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Encyclopedia > Scottish independence
Scotland

This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
Scotland
This article is about the country. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Scotland. ... The Politics of Scotland forms a distinctive part of the wider politics of the United Kingdom, with Scotland one of the constituent countries of the United Kingdom. ...











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Scottish independence is a political ambition of a number of political parties, pressure groups and individuals within and outside of Scotland. Scots law is a unique legal system with an ancient basis in Roman law. ... The Scottish Government is an unofficial term often used to describe the Scottish Executive. ... The First Minister of Scotland (Scottish Gaelic: ; Scots: ) is, in practice, the political leader of Scotland, as head of Scotlands national devolved government, the Scottish Executive, which was established in 1999 along with the Scottish Parliament. ... Alexander Elliot Anderson Salmond, known as Alex Salmond (born 31 December 1954 ) (age 52)), has been nominated by the Scottish Parliament as First Minister of Scotland. ... The Deputy First Minister of Scotland is, as the name suggests, the Deputy to the First Minister of Scotland. ... Nicola Sturgeon (born on 19 July 1970 in Irvine, North Ayrshire) is the Deputy Leader of the Scottish National Party (SNP). ... The 3rd Scottish Parliament convened after the 2007 election. ... The Crown Office and Procurator Fiscal Service is a government department in Scotland that is responsible for the public prosecution of alleged criminals. ... Her Majestys Advocate, known as the Lord Advocate (Morair Tagraidh in Scottish Gaelic) is the chief legal adviser to the Scottish Executive and the Crown in Scotland for both civil and criminal matters that fall within the devolved powers of the Scottish Parliament. ... Lord Advocate the Rt Hon. ... Her Majestys Solicitor General for Scotland (Àrd-neach-lagha a Chrùin an Alba) is one of the Law Officers of the Crown, and the deputy of the Lord Advocate, whose duty is to advise the Crown and the Scottish Executive on Scots Law. ... Frank Mulholland, QC, is a Scottish lawyer. ... Executive agencies are established by Ministers as part of Scottish Government departments, or as departments in their own right, to carry out a discrete area of work. ... Scottish public bodies are a group of organisations that are funded by the Scottish Executive. ... For the national legislative body up to 1707, see Parliament of Scotland. ... This is a list of Acts of the Scottish Parliament. ... The Presiding Officer (Oifigear-Riaghlaidh in Scots Gaelic) is the Speaker, the person elected by the Members of the Scottish Parliament to chair their meetings. ... Alex Fergusson (born 8 April 1949, Leswart, The Stewartry) is a Scottish Conservative and Unionist politician, and Member of the Scottish Parliament for Galloway and Upper Nithsdale since 2003. ... The new Scottish Parliament Building at Holyrood designed by the Catalan architect Enric Miralles and opened in October 2004. ... Member of the Scottish Parliament (MSP) (Ball Pàrlamaid na h-Alba (BPA) in Gaelic) is the title given to any one of the 129 individuals elected to serve in the Scottish Parliament. ... This is a list of Members of the Scottish Parliament (MSPs) or, in Gaelic, Buill Pàrlamaid na h-Alba (BPnA) elected to the first Scottish Parliament at the 1999 election. ... This is a list of Members of the Scottish Parliament (MSPs) or, in Gaelic, Buill Pàrlamaid na h-Alba (BPnA) elected to the second Scottish Parliament at the 2003 election. ... This is a list of Members of the Scottish Parliament (MSPs) or, in Gaelic, Buill Pàrlamaid na h-Alba (BPnA) elected to the third Scottish Parliament at the 2007 election. ... The Scottish Parliament (Holyrood) has 73 constituencies, each electing one Member of the Scottish Parliament (MSP) by the first past the post system of election, and eight additional member regions, each electing seven additional member MSPs. ... Scotland has elections to several bodies: the Scottish Parliament, the United Kingdom Parliament, the European Parliament, local councils and community councils. ... The Scottish Parliament election, 1999 was the first general election of the Scottish Parliament, with voting taking place on May 6th, 1999. ... The polling date for the second Scottish Parliament election was held on May 1, 2003. ... The composition of the Scottish Parliament following the 2007 election. ... The 2011 Scottish Parliament election will be the fourth general election to the devolved Scottish Parliament since it was created in 1999. ... A Legislative Consent Motion (formerly known as a Sewel motion) is a parliamentary motion passed by the Scottish Parliament, in which it agrees that the Parliament of the United Kingdom may pass legislation on a devolved issue extending to Scotland, over which the Scottish Parliament has regular legislative authority. ... Her Majestys Government, or when the Sovereign is male, His Majestys Government, abbreviated HMG or HM Government, is the formal title used by the Government of the United Kingdom. ... The Secretary of State for Scotland (Rùnaire Stàite na h-Alba in Scottish Gaelic) is the chief minister in the government of the United Kingdom with responsibilites for Scotland, at the head of the Scotland Office (formerly The Scottish Office). ... Desmond Henry Browne (born 22 March 1952), commonly known as Des Browne, is a Scottish Labour Party politician. ... The Scotland Office (Oifis na h-Alba in Scottish Gaelic) is a department of the United Kingdom government, responsible for reserved Scottish affairs. ... In the United Kingdom reserved matters, also referred to as reserved powers, are those subjects over which power to legislate is retained by Westminster, as stated by the Scotland Act 1998, Northern Ireland Act 1998 or Government of Wales Act 1998. ... Her Majestys Advocate General for Scotland (Àrd-neach-tagraidh na Bànrighe airson Alba in Gaelic) is one of the Law Officers of the Crown, whose duty is to advise the Crown and UK Government on Scots law. ... Neil Forbes Davidson, Baron Davidson of Glen Clova QC BA, MSc, LLB, LLM (born 13 September 1950) is a Scottish lawyer. ... Type Bicameral Houses House of Commons House of Lords Speaker of the House of Commons The Right Honourable Michael Martin MP Lord Speaker Hélène Hayman, Baroness Hayman, PC Members 1377 (646 Commons, 731 Peers) Political groups (as of May 5, 2005 elections) Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats... As a result of the Fifth Periodical Review of the Boundary Commission for Scotland, Scotland is covered by 59 constituencies of the House of Commons of the United Kingdom Parliament - 19 Burgh constituencies and 40 County constituencies. ... The Scottish Grand Committee is a committee of the House of Commons. ... Scotland has elections to several bodies: the Scottish Parliament, the United Kingdom Parliament, the European Parliament, local councils and community councils. ... The UK general election, 1997 was held on 1 May 1997. ... Tony Blair William Hague Charles Kennedy The UK general election, 2001 was held on 7 June 2001 and was dubbed the quiet landslide by the media. ... It has been suggested that Marginal constituencies in the United Kingdom be merged into this article or section. ... Under the provisions of the Parliament Acts of 1911 and 1949, the next United Kingdom general election must be held on or before 3 June 2010, barring exceptional circumstances. ... This is a list of Members of Parliament (MPs) elected to the House of Commons by Scottish constituencies for the Fifty-Fourth Parliament of the United Kingdom (2005 to present). ... Established 1952, as the Common Assembly President Hans-Gert Pöttering (EPP) Since 16 January 2007 Vice-Presidents 14 Rodi Kratsa-Tsagaropoulou (EPP) Alejo Vidal-Quadras (EPP) Gérard Onesta (Greens – EFA) Edward McMillan-Scott (ED) Mario Mauro (EPP) Miguel Angel Martínez Martínez (PES) Luigi Cocilovo (ALDE) Mechtild... Scotland constitutes a single constituency of the European Parliament. ... Scotland has elections to several bodies: the Scottish Parliament, the United Kingdom Parliament, the European Parliament, local councils and community councils. ... The European Parliament election, 2004 was the UK part of the European Parliament election, 2004. ... Elections to the European Parliament will be held in June 2006 in the then–27 member states of the European Union, using varying election days according to local custom. ... The local government of Scotland is organised into 32 unitary authorities covering the mainland and islands of Scotland. ... For local government purposes, Scotland is divided into 32 areas designated as Council Areas of Scotland which are all governed by unitary authorities designated as Councils which have the option under the Local Government (Gaelic Names) (Scotland) Act 1997 (as chosen by Na h-Eileanan an Iar) of being known... The Convention of Scottish Local Authorities (COSLA) is the representative association of Scottish local government and is the employers’ association on behalf of all Scottish councils. ... // Parties represented in the Scottish Parliament (in order of number of representatives): Scottish National Party (SNP) - centre-left, social democratic, pro-independence- 47 MSPs Labour - centre-left, unionist - 46 MSPs Conservative - centre-right, conservative, unionist - 17 MSPs Liberal Democrat - centre-left, federalist - 16 MSPs Scottish Green Party - left-wing, environmentalist... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Information on politics by country is available for every country, including both de jure and de facto independent states, inhabited dependent territories, as well as areas of special sovereignty. ... // Parties represented in the Scottish Parliament (in order of number of representatives): Scottish National Party (SNP) - centre-left, social democratic, pro-independence- 47 MSPs Labour - centre-left, unionist - 46 MSPs Conservative - centre-right, conservative, unionist - 17 MSPs Liberal Democrat - centre-left, federalist - 16 MSPs Scottish Green Party - left-wing, environmentalist... An interest group (also called an advocacy group, lobbying group, pressure group (UK), or special interest) is a group, however loosely or tightly organized, doing advocacy: those determined to encourage or prevent changes in public policy without trying to be elected. ... This article is about the country. ...


The Kingdom of Scotland was an independent state from its own unification in 843, until 1707, when the Acts of Union were agreed to with the neighbouring Kingdom of England, together forming the Kingdom of Great Britain. The acts provided for the merging of the two nations by means of dissolution of the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of England. In their place the new Parliament of Great Britain was created, however many of Scotland's institutions remained separate and the Scottish national identity remained strong and distinct. Motto Latin: Nemo me impune lacessit (English: No one provokes me with impunity) (Scots: Wha daur meddle wi me) Capital Edinburgh¹ Language(s) Gaelic, Scots Government Monarchy King/Queen  - 843-860 Kenneth I  - 1587–1625 James VI  - 1702-1714 Anne Legislature Parliament of Scotland History  - United 843  - Union of the... The Acts of Union were a pair of Acts of Parliament passed in 1706 and 1707 (taking effect on 1 May 1707) by, respectively, the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland. ... Motto Dieu et mon droit(French) God and my right Territory of the Kingdom of England Capital Winchester; London from 11th century Language(s) Old English (de facto, until 1066) Anglo-Norman language (de jure, 1066 - 15th century) English (de facto, gradually replaced French from late 13th century) Government Monarchy... For an explanation of terms such as Scotland, Wales, England, (Great) Britain and United Kingdom, see British Isles (terminology). ... The parliament of Scotland, officially the Estates of Parliament, was the legislature of the independent Kingdom of Scotland. ... The English parliament in front of the King, c. ... The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative institution in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories (it alone has parliamentary sovereignty). ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ...


At the time of the union of the parliaments, the measure was deeply unpopular in both Scotland and England. Indeed, the Scottish signatories to the treaty were forced to sign the documents in secrecy due to mass rioting and unrest in the Scottish capital, Edinburgh. For other uses, see Edinburgh (disambiguation). ...


