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Encyclopedia > Scottish clan
Clan map of Scotland

Scottish clans (from Old Gaelic clann, children), give a sense of identity and shared descent to people in Scotland and to their relations throughout the world, with a formal structure of Clan Chiefs officially registered with the court of the Lord Lyon, King of Arms which controls the heraldry and Coat of arms. Each clan has its own tartan patterns, usually dating to the 19th century, and members of the clan may wear kilts, skirts, sashes, ties, scarves, or other items of clothing made of the appropriate tartan as a badge of membership and as a uniform where appropriate. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1065x1400, 149 KB) Map of Scottish highland clans and lowland families. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1065x1400, 149 KB) Map of Scottish highland clans and lowland families. ... Motto: (Latin) No one provokes me with impunity1 Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official language(s) English, Gaelic, Scots2 Government  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - UK Prime Minister Tony Blair MP  - First Minister Jack McConnell MSP Unification    - by Kenneth I 843  Area    - Total 78,772 km... Arms of the Office of the Lord Lyon The Lord Lyon King of Arms, the head of Lyon Court, is the Scottish official with responsibility for regulating heraldry in that kingdom, issuing new grants of arms, and serving as the judge of the oldest Heraldic court in the world that... Heraldry in its most general sense encompasses all matters relating to the duties and responsibilities of officers of arms. ... A modern coat of arms is derived from the medi val practice of painting designs onto the shield and outer clothing of knights to enable them to be identified in battle, and later in tournaments. ... A clan is a group of people united by kinship and descent, which is defined by perceived descent from a common ancestor. ... A tartan is a specific woven pattern that often signifies a particular Scottish clan in the modern era. ... It has been suggested that Irish kilt be merged into this article or section. ...


Clans identify with geographical areas originally controlled by the Chiefs, usually with an ancestral castle or manor, and clan gatherings form a regular part of the social scene. Balmoral Castle, Scotland Castle has a history of scholarly debate surrounding its exact meaning. ... Ightham Mote For the London district, see Manor House, London. ...

Contents

Origins of the clans

The word clann in Gaelic means children of the family. Each clan was a large group of related people, theoretically an extended family, supposedly descended from one progenitor and all owing allegiance to the patriarchal clan chief. It also included a large group of loosely-related septs – related families - all of whom looked to the clan chief as their head and their protector. // Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages. ...


Some clans such as Clan Campbell and Clan Donald claim ancient Celtic mythological progenitors mentioned in the Fenian cycle, with a group including Clan MacSween, Clan Lamont, Clan Erinvines, Clan MacEwen, Clan MacLachlan, and MacNeil tracing their ancestry back to the 5th century High King of Ireland. Others such as Clan MacAulay, Clan MacKinnon and Clan MacGregor claim descent from the Scots King Kenneth Mac Alpin who made himself King of the Picts in 843, founding the Kingdom called after the name of the land Alba (modern-day Scotland). The MacDonalds and MacDougalls claim descent from Somerled, the half-Gael/half-Norse-Manx Lord of the Isles in the mid-11th century. Campbell Clan Badge - In heraldry, a snarling Boars head may represent what are seen as the positive qualities of the boar, namely courage and fierceness in battle. ... Clan Donald crest: Per mare per terras (By sea and by land) Map of Dál Riata at its height, c. ... Celtic mythology is the mythology of Celtic polytheism, apparently the religion of the Iron Age Celts. ... The Fenian Cycle also known as the Fionn Cycle, Finn Cycle, Fianna Cycle, Finnian Tales, Fian Tales, Féinne Cycle, Feinné Cycle, Ossianic Cycle and Fianaigecht, is a body of prose and verse centering on the exploits of the mythic hero Fionn mac Cumhaill and his warriors the Fianna Éireann. ... Clan Sweeney Coat of Arms Sweeney is an ancient clan name with Irish and Scottish links, famous for their fierce warriors. ... Clan Lamont Crest: Ne parcas nec spernas (Neither spare nor dispose) Clan Lamont is a Highland Scottish clan // The Lamonts descend from the Scotts who crossed the sea from Ireland. ... The Clan MacNeil of Barra is one of the oldest Scottish clans: it claims descent from Niall of the Nine Hostages in Ireland in 379 AD and King Lóegaire mac Néill in Ireland in 428 AD. The seat of the clan is Kisimul Castle. ... Clan MacAulay Crest Clan MacAulay is a Scottish clan. ... Clan MacKinnon is one of the most ancient Highland Scottish clans and a branch of the Siol Alpin. ... Clan MacGregor Crest: S rioghal mo dhream (My race is royal) The Clan Gregor is a Highland Scottish clan. ... This article is about the Scottish as an ethnic group. ... Cináed mac Ailpín (after 800–13 February 858) (Anglicised Kenneth MacAlpin) conquered the Picts and, according to national myth, first king of Scots. ... A replica of the Hilton of Cadboll Stone. ... Alba is the ancient and modern Gaelic name (IPA: ) for the country of Scotland (also Alba in Irish, and in Old Gaelic Albu). ... Clan Donald crest: Per mare per terras (By sea and by land) Map of Dál Riata at its height, c. ... Macdougalls of Lore Mac means son of while the term clan comes from the Gaelic word for children. ... Categories: Possible copyright violations ... The Gaels are an ethno-linguistic group in Ireland, Scotland and the Isle of Man, whose language is of the Gaelic (Goidelic) family, a division of Insular Celtic languages. ... The term Viking commonly denotes the ship-borne explorers, traders, and warriors of the Norsemen (literally, men from the north) who originated in Scandinavia and raided the coasts of the British Isles, France and other parts of Europe as far east as the Volga River in Russia from the late... MacDonald, Lord of the Isles The designation Lord of the Isles (Scottish Gaelic: ), now a Scottish title of nobility, emerged from a series of hybrid Viking/Gaelic rulers of the west coast and islands of Scotland in the Middle Ages, who wielded sea-power with fleets of galleys. ...


Though the clans had always been a feature of pre-Christian Ireland and Scotland, they first emerged into English consciousness from the turmoil of the 12th and 13th centuries when the Scottish crown pacified northern rebellions and re-conquered areas taken by the Norse, and after the fall of Macbeth when the crown became increasingly Anglo-Norman. This turmoil created opportunities for Norse, Scottish and English warlords and their kin to dominate areas, and the instability of the Wars of Scottish Independence brought in warlords with Anglo-Norman, Anglian and Flemish ancestry, founding clans such as the Camerons, Chisholms, Menzies and Grants. Macbeth (Gaelic for Son of Life) c. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... For other uses of the term Norse, see Norse. ... The Gaels are an ethno-linguistic group in Ireland, Scotland and the Isle of Man, whose language is of the Gaelic (Goidelic) family, a division of Insular Celtic languages. ... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: God Save the King/Queen Capital London (de facto) Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Unification    - by Athelstan AD 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi  Population    - 2006 est. ... The Wars of Scottish Independence were a series of military campaigns fought between Scotland and England in the late 13th and early 14th centuries. ... White cliffs of Dover in England White cliffs of Rugen down the Baltic coast from Schleswig The Angles is a modern English word for a Germanic-speaking people who took their name from the cultural ancestor of Angeln, a modern district located in Schleswig, Germany. ... Flemings (Dutch: Vlamingen) are inhabitants of Flanders in the widest sense of the term, i. ... // History Clan Cameron is a Highland Scottish clan, with two main branches; that of Lochiel, and that of Erracht. ... Clan Chisholm Crest: I Am Fierce With The Fierce Clan Chisholm is a Scottish clan. ... Clan Menzies Crest: If God wills it, I Shall Clan Menzies is a Highland Scottish clan. ... Grant Crest Castle Grant, from rear Castle Grant, Barbies Tower Castle Grant, from front Clan Grant is a Highland Scottish clan which inhabited land in Northern Scotland since 1316, although the clan is known to have existed farther back than that. ...


