beda el Venerable, Bede (1999). The Ecclesiastical History of the English People: The Greater Chronicle ; Bede's Letter to Egbert. Oxford University Press, Page 386. ISBN. 
  12. ^ Reference: Anthony Richard (TRN) Birley, Cornelius Tacitus; Cayo Cornelio Tácito. Agricola and Germany. Oxford University Press. ISBN. 
  13. ^ Scottish people, in general, do not like being called Scotch and will only use the term when talking about a Scotch whisky. Many non-Scottish people, particularly Americans (even some of Scots descent), use the term naturally without pejorative or archaic overtones
  14. ^ "Scotch is still in occasional contemporary use outwith Scotland"
  15. ^ John Kenneth Galbraith in his book The Scotch (Toronto: MacMillan, 1964) documents how the descendants of 19th century pioneers from Scotland who settled in Southwestern Ontario affectionately referred to themselves as Scotch. He states the book was meant to give a true picture of life in the Scotch-Canadian community in the early decades of the 20th century.
  16. ^ Landsman, Ned C. (1 Oct 2001). Nation and Province in the First British Empire: Scotland and the Americas,. Bucknell University Press. ISBN. 
  17. ^ The Venerable Bede tells of the Scotti coming from Spain via Ireland and the Picts coming from Scythia.Ref: Harris, Stephen J. (1st Oct 2003). Race and Ethnicity in Anglo-Saxon Literature. Routledge (UK), Page 72. ISBN. 
  18. ^ Jackson, "The Language of the Picts", discussed by Forsyth, Language in Pictland.
  19. ^ http://www.scotsplacenames.com/page5.html
  20. ^ Bòrd na Gàidhlig - History of Gaelic
  21. ^ The Story of the Gaelic-speaking people
  22. ^ Office of the Chief Statistician. Analysis of Ethnicity in the 2001 Census - Summary Report. One choice, only, was permitted from among the supplied responses and it should be noted that the numbers do not accurately reflect ethnic origin since "White Scottish" may mean anyone who is merely "White" and considers themselves Scottish.
  23. ^ United States - QT-P13. Ancestry: 2000. Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Census 2000 Summary File 3, Matrices PCT15 and PCT18.
  24. ^ BBC NEWS | UK | Born Abroad | Scotland
  25. ^ See David Armitage, "The Scottish Diaspora", particularly pp. 272–278, in Jenny Wormald (ed.), Scotland: A History. Oxford UP, Oxford, 2005. ISBN
  26. ^ Scotland and Poland
  27. ^ BBC - History - Scottish History
  28. ^ Scotland on Sunday
  29. ^ Linguistic Archaeology: The Scottish Input to New Zealand English Phonology Trudgill et al. Journal of English Linguistics.2003; 31: 103-124
  30. ^ Scots in Argentina and Patagonia Austral
  31. ^ Archibald Cochrane
  32. ^ a b Crystal, David (August 25th, 2003). The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language. Cambridge University Press. ISBN. 
  33. ^ Barber, Charles Laurence (August 1st, 2000). The English Language: A Historical Introduction. Cambridge University Press, Page 147. ISBN. 
  34. ^ MacMahon, April M. S.; McMahon (April 13, 2000). Lexical Phonology and the History of English. Cambridge University Press, Page 142. ISBN. 
  35. ^ Murphy, Michael (EDT); Harry White (1st Oct 2001). Musical Constructions of Nationalism. Cork University Press, Page 216. ISBN. 
  36. ^ The General Register Office for Scotland (1996)
  37. ^ Northern Ireland Life and Times Survey, 1999
  38. ^ Wolff, Stefan; Jorg (EDT) Neuheiser (January 1st, 2002). Peace at Last?: The Impact of the Good Friday Agreement on Northern Ireland. Berghahn Books. ISBN. 
  39. ^ Pagoeta, Mikel Morris (2001). Europe Phrasebook. Lonely Planet, Page 416. ISBN-X. 
  40. ^ a b Caswall, Henry (1853). Scotland and the Scottish Church. J. H. Parker, Page 10. 
  41. ^ Marshall, John (1859). A history of Scottish ecclesiastical and civil affairs, from the introduction of Christianity. Unknown, Page 49 to 51. 
  42. ^ Low, The Rev. Alexander (1826). The history of Scotland ... to the middle of the ninth century. Bell and Bradfute, Edinburgh, Page 59. 
  43. ^ Low, Alexander (1826). The history of Scotland ... to the middle of the ninth century, Page 28. 
  44. ^ Lehane, Brendan (January 26th, 2000). The Quest of Three Abbots: the golden age of Celtic Christianity. SteinerBooks, Page 121. ISBN. 
  45. ^ Harris, Stephen J. (October 1, 2003). Race and Ethnicity in Anglo-Saxon Literature. Routledge (UK), Page 72. ISBN. 
  46. ^ Martin, F. X. (Francis Xavier); Theodore William Moody, F. J. (Francis John) Byrne (August 1, 1976). New History of Ireland. Oxford University Press, Page 862. ISBN. 
  47. ^ Freer, Allan (1871). The North British Review. Edmonston & Douglas, Page 119.  and Robertson, Eben William (1862). Scotland Under Her Early Kings: a history of the kingdom to the close of the thirteenth century. Edmonston and Douglas, Page 286. 
  48. ^ Greenway, D. E. (EDT); E. B. (Edmund Boleslaw) Fryde (June 1, 1996). Handbook of British Chronology. Cambridge University Press, Page 55. ISBN-X. 
  49. ^ The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language Scotch usage note, Encarta Dictionary usage note.
  50. ^ Oxford Dictionary Definition of Scotch