Those who oppose Scottish independence and endorse the continuation of the union claim that cultural, political and economic benefits enjoyed by Scotland as part of a larger state outweigh the loss of statehood. Supporters of Scottish independence claim that the loss of a truly Scottish voice in the world damages the prospects of the nation, and that the British government acts primarily in the interest of the entire United Kingdom, which in specific instances is claimed be to the inadvertent or perceived detriment of specifically Scottish interests. Her Majestys Government, or when the Sovereign is male, His Majestys Government, abbreviated HMG or HM Government, is the formal title used by the Government of the United Kingdom. ...

Contents

History

Early formation and Wars of Independence

The Kingdom of Alba was first formed as a unified nation state in 843 under the rule of King Kenneth I who as ruler of the Kingdom of Dál Riata had conquered Fortriu and later expanded its territories to control parts of the Kingdom of Strathclyde and Northumbria. A similar process of amalgamation also came about in the South of Great Britain with the formation of the Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy, that developed into the neighbouring Kingdom of England. The border between the two states was eventually formalised by the Treaty of York in 1237. The Kingdom of Scotland further expanded with the signing of the Treaty of Perth with Norway in 1266, although Orkney and Shetland would remain under Norwegian rule until 1468.[1] A reliance on sea trade led to close links with the Baltic states, the Low Countries, Ireland and France. A crisis of succession in 1290 severely weakened Scotland and led to an opportunity for the neighbouring English king, who had recently conquered Wales, to further increase his power. Edward I of England invaded Scotland in 1296 and was initially successful in subduing much of Scotland. However, Edward died in 1307 and Scottish troops under the command of King Robert I began waging a war of liberation. Initially employing guerilla tactics that were pioneered by William Wallace,[2] Robert was enormously successful and strengthened his position as king, although he was still fighting a de facto civil war against supporters of his murdered rival John Comyn, who were eventually defeated at the Battle of Inverurie in 1308. In 1314 Edward II sent a large English army to quell the Scottish rising. However, Edward's superior army was routed at the Battle of Bannockburn. King Robert had won a decisive victory and Scotland maintained its independence.[2] Six years after the Battle, in 1320, the Declaration of Arbroath was sent by the Scottish nobility to Pope John XXII. The declaration rejected the claim of the kings of England to the Scottish throne and also emphasised the priority of the Scottish people over the authority of any king in maintaining independence.[1] One passage in particular is often quoted from: Dunnottar Castle in the Mearns occupies one of the best defensive locations in Great Britain. ... The Kingdom of Alba (Gaelic : Rìoghachd na h-Alba) for the purposes of this article pertains to the Kingdom of Scotland between the death of Domnall II in 900, and the death of Alexander III in 1286 which then led indirectly to the Scottish Wars of Independence. ... The term nation-state, while often used interchangeably with the terms unitary state and independent state, refers properly to the parallel occurence of a state and a nation. ... The Royal Coat of Arms of Scotland, as used before 1603 The monarch of Scotland was the head of state of the Kingdom of Scotland. ... Cináed mac Ailpín (after 800–13 February 858) (Anglicised Kenneth MacAlpin) was king of the Picts and, according to national myth, first king of Scots. ... Dál Riata (also Dalriada or Dalriata) was a Goidelic kingdom on the western seaboard of Scotland and the northern coasts of Ireland, situated in the traditional Scottish and Northern Irish counties of Argyll, Bute and County Antrim. ... Fortriu or the the Kingdom of Fortriu is the name given by historians for an ancient Pictish kingdom, and often used synonymously with Pictland in general. ... Strathclyde (Welsh: Ystrad Clud) was one of the kingdoms of ancient Scotland in the post-Roman period. ... Section from Shepherds map of the British Isles about 802 AD showing the kingdom of Northumbria Northumbria is primarily the name of a petty kingdom of Angles which was formed in Great Britain at the beginning of the 7th century, from two smaller kingdoms of Bernicia and Diera, and... For other uses, see Anglo-Saxon. ... A map showing the general locations of the Anglo-Saxon peoples around the year 600 Britain and Ireland around the year 802 Heptarchy (Greek: seven + realm) is a collective name applied to the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of the south and east of Great Britain during late antiquity and the early... Motto Dieu et mon droit(French) God and my right Territory of the Kingdom of England Capital Winchester; London from 11th century Language(s) Old English (de facto, until 1066) Anglo-Norman language (de jure, 1066 - 15th century) English (de facto, gradually replaced French from late 13th century) Government Monarchy... Treaty of York 1237 Signed between Henry III and Alexander II, king of Scots (1214-1249), this treaty secured Englands northern border. ... The Treaty of Perth ended military conflict between Norway under Magnus the Law-mender and Scotland under Alexander III over the sovereignty of the Western Isles, the Isle of Mann and Caithness. ... Location Geography Area Ranked 16th  - Total 990 km²  - % Water  ? Admin HQ Kirkwall ISO 3166-2 GB-ORK ONS code 00RA Demographics Population Ranked 32nd  - Total (2005) 19,590  - Density 20 / km² Scottish Gaelic  - Total () {{{Scottish council Gaelic Speakers}}} Politics Orkney Islands Council http://www. ... Location Geography Area Ranked 12th  - Total 1,466 km²  - % Water  ? Admin HQ Lerwick ISO 3166-2 GB-ZET ONS code 00RD Demographics Population Ranked 31st  - Total (2005) 22,000  - Density 15 / km² Scottish Gaelic  - Total () {{{Scottish council Gaelic Speakers}}} Politics Shetland Islands Council http://www. ... The three Baltic states: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. ... It has been suggested that Regents: Low Countries be merged into this article or section. ... In 1290, after the death of Margaret I of Scotland, the Crown of Scotland was without an immediate heir; however, there existed many distant heirs. ... The Statute of Rhuddlan was enacted on 3 March 1284 after the conquest of Wales by the English king Edward I. The Statute of Rhuddlan was issued from Rhuddlan Castle in North Wales, which was built as one of the iron ring of fortresses by Edward I, in his late... Edward I (17 June 1239 – 7 July 1307), popularly known as Longshanks[1], also as Edward the Lawgiver because of his legal reforms, and as Hammer of the Scots,[2] achieved fame as the monarch who conquered Wales and who tried to do the same to Scotland. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Robert I, King of Scots (Mediaeval Gaelic:Roibert a Briuis; modern Scottish Gaelic: Raibeart Bruis; Norman French: Robert de Brus or Robert de Bruys; 11 July 1274 – 7 June 1329), usually known in modern English as Robert the Bruce, was King of Scotland from 1306 until his death in 1329. ... “Guerrilla” redirects here. ... For other persons named William Wallace, see William Wallace (disambiguation). ... John III Comyn, Lord of Badenoch or John the Red, also known simply as the Red Comyn, (died 10 February 1306), was a Scottish nobleman who was Lord of Badenoch. ... Combatants Scottish Royal Army Scottish opponents of Bruce Commanders Robert Bruce John Comyn, 3rd Earl of Buchan Strength unknown unknown Casualties unknown unknown The Battle of Inverurie, also known as the Battle of Barra, was fought in May 1308 in the north-east of Scotland. ... Edward II, (25 April 1284 – 21 September 1327), of Caernarfon, was King of England from 1307 until deposed in January, 1327. ... Combatants Kingdom of Scotland Kingdom of England Commanders Robert Bruce Edward II Strength about 6,500 20,000 Casualties unknown but light about 9,000 The Battle of Bannockburn (Blàr Allt a Bhonnaich in Gaelic) (June 24, 1314) was a significant Scottish victory in the Wars of Scottish Independence. ... Events January 20 - Dante - Quaestio de Aqua et Terra January 20 - Duke Wladyslaw Lokietek becomes king of Poland April 6 - The Scots reaffirm their independence by signing the Declaration of Arbroath. ... The Declaration of Arbroath was a declaration of Scottish independence, and set out to confirm Scotlands status as an independent, sovereign state and its use of military action when unjustly attacked. ... Pope John XXII, born Jacques Duèze or dEuse (1249 – December 4, 1334), was the son of a shoemaker in Cahors. ... The Royal Coat of Arms of Scotland, as used before 1603 The monarch of Scotland was the head of state of the Kingdom of Scotland. ...

...for, as long as but a hundred of us remain alive, never will we on any conditions be brought under English rule. It is in truth not for glory, nor riches, nor honours that we are fighting, but for freedom – for that alone, which no honest man gives up but with life itself.[3]