The Highland clan system

Inheritance and authority

The Scottish Highland clan system incorporated the Celtic/Norse traditions of heritage as well as Norman Feudal society. Chieftains and petty kings under the suzerainty of a High King ruled Gaelic Alba, with all such offices being filled through election by an assembly. Usually the candidate was nominated by the current office holder on the approach of death, and his heir-elect was known as the tanist, from the Gaelic tanaiste, or second, with the system being known as tanistry. This system combined a hereditary element with the consent of those ruled, and while the succession in clans later followed the feudal rule of primogeniture, the concept of authority coming from the clan continued. Celts redirects here. ... For other uses of the term Norse, see Norse. ... Norman conquests in red. ... Peasants plowing in front of a castle, French manuscript c. ... The Gaels are an ethno-linguistic group in Ireland, Scotland and the Isle of Man, whose language is of the Gaelic (Goidelic) family, a division of Insular Celtic languages. ... Tanistry (Irish/Gaeilge Tàinste;Scottish Gaelic: Tànaisteachd) was the office of heir-apparent, or second-in-command, among the royal dynastys of Ireland and her offshoot nations. ... Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ...


Thus the collective heritage of the clan, the duthchas, gave the right to settle the land to which the chiefs and leading gentry provided protection and authority as trustees for the people. This was combined with the complementary concept of oighreachd where the chieftain's authority came from charters granted by the feudal Scottish crown, where individual heritage was warranted. While duthchas held precedence in the medieval period, the balance shifted as lowland Scots law became increasingly important in shaping the structure of clanship. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ... Scots law (or Scottish law) is the law of Scotland. ...


Legal process

To settle criminal and civil disputes within clans both sides put their case to an arbitration panel drawn from the leading gentry of the clan and presided over by the chief. Similarly, in disputes between clans the chiefs served as procurators (legal agents) for the disputants in their clan and put the case to an arbitration panel of equal numbers of gentry from each clan presided over by a neighbouring chief or landlord. There was no appeal from the decision which awarded reparations, called assythment, to the wronged party and which was recorded in a convenient Royal or Burgh court. This compensation took account of the age, responsibilities and status of the victim as well as the nature of the crime, and once paid precluded any further action for redress against the perpetrator. To speed this process clans made standing provisions for arbitration and regularly contracted bands of friendship between the clans which had the force of law and were recorded in a convenient court. Arbitration is a legal technique for the resolution of disputes outside the courts, wherein the parties to a dispute refer it to one or more persons (the arbitrators or arbitral tribunal), by whose decision (the award) they agree to be bound. ...


Social ties

Fosterage and manrent were the most important forms of social bonding in the clans. In fosterage, the chief's children were brought up by favoured members of the leading clan gentry [traditionally the mother's brother or similar, i.e. in another clan], whose children in turn were brought up by other favoured members of the clan [again the mother's brother or the like - i.e. in another clan]. This brought about intense ties and reinforced inter-clan cohesion. Manrent was a bond contracted by the heads of families looking to the chief for territorial protection, though not living on the estates of the clan elite. These bonds were reinforced by calps, death duties paid to the chief as a mark of personal allegiance by the family when their head died, usually in the form of their best cow or horse. Although calps were banned by Parliament in 1617, manrent continued covertly to pay for protection. Fosterage was a traditional custom in the Hebrides. ... Manrent was a bond in Scottish clan Society. ... Manrent was a bond in Scottish clan Society. ... States currently utilizing parliamentary systems are denoted in red and orange—the former being constitutional monarchies where authority is vested in a parliament, and the latter being parliamentary republics whose parliaments are effectively supreme over a separate head of state. ...


Less durably, marriage alliances reinforced kinship between clans. These were contracts involving the exchange of livestock, money and rent, tocher for the bride and dowry for the groom.


Clan management

Payments of rents and calps from those living on clan estates and calps alone from families living elsewhere were channelled through tacksmen. These lesser gentry acted as estate managers, allocating the run-rig strips of land, lending seed-corn and tools and arranging droving of cattle to the Lowlands for sale, taking a minor share of the payments made to the clan nobility, the fine. They had the important military role of mobilising the Clan Host, both when required for warfare and more commonly as a large turn out of followers for weddings and funerals, and traditionally in August for hunts which included sports for the followers, the predecessors of the modern Highland games. The Scottish Lowlands ( an Galldachd in Gaelic ), although not officially a geographical area of the country, in normal usage is generally meant to include those parts of Scotland not referred to as the Highlands (or Gàidhealtachd), that is, everywhere due south and east of a line (the Highland Boundary... Opening ceremonies of 2004 Canmore Highland games Highland games are festivals held throughout the year in Scotland and many other countries of the world as a way of celebrating Scottish and Celtic culture and heritage, especially that of the Scottish Highlands. ...


From the late 16th century the Scottish Privy Council, recognising the need for co-operation, required clan leaders to provide bonds of surety for the conduct of anyone on their territory and to regularly attend at Edinburgh, encouraging a tendency to become absentee landlords. With an increase in droving, tacksmen acquired the wealth to finance the gentry's debts secured against their estates, hence acquiring the land. By the 1680s this led to the land in ownership largely coinciding with the collective duthchas for the first time. The tacksmen became responsible for the bonds of surety leading to a decline in banditry and feuding. The Privy Council of Scotland was a body which formerly advised the King. ... Edinburgh (pronounced ; Scottish Gaelic: ) is the capital of Scotland and its second-largest city. ...


Disputes and disorder

Where the oighreachd, land owned by the clan elite or fine, did not match the common heritage of the duthchas this led to territorial disputes and warfare. The fine resented their clansmen paying rent to other landlords, while acquisitive clans used disputes to expand their territories, and many clan histories record ferocious long lasting feuding such as the Clan Gordon and the Clan Forbes, which lasted for century and caused many deaths in both clans. On the western seaboard clans became involved with the wars of the Irish Gaels against the Tudor English, and a military caste called the buannachan developed, seasonally fighting in Ireland as mercenaries and living off their clans as minor gentry, but this was brought to an end with the Irish Plantations of James VI of Scotland and I of England. During that century law increasingly settled disputes, and the last feud leading to a battle was at Mulroy in Lochaber on August 4 1688. Clan Gordon Crest Clan Gordon, also known as the House of Gordon, is a traditional Scottish clan name and it is now a common forename. ... Clan Forbes Crest. ... Plantations in 16th and 17th century Ireland involved the seizure of land owned by the native Irish and granting of it to colonists (planters) from Britain. ... James VI and I (James Stuart) (June 19, 1566 – March 27, 1625) was King of Scots, King of England, and King of Ireland. ... The Battle of Mulroy was fought in August 1688 in the Lochaber district of Scotland between the MacDonalds of Keppoch and the Mackintoshes of Clan Chattan, their nominal overlords. ... Lochaber (Scottish Gaelic, Loch Abar) refers to a large area of the central and western Scottish Highlands. ...


Reiving had been a rite of passage, the creach where young men took livestock from neighbouring clans. By the 17th century this had declined and most reiving was the spreidh where up to 10 men raided the adjoining Lowlands, the livestock taken usually being recoverable on payment of tascal (information money) and guarantee of no prosecution. Some clans offered the Lowlanders protection against such raids, on terms not dissimilar to blackmail. Reive is a Scots word meaning to plunder or to rob, also spelt Reave in English, which comes from the Old English reafian. ... The Scottish Lowlands ( an Galldachd in Gaelic ), although not officially a geographical area of the country, in normal usage is generally meant to include those parts of Scotland not referred to as the Highlands (or Gàidhealtachd), that is, everywhere due south and east of a line (the Highland Boundary... For other uses, see Blackmail (disambiguation). ...