“Gael” redirects here. ... Dál Riata (also Dalriada or Dalriata) was a Goidelic kingdom on the western seaboard of Scotland and the northern coasts of Ireland, situated in the traditional Scottish and Northern Irish counties of Argyll, Bute and County Antrim. ... Scotch is an obsolescent adjective meaning of Scotland. Common contemporary usage is Scottish or Scots in Britain but Scotch is still in contemporary use outside of England and Scotland. ... Scotch whisky is whisky made in Scotland. ... John Kenneth Galbraith John Kenneth Galbraith (October 15, 1908–April 29, 2006) was an influential Canadian-American economist. ... For other uses, see Bede (disambiguation). ... Celtic Christianity, or Insular Christianity (sometimes commonly called the Celtic Church) broadly refers to the Early Medieval Christian practice that developed around the Irish Sea in the fifth and sixth centuries: that is, among Celtic/British peoples such as the Irish, Scottish, Welsh, Cornish, Manx, Cumbrians (the inhabitants of the... Theodore William Moody (1907-1984) was an Irish historian. ...

References

  • Ritchie, A. & Breeze, D.J. Invaders of Scotland HMSO. (?1991) ISBN-X
  • David Armitage, "The Scottish Diaspora" in Jenny Wormald (ed.), Scotland: A History. Oxford UP, Oxford, 2005. ISBN
  • Scotchirish.net: "Pioneers". http://www.scotchirish.net/The%20Pioneers.php4

External links

>e:dutch:009778:e< Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ... The term British Asian is used to denote a person of Southern Asian ancestry or origin, or sometimes Western Asian origin, who was born in or was an immigrant to the United Kingdom. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... This article is about the Asian regions. ... Languages British English, Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Malay, Tagalog, Thai, Vietnamese, and many others Religions Buddhism, Roman Catholicism, Anglican, Protestant, Islam, Shinto, Non-religious, others Related ethnic groups Asians British Orientals are people described as Chinese or other in the British census, and primarily originate from countries in East and Southeast... The Caribbean or the West Indies is a group of islands in the Caribbean Sea. ... The Leicester Caribbean Carnival The British African-Caribbean (Afro-Caribbean) community are residents of the United Kingdom who are of West Indian background, and whose ancestors were indigenous to Africa. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... North American redirects here. ... For other uses, see Oceania (disambiguation). ... British Jews (often referred to collectively, but imprecisely, as Anglo Jewry) are British subjects of Jewish descent or religion who maintain a connection to the Jewish community, either through actively practising Judaism or through cultural and historical affiliation. ... // New ONS United Kingdom Census 2001 - Ethnic categories. ... The term British Asian is used to denote a person of Southern Asian ancestry or origin, or sometimes Western Asian origin, who was born in or was an immigrant to the United Kingdom. ... See also: British African-Caribbean community, Caribbean British, British Asian,Britsh Mixed Black British is term which has had different meanings and uses as a racial and political label. ... White British is an ethnic classification used in the United Kingdom Census 2001, 92. ... Mixed Race was included as an ethnic classification on the UK Census from 2001. ... The 2001 UK Census ethnic groups include White British, White Other, Mixed Race, Asian British, Black British and Chinese or other ethnic group. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Scottish People * Albawest (3295 words)
Scottish physician James Lind born and educated in Edinburgh and a 'Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh' devised the scientific method known today as 'Clinical Trials' to test the effectiveness of drugs or treatments.
When the Scottish King James VI (Sixth), was invited by the English to come and reign over them also, making him the first King of the UK, he was called James I (First), he visited Greenwich and on Blackheath, he played the first game of golf in England.
The Scottish Parliament has recently passed a motion that sought to right the wrong of the scientist's name being written out of history and his home town of Beith are gathering funds to erect a monument to Dr. Faulds.
Scottish - Heritage Community Foundation (986 words)
Many Scottish names are found during a role call of Canada's earliest adventurers: in 1795, Alexander MacKenzie reached the Pacific Ocean via an overland route; and in 1808 Simon Fraser followed the treacherous river that now bears his name to the Pacific Ocean.
Scottish fur traders and their families were among the first to settle Lower Fort Garry (Winnipeg), Fort Pelly (Saskatchewan), Fort Victoria (Pakan, Alberta) and Edmonton.
Scottish Imports Inc (known affectionately by Edmontonians as the "Scottish store") provides a number of links, products and services tailored to meet the needs of the city's Scottish population.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m