England eventually recognised Scottish independence in the Treaty of Edinburgh-Northampton. After the death of Robert the Bruce however, Edward Balliol and his supporters renewed the rival claim to the throne and counted on English support, which culminated in an English invasion in 1332, sparking the Second War of Scottish Independence. The English took Berwick-upon-Tweed after the Battle of Halidon Hill but this War coincided with the Hundred Years' War, and eventually England became preoccupied with this cause. Bruce's son, David II of Scotland acting in support of France in the Auld Alliance was taken prisoner at the Battle of Neville's Cross in 1346 after his disastrous invasion of England, and was only released eleven years later in 1357, after the Parliament of Scotland agreed to pay a 100,000 Marks ransom in the Treaty of Berwick, which also marked the last attempt by the Kingdom of England to directly interfere in the Scottish succession. Berwick-upon-Tweed itself, remained a disputed territory between England and Scotland, resulting in the Anglo-Scottish Wars, which involved battles such as the Battle of Otterburn, Battle of Nesbit Moor and the Battle of Humbleton Hill, until the eventual signing of the Treaty of Perpetual Peace in 1502. This treaty was also later broken however, with Scotland's invasion of England, again as part of the Auld Alliance, in the War of the League of Cambrai in 1513, culminating in the Battle of Flodden Field. A further war with England broke out under King James V with the Battle of Haddon Rig and Battle of Solway Moss in 1542. After the King's death, and the coronation of Mary Queen of Scots, the first proposal for a Union of the two Kingdoms was raised in the Treaty of Greenwich, which itself ultimately led to further conflict in The Rough Wooing. The last pitched battle to be fought between the Kingdoms of Scotland and England was the Battle of Pinkie Cleugh in 1547. Prior to the Treaty of Edinbugh-Northampton, Edward II claimed he adhered to a truce, but he allowed English privateers to attack Flemish vessels trading with Scotland. ... Edward Balliol (c. ... The Second War of Scottish Independence began properly in 1333 when Edward III overturned the 1328 Treaty of Northampton, under which England recognised the legitimacy of the dynasty established by Robert Bruce. ... Map sources for Berwick-upon-Tweed at grid reference NT9952 Berwick-upon-Tweed from across the river Berwick-upon-Tweed, (pronounced Berrick) situated in the county of Northumberland, is the northernmost town in England, situated on the east coast on the mouth of the river Tweed. ... Combatants Scotland England Commanders Sir Archibald Douglas Edward III of England Strength 13,000 9,000 Casualties exact figure unknown, but very high exact figure unknown, but very low Battle of Halidon Hill (July 19, 1333) was fought during the second War of Scottish Independence. ... Combatants France Castile Scotland Genoa Majorca Bohemia Crown of Aragon Brittany England Burgundy Brittany Portugal Navarre Flanders Hainaut Aquitaine Luxembourg Holy Roman Empire The Hundred Years War was a conflict between France and England, lasting 116 years from 1337 to 1453. ... David II (March 5, 1324 – February 22, 1371) king of Scotland, son of King Robert the Bruce by his second wife, Elizabeth de Burgh (d. ... The Auld Alliance refers to a series of treaties, offensive and defensive in nature, between Scotland and France aimed specifically against an aggressive and expansionist England. ... Combatants Scotland England Commanders David II of Scotland William Zouche, Archbishop of York Strength 12,000 3,000-3,500 Casualties 7,000 Unknown but very low The Battle of Nevilles Cross took place near Durham, England on October 17, 1346. ... The parliament of Scotland, officially the Estates of Parliament, was the legislature of the independent Kingdom of Scotland. ... The Treaty of Berwick was an agreement of amity made on July 6, 1586 between Queen Elizabeth I of England and James VI of Scotland. ... The Royal Coat of Arms of Scotland, as used before 1603 The monarch of Scotland was the head of state of the Kingdom of Scotland. ... Map sources for Berwick-upon-Tweed at grid reference NT9952 Berwick-upon-Tweed from across the river Berwick-upon-Tweed, (pronounced Berrick) situated in the county of Northumberland, is the northernmost town in England, situated on the east coast on the mouth of the river Tweed. ... The Anglo-Scottish Wars were a series of wars fought between England and Scotland during the sixteenth century. ... The Battle of Otterburn took place on the 9 August 1388 or 15 August 1388, as part of the continuing border skirmishes between the Scottish and English. ... In 1402, Scottish nobles launched a coordinated invasion of Northern England. ... Categories: Possible copyright violations ... The Treaty of Perpetual Peace was signed by James IV of Scotland and Henry VII of England in 1502. ... The War of the League of Cambrai, sometimes known as the War of the Holy League and by several other names,[1] was a major conflict in the Italian Wars. ... Combatants England Scotland Commanders Thomas Howard, Earl of Surrey James IV † Strength 26,000 approx 30,000 approx Casualties 1,500 dead 10,000 dead Western side of the battlefield, looking south-south-east from the monument erected in 1910. ... James V (April 10, 1512 – December 14, 1542) was king of Scotland (September 9, 1513 – December 14, 1542). ... Combatants Kingdom of Scotland Kingdom of England Commanders George Gordon, 4th Earl of Huntly Robert Bowes Strength  ?  ? Casualties  ? The Battle of Haddon Rig was a battle between Scotland and England in August 24, 1542, during the reign of King James V of Scotland. ... Solway Moss is a moss (lowland peat bog), in Cumbria, England, lying next to the River Sark which marks the Scottish border. ... Mary I (popularly known as Mary, Queen of Scots: French: ); (December 8, 1542 – February 8, 1587) was Queen of Scots (the monarch of the Kingdom of Scotland) from December 14, 1542, to July 24, 1567. ... The Treaty of Greenwich (also known as the Treaties of Greenwich) contained two agreements both signed on July 1, 1543 in Greenwich between representatives of England and Scotland. ... The Rough Wooing was a term coined by Sir Walter Scott and H. E. Marshall to describe the Anglo-Scottish war pursued intermittently from 1544 to 1551. ... Combatants Scots English Commanders Earl of Arran Duke of Somerset Strength Between 23000 and 36000 17000 30 warships Casualties 5000 killed 1500 prisoners 500 killed The Battle of Pinkie Cleugh, along the banks of the River Esk near Musselburgh on 10 September 1547, was part of the War of the...


Union of the Crowns

King James VI
King James VI
Main article: Union of the Crowns

In 1603 King James VI of Scotland inherited the throne of England (as King James I), after the death of Queen Elizabeth I, and thus "united" Scotland and England under a single monarch.[1] The term "united" itself, though now generally accepted, is misleading; for properly speaking this was merely a personal or dynastic union, the crowns remaining both distinct and separate. Despite James' best efforts to create a new Kingdom of Great Britain,[4] England and Scotland continued to be resolutely independent states, maintaining independent parliaments and governments. Image File history File links JamesIEngland. ... Image File history File links JamesIEngland. ... The Union of the Crowns refers to the accession of James VI, King of Scots, to the thrones of England and Ireland, in March 1603. ... James VI and I (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scots as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James I. He ruled in Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567, when he was only one year old, succeeding his mother Mary... This article is about Elizabeth I of England. ... It has been suggested that Dynastic union be merged into this article or section. ... Dynastic union refers to the union of two titles or rulerships in one ruler or titleholder. ... For an explanation of terms such as Scotland, Wales, England, (Great) Britain and United Kingdom, see British Isles (terminology). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country. ... For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ... A parliament is a legislature, especially in those countries whose system of government is based on the Westminster system modelled after that of the United Kingdom. ...


The new king was initially popular in England as a ruler who already had male heirs waiting in the wing. But James' honeymoon was of very short duration; and his initial political actions and belief in the Divine Right of Kings were to do much to create a rather negative tone. The greatest and most obvious of these was the question of his exact status and title. James intended to be King of the entire British Isles, exemplified in his commission of the Union Flag.[4] His first obstacle in this imperial ambition however was the attitude of the Parliament of England which opposed the loss of England's independence.[5] In Scotland the union desired by James met with the same lack of zeal that it did in England.[4] For some, whatever pleasure there was in seeing a Scottish king succeeding to the crown of England, rather than the danger for centuries past of an English king seizing the crown of Scotland, was lost in the prospect of Scotland losing its statehood. The Divine Right of Kings is a European political and religious doctrine of political absolutism. ... This article describes the archipelago in north-Western Europe. ... “Union Jack” redirects here. ... The English parliament in front of the King, c. ...


Wars of the Three Kingdoms

Flag of the Commonwealth of England

After the execution of King Charles I the previous year, in 1650, part of the English Parliament's New Model Army invaded Scotland to fight Scottish Covenanters at the start of the Third English Civil War. The Covenanters, who had fought against the Crown during the Bishops' Wars and had been allied to the English Parliament in the First English Civil War, had crowned Charles II as King of Scots. Despite being outnumbered, Oliver Cromwell led the Army to crushing victories over Charles's Scottish army commanded by David Leslie at the battles of Dunbar and Inverkeithing. Following the Scottish invasion of England led by Charles II, the New Model Army and local militia forces soundly defeated the Royalists at the Battle of Worcester, the last pitched battle of the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. During the Interregnum, Scotland was kept under the military occupation of the New Model Army under George Monck. They were kept busy throughout by the Royalist rising of 1651 to 1654 in the Scottish Highlands and by endemic lawlessness by bandits known as mosstroopers. The Commonwealth of England and later The Protectorate imposed a brief Anglo-Scottish parliamentary union from April 1652, however, the Restoration of Charles II in 1660 saw the return of Scottish autonomy in the Parliament of Scotland. [6] Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Combatants Scottish Royalists and Irish Catholic Confederate troops Scottish Covenanters Commanders James Graham, 1st Marquess of Montrose Archibald Campbell, 1st Marquess of Argyll and David Leslie Strength Fluctuating, 2000-4000 troops at any one time over 30,000 troops, but many based in England and Ireland Casualties Total of 28... Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was King of England, King of Scotland and King of Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649. ... The English parliament in front of the King, c. ... The New Model Army became the best known of the various Parliamentarian armies in the English Civil War. ... James VI of Scotland (James I of England) was opposed by the Covenanters in his attempt to bring the Anglican Church into Scotland The Covenanters formed an important movement in the religion and politics of Scotland in the 17th century. ... The Third English Civil War (1649–1651) was the third of three wars known as the English Civil War (or Wars) which refers to the series of armed conflicts and political machinations which took place between Parliamentarians and Royalists from 1642 until 1652 and include the First English Civil War... The Bishops’ Wars—Bellum Episcopale—refers to two armed encounters between Charles I and the Scottish Covenanters in 1639 and 1640, which helped to set the stage for the English Civil War and the subsequent Wars of the Three Kingdoms // The Scottish Reformation in 1560 was intended to settle the... The First English Civil War (1642–1646) was the first of three wars, known as the English Civil War (or Wars). The English Civil War refers to the series of armed conflicts and political machinations which took place between Parliamentarians and Royalists from 1642 until 1652, and includes the Second... Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. ... For other uses, see Oliver Cromwell (disambiguation). ... David Leslie, Lord Newark (c. ... Cromwell at Dunbar, Andrew Carrick Gow The Battle of Dunbar (3 September 1650) was a battle of the Third English Civil War. ... The Battle of Inverkeithing [1] (20 July 1651) was a battle in the Third English Civil War. ... Combatants English Parlimentry forces loyal to Oliver Cromwell English and Scottish Royalists loyal to King Charles II Strength 31,000 less than 16,000 Casualties 200 3,000 killed, more than 10,000 prisoners The Battle of Worcester took place on 3 September 1651 at Worcester, England and was the... The Wars of the Three Kingdoms were an intertwined series of conflicts that took place in Scotland, Ireland, and England between 1639 and 1651 at a time when these countries had come under the Personal Rule of the same monarch. ... The English Interregnum was the period of parliamentary and military rule in the land occupied by modern-day England and Wales after the English Civil War. ... George Monck, 1st Duke of Albemarle by Sir Peter Lely, painted 1665–1666. ... The Royalist Rising of 1651 to 1654 took place in Scotland between Scots loyal to King Charles II against English parliamentary forces loyal to Oliver Cromwell who occupied Scotland. ... Moss-troopers were bandits that operated in Scotland during and after the time of the English Commonwealth. ... Motto: PAX QUÆRITUR BELLO (English: Peace is sought through war) Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital London Language(s) English Government Republic Lord Protector  - 1649-1658 Oliver Cromwell Legislature Rump Parliament Barebones Parliament History  - Declaration of Commonwealth May 19, 1649  - Declaration of Breda April 4, 1660 Area 130,395... Motto PAX QUÆRITUR BELLO (English: Peace is sought through war) Anthem Multiple unofficial anthems Capital London Language(s) English; Irish; Scots Gaelic; Welsh Government Republic Lord Protector  - 1653-1658 Oliver Cromwell  - 1658-1659 Richard Cromwell Legislature Parliament (1st, 2nd, 3rd) History  - Instrument of Government December 16, 1653  - Resignation of... King Charles II, the first monarch to rule after the English Restoration. ... The parliament of Scotland, officially the Estates of Parliament, was the legislature of the independent Kingdom of Scotland. ...


Acts of Union 1707

Main article: Acts of Union 1707

The Scottish and English Parliaments signed the Acts of Union of 1707, creating a Political union. Both the Scottish and the English Parliaments were dissolved, and all their powers were transferred to a new Parliament of Great Britain located in the largest city in the new United Kingdom, London. Certain significant matters remained separate, including Scots law, the Burgh system, education in Scotland, the Church of Scotland and the Order of the Thistle. Most aspects of Scottish culture and Scottish national identity remained strong and distinct.[7] The Acts of Union were a pair of Acts of Parliament passed in 1706 and 1707 (taking effect on 1 May 1707) by, respectively, the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland. ... A Political Union is a type of state which is composed of smaller states. ... The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative institution in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories (it alone has parliamentary sovereignty). ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Scots law is a unique legal system with an ancient basis in Roman law. ... A sign in Linlithgow, Scotland. ... Educational oversight Cabinet Secretary Scottish Executive Education Department Fiona Hyslop MSP National education budget n/a (2007-08) Primary languages English and Scottish Gaelic National system Compulsory education 1872 Literacy (2005 est)  â€¢ Men  â€¢ Women 99% 99% 99% Enrollment  â€¢ Primary  â€¢ Secondary  â€¢ Post-secondary 1,452,240 390,2602 322,980 739... The Church of Scotland (CofS; Scottish Gaelic: ), known informally by its pre-Union Scots name, The Kirk, is the national church of Scotland. ... James VII ordained the modern Order. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ...