Although by the late 17th century disorder declined, reiving persisted with the growth of cateran bands of up to 50 bandits, usually led by a renegade of the gentry, who had thrown off the constraints of the clan system. As well as preying off the clans, caterans acted as mercenaries for Lowland lairds pursuing disputes amongst themselves.


Civil wars and Jacobitism

As the civil wars of the Three Kingdoms broke out in the early 17th century the Covenanters were supported by the territorially ambitious Argyll Campbells and House of Sutherland as well as some clans of the central Highlands opposed to the Royalist House of Huntly. While some clans remained neutral, others led by Montrose supported the Royalist cause, projecting their feudal obligations to clan chiefs onto the Royal House of Stuart, resisting the demands of the Covenanters for commitment and reacting to the ambitions of the larger clans. In the Scottish Civil War of 1644-47, the most prominent Royalist clan were Clan Donald led by Alasdair MacColla. The Wars of the Three Kingdoms were an intertwined series of conflicts that took place in Scotland, Ireland, and England between 1639 and 1651 at a time when these countries had come under the Personal Rule of the same monarch. ... James VI of Scotland (James I of England) was opposed by the Covenanters in his attempt to bring the Anglican Church into Scotland The Covenanters formed an important movement in the religion and politics of Scotland in the 17th century. ... James Graham, 1st Marquess of Montrose James Graham, 1st Marquess of Montrose (1612 - 21 May 1650), was a Scottish nobleman and soldier, who initially joined the Covenanters in the Wars of the Three Kingdoms, but subsequently supported King Charles I as the English Civil War developed. ... The Coat of Arms of King James I, the first British monarch of the House of Stuart The House of Stuart or Stewart was a royal house of the Kingdom of Scotland, later of the Kingdom of England, and finally of the Kingdom of Great Britain. ... Map of Scotland The Scottish Civil War The Scottish Civil War of 1644-47 was part of wider conflict known as the Wars of the Three Kingdoms, which included the Bishops Wars, the English Civil War and Irish Confederate Wars. ... Clan Donald crest: Per mare per terras (By sea and by land) Map of Dál Riata at its height, c. ... Alasdair MacColla (circa 1620 to 1647) was a Scottish-Irish soldier. ...


With the Restoration of Charles II Episcopalianism became widespread among clans, which suited the hierarchical clan structure and encouraged obedience to Royal authority, some others were converted by Catholic missions. In 1682 James Duke of York, Charles' brother, instituted the Commission for Pacifying the Highlands which worked in co-operation with the clan chiefs in maintaining order as well as redressing Campbell acquisitiveness, and when he became King James VII he retained popularity with many Highlanders. All these factors contributed to continuing support for the Stuarts when James was deposed by William of Orange in the "Glorious Revolution". King Charles II, the first monarch to rule after the English Restoration. ... Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was the King of England, King of Scots, and King of Ireland from 30 January 1649 (de jure) or 29 May 1660 (de facto) until his death. ... The word Episcopal is derived from the Greek επισκοπος epískopos, which literally means overseer; the word however is used in religious terms to mean bishop. ... James II of England/VII of Scotland (14 October 1633 – 16 September 1701) became King of Scots, King of England, and King of Ireland on 6 February 1685, and Duke of Normandy on 31 December 1660. ... William III King of England, Scotland and Ireland William III and II (14 November 1650–8 March 1702; also known as William Henry and William of Orange) was Prince of Orange from his birth, King of England and Ireland from 13 February 1689, and King of Scotland from 11... The Revolution of 1688, commonly known as the Glorious Revolution, was the overthrow of James II of England in 1688 by a union of Parliamentarians and the Dutch stadtholder William III of Orange-Nassau (William of Orange). ...


The support among many clans, their remoteness from authority and the ready mobilisation of the clan hosts made the Highlands the starting point for the Jacobite Risings. In Scottish Jacobite ideology the Highlander symbolised patriotic purity as against the corruption of the Union, and as early as 1689 some Lowlanders wore "Highland habit" in the Jacobite army. The Jacobite Risings were a series of uprisings, rebellions, and wars in the British Isles occurring between 1688 and 1746. ...


Decline of the Clan system

Successive Scottish governments had portrayed the clans as bandits needing occasional military expeditions to keep them in check and extract taxes. As Highlanders became associated with Jacobitism and rebellion the government made repeated efforts to curb the clans, culminating with brutal repression after the battle of Culloden. This followed in 1746 with the Act of Proscription, further measures making restrictions on their ability to bear arms, traditional dress, culture, and even music. The Heritable Jurisdictions Act removed the feudal authority the Clan Chieftains had once enjoyed. Charles Edward Stuart, Bonnie Prince Charlie, wearing the Jacobite blue bonnet Jacobitism was (and, to a very limited extent, remains) the political movement dedicated to the restoration of the Stuart kings to the thrones of England and Scotland. ... Combatants Government Army Jacobite Forces Commanders William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland Charles Edward Stuart, the Young Pretender Strength ca. ... On August 1, 1746 the Act of Proscription (19 Geo. ... The Heritable Jurisdictions (Scotland) Act, 1746 (20 Geo 2 c 43) abolished the traditional rights of jurisdiction afforded to a Scottish clan chief. ... Feudalism comes from the Late Latin word feudum, itself borrowed from a Germanic root *fehu, a commonly used term in the Middle Ages which means fief, or land held under certain obligations by feodati. ...


With the failure of Jacobitism the clan chiefs and gentry increasingly became landlords, losing the traditional obligations of clanship. They were incorporated into the British aristocracy, looking to the clan lands mainly to provide them with a suitable income. From around 1725 clansmen had been emigrating to America; both clan gentry looking to re-establish their lifestyle, or as victims of raids on the Hebrides looking for cheap labour. Increasing demand in Britain for cattle and sheep led to higher rents with surplus clan population leaving in the mass migration later known as the Highland Clearances, finally undermining the traditional clan system. The Highland Clearances (Scottish Gaelic: Fuadaich nan Gàidheal, the expulsion of the Gael) is a name given to the forced displacement of the population of the Scottish Highlands from their ancient ways of warrior clan subsistence farming, leading to mass emigration. ...


Romantic "revival" of interest

The Ossian poems of James Macpherson in the 1760s suited the Romantic enthusiasm for the "sublime" "primitive" and achieved international success with a disguised elegy for the Jacobite clans, set in the remote past. Following the writings of Sir Walter Scott as well as the pomp surrounding the visit of King George IV to Scotland in 1822 spurred 19th century interest in the clans and a reawakening of Scottish culture and pride. Dr. Samuel Johnson dismissed the Ossian poems as having no authenticity and was much criticised by some, however he was eventually shown to be largely correct. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Oisín. ... James Macpherson (October 27, 1736–February 17, 1796), was a Scottish poet, known as the translator of the Ossian cycle of poems (also known as the Oisín cycle). ... Romanticism is an artistic and intellectual movement that originated in late 18th century Western Europe. ... For the first Premier of Saskatchewan see Thomas Walter Scott Sir Walter Scott (August 14, 1771 - September 21, 1832) was a prolific Scottish historical novelist and poet popular throughout Europe. ... Sir David Wilkies flattering portrait of the kilted King George IV, with lighting chosen to tone down the brightness of his kilt and his knees shown bare, without the pink tights he wore at the event. ...