Scotland's location within the United Kingdom
Scotland's location within the United Kingdom

On the 16th of January 1707, after three months of clause-by-clause debate, the Scots Parliament voted decisively by 110 to 67 for union. The ultimate securing of the treaty in the Parliament of Scotland can be attributed to a number of factors.[8] One of the primary motivations in favour of the Union was constitutional. In England, the Glorious Revolution of 1688 that had deposed the Catholic King James II in favour of his Protestant daughter Queen Mary II and her husband William of Orange had been widely welcomed, but in Scotland, it was far more controversial. The Presbyterian majority tended to support King William, while the significant minority of Episcopalians and the few Catholics tended to support James. The passing of the Claim of Right Act 1689 led to the first of the Jacobite risings, resulting in the Battles of Killiecrankie, Dunkeld and Cromdale. Created by Morwen. ... Created by Morwen. ... The parliament of Scotland, officially the Estates of Parliament, was the legislature of the independent Kingdom of Scotland. ... The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England (VII of Scotland) in 1688 by a union of Parliamentarians and the Dutch stadtholder William III of Orange-Nassau (William of Orange), who as a result ascended the English throne as William... James II of England (also known as James VII of Scotland; 14 October 1633 – 16 September 1701) became King of England, King of Scots, and King of Ireland on 6 February 1685, and Duke of Normandy on 31 December 1660. ... William III Mary II The phrase William and Mary usually refers to the joint sovereignty over the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland of King William III and his wife Queen Mary II. Their joint reign began in February, 1689, when they were called to the throne by... William III of England (The Hague, 14 November 1650 – Kensington Palace, 8 March 1702; also known as William II of Scotland and William III of Orange) was a Dutch aristocrat and a Protestant Prince of Orange from his birth, Stadtholder of the main provinces of the Dutch Republic from 28... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Claim of Right The Claim of Right is an Act passed by the Parliament of Scotland in April 1689. ... Each Jacobite Rising formed part of a series of military campaigns by Jacobites attempting to restore the Stuart kings to the thrones of England and Scotland (and after 1707, Great Britain) after James VII of Scotland and II of England was deposed in 1688 and the thrones usurped by his... Combatants Jacobite Royalists (Highlanders & Irish) Orange Royalists (Covenanters, Lowlanders) Commanders Viscount Dundee† Hugh Mackay Strength 2400 foot 3500 foot Casualties 800, inc. ... The Battle of Dunkeld was fought between Highland clans supporting James II and a government regiment of covenanters supporting William of Orange, in the streets around Dunkeld Cathedral, Dunkeld, Scotland, on August 21, 1689, and formed part of the first Jacobite rising. ... The Battle of Cromdale took place at the Haugh of Cromdale in Speyside on April 30 and May 1, 1690. ...


The Act of Settlement 1701 was, in many ways, a major cause of the Union. The Parliament of Scotland was not happy with the Act of Settlement, as the English Parliament had determined the heir to the throne was Sophia of Hanover, grand-daughter of King James VI of Scotland, without formally consulting the Scottish Parliament. In response, the Scottish Parliament passed the Salic Law-based Act of Security in 1704, which gave Scotland the right to choose its own Protestant male successor to the childless Queen Anne. Act of Settlement The Electress Sophia of Hanover The Act of Settlement (12 & 13 Wm 3 c. ... Electress Sophia of Hanover (born Sophia, Countess Palatine of Simmern; 14 October 1630 – 8 June 1714) was the youngest daughter of Frederick V, Elector Palatine, of the House of Wittelsbach, the Winter King of Bohemia, and Elizabeth Stuart. ... James VI and I (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scots as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James I. He ruled in Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567, when he was only one year old, succeeding his mother Mary... The King of the Franks, in the midst of the military chiefs who formed his Treuste -- or armed court, dictates the Salic Law (Code of the Barbaric Laws). ... The Act of Security 1704 (also referred to as the Act for the Security of the Kingdom) was a response by the Parliament of Scotland to the Parliament of Englands Act of Settlement 1701. ... Anne (6 February 1665 – 1 August 1714) became Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland on 8 March 1702, succeeding William III and II. Her Roman Catholic father, James II and VII, was forcibly deposed in 1688; her brother-in-law and her sister then became joint monarchs as William III...


As a result, the Parliament of England — fearing that at the height of the War of the Spanish Succession, Scotland under a separate, potentially Stuart, monarchy would restore the Auld Alliance with France — decided that, in order to deter any potential French-supported Jacobite invasion of Great Britain, full union of the two Parliaments and nations was essential before Anne's death, and with French military power weakened after the Battle of Blenheim, used a combination of exclusionary legislation (the Alien Act of 1705), diplomacy and bribery to achieve it within three years under the Act of Union 1707. This was in marked contrast to the four attempts at political union between 1606 and 1689, which all failed owing to a lack of political will in both kingdoms. By virtue of Article II of the Treaty of Union, which defined the succession to the British Crown, the Act of Settlement became part of Scots Law as well. The English parliament in front of the King, c. ... Combatants Habsburg Empire England (1701-6) Great Britain (1707-14)[1] Dutch Republic Kingdom of Portugal Crown of Aragon Duchy of Savoy [2] Kingdom of France Kingdom of Spain Electorate of Bavaria Hungarian Rebels [3] Commanders Eugene of Savoy Margrave of Baden Count Starhemberg Duke of Marlborough Marquis de Ruvigny... The Coat of Arms of King James I, the first British monarch of the House of Stuart The House of Stuart or Stewart was a royal house of the Kingdom of Scotland, later also of the Kingdom of England, and finally of the Kingdom of Great Britain. ... The Auld Alliance refers to a series of treaties, offensive and defensive in nature, between Scotland and France aimed specifically against an aggressive and expansionist England. ... Combatants England, Dutch Republic, Holy Roman Empire, Denmark Kingdom of France, Electorate of Bavaria Commanders Duke of Marlborough, Prince Eugène of Savoy Duc de Tallard, Maximilian II Emanuel, Ferdinand de Marsin Strength 52,000, 60 guns[3] 56,000, 90 guns Casualties 4,542 killed, 7,942 wounded 34... The Alien Act of 1705 was a law passed by the English parliament as a response to the Scottish parliaments Act of Security of 1704, which in turn was a response to the English Act of Settlement 1701. ... Scots law is a unique legal system with an ancient basis in Roman law. ...


The failure of the Darien scheme, which had effectively bankrupted many people in Scotland and drained the fragile Scottish economy of more than a quarter of its liquid assets, was another major incentive. Many Commissioners had invested heavily in the Company of Scotland and they believed that they would receive compensation for their losses; Article 14 of the Act of Union stipulated that a future Parliament of Great Britain would grant £398,085 10s sterling to Scotland to offset future Scottish liability towards the English national debt. In essence, it was also used as a means of compensation for Scotland's losses in the Darien Scheme.[9] Half of Scotland's trade in the early 1700's was with England, and this, along with the offer of further free trade with England's already extensive overseas colonies, was likely one of the principal reasons the Acts of Union were not as heavily resisted by the government of Scotland as they had with other previous attempts to amalgamate the two countries. Bribery was also prevalent,[8] money was dispatched from England to Scotland for distribution by the Earl of Glasgow. Some of this money was used to hire spies, such as Daniel Defoe. To many Scots, this amounted to little more than treachery. Several decades later, National bard Robert Burns would express his personal cynicism towards the actions of the old Scots Parliament: The Darien scheme was an unsuccessful attempt by the Kingdom of Scotland to establish a colony on the Isthmus of Panama. ... Market liquidity is a business, economics or investment term that refers to an assets ability to be easily converted through an act of buying or selling without causing a significant movement in the price and with minimum loss of value. ... The Company of Scotland Trading to Africa and the Indies was an overseas trading company created by an act of the Scots Parliament in 1695. ... “GBP” redirects here. ... This article is about coinage. ... Free trade is an economic concept referring to the selling of products between countries without tariffs or other trade barriers. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... The title Earl of Glasgow was bestowed on David Boyle, Lord Boyle, one of the commissioners who negotiated the Treaty of Union uniting England and Scotland into Great Britain. ... Spies may refer to: Spies (Coldplay), a song by the rock group Coldplay. ... Daniel Defoe (1659/1661 [?] â€“ April 24 [?], 1731)[1] was an English writer, journalist, and spy, who gained enduring fame for his novel Robinson Crusoe. ... For the chain gang fugitive and author from Georgia, see Robert Elliott Burns. ... This article is about the current understanding of the word cynicism. ...

What force or guile could not subdue
Through many warlike ages
Is wrought now by a coward few
For hireling traitors wages
The English steel we could disdain
Secure in valours station
But English gold has been our bane
Sic a parcel of rogues in a nation

The Acts of Union were largely unpopular amongst the general population in Scotland.[10] Many petitions were sent to parliament against the union, and there were protests in Edinburgh and several other Scottish towns on the day it was passed, threats of widespread civil unrest resulted in the imposition of martial law. As a result of the unrest in the capital, the signing of the treaty had to be conducted in secrecy.[11] Sir George Lockhart of Carnwath noted that "the whole nation appears against the Union." Sir John Clerk of Penicuik, an ardent pro-unionist, observed that the treaty was "contrary to the inclinations of at least three-fourths of the Kingdom".[12] On the day the treaty was signed, the carilloner in St Giles Cathedral, Edinburgh, rang the bells in the tune Why should I be so sad on my wedding day?[13] Despite this initial opposition, the benefits to Scotland from the Acts of Union soon became apparent with the beginning of the Scottish Enlightenment, American Tobacco Trade and later growth from the expansion of the British Empire and Industrial Revolution which led to the rapid expansion and industrialisation of Edinburgh and Glasgow. Look up Petition in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Edinburgh (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Sir George Lockhart of Lee, also known as Lockhart of Carnwath, (1673 - 1731) of Carnwath, South Lanarkshire, was a Scottish writer, spy and politician. ... Sir John Clerk, known as John Clerk of Penicuik, 1676 - 1755, was a Scottish politician, lawyer, judge, composer and architect, The son of a member of the Parliament of Scotland, Clerk went on to serve in that capacity himself, for the Whig party. ... For the University of Regina student newspaper, see The Carillon. ... St Giles Cathedral A prominent feature of the Edinburgh skyline, St Giles Cathedral decorates the midpoint of the Royal Mile with its rounded hollow-crown tower. ... The Scottish Enlightenment was a period of intellectual ferment in Scotland, running from approximately 1740 to 1800. ... The Tobacco Lords (or “Virginia Dons”) were Glasgow merchants who, in the 18th Century made enormous fortunes by trading in tobacco from Britains American Colonies. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ... For other uses, see Edinburgh (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Glasgow (disambiguation). ...


Scottish home rule

Main article: Scottish Assembly

The Visit of King George IV to Scotland in 1822 did much to reinvigorate a sense of a specifically Scottish national identity, which had been split between the Episcopalian and Roman Catholic-dominated Highlands and the Presbyterian-dominated Lowlands since the Glorious Revolution in 1688, and continued during the 18th century through the Jacobite risings, the Act of Proscription and subsequent process of Highland Clearances by landlords. From the mid 19th century calls for the devolution of control over Scottish affairs began to be raised, but support for full independence remained limited. The "home rule" movement for a Scottish Assembly was first taken up in 1853 by a body close to the Conservative Party, complaining about the fact that Ireland received more support from the British Government than Scotland and soon began to receive Liberal Party backing,[1] In 1885, the Post of Secretary for Scotland and the Scottish Office were re-established to promote Scotland’s interests and voice its grievances to the British Parliament. In 1886 however, William Gladstone introduced the Irish Home Rule Bill. When many Scots compared what they had to the Irish offer of Home Rule, this was considered inadequete. It was not an immediate constitutional priority however, especially after the Irish Home Rule Bill was defeated in the House of Commons, and by the time a Scottish home rule bill was first presented to parliament in 1913, its progress, along with the Irish Home Rule Act 1914 was interrupted by World War I and subsequently became overshadowed by the Easter Rising and Irish War of Independence.[1] [14] A devolved Scottish Assembly that would have some form of legislative powers in jurisdiction over Scotland was a long-held political priority for many individuals and organisations. ... Sir David Wilkies flattering portrait of the kilted King George IV, with lighting chosen to tone down the brightness of his kilt and his knees shown bare, without the pink tights he wore at the event. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... The Roman Catholic Church in Scotland describes the organisation of the worldwide Roman Catholic Church in the geographic area of Scotland, distinct from the Catholic Church in England & Wales and the Catholic Church in Ireland. ... Lowland-Highland divide Highland Sign with welcome in English and Gaelic The Scottish Highlands (A Ghàidhealtachd in Gaelic) include the rugged and mountainous regions of Scotland north and west of the Highland Boundary Fault. ... Presbyterianism is a tradition shared by a number of Christian denominations which is most prevalent within the Reformed branch of Protestant Western Christianity. ... Lowland-Highland divide The Scottish Lowlands (a Ghalldachd, meaning roughly the non-Gaelic region, in Gaelic), although not officially a geographical area of the country, in normal usage is generally meant to include those parts of Scotland not referred to as the Highlands (or Gàidhealtachd), that is, everywhere due... The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England (VII of Scotland) in 1688 by a union of Parliamentarians and the Dutch stadtholder William III of Orange-Nassau (William of Orange), who as a result ascended the English throne as William... Each Jacobite Rising formed part of a series of military campaigns by Jacobites attempting to restore the Stuart kings to the thrones of England and Scotland (and after 1707, Great Britain) after James VII of Scotland and II of England was deposed in 1688 and the thrones usurped by his... On August 1, 1746 the Act of Proscription (19 Geo. ... The Highland Clearances (Scottish Gaelic: Fuadaich nan Gàidheal, the expulsion of the Gael) is a name given to the forced displacement of the population of the Scottish Highlands from their ancient ways of warrior clan subsistence farming, leading to mass emigration. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Look up Devolution in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A devolved Scottish Assembly that would have some form of legislative powers in jurisdiction over Scotland was a long-held political priority for many individuals and organisations. ... The Conservative Party (officially the Conservative and Unionist Party) is the second largest political party in the United Kingdom in terms of sitting Members of Parliament (MPs), the largest in terms of public membership, and the oldest political party in the United Kingdom. ... This article is about the historic Liberal Party. ... The Secretary for Scotland was the former title of the chief minister in charge of the Scotland Office in the United Kingdom government. ... Categories: Stub | Scotland | Departments of the United Kingdom Government ... William Ewart Gladstone (29 December 1809 – 19 May 1898) was a British Liberal Party statesman and Prime Minister (1868–74, 1880–85, 1886 and 1892–94). ... The First Home Rule Bill (official name: Irish Government Bill, 1886) was the first major attempt made by a British parliament to enact a law creating home rule for part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ... British House of Commons Canadian House of Commons The House of Commons is the elected lower house of the bicameral parliament in the United Kingdom and Canada. ... The Home Rule Act of 1914, also known as the (Irish) Third Home Rule Act (or Bill), and formally known as the Government of Ireland Act 1914 (4 & 5 Geo. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Combatants Irish Volunteers, Irish Citizen Army, Irish Republican Brotherhood British Army Royal Irish Constabulary Commanders Patrick Pearse, James Connolly Brigadier-General Lowe General Sir John Maxwell Strength 1250 in Dublin, c. ... Combatants Irish Republic United Kingdom Commanders Michael Collins Richard Mulcahy Cathal Brugha Important local IRA leaders Henry Hugh Tudor Strength Irish Republican Army c. ...


The Scottish National Party itself was formed in 1934 after the union of the National Party of Scotland and Scottish Party. The SNP did not support all-out independence for Scotland, but rather the establishment of a devolved Scottish Assembly, within the United Kingdom. This became the party's initial position on the constitutional status of Scotland as a result of a compromise between the NPS, who did support independence, and the Scottish Party who were devolutionists. However, the SNP quickly reverted to the original NPS stance of supporting full independence for Scotland. The Interwar period proved difficult years for the SNP, with the rise of undemocratic nationalist forces in Europe in the shape of fascism in Italy and Spain and national socialism in Germany. The alleged similarity between SNP and foreign nationalists, combined with other factors such as a lack of profile in the mainstream media made it difficult for the SNP to grow[15]. The National Party of Scotland (NPS) was formed in 1928 after John MacCormick of the Glasgow University Scottish Nationalist Association (GUSNA) called a meeting of all those favouring the establishment of a party favouring Scottish independence. ... The Scottish party was the name of two organisations, one now defunct, and the other now called the Free Scotland Party. ... A devolved Scottish Assembly that would have some form of legislative powers in jurisdiction over Scotland was a long-held political priority for many individuals and organisations. ... Europe between 1929 and 1938. ... Nazism, or National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), refers primarily to the totalitarian ideology and practices of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers Party, German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) under Adolf Hitler. ...


The concept of full independence or the less contoversial Home-rule, did not re-enter the Scottish mainstream until the 1960's, with the famous Wind of Change speech by Harold MacMillan, which marked the high-point of Decolonisation and the decline of the British Empire, which had already suffered the humiliation of the 1956 Suez Crisis. For many in Scotland, this served to undermine one of the principal raison d'êtres of the United Kingdom and also symbolised the end of popular imperialism and imperial unity which had united the prominent Scottish Unionist Party, which subsequently entered a steady decline in support[16] [17]. The SNP won a Parliamentary seat in 1967, when Winnie Ewing was the surprise winner of the Hamilton by-election, 1967. This brought the SNP to national prominence, leading to Edward Heath's 1968 Declaration of Perth and the establishment of the Kilbrandon Commission. [18] Look up Devolution in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Wind of Change speech was a historically-important address made by British Prime Minister Harold Macmillan to the Parliament of South Africa, on 3 February 1960 in Cape Town. ... Maurice Harold Macmillan, 1st Earl of Stockton, OM, PC (10 February 1894 – 29 December 1986), was a British Conservative politician and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1957 to 1963. ... Colonialism in 1945 Decolonization refers to the achievement of independence by the various Western colonies and protectorates in Asia and Africa following World War II. This conforms with an intellectual movement known as Post-Colonialism. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... Combatants Israel United Kingdom France Egypt Commanders Moshe Dayan Charles Keightley Pierre Barjot Gamal Abdel Nasser Abdel Hakim Amer Strength 175,000 Israeli 45,000 British 34,000 French 70,000 Casualties 197 Israeli KIA 56 British KIA 91 British WIA 10 French KIA 43 French WIA 650 KIA[1... Look up raison dêtre in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Cecil Rhodes: Cape-Cairo railway project. ... The Unionist Party, referred to as the Scottish Unionist Party outwith Scotland itself, was the main Tory political party in Scotland between 1912 and 1965. ... Winnie Ewing (born July 10, 1929) is a prominent Scottish nationalist and was formerly a Member of Parliament (MP), Member of the European Parliament (MEP) and Member of the Scottish Parliament (MSP). ... The Hamilton by-election, in Hamilton, South Lanarkshire, Scotland, in 1967 was a milestone in the politics of Scotland. ... Sir Edward Richard George Heath, KG, OBE (9 July 1916 – 17 July 2005) was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1970 to 1974 and leader of the Conservative Party from 1965 to 1975. ... The Declaration of Perth was a statement made by British Conservative Party leader Edward Heath at the party conference at Perth, Scotland in 1968, which committed the party to supporting some form of Scottish devolution. ... The Royal Commission on the Constitution, also referred to as the Kilbrandon Commission (initially the Crowther Commission) or Kilbrandon Report, was a long-running royal commission set up by Harold Wilsons Labour government to examine the structures of the constitution of the United Kingdom and the government of its...


1970s resurgence

For more details on this topic, see Scotland referendum, 1979.

The discovery of North Sea oil off the east coast of Scotland further invigorated the debate over Scottish independence.[19] The Scottish National Party organised a hugely successful campaign entitled "It's Scotland's oil", emphasising the way in which the discovery of oil could benefit Scotland's then-struggling Deindustrialising economy and its populace.[20] In the February 1974 General Election the SNP returned 7 MPs. The failure of the Labour Party to secure an overall majority prompted them to quickly return to the polls. In the subsequent October 1974 election, the SNP performed even better than they had done earlier in the year, winning 11 MPs and managing to garner over 30% of the total vote in Scotland.[21] The Scotland referendum of 1979 was a post-legislative referendum held in Scotland only, over whether there was support for Scotland Act 1978, which if passed would have created an assembly for Scotland. ... // North Sea Oil Platforms North Sea oil refers to oil and natural gas (hydrocarbons) produced from oil reservoirs beneath the North Sea. ... The Scottish National Party (SNP) (Scottish Gaelic: is a centre-left political party which campaigns for Scottish independence. ... Its Scotlands oil was a widely publicised political slogan used by the Scottish National Party (SNP) during the 1970s in making their economic case for Scottish independence. ... Deindustrialization is the process by which the manufacturing-based economy of a country or region declines. ... The UK general election of February 1974 was held on February 28, 1974. ... Harold Wilson Edward Heath The United Kingdom general election of October 1974 took place on 10 October 1974. ...


The Labour Party under Harold Wilson had won the election by a tiny majority of only 3 seats. Following their election to parliament, the SNP MPs pressed for the creation of a Scottish Assembly, which was given added credibility after the conclusions of the Kilbrandon Commission. However, opponents demanded that a referendum be held on the issue. Although the Labour Party and the Scottish National Party both officially supported devolution, support was split in both parties. Labour was divided between those who favoured devolution and those who wanted to maintain a full central Westminster government. In the SNP, there was division between those who saw devolution as a stepping stone to independence and those who feared it might actually distract from that ultimate goal.[19] James Harold Wilson, Baron Wilson of Rievaulx, KG, OBE, FRS, PC (11 March 1916 – 24 May 1995) was one of the most prominent British politicians of the 20th century. ... A devolved Scottish Assembly that would have some form of legislative powers in jurisdiction over Scotland was a long-held political priority for many individuals and organisations. ... The Labour Party is a political party in the United Kingdom. ...