Soon after the Dress Act restricting kilt wearing was repealed in 1782, Highland aristocrats set up Highland Societies in Edinburgh and other centres including London and Aberdeen, landowners' clubs with aims including "Improvements" (which others would later call the Highland Clearances). Later clubs like the Celtic Society of Edinburgh included Highland chieftains and Lowlanders taking an interest in the clans. The Dress Act was part of the Act of Proscription which came into force on August 1, 1746 and made wearing the Highland Dress including tartan or a kilt illegal in Scotland as well as reiterating the Disarming Act. ... Edinburgh (pronounced ; Scottish Gaelic: ) is the capital of Scotland and its second-largest city. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see Aberdeen (disambiguation). ... The Highland Clearances (Scottish Gaelic: Fuadaich nan Gàidheal, the expulsion of the Gael) is a name given to the forced displacement of the population of the Scottish Highlands from their ancient ways of warrior clan subsistence farming, leading to mass emigration. ...


Lowland clans

Detailed Clan map of Scotland
Detailed Clan map of Scotland

The Lowlands south of the river Forth had been Brythonic, with the southeast coming under the Angles and Galloway and the western seaboard becoming Norse-Gaelic, then by 1034 the Kingdom of Alba had expanded to bring the all but the last area under Gaelic Celtic rule. From the accession King David I (1124), the traditional social patterns of much of eastern Scotland began to be altered, particularly with the growth of burghs and the settlement of French feudal families on royal demesne lands. This process was of course very slow, but its cumulative effect over many centuries was to undermine the integrity of Gaelic in the areas affected, areas which later became known collectively as the Lowlands, though to a large extent Galloway and Carrick, where Galwegian Gaelic survived into the 17th century, was not affected much as elsewhere until very late. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1700x2340, 1187 KB)A detailed map of Scottish Clans. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1700x2340, 1187 KB)A detailed map of Scottish Clans. ... The Scottish Lowlands ( an Galldachd in Gaelic ), although not officially a geographical area of the country, in normal usage is generally meant to include those parts of Scotland not referred to as the Highlands (or Gàidhealtachd), that is, everywhere due south and east of a line (the Highland Boundary... The River Forth meanders over fertile farmlands near Stirling The River Forth, 47 km (29 miles) long, is the major river draining the eastern part of the central belt of Scotland. ... Brython and Brythonic are terms which refer to indigenous, pre-Roman, Celtic speaking inhabitants of most of the island of Great Britain, and their cultures and languages, the Brythonic languages. ... White cliffs of Dover in England White cliffs of Rugen down the Baltic coast from Schleswig The Angles is a modern English word for a Germanic-speaking people who took their name from the cultural ancestor of Angeln, a modern district located in Schleswig, Germany. ... The Norse-Gaels were a people who dominated much of the Irish Sea region and western Scotland for a large part of the Middle Ages, whose aristocracy were mainly of Scandinavian origin, but as a whole exhibited a great deal of Gaelic and Norse cultural syncretism. ... The Kingdom of Alba (Gaelic : Rìoghachd na h-Alba) for the purposes of this article pertains to the Kingdom of Scotland between the death of Domnall II in 900, and the death of Alexander III in 1286 which then led indirectly to the Scottish Wars of Independence. ... King David I (or Dabíd mac Maíl Choluim; also known as Saint David I or David I the Saint) (1084 – May 24, 1153), was King of Scotland from 1124 until his death, and the youngest son of Malcolm Canmore and of Saint Margaret (sister of Edgar Ætheling). ... A burgh (pronounced burruh) is the Scots language equivalent of the English language borough. ... Feudalism comes from the Late Latin word feudum, itself borrowed from a Germanic root *fehu, a commonly used term in the Middle Ages which means fief, or land held under certain obligations by feodati. ... Galwegian Gaelic is an extinct Goidelic dialect formerly spoken in South West Scotland. ...


However, many aristocratic Gaelic clans did in fact survive in form, especially in Galloway (e.g. MacDowall, MacLellan, MacCann ), Carrick (e.g. Kennedy) and Fife (e.g. MacDuff). The term clan was still being used of Lowland families at the end of the 16th century and, while aristocrats may have been increasingly likely to use the word family, the terms remained interchangeable until the 19th century.


By the late 18th century the Lowlands were integrated into the British system, with an uneasy relationship to the Highlanders. The total population of Lowlanders diminished drastically in some parts of the south as a direct result of the Agricultural Revolution. That resulted in the Lowland Clearances, and the subsequent emigration of large numbers of Lowland Scots. The Agricultural Revolution in Scotland began in the mid-eighteenth century with the improvements of the lowland farmland and the beginning of a transformation of Scottish agriculture from one of the most backward into what was to become the most modern and productive system in Europe. ... The Lowland Clearances (Scottish Gaelic: Fuadaich nan Galltachd) in Scotland were one of the results of the British Agricultural Revolution, which changed the traditional system of agriculture which had existed in Lowland Scotland for hundreds of years. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Immigration. ...


However, with the revival of interest in Gaeldom and the visit of King George IV to Scotland in 1822, there was a new enthusiasm amongst Lowlanders for re-identification with Gaelic culture. As a result many Lowland families and aristocrats now appear on clan lists with their own tartans, in some cases with a claim to ancestry from the Highland area – encouraged, no doubt, by companies who market supposed coats-of-arms and heraldic devices, manufacturers of tartan cloth, and by the immense growth of Internet genealogical research, beginning in the last few years of the twentieth century. As a result, many of these families now have their own clan societies, websites and annual reunions. George IV (George Augustus Frederick) (12 August 1762 – 26 June 1830) was king of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and Hanover from 29 January 1820 until his death. ... Motto: (Latin) No one provokes me with impunity1 Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official language(s) English, Gaelic, Scots2 Government  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - UK Prime Minister Tony Blair MP  - First Minister Jack McConnell MSP Unification    - by Kenneth I 843  Area    - Total 78,772 km... Heraldry is the science and art of describing of coats-of-arms, also referred to as achievements or armorial bearings. ... Heraldry in its most general sense encompasses all matters relating to the duties and responsibilities of officers of arms. ... Genealogy is the study and tracing of family pedigrees. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s The 20th century lasted from 1901 to 2000 in the Gregorian calendar (often from (1900 to 1999 in common usage). ... A website (or Web site) is a collection of web pages, typically common to a particular domain name or subdomain on the World Wide Web on the Internet. ...


Clan membership, tartans and badges

The article Clans, Families and Septs by Sir Crispin Agnew of Lochnaw Baronet, Queens Counsel, Rothesay Herald of Arms (i.e., one of the four most senior members of the Lord Lyon's court), states that the terms clan and family are interchangeable, and makes it clear that membership is determined by the chief of the clan or family, who can accept or reject those who offer their allegiance. Historically the clan was those living on the chief's territory, though certain of his immediate family owed him allegiance wherever they lived. With changes in clan boundaries or migration of families the clan could include members with other surnames. A chief could add to his clan by adopting other families, and also had the legal right to outlaw anyone from his clan, including members of his own family. In modern terms a chief can accept whom he wants to, or limit clan membership to those with particular surnames. Those who have the chief's surname are deemed to be clan members, and anyone who offers allegiance to the chief by joining his clan society or wearing his clan tartan is considered a member unless disallowed by the chief, individually or by name group. Many people nowadays wish to claim clan membership on their mother's side, and while Sir Crispin does not mention this situation, there seems to be no reason for them not to offer allegiance to the chief of their mother's clan.


Where clans included groups with other surnames these are often listed as septs, but while the clan or family is a legally recognised group, sept lists have no official authority and merely reflect an estimate of historical associations.


Official Clan tartans are authorised by the chief and registered by the Lord Lyon, but there is no legal prohibition against wearing the "wrong" tartan. Originally there appears to have been little association of tartans with particular clans or areas, but the idea gained currency in the late 18th century and in 1815 the Highland Society of London began the naming and registration of "official" clan tartans, and gradually the original belted plaid was supplanted by the modern tailored kilt. For more information see Tartan and Kilt. A tartan is a specific woven pattern that often signifies a particular Scottish clan in the modern era. ... It has been suggested that Irish kilt be merged into this article or section. ...