The resignation of Harold Wilson brought James Callaghan to power, however its small majority was eroded with several by-election losses and the government became increasingly unpopular due to the Winter of Discontent, although an arrangement was negotiated in 1977 with the Liberals known as the Lib-Lab pact and a succession of deals with the Scottish National Party and Plaid Cymru to hold referendums on devolution in exchange for their support, had helped to prolong the government's life. Leonard James Callaghan, Baron Callaghan of Cardiff, KG, PC (27 March 1912 – 26 March 2005), was Labour Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1976 to 1979. ... The Winter of Discontent is a nickname given to the British winter of 1978–79, during which there were widespread strikes by Trade unions demanding larger pay rises for their members. ... This article is about the historic Liberal Party. ... Lib-Lab Pact has been the term used to describe a working arrangement between the UKs political parties of the Liberals (later Liberal Democrats) and the Labour Party. ... Plaid Cymru (IPA:; English: ; often referred to simply as Plaid) is a political party in Wales. ...


The result of the referendum in Scotland was a narrow majority in favour of devolution (52% to 48%).[19] However, a condition of the referendum was that 40% of the total electorate should vote in favour in order to make it valid. Thus, with a turnout of 63.6%, only 32.9% had voted "Yes". The Scotland Act 1978 was consequently repealed in March 1979 by a vote of 301-206 in parliament. In the wake of the referendum the supporters of the bill conducted a protest campaign under the slogan "Scotland said yes". They argued that the 40% rule was undemocratic and that the referendum results justified the establishment of the assembly. However, campaigners for a "No" vote countered that voters had been told before the referendum that failing to vote itself was as good as a "No"[22]. It was therefore incorrect to conclude that the 36.4% who did not vote, was entirely down to Voter apathy. The Scotland Act 1978 was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom (Westminster) seeking to establish a Scottish Assembly as a devolved legislature for Scotland. ... In politics, voter fatigue is the apathy that the public can experience when they are required to vote too often. ...


In protest, the Scottish National Party MP's withdrew their support from the government. A vote of no confidence was then tabled by the Conservatives and supported by the SNP, the Liberals and Ulster Unionists. It passed by one vote on 28 March 1979, forcing the May 1979 General Election, which was won by Margaret Thatcher, effectively ending the Post-war consensus. The then Labour Prime Minister, James Callaghan, famously described this decision by the SNP as that of, 'turkeys voting for Christmas' [23] [24]. The SNP returned only two MP's in the 1979 election. A motion of no confidence, also called a motion of non-confidence, a censure motion, a no-confidence motion, or simply a confidence motion, is a parliamentary motion traditionally put before a parliament by the opposition in the hope of defeating or embarrassing a government. ... The Ulster Unionist Party (UUP, sometimes referred to as the Official Unionist Party or OUP or, in a historic sense, simply the Unionist Party) is a moderate unionist political party in Northern Ireland. ... The United Kingdom general election of 1979 was held on 3 May 1979 and is regarded as a pivotal point in 20th century British politics. ... Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC, FRS (née Roberts; born 13 October 1925) served as British Prime Minister from 1979 to 1990 and leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 until 1990, being the first and to date only woman to hold either post. ... The post-war consensus was an era in British political history which lasted from the end of World War Two to the election of Margaret Thatcher as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom in 1979. ... Leonard James Callaghan, Baron Callaghan of Cardiff, KG, PC (27 March 1912 – 26 March 2005), was Labour Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1976 to 1979. ...


Devolution

For more details on this topic, see Scottish Parliament.
Debating chamber of the Scottish Parliament

Supporters of Scottish independence continued to hold mixed views on the Home Rule movement which included many supporters of union who wanted devolution within the framework of the United Kingdom. Some saw it as a stepping stone to independence, while others wanted to go straight for independence.[25] For the national legislative body up to 1707, see Parliament of Scotland. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1587x1161, 381 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Scotland Scottish independence Scottish Parliament Building Portal:Architecture Portal:Architecture/Did you know User:Pschemp/Gallery... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1587x1161, 381 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Scotland Scottish independence Scottish Parliament Building Portal:Architecture Portal:Architecture/Did you know User:Pschemp/Gallery... A devolved Scottish Assembly that would have some form of legislative powers in jurisdiction over Scotland was a long-held political priority for many individuals and organisations. ...


In the years of the Conservative government post 1979, the Campaign for a Scottish Assembly led to the Scottish Constitutional Convention. The convention promoted consensus on devolution on a cross-party basis, though the Conservative Party refused to co-operate and the Scottish National Party withdrew from the discussions when it became clear that the convention was unwilling to discuss Scottish independence as a constitutional option.[19] Arguments against devolution and the Scottish Parliament, levelled mainly by the Conservative Party, were that the Parliament would create a "slippery slope" to Scottish independence, and provide the pro-independence Scottish National Party with a route to government.[26] John Major, the Conservative prime minister before May 1997, campaigned during the 1997 General Election on the slogan "72 hours to save the union".[27] The Campaign for a Scottish Assembly (CSA) was formed in the aftermath of the 1979 referendum that failed to establish a devolved Scottish Assembly. ... The Scottish Constitutional Convention (SCC) was established after prominent Scottish individuals signed the Claim of Right in 1989. ... For other persons named John Major, see John Major (disambiguation). ...


The Labour Party won the 1997 General Election and Donald Dewar as Secretary of State for Scotland agreed to the proposals for a Scottish Parliament. A referendum was held in September of that year and seventy-five percent of those who voted approved the devolution plan.[28] The Parliament of the United Kingdom subsequently approved the Scotland Act which created an elected Scottish Parliament with control over most domestic policy, with the exception of various Reserved matters.[19] In May 1999 Scotland held its first election for a devolved parliament and in July the Scottish Parliament held session for the first time since the previous parliament had been adjourned in 1707. The Scottish Parliament had one hundred and twenty-nine members elected by the Additional Member System, which is a combination of first past the post and proportional representation. The Labour Party's Donald Dewar became the First Minister of Scotland, while the Scottish National Party became the main opposition party. With the approval of all parties, the egalitarian song "A Man's A Man for A' That" by Robert Burns, was performed at the opening ceremony of the Scottish Parliament. The UK general election, 1997 was held on 1 May 1997. ... For the Canadian politician, see Donald Dewar (Canadian politician). ... The Secretary of State for Scotland (Rùnaire Stàite na h-Alba in Scottish Gaelic) is the chief minister in the government of the United Kingdom with responsibilites for Scotland, at the head of the Scotland Office (formerly The Scottish Office). ... For the national legislative body up to 1707, see Parliament of Scotland. ... Type Bicameral Houses House of Commons House of Lords Speaker of the House of Commons The Right Honourable Michael Martin MP Lord Speaker Hélène Hayman, Baroness Hayman, PC Members 1377 (646 Commons, 731 Peers) Political groups (as of May 5, 2005 elections) Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats... The Scotland Act 1998 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom at Westminster. ... For the national legislative body up to 1707, see Parliament of Scotland. ... In Scotland reserved matters, also referred to as reserved powers, are those subjects over which power to legislate is retained by Westminster, as explicitly stated in the Scotland Act 1998. ... The Scottish Parliament election, 1999 was the first general election of the Scottish Parliament, with voting taking place on May 6th, 1999. ... The Additional Member System (AMS) is a voting system in which some representatives are elected from geographic constituencies and others are elected under proportional representation from party lists. ... An example of a plurality ballot. ... Proportional representation (sometimes referred to as full representation, or PR), is a category of electoral formula aiming at a close match between the percentage of votes that groups of candidates (grouped by a certain measure) obtain in elections and the percentage of seats they receive (usually in legislative assemblies). ... The First Minister of Scotland (Scottish Gaelic: ; Scots: ) is, in practice, the political leader of Scotland, as head of Scotlands national devolved government, the Scottish Executive, which was established in 1999 along with the Scottish Parliament. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: A Mans a Man for A That The Scots song Is There For Honest Poverty, by Robert Burns, is more commonly known as A Mans A Man For A That, and famous for its expression of egalitarian ideas of society... For the chain gang fugitive and author from Georgia, see Robert Elliott Burns. ...


The Scottish National Party emerged from the 2007 Scottish Parliament election as the single largest party by a margin of one seat,[29] breaking the Labour Party's 30 year dominance of politics in Scotland. Lacking an overall majority, the Scottish National Party formed a minority government, installing leader Alex Salmond as First Minister of Scotland. Alex Salmond has announced that his government intends to publish a white paper that will include issuing a bill on holding an independence Referendum to the Scottish Parliament. If this was passed by Parliament and a "yes" outcome was obtained in a subsequent national plebiscite, it would establish a mandate for the Scottish Executive to open talks with the British Government, with a view to repealing the Acts of Union 1707, eventually restoring Scotland's independent sovereignty.[30] However, the Scottish Labour Party, Scottish Conservative Party and Scottish Liberal Democrats have stated they will collectively oppose any plans to hold such a referendum on independence. The composition of the Scottish Parliament following the 2007 election. ... The Labour Party is a political party in the United Kingdom. ... The Politics of Scotland forms a distinctive part of the wider politics of the United Kingdom, with Scotland one of the constituent countries of the United Kingdom. ... In the Westminster System, a majority government is one in which the government enjoys an absolute majority of seats in the legislature or Parliament. ... For minority governments in general, see dominant minority. ... Alexander Elliot Anderson Salmond, known as Alex Salmond (born 31 December 1954 ) (age 52)), has been nominated by the Scottish Parliament as First Minister of Scotland. ... The First Minister of Scotland (Scottish Gaelic: ; Scots: ) is, in practice, the political leader of Scotland, as head of Scotlands national devolved government, the Scottish Executive, which was established in 1999 along with the Scottish Parliament. ... A white paper is an authoritative report. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita, originally a decree of the Concilium Plebis) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... The Executives logo, shown with English and Scottish Gaelic caption The term Scottish Executive is used in two different, but closely-related senses: to denote the executive arm of Scotlands national legislature (i. ... Her Majestys Government, or when the Sovereign is male, His Majestys Government, abbreviated HMG or HM Government, is the formal title used by the Government of the United Kingdom. ... The Acts of Union were a pair of Acts of Parliament passed in 1706 and 1707 (taking effect on 1 May 1707) by, respectively, the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland. ... This article is about the Scottish Labour Party founded in 1976. ... The Scottish Conservative Party (officially the Scottish Conservative and Unionist Party), often referred to as the Scottish Tories (see Tory), is the part of the British Conservative Party that operates in Scotland. ... The Liberal Democrats, often shortened to Lib Dems, are a liberal political party in the United Kingdom. ...


Support for independence

Nationalism

For more details on this topic, see History of the Scottish National Party.

The Scots National League formed in 1921 as a body primarily based in London seeking Scottish independence, largely influenced by Sinn Féin. They established the Scots Independent newspaper in 1926 and in 1928 they helped the Glasgow University Scottish Nationalist Association form the National Party of Scotland, aiming at a separate Scottish state. One of the founders was Hugh MacDiarmid, a poet who had begun promoting a Scottish literature, while others had Labour Party links. In Scotland, the Scottish National Party (SNP) is a centre-left political party who favours Scottish independence. ... The Scots National League (SNL) were a body seeking Scottish independence in the early 1920s. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For pre-Arthur Griffith use of the political name, see Sinn Féin (19th century). ... The Scots Independent is a monthly newspaper that is in favour of Scottish independence. ... The Glasgow University Scottish Nationalist Association (GUSNA) was formed in 1927 by students at the University of Glasgow who believed in Scottish independence. ... The National Party of Scotland (NPS) was formed in 1928 after John MacCormick of the Glasgow University Scottish Nationalist Association (GUSNA) called a meeting of all those favouring the establishment of a party favouring Scottish independence. ... Hugh MacDiarmid was the pen name of Christopher Murray Grieve (August 11, 1892, Langholm - September 9, 1978), perhaps the most important Scottish poet of the 20th century. ...