A sign of allegiance to a clan is the wearing of its crest badge. In Scotland only individuals, not clans, possess a heraldic Coats of arms. However, a clansman or woman may wear a badge comprising the clan chief’s crest, encircled with a strap and buckle bearing their chief’s motto or slogan. In principle these badges should only be used with the permission of the clan chief and the Lyon Court has intervened in cases where permission has been withheld. Heraldry in its most general sense encompasses all matters relating to the duties and responsibilities of officers of arms. ... A modern coat of arms is derived from the medi val practice of painting designs onto the shield and outer clothing of knights to enable them to be identified in battle, and later in tournaments. ...


Clan lists and maps

The revival of interest, and demand for clan ancestry, has led to the production of lists and maps covering the whole of Scotland giving clan names and showing territories, sometimes with the appropriate tartans. While some lists and clan maps confine their area to the Highlands, others also show Lowland clans or families. Territorial areas and allegiances changed over time, and there are also differing decisions on which (smaller) clans and families should be omitted. Some alternative online sources are listed in the External links section below. A tartan is a specific woven pattern that often signifies a particular Scottish clan in the modern era. ...


This list of Clans contains clans registered with the Lord Lyon Court. The Lord Lyon Court defines a clan or family as a legally recognised group, but does not differentiate between Families and Clans. Clans or families thought to have had a Chief in the past but not currently recognised by the Lord Lyon are listed at Armigerous clans. Lyon Court, that is The Court of the Lord Lyon, is the institution which regulates heraldry in Scotland. ... An armigerous clan or Family, is a Scottish clan the chief of which has matriculated arms with the Lyon Office. ...

Clan Chief
(or Commander if no living chief)
Motto Background
Agnew Crispin Agnew of Lochnaw, 11th Bt. Consilo non impetu Lowland
Anstruther Ian Anstruther of that Ilk, 8th and 13th Bt. Periissem ni periissem Lowland
Arbuthnott John Campbell Arbuthnott, 16th Viscount of Arbuthnott Laus Deo Lowland
Bannerman David Gordon Bannerman of Elsick, 15th Baronet Pro Patria Lowland
Barclay Peter Barclay of Towie Barclay and of that Ilk Aut agere aut mori Lowland
Borthwick John Hugh Borthwick of that Ilk, 24th Lord Borthwick Qui conducit Lowland
Boyd Alastair Ivor Gilbert Boyd, 7th Baron Kilmarnock Confido Lowland
Boyle Patrick Robin Archibald Boyle, 10th Earl of Glasgow Dominus providebit Lowland
Brodie Alexander Brodie of Brodie Unite Lowland
Broun Sir William Broun of Coultson, Bt. Floreat majestas Lowland
Bruce Andrew Douglas Alexander Thomas Bruce, 11th Earl of Elgin Fuimus Lowland
Buchan David Buchan of Auchmacoy Non inferiora secutus Lowland
Burnett James Burnett of the Leys Virescit vulnere virtus Lowland
Cameron Col. Sir Donald Cameron of Lochiel Aonaibh ri cheile Highland
Campbell Torquhil Ian Campbell, 13th Duke of Argyll Ne obliviscaris
Carmichael Richard Carmichael of Carmichael Tout jour prest Lowland
Carnegie James George Alexander Bannerman Carnegie, 3rd Duke of Fife Dred God Lowland
Cathcart Charles Alan Andrew Cathcart, 7th Earl Cathcart I hope to speed Lowland
Charteris Francis David Charteris, 12th Earl of Wemyss and 8th Earl of March This is our charter Lowland
Chattan Malcolm K. MacKintosh of Clan Chattan Touch not the catt but [without] a glove Highland
Chisholm Hamish Chisholm of Chisholm Feros ferio Lowland
Cochrane Iain Alexander Douglas Blair Cochrane, 15th Earl of Dundonald Virtute et labore Lowland
Colquhoun Ivor Colquhoun of Luss, 8th Bt. Si je puis Highland
Colville John Mark Alexander Colville, 4th Viscount Colville of Culross Oublier ne puis Lowland
Cranstoun David Cranston of that Ilk and Corehouse Thou shalt want ere I want Lowland
Crichton David Maitland Makgill Crichton of that Ilk God send grace Lowland
Cumming/Comyn Sir Alexander Gordon Cumming of Altyre, 7th Bt. Courage Lowland
Darroch Duncan Darroch of Gourock Be watchfull Lowland
Davidson Alister Davidson of Davidston Sapienter si sincere Highland
Dewar Michael Kenneth Dewar of that Ilk and Vogrie Quid non pro patria Lowland
Drummond John Eric Drummond, 18th Earl of Perth Virtutem coronat honos Highland
Dunbar Sir James Dunbar of Mochrum, 14th Bt. In promptu Lowland
Dundas David Dundas of Dundas Essayez Lowland
Durie Andrew Durie of Durie. Confido Lowland
Elliot Margaret Eliott of Redheugh Fortiter et recte, Soyez sage Lowland
Elphinstone The Rt. Hon. Lord Elphinstone Cause causit Lowland
Erskine James Thorne Erskine, 14th Earl of Mar and 16th Earl of Kellie Je pense plus Lowland
Farquharson Alwyne Farquharson of Invercauld Fide et fortitudine Highland
Fergusson Sir Charles Fergusson of Kilkerran, 9th Bt. Dulcius ex asperis Lowland
Forbes Nigel Ivan Forbes, 23rd Lord Forbes Grace me guide Lowland
Forrester Ben Forrester. Blaw, Hunter, Blaw Thy Horn Lowland
Forsyth Alister Forsyth of that Ilk Instaurator ruinae Lowland
Fraser Flora Marjory Fraser, Lady Saltoun (21st in line) All my hope is in God Lowland and Midland
Fraser of Lovat Simon Fraser, 18th Lord Lovat Je suis prest Highland and Midland
Gayre Reinold Gayre of Gayre and Nigg Super astra spero Highland
Gordon Granville Charles Gomer Gordon, 13th Marquess of Huntly Bydand Midland & Highland
Graham James Graham, 8th Duke of Montrose Ne oublie Lowland
Grant James Patrick Trevor Grant of Grant, 6th Baron Strathspey Stand fast Highland
Grierson Sir Michael Grierson of Lag, 12th Bt. Hoc securior Lowland
Gunn Iain Alexander Gunn of Banniskirk Aut pax aut bellum Highland
Guthrie Alexander Guthrie of Guthrie Sto pro veritate Lowland
Haig George Alexander Eugene Douglas Haig, 2nd Earl Haig Tyde what may Lowland
Haldane Martin Haldane of Gleneagles Suffer Lowland
Hamilton Angus Douglas Hamilton, 15th Duke of Hamilton Through Lowland & Highland
Hannay David Hannay of Kirkdale and of that Ilk. Per ardua ad alta Lowland
Hay Merlin Sereld Victor Gilbert Moncreiffe, 24th Earl of Erroll Serva jugum Lowland
Henderson Alistair D. Henderson of Fordell Sola virtus nobilitat Lowland
Home David Douglas-Home, 15th Earl of Home Nulli Secundus Lowland
Hope Sir John Hope of Craighall, Bt. At spes infracta Lowland
Hunter Pauline Hunter of Hunterston Cursum perficio Lowland & Highland
Irvine of Drum David Charles Irvine of Drum. Sub sole sub umbra virens Lowland
Jardine Sir Alexander Jardine of Applegarth, 12th Baronet. Cave adsum Lowland
Johnstone Patrick Andrew Wentworth Johnstone of Annandale and of that Ilk, 11th Earl of Annandale and Hartfell Nunquam non paratus Lowland
Keith James William Falconer Keith, 14th Earl of Kintore Veritas vincit Highland & Lowland
Kennedy Archibald Angus Charles Kennedy, 8th Marquess of Ailsa Avise la fin Lowland
Kerr Michael Andrew Foster Jude Kerr, 13th Marquess of Lothian Sero sed serio Lowland
Kincaid Arabella Kincaid of Kincaid This I'll defend Highland
Lamont Peter N. Lamont of that Ilk Ne parcas nec spernas Highland
Leask Anne Leask of Leask. Virtute cresco Lowland
Lennox Edward J. H. Lennox of that Ilk and Woodhead I'll defend Lowland
Leslie James Malcolm David Leslie, 22nd Earl of Rothes Grip fast Lowland
Lindsay Robert Alexander Lindsay, 29th Earl of Crawford and 12th Earl of Balcarres Endure fort Lowland
Lockhart Angus H. Lockhart of the Lee Corda serrata pando Lowland
Lumsden Patrick Gillem Lumsden of that Ilk and Blanerne Amor patitur moras Lowland
Lyon Michael Fergus Bowes-Lyon, 18th Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne In Te Domine Speravi Lowland
MacAlister William St J. S. MacAlester of Loup & Kennox Fortiter Highland
MacArthur John Alexander MacArthur of that Ilk. Fide et opera Highland
MacBain James Hughston McBain of McBain Touch not a catt bot a targe; Highland
MacCallum Robin N. L. Malcolm of Poltalloch In ardua petit Highland
MacDonald Godfrey James Macdonald of Macdonald, 8th Baron Macdonald of Slate Per mare per terras Highland
MacDonald of Clan Ranald Ranald Alexander MacDonald, Captain of Clanranald My hope is constant in thee Highland
MacDonald of Keppoch Ranald Macdonald of Keppoch Air muir's tir Highland
MacDonald of Sleat Sir Ian Bosville MacDonald of Sleat, 17th Bt. Per mare per terras Highland
MacDonell of Glengarry Aeneas Ranald MacDonnel of Glengarry Creag an Fhitich Highland
MacDougall Morag Morley MacDougall of MacDougall Buaidh no bas Highland
MacDowall Fergus D. H. McDowall of Garthland Vincere vel mori Highland
MacGregor Sir Malcolm Gregor MacGregor of MacGregor, 7th Bart., 24th Chief of Clan Gregor 'S rioghal mo dhream Highland
MacIntyre Donald R. MacIntyre of Glenoe Per ardua Highland
MacKay Hugh William Mackay, 14th Lord Reay Manu forti Highland
MacKenzie John Ruaridh Grant MacKenzie, 5th Earl of Cromartie Luceo non uro Highland
MacKinnon Anne MacKinnon of MacKinnon Audentes fortuna juvat Highland
MacKintosh John Lachaln Mackintosh of Mackintosh Touch not the cat bot a glove Highland
MacLachlan (Euan Maclachlan of Maclachlan) Fortis et fidus Highland
MacLaine of Lochbuie Lorne MacLaine of Lochbuie Vincere vel mori Highland
MacLaren Donald MacLaren of MacLaren and Achleskine Creag an Turie Highland
MacLean Hon Sir Lachlan Maclean of Duart and Morvern, 12th Bt. Virtue mine honour Highland
MacLennan Ruairidh MacLennan of MacLennan Dum spiro spero Highland
MacLeod John MacLeod of Macleod Hold fast Highland
MacLeod of Lewis Torquil MacLeod of the Lewes Hold fast Highland
MacMillan George MacMillan of Macmillan and Knap Miseris succurrere disco Highland
MacNab James Charles Macnab of Macnab Timor omnis abesto (Let fear be far from all) Highland
MacNaughton Sir Patrick Macnaghten of Macnaghten and Dundarave, 11th Bt. I hope in God Highland
MacNeacail John Macneacail of Macneacail and Scorrabreac Sgorr-a-bhreac Highland
MacNeil of Barra Ian R. MacNeil of Barra Vincere vel mori Highland
Macpherson Sir William Macpherson of Cluny and Blairgowrie Touch not a cat bot a glove Highland
MacTavish Steven Edward Dugald MacTavish of Dunardry Non oblitus Highland
MacThomas Andrew P. C. MacThomas of Finegand Deo juvante invidiam superabo Highland
Maitland Patrick Francis Maitland, 17th Earl of Lauderdale Consilio et animis Lowland
Makgill Ian Arthur Alexander Makgill, 14th Viscount of Oxfuird Sine fine Lowland
Malcolm (MacCallum) Robin N. L. Malcolm of Poltalloch In ardua petit Highland
Mar Margaret of Mar, Countess of Mar, 30th in line Pans Plus Lowland
Marjoribanks Andrew George Marjoribanks of that Ilk Et custos et pugnax Lowland
Matheson Fergus John Matheson of Matheson, 7th Barronet. Fac et spera Highland
Menzies David R.S. Menzies of Menzies Vill God I Zall Highland
Moffat Jean Moffat of that Ilk Spero meliora Lowland
Moncreiffe The Hon. Peregrine D.E.M. Moncrieffe of that Ilk Sur esperance Highland
Montgomery Archibald George Montgomerie, 18th Earl of Eglinton and 6th Earl of Winton Gardez bien Lowland
Morrison Iain M. Morrison of Ruchdi Dun Eistein Highland
Munro Hector W. Munro of Foulis Dread God Highland
Murray John Murray, 11th Duke of Atholl Firth, Fortune, and Fill the Fetters Highland
Napier The Rt. Hon. Lord Napier and Ettrick Sans tache Lowland
Nesbitt Mark Nesbitt of that Ilk I byd it Lowland
Nicolson David Henry Arthur Nicolson of that Ilk, 4th Baron Carnock Generositate Highland
Ogilvy David George Patrick Coke Ogilvy, 8th Earl of Airlie A fin Highland
Oliphant Richard Oliphant of that Ilk Tour pourvoir Highland
Primrose Neil Primrose, 7th Earl of Rosebery Fide et fiducia Lowland
Ramsay James Hubert Ramsay, 17th Earl of Dalhousie Ora et labora Lowland
Rattray Lachlan Rattray of Rattray Super sidera votum Highland
Riddell Sir John Riddell of that Ilk, Bt. I hope to share Lowland
Robertson Gilbert Robertson of Struan Virtutis gloria merces Highland
Rollo David Eric Howard Rollo, 14th Lord Rollo La fortune passe partout Lowland
Rose Anna Elizabeth Guillemard Rose of Kilravock Constant and true Highland
Ross David Campbell Ross of Ross and Balnagowan Spem successus alit Highland
Ruthven Alexander Patrick Greysteil Ruthven, 2nd Earl of Gowrie Deid schaw Lowland
Sandilands The Rt. Hon. the Lord Tophichen Spero Meliora Lowland
Scott Walter Francis John Scott, 9th Duke of Buccleuch 11th Duke of Queensberry Amo Lowland
Scrymgeour Alexander Henry Scrymgeour of Dundee, 12th Earl of Dundee Dissipate Highland
Sempill James William Stuart Whitmore Sempill, 21st Lord Sempill Keep tryst Lowland
Shaw of Tordarroch John Shaw of Tordarroch Fide et fortitudine Highland
Sinclair Malcolm Ian Sinclair, 20th Earl of Caithness Commit thy work to God Highland
Skene Danus Skene of Skene Virtutis regia merces Lowland
Spens Patrick Spens, 4th Baron Spens Si deus quis contra Lowland
Stirling Francis John Stirling of Cader Gang forward Lowland
Strange Timothy Strange of Balcaskie Dulce quod utile Lowland
Stewart of Appin Andrew Francis Stewart of Lorn, Appin and Ardsheal Quhidder Well Zie Highland
Stuart of Bute The Most Hon. the Marquess of Bute Nobilis est ira leonis Highland
Sutherland Elizabeth Millicent, Countess of Sutherland, 24th in line Sans peur Highland
Swinton John Walter Swinton of that Ilk J'espere Lowland
Trotter Alexander Trotter of Mortonhall In promptu Lowland
Urquhart Kenneth Trist Urquhart of Urquhart Meane weil speak weil and doe weil Highland
Wallace Ian Francis Wallace of that Ilk Pro libertate Lowland
Wedderburn Henry David Wedderburn of that Ilk, Lord Scrymgeour, Master of Dundee Non degener Lowland
Wemyss David Wemyss of that Ilk Je pense Lowland