They cooperated with the Scottish Party, a home rule organisation formed in 1932 by former members of the Conservative Party, and in 1934 they merged to form the Scottish National Party which at first supported only home rule, but then changed to supporting independence. They suffered a setback in the 1930s when the name of nationalism became associated with the National Socialists in Germany, however it's important to emphasise that Scottish nationalism is based on civic nationalism rather than ethnic or ultra-nationalism.[31] The SNP enjoyed a number of election successes in the 1960s, and the discovery of North Sea oil in the 1970s countered concerns about the economic viability of an independent Scotland.[20] The discovery of North Sea oil and the subsequent revenues that went to the United Kingdom treasury have been argued to have benefited Scotland little, with many conservative estimates suggesting almost £200bn of revenue have been amassed thus far. There are also a number of other organisations with a primarily nationalist ideological orientation, from Siol nan Gaidheal, which seeks to revitalise the independence movement through primarily cultural means, to the militant Scottish National Liberation Army. The Scottish party was the name of two organisations, one now defunct, and the other now called the Free Scotland Party. ... The Conservative Party (officially the Conservative and Unionist Party) is the second largest political party in the United Kingdom in terms of sitting Members of Parliament (MPs), the largest in terms of public membership, and the oldest political party in the United Kingdom. ... The Scottish National Party (SNP) (Scottish Gaelic: is a centre-left political party which campaigns for Scottish independence. ... The National Socialist German Workers Party (German: , or NSDAP, commonly, the Nazi Party), was a political party in Germany between 1920 and 1945. ... Civic nationalism, or civil nationalism, is the form of nationalism in which the state derives political legitimacy from the active participation of its citizenry, from the degree to which it represents the will of the people. It is often seen as originating with Jean-Jacques Rousseau and especially the social... The North Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, located between the coasts of Norway and Denmark in the east, the coast of the British Isles in the west, and the German, Dutch, Belgian and French coasts in the south. ... SnG members destroy a Union Jack at a flag burning. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Republicanism

The independence movement is a disparate one that covers varied political standpoints. While many are republican, this is not Scottish National Party policy. The SNP styles itself as an inclusive institution, subordinating ideological tensions to the primary goal of securing independence. Many nationalists, including Alex Salmond, personally support the retention of the current Monarch - who herself is half-Scottish, through her mother, Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon - with Scotland becoming a Commonwealth Realm, similar to Canada or Australia, should independence occur. This would effectively return Scotland to it's previous constitutional state of dynastic union, after the Union of the Crowns in 1603. Proportional representation has led to the election to the Scottish Parliament of smaller parties with various political positions but which have independence as a goal; in the 2003 Scottish Parliament election the gains made by the Scottish Green Party and the Scottish Socialist Party boosted the number of pro-independence MSPs. The Scottish Socialist Party has led republican protests and authored the Declaration of Calton Hill, calling for an independent republic.[32] Republicanism is the ideology of governing a nation as a republic, with an emphasis on liberty, rule by the people, and the civic virtue practiced by citizens. ... The Scottish National Party (SNP) (Scottish Gaelic: is a centre-left political party which campaigns for Scottish independence. ... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon, later Queen Elizabeth (Elizabeth Angela Marguerite; 4 August 1900 – 30 March 2002), was the Queen Consort of King George VI of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions from 1936 until his death in 1952. ... The Commonwealth Realms, shown in pink A Commonwealth Realm is any one of the sixteen sovereign states within the Commonwealth of Nations that recognise Elizabeth II as their respective monarch. ... Dynastic union refers to the union of two titles or rulerships in one ruler or titleholder. ... The polling date for the second Scottish Parliament election was held on May 1, 2003. ... The Scottish Green Party (Pàrtaidh Uaine na h-Alba in Scottish Gaelic) is the Green party of Scotland, and a full member of the European Federation of Green Parties. ... The Scottish Socialist Party (SSP) (Scottish Gaelic: ) is a radical left-wing Scottish political party which campaigns on a socialist economic platform and for Scottish independence. ... This article requires some copyediting, to be brought in line with the Manual of Style and does not cite its references or sources. ...


National liberation

There are a number of supporters of Scottish independence who do not subscribe to the mainstream nationalist viewpoint. Instead they see Scottish independence as a national liberation movement and seek to build an inclusive independent Scottish state. This view of national liberation for Scotland typically supports the rights of asylum seekers to settle in Scotland and opposes any curtailment of civil liberties. Look up Liberation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Civil liberties is the name given to freedoms that protect the individual from government. ...


Self-determination

A number of cross party groupings have been established with the aim of widening the scope of the pro-independence viewpoint and campaigning for a referendum on the issue. The most significant being the Independence Convention which seeks "Firstly, to create a forum for those of all political persuasions and none who support independence; and secondly, to be a national catalyst for Scottish independence."[33] Another being Independence First, a pro-referendum pressure group which has organised public demonstrations. The Independence Convention is a new umbrella grouping for supporters of Scottish independence, also known as Interim Forum for an Independence Convention (IFIC). ... Independence First or Independence 1st is a political movement in Scotland, first proposed through internet discussions in September 2004, then formally constituted on 19 February 2005. ... An advocacy group, interest group or lobbying group is a group, however loosely or tightly organized, doing advocacy: those determined to encourage or prevent changes in public policy without trying to be elected. ...


Political parties

Scottish independence is supported most prominently by the Scottish National Party, but other parties also have pro-independence policies. Among them are the Scottish Green Party, the Scottish Socialist Party, Solidarity and the Scottish Enterprise Party. The Scottish National Party (SNP) (Scottish Gaelic: is a centre-left political party which campaigns for Scottish independence. ... The Scottish Green Party (Pàrtaidh Uaine na h-Alba in Scottish Gaelic) is the Green party of Scotland, and a full member of the European Federation of Green Parties. ... The Scottish Socialist Party (SSP) (Scottish Gaelic: ) is a radical left-wing Scottish political party which campaigns on a socialist economic platform and for Scottish independence. ... Solidarity (full name Solidarity – Scotlands Socialist Movement) is a political party in Scotland, launched on September 3, 2006 as a breakaway from the Scottish Socialist Party (SSP)[1] in the aftermath of Tommy Sheridans libel action. ... The Scottish Enterprise Party, SEP, is a Scottish centre-right pro-business party supportive of Scottish independence. ...


Fifty of the seats in the Scottish Parliament are held by pro-independence members, nearly 40% of the total. This comprises 47 Scottish National Party members, two Green members and Margo MacDonald, an independent politician. Margo MacDonald was born in 1945 in Hamilton, Scotland and educated at Hamilton Academy, she trained as a teacher of physical education. ...


Opposition

Main article: Unionists (Scotland)
Scottish Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Gordon Brown, has emerged as the foremost contemporary supporter of the union.

There is also a mainstream body of opinion opposed to Scottish independence and in favour of the continuation of the union with England, Wales, and Northern Ireland. This has never emerged as a homogeneous movement, but rather represents a general consensus of the main British political parties and specifically within the Scottish Parliament, by the Scottish Labour Party, Scottish Conservative Party and Scottish Liberal Democrats, who since the 2007 election, collectively hold 79 of the 129 seats, over 60% of the Parliament. It is a broad viewpoint that ranges from those in support of the United Kingdom as a centralised unitary state governed exclusively by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, to those who support varying degrees of devolved transfer of administrative and legislative responsibilities from Westminster to Holyrood, including those who support a solution to the controversial West Lothian question, such as Federalism, similar to Germany, Canada or the United States. Unionism in Scotland is the belief in that Scotland should remain in the United Kingdom in its present structure as a union between its main constituent countries. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1500x1532, 724 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Gordon Brown User:GeeJo/Gallery Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1500x1532, 724 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Gordon Brown User:GeeJo/Gallery Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or... The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is, in practice, the political leader of the United Kingdom. ... For others with the same or similar names, see Gordon Brown (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country. ... Northern Ireland (Irish: ) is a part of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... This is a list of political parties in the United Kingdom. ... For the national legislative body up to 1707, see Parliament of Scotland. ... This article is about the Scottish Labour Party founded in 1976. ... The Scottish Conservative Party (officially the Scottish Conservative and Unionist Party), often referred to as the Scottish Tories (see Tory), is the part of the British Conservative Party that operates in Scotland. ... The Liberal Democrats, often shortened to Lib Dems, are a liberal political party in the United Kingdom. ... The composition of the Scottish Parliament following the 2007 election. ... A map showing the unitary states. ... Type Bicameral Houses House of Commons House of Lords Speaker of the House of Commons The Right Honourable Michael Martin MP Lord Speaker Hélène Hayman, Baroness Hayman, PC Members 1377 (646 Commons, 731 Peers) Political groups (as of May 5, 2005 elections) Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats... Look up Devolution in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Type Bicameral Houses House of Commons House of Lords Speaker of the House of Commons The Right Honourable Michael Martin MP Lord Speaker Hélène Hayman, Baroness Hayman, PC Members 1377 (646 Commons, 731 Peers) Political groups (as of May 5, 2005 elections) Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats... For the national legislative body up to 1707, see Parliament of Scotland. ... The West Lothian question was a question posed on 14 November 1977 by Tam Dalyell, Labour Member of Parliament (MP) for the Scottish constituency of West Lothian, during a British House of Commons debate over Scottish and Welsh devolution (see Scotland Act 1978 and Wales Act 1978): For how long... A map displaying todays federations. ...


Many opposed to independence point out that the Economy of Scotland has performed well in recent years, with consistent economic growth [34], urban regeneration [35], a growing population [36], historically low unemployment rates [37], Edinburgh's position as Europe's fifth largest financial centre [38] and Scottish GDP per capita being the largest of any part of the United Kingdom after Greater London. As a result of this, Unionists believe Scotland is economically stronger as a part of the United Kingdom, or rather that a country as relatively small as Scotland would find it comparatively difficult to prosper without the protection of being part of an economically powerful state.[39] Also, with the removal of the Treasury's Barnett formula, an independent Scotland may find it difficult to sustain current levels of public spending, without raising taxes, as North Sea oil revenues would decline in the longer-term [40], although others argue that a culture of maintaining a comparatively large public sector and welfare state in Scotland is also an impediment to more substantial and competitive economic growth, with some wishing to devolve more fiscal powers to the Scottish Parliament in order to address this issue within the broader framework of the Union.[41] [42] [43] The headquarters of the Bank of Scotland, located on the Mound in Edinburgh. ... 1999 photograph looking northeast on Chicagos now demolished Cabrini-Green housing project, one of many urban renewal efforts. ... Greater London is the top-level administrative subdivision covering London, England. ... One of the hallmarks of contemporary great power status is permanent membership on the United Nations Security Council. ... The new eastern entrance to HM Treasury HM Treasury, in full Her Majestys Treasury, informally The Treasury, is the United Kingdom government department responsible for developing and executing the UK Governments financial and economic policy. ... The Barnett formula is a mechanism used by Her Majestys Treasury in the United Kingdom to adjust automatically some elements of public expenditure in Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales to reflect decisions affecting other parts of the country. ... // North Sea Oil Platforms North Sea oil refers to oil and natural gas (hydrocarbons) produced from oil reservoirs beneath the North Sea. ... The Welfare State of the United Kingdom was prefigured in the William Beveridge Report in 1942, which identified five Giant Evils in society: squalor, ignorance, want, idleness and disease. ...