Clan Agnew is a Scottish clan from Wigtownshire and Galloway in the southwest of Scotland. ... Clan Anstruther is a Scottish clan from Anstruther in Fife, in the east of Scotland. ... Clan Arbuthnott is a Scottish clan from the area of Kincardineshire in the northeast of Scotland Origin of name From the land Aberbothenoth - where the small stream (Buthenot) meets the river(Bervie) Tartan Chief John Campbell Arbothnott, 16th Viscount of Arbuthnott KT, CBE, DSC, KStJ, FRSE Crest A peacock&#8217... The title Viscount of Arbuthnott was created in the Peerage of Scotland in 1641, along with the title Lord Inverbervie, for Sir Robert Arbuthnott. ... Pro Patria (For my Country) Clan Bannerman is a Scottish clan which has, for centuries, been the Scottish standard bearers. ... Clan Barclay is a Scottish clan which dates back to William I of England. ... Clan Borthwick is a Scottish clan and one of the most ancient families in Scotland. ... Lord Borthwick is an ancient title in the Peerage of Scotland. ... Clan Boyd is a Scottish clan from Kilmarnock in Ayrshire,Scotland. ... Baron Kilmarnock is a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. ... Clan Boyle is a Scottish clan from Ayrshire in Scotland. ... The title Earl of Glasgow was bestowed on David Boyle, Lord Boyle, one of the commissioners who negotiated the Treaty of Union uniting England and Scotland into Great Britain. ... Clan Brodie is a Scottish clan which dates at least as far back as Robert the Bruce. ... Clan Broun Crest: Floreat magestas (Let majesty flourish) Clan Broun also known as Brown is a common Scottish clan name. ... Clan Bruce is a Scottish clan from Kincardine in Scotland. ... The title Earl of Elgin was created in 1633 in the Peerage of Scotland for Thomas Bruce. ... Clan Buchan is a Scottish clan from Aberdeenshire in Scotland. ... Clan Burnett is a Scottish clan. ... // History Clan Cameron is a Highland Scottish clan, with two main branches; that of Lochiel, and that of Erracht. ... Campbell Clan Badge - In heraldry, a snarling Boars head may represent what are seen as the positive qualities of the boar, namely courage and fierceness in battle. ... Torquhil Ian Campbell, 13th Duke of Argyll (born 29 May 1968) is a Scottish peer; he is also the 6th Duke of Argyll in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. ... Carmichael Crest: Always Prepared. ... Clan Carnegie Crest Clan Carnegie is a Lowland Scottish clan // History Origins of the Clan The Carnegies took their name from the area around Carmyllie, Angus. ... James George Alexander Bannerman Carnegie, 3rd Duke of Fife (born 23 September 1929) is a great grandson of King Edward VII of the United Kingdom and a member of the extended British Royal Family, 53rd in line of succession to the British throne. ... Clan Cathcart Crest: I hope To Speed Clan Cathcart is a Lowland Scottish clan. ... The title of Earl Cathcart was created in the Peerage of the United Kingdom in 1814. ... Clan Carteris Crest: This Is Our Charter. ... Earl of Wemyss (pronounced Weems) is the title held by a Scottish family who had possessed the lands of Wemyss in Fife since the 12th century, and of which various members had attained distinction. ... Clan Chattan or the Chattan Confederation is a confederation of a number of Scottish clans who joined for mutual defence or blood bonds and is closely linked with Clan MacKintosh. ... Clan Chisholm Crest: I Am Fierce With The Fierce Clan Chisholm is a Scottish clan. ... Clan Cochrane Crest. ... The title Earl of Dundonald was created in 1669 in the Peerage of Scotland for the soldier Sir William Cochrane. ... Clan Colquhoun is a Lowland Scottish clan. ... Clan Colville Crest: Oblier Ne Puis (I Cannot Forget) Clan Colville is a Lowland Scottish clan. ... Clan Cranstoun Crest Clan Cranstoun is a Lowland Scottish clan. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Clan Crichton Crest. ... Clan Comyn/Cumming Crest: A lion rampant or, in his dexter paw a dagger Proper Clan Cumming, also known as Clan Comyn, is a Scottish clan from the central Highlands that played a major role in the history of 13th century Scotland and in the Wars of Scottish Independence where... Clan Darroch Crest: Be Watchful Clan Darroch is a Lowland Scottish clan. ... Clan Davidson is a Scotish clan. ... Clan Dewar Crest. ... Clan Drummond Crest: Vitutem coronat honos (Honour crowns vitue) Clan Drummond is a Scottish clan deriving its name from the parish of Drymen, in what was western Stirlingshire. ... The title Earl of Perth was created in 1605 for James Drummond. ... Clan Dunbar Crest: In Promptu ( In Readiness) Clan Dunbar is a Lowland Scottish clan. ... Clan Dundas Crest. ... Clan Durie crest Clan Durie is a Lowland Scottish clan. ... Clan Eliott Crest: Fortiter et recte (Boldly and Rightly) Clan Elliot is a Lowland Scottish clan. ... Clan Elphinstone Crest Clan Elphinstone is a Lowland Scottish clan // The surname Elphinstone is derived from the territory of Elphinstone in the parish of Tranent, meaning of Elphinstone. ... Clan Erskine Crest: Decori decus addit avito (He adds honour to that of his ancestors) Clan Erskine is a Lowland Scottish clan. ... The Earldom of Mar is one of the ancient peerage titles of in the Peerage of Scotland. ... Clan Farquharson of Invercauld is a Scottish clan which derives its name from Farquhar Shaw, 4th son of Alexander Ciar Mackintosh of Rothiemurchus, 5th Chief of the Clan Shaw, who settled in the Braes of Mar, the source of the River Dee. ... The name Fergusson (or Ferguson) and its history spreads from Antrim in northeastern Ireland to the shores of Dalriada under Fergus mor MacErc, into the Highlands and to Dunkeld. ... Clan Forbes Crest. ... The Lord Forbes is the senior Lord of Parliament in the Peerage of Scotland. ... Clan Forrester crest Clan Forrester is a Lowland Scottish clan. ... Clan Forsyth Crest Clan Forsyth is a Lowland Scottish clan. ... The Clan Fraser (Gaelic - Frisealach, French Clan Frasier) is a Scottish clan of Gaulish origin. ... Flora Marjory Fraser, 21st Lady Saltoun1, Chief of the Name and the Arms of Fraser (born October 18, 1930) is currently the only female holder of a lordship of Parliament who has a seat in the House of Lords as an elected hereditary peer. ... The Lordship of Saltoun was created in the Peerage of Scotland in 1445. ... Clan Fraser of Lovat is a Scottish clan, based in Inverness-shire. ... the Right Honourable Simon Fraser, 18th Lord Lovat, 25th MacShimidh (Gaelic: son of Simon, traditional title of the Chief of Clan Fraser) (born 1977), grandson of the renowned British Commando Simon Christopher Joseph Fraser, has been the chief of Clan Fraser since the death of his grandfather in 1995. ... Lord Lovat is a title in the Peerage of Scotland dating to 1458. ... Clan Gayre crest Clan Gayre or Clan Gair is a Highland Scottish clan. ... Clan Gordon Crest Clan Gordon, also known as the House of Gordon, is a traditional Scottish clan name and it is now a common forename. ... The title Marquess of Huntly was created in the peerage of Scotland in 1599, making it the oldest