The population and percentage of total population of Scotland relative to the four nations of the United Kingdom.
The population and percentage of total population of Scotland relative to the four nations of the United Kingdom.

Others argue that as part of an unitary British state, Scotland has more influence on international affairs and diplomacy, both politically and militarily, as part of NATO, the G8 and as a permanent member of the UN Security Council. Some within Scotland who oppose the aims of the European Union also claim that independence within Europe outside the EU three would, paradoxically, mean that Scotland would be more marginalised, as a small independent country applying to join the EU, Scotland would be unable to resist the whims and demands of larger member nations, such as being obliged to adopt the Euro and have no greater influence over the formation of treaties like the Common Fisheries Policy[44], and as a result would be even more politically "impotent" with the resulting loss of its current political influence within the UK Government, which has been claimed by some to be so significant that it has been occasionally dubbed as the "Scottish mafia".[45] There are others who view a desire for independence as symptomatic of the so-called parochial "Scottish cringe" and assert that many nationalists are ultimately Anglophobic in their attitude towards the Union. [46] [47] As a result, many unionists emphasise the historical and contemporary cultural ties between Scotland and the rest of the UK, from the Scottish involvement in the growth and development of the British Empire and contribution of the Scottish Enlightenment, to a shared Popular culture primarily through the prevalence of the English language and a shared currency, to the current demographics, where almost half of the Scottish population have relatives in England, almost a million Scots living and working in England and 400,000 Anglo-Scots now living in Scotland. There are also significant economic links with the Scottish Military-industrial complex [48] as well as close links between the Scottish financial sector and London-based financial institutions, such as the London Stock Exchange[49]. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The United Kingdom (UK) is a major player in international politics, with interests throughout the world. ... Soft power is a term used in international relations theory to describe the ability of a political body, such as a state, to indirectly influence the behavior or interests of other political bodies through cultural or ideological means. ... Hard power is a concept which is mainly used in realism in international relations and refers to national power which comes from military and economic means. ... This article is about the military alliance. ... Group of Eight redirects here. ... A session of the Security Council in progress The United Nations Security Council is the most powerful organ of the United Nations. ... EU three or EU 3 refers to the United Kingdom, France and Germany, with relation to the status, power and influence of these three nations within the European Union in their attempts to end Irans nuclear program. ... For other uses, see Euro (disambiguation). ... The Common Fisheries Policy (CFP) is the fisheries policy of the European Union. ... The Scottish mafia refers to a group of Scottish politicians who are seen as having undue influence over the government of the the United Kingdom and in particular of England. ... Parochialism means being provincial, being narrow in scope, or considering only small sections of an issue. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Roastbeef (or rosbif) is a long standing anglophobe French slang term to designate the English or the United Kingdom inhabitants. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... The Scottish Enlightenment was a period of intellectual ferment in Scotland, running from approximately 1740 to 1800. ... Popular culture, sometimes abbreviated to pop culture, consists of widespread cultural elements in any given society. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... President Dwight Eisenhower famously referred to the military-industrial complex in his farewell address. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... The Source by Greyworld, in the new LSE building Paternoster Square. ...


Public opinion

Despite the large number of opinion polls conducted on the issue, it's difficult to accurately gauge Scottish public opinion on independence because of the often widely varying results of the polls. For example, an opinion poll published by the The Scotsman newspaper in November 2006 revealed that a "Majority of Scots now favour independence".[50] However, a poll conducted only a matter of weeks later purported the exact opposite. The research funded by Channel 4 reported that "The figure in support of Scottish independence had seemingly dropped".[51] A third poll by The Daily Telegraph claimed that a significant proportion of Britons would accept the breakup of the United Kingdom.[52] Research conducted in early 2007 revealed that Scottish independence was increasingly appealing to younger Scots.[53] Opinion polls are surveys of opinion using sampling. ... The Scotsmans offices in Edinburgh The Scotsman is a Scottish national newspaper, published in Edinburgh. ... This article is about the British television station. ... This article concerns the British newspaper. ...


When polls give three options, including an option for greater devolution but stopping short of independence, support for independence declines. In a poll by The Times, published in April 2007, given a choice between independence, the status quo, or greater powers for the Scottish Parliament within the United Kingdom, the last option had majority support.[54] The issue of public support for a referendum on Scottish independence is much more clear cut. Polls show a consistent support for a referendum even amongst those who support the continuation of the union. Most opinion polls place the figure of support for a referendum around 70–75%.[55] Look up Devolution in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Times is a national newspaper published daily in the United Kingdom since 1788. ...


See also

Scotland Portal

Image File history File links Royal_Arms_of_Scotland. ... Englands (in red) location within the United Kingdom English nationalism is the name given to a nationalist political movement in England that demands self-government for England, via a devolved English Parliament. ... Irish nationalism refers to political movements that desire greater autonomy or the independence of Ireland from Great Britain. ... Welsh nationalism is a popular political and cultural movement that emerged during the nineteenth-century. ... This is a list of currently active autonomist and secessionist movements around the world. ...

References

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  2. ^ a b Robert the Bruce. BBC. Retrieved on 2007-07-06.
  3. ^ The Declaration of Arbroath (English Translation). University of Edinburgh. Retrieved on 2007-06-21.
  4. ^ a b c Willson, David Harris. King James VI & 1. Jonathan Cape Ltd. ISBN 0224605720. 
  5. ^ Croft, Pauline. King James. Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 0333613953. 
  6. ^ The Settlement of Scotland 1651-60
  7. ^ Act of Union is key to Scottish identity. The Times (2005-11-21). Retrieved on 2007-06-11.
  8. ^ a b Act of Union 1707. Channel 4 (2007-04-01). Retrieved on 2007-06-11.
  9. ^ Lynch (2001) p604-606
  10. ^ Union of the Parliaments 1707. Rampant Scotland. Retrieved on 2007-06-11.
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  12. ^ Chronology of Scottish Politics. alba.org.uk. Retrieved on 2007-06-21.
  13. ^ Do the Scots support independence?. The Guardian (2007-05-01). Retrieved on 2007-06-11.
  14. ^ Scottish Home Rule
  15. ^ History of the Scottish National Party
  16. ^ Scottish independence…
  17. ^ National identities > The story so far
  18. ^ Scottish Referendums
  19. ^ a b c d e The Devolution Debate This Century. BBC. Retrieved on 2007-06-11.
  20. ^ a b How black gold was hijacked: North sea oil and the betrayal of Scotland. The Independent (2007-06-10). Retrieved on 2007-06-10.
  21. ^ Regional distribution of seats and percentage vote. psr.keele.ac.uk. Retrieved on 2007-06-21.
  22. ^ Hansard record of 26 Apr 1996 : Column 735
  23. ^ BBC report on 1979 election
  24. ^ Hansard, House of Commons, 5th series, vol. 965, col. 471.
  25. ^ SNP should return to the honest argument on independence. The Scotsman (2003-08-23). Retrieved on 2007-06-20.
  26. ^ Breaking the Old Place up. The Economist (1999-11-04). Retrieved on 2006-10-14.
  27. ^ Politics 97. BBC (September 1997). Retrieved on 2006-10-14.
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  32. ^ Holyrood survives birth pains. Guardian Unlimited (2004-10-10). Retrieved on 2007-06-21.
  33. ^ Introduction: Aims and Questions. Scottish Independence Convention. Retrieved on 2007-07-04.
  34. ^ Scotland &mdsah; competing with the world
  35. ^ The Cities Are Back
  36. ^ Population rises for fourth year
  37. ^ Scots unemployment at record low
  38. ^ Economics in Scotland
  39. ^ The Scottish gamble. BBC News (2007-04-30). Retrieved on 2007-06-20.
  40. ^ Doubts raised over future of shipyards under independence. The Scotsman (2007-07-27). Retrieved on 2007-08-20.
  41. ^ Study finds no benefit in fiscal autonomy as McCrone calls time on Barnett. The Scotsman (2007-01-26). Retrieved on 2007-08-18.
  42. ^ 'Billions needed' to boost growth. BBC News (2006-03-14). Retrieved on 2007-08-18.
  43. ^ Public/private sectors in economy need to be rebalanced. The Scotsman (2006-03-15). Retrieved on 2007-08-18.
  44. ^ Scottish Independence - Reality or Illusion?. Global Politician (2007-01-05). Retrieved on 2007-06-20.
  45. ^ Scots urged to raise their profile. BBC (2001-09-22). Retrieved on 2007-06-20.
  46. ^ The sullen self-pity of Anglophobic Scots. The Independent (2006-11-27).
  47. ^ 'Xenophobic' row deepens between SNP and defiant Lib Dem MSPs. The Scotsman (2007-02-19).
  48. ^ Doubts raised over future of shipyards under independence. The Scotsman (2007-07-27). Retrieved on 2007-08-20.
  49. ^ Scots and English flourish in the Union. The Telegraph (2001-04-11). Retrieved on 2007-06-20.
  50. ^ Vital gains forecast for SNP in swing from Labour. The Scotsman (2006-11-01). Retrieved on 2007-06-11.
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  52. ^ Britain wants UK break up, poll shows. The Daily Telegraph (2006-11-27). Retrieved on 2007-06-11.
  53. ^ Younger Scots and Welsh may become more likely to support Nationalist parties. Economic & Social Research Council (2007-05-04). Retrieved on 2007-05-05.
  54. ^ How SNP could win and lose at the same time. The Times (2007-04-20). Retrieved on 2007-06-11.
  55. ^ Polls on support for independence and for a referendum on independence. Independence First. Retrieved on 2007-06-11.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 325th day of the year (326th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 73rd day of the year (74th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 74th day of the year (75th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 331st day of the year (332nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... [[Media:Italic text]]{| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 331st day of the year (332nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... // is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

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  Results from FactBites:
 
SIC Home (2671 words)
In the SNP we are accustomed to illustrating the independence ‘deficit’ by comparing Scotland’s economic performance within the United Kingdom with the performance of neighbouring small independent countries.
Of course independence can be argued on many different grounds – as a fundamental right, as duty of self-responsibility, as the key to more representative and more effective governance, as way to maximise the contribution we could make on the great global issues of climate change or international peace.
But the links between independence and an improved economic performance are well supported by the record of other small Western European countries – not just by the bare facts of their sustained higher growth but also by the historical detail of how over decades they have used their political independence to maximise their economic welfare.
Scotland www.scottishindependence.com Scottish Independence Guide (514 words)
The Scottish Independence Guide (SIG) www.scottishindependence.com is a complete and comprehensive guide to Scottish politics and the ongoing campaign for self determination for Scotland (Alba).
Independence for Scotland would mean the restoration of the complete powers that the UK Government currently holds over the Scottish people.
Most importantly independence would mean freedom for the Scottish people to choose our own Government and our own destiny as a fully independent state.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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