existing marquessate in Scotland, and the second-oldest in the British Isles, only the English Marquessate of Winchester being older. ... Clan Graham is a Scottish clan who had territories in both the Scottish Highlands and Lowlands. ... The title of Duke of Montrose was created in the peerage of Scotland in 1488 for David Lindsay. ... Grant Crest Castle Grant, from rear Castle Grant, Barbies Tower Castle Grant, from front Clan Grant is a Highland Scottish clan which inhabited land in Northern Scotland since 1316, although the clan is known to have existed farther back than that. ... Baron Strathspey is a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. ... Clan Grierson crest Clan Grierson is a Lowland Scottish clan. ... Clan Gunn Crest: Aut pax aut bellum (Either Peace or War) Clan Gunn is a Scottish clan associated with northeastern Scotland, including Caithness and Sutherland as well as the Orkney Islands. ... Clan Guthrie Crest Clan Guthrie is a Lowland Scottish clan. ... Clan Haig crest Clan Haig is a Lowland Scottish clan // History Origins of the Clan The first known person of the name was Petrus del Hage whois mentioned in documents from 1162. ... The title Earl Haig was created in the Peerage of the United Kingdom in 1919 for Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig. ... Clan Haldane crest Clan Haldane is a Lowland Scottish clan. ... Clan Hamilton Crest: Through Clan Hamilton is a Scottish clan who had territories in both the Highlands and Lowlands. ... Duke of Hamilton is a title in the Peerage of Scotland created in 1643. ... Clan Hannay is a Lowland Scottish clan. ... Clan Hay Crest: Serva jugum (Keep the Yoke) Clan Hay is a Scottish clan, associated with the regions of Perth and Aberdeen, which has played an important part in the history and politics of Scotland. ... Merlin The Wiz Sereld Victor Gilbert Hay, 24th Earl of Erroll, (b 20 April 1948) is a cross-bench member of the House of Lords. ... Sola virtus nobilitat (Virtue alone ennobles) Clan Henderson is a Highland Scottish clan. ... Clan Home Crest: A Home Clan Home sometimes called Clan Hume is a Lowland Scottish clan. ... The title Earl of Home (pronounced Hume) was created in 1605 in the Peerage of Scotland for Alexander Home, who was also the sixth Lord Home. ... Clan Hope crest Clan Hope is a Lowland Scottish clan. ... Clan Hunter is a Lowland Scottish clan. ... Clan Irvine crest Clan Irvine is a Lowland Scottish clan. ... Clan Jardine crest: Cave adsum (Beware I am present) Clan Jardine is a Lowland Scottish clan // The Clan Jardine is believed to be of French origin. ... Clan Johnstone Crest: Nunquam non paratus (Never Unprepared) Clan Johnstone is a Lowland Scottish clan. ... The title Earl of Annandale and Hartfell was created in the Peerage of Scotland 1661 for James Johnstone. ... Image:Keith crest. ... The title Earl of Kintore was created in the Peerage of Scotland in 1677 for Sir John Keith, along with the title of Lord Keith of Inverurie and Keith Hall. ... Avise la fin (Consider the end) Clan Kennedy is a Scottish clan and an Irish clan. ... The title of Marquess of Ailsa was created in the Peerage of the United Kingdom in 1831 for Archibald Kennedy, 12th Earl of Cassilis. ... The Kerr Crest: Dexter, the sun in his splendour. ... Michael Ancram The Most Honourable Michael Andrew Foster Jude Kerr, 13th Marquess of Lothian, PC, QC (born 7 July 1945), known as Michael Ancram, is a UK Conservative Party politician. ... Kincaid family crest Clan Kincaid is a USA based club modeled after the modern conception of a Scottish clan although the Kincaid family is from the Scottish Lowlands (Lowlands families typically did not form clans in the manner of Highlanders. ... Clan Lamont Crest: Ne parcas nec spernas (Neither spare nor dispose) Clan Lamont is a Highland Scottish clan // The Lamonts descend from the Scotts who crossed the sea from Ireland. ... Clan Leask crest Clan Leask is a Lowland Scottish clan. ... Clan Lennox Crest: Ill defend Clan Lennox is a Lowland Scottish clan. ... Clan Leslie is a Scottish clan. ... The title Earl of Rothes was created in 1457 in the Peerage of Scotland for George Leslie. ... Clan Lindsay crest: Endure forte (suffer bravely) Clan Lindsay is a Lowland Scottish clan. ... Robert Alexander Lindsay, 29th Earl of Crawford and 12th Earl of Balcarres, KT, GCVO, PC (born 5 March 1927), styled Lord Balniel between 1940 and 1975, is a Scottish hereditary peer and politician. ... Clan Lockhart crest Clan Lockhart is a Lowland Scottish clan. ... Clan Lumsden crest Clan Lumsden is a Lowland Scottish clan. ... In Te Domine Speravi (In Thee, O Lord, have I put my trust) Clan Lyon is a Scottish clan associated with the lands of Glen Lyon in Perthshire, Scotland. ... The title Earl of Kinghorne was created in the Peerage of Scotland 1606 for Patrick Lyon. ... Clan MacAlister crest: Fortiter (Boldly) Clan MacAlister was a sub-branch of the main Clan Donald or MacDonald. ... Clan Arthur crest Clan Arthur is a Highland Scottish clan. ... Clan MacBain crest Clan MacBain is a Highland Scottish clan. ... Clan MacCallum crest Clan MacCallum is a Lowland Scottish clan. ... Clan Donald crest: Per mare per terras (By sea and by land) Map of Dál Riata at its height, c. ... The title Baron Macdonald, of Slate in the County of Antrim, was created in the Peerage of Ireland in 1776. ... MacDonald of Clan Ranald crest. ... Clan MacDonald of Keppoch crest:Per mare per terras (By sea and by land) The Clan MacDonald of Keppoch is a Highland Scottish clan and is a branch of the main Clan Donald or Macdonald. ... Clan MacDonald of Sleat crest:Per mare per terras (By sea and by land) The Clan MacDonald of Sleat is a Highland Scottish clan and is a branch of the Clan Donald or MacDonald. ... Clan MacDonell of Glengarry is a Scottish clan, sometimes considered a branch of Clan Donald, taking its name from Glen Garry where the river Garry runs eastwards through Loch Garry to join the Great Glen about 16 miles (25 km) north of Fort William. ... Clan MacDougall is a Scottish clan traditionally associated with the lands of Argyll and Lorn in Scotland. ... Clan MacDowall crest Clan MacDowall is a Highland Scottish clan. ... Clan MacGregor Crest: S rioghal mo dhream (My race is royal) The Clan Gregor is a Highland Scottish clan. ... Clan Macintyre is a Scottish clan that was started in the 12th Century. ... MacKay Crest The Clan Mackay is an ancient and once powerful Scottish clan from the countrys far north in the Scottish Highlands, but with roots in the old province of Moray. ... The Lordship of Reay was created in 1628. ... Clan MacKenzie Crest: I Shine, Not Burn. ... The title of Earl of Cromartie was created in 1861 for the Duchess of Sutherland, with a remainder to her second son. ... Clan MacKinnon is one of the most ancient Highland Scottish clans and a branch of the Siol Alpin. ... Clan MacKintosh Crest Clan MacKintosh is a Scottish clan from Inverness with strong Jacobite ties. ... Clan MacLachlan crest: Fortis et fidus (Brave and faithful) Clan MacLachlan is a Highland Scottish clan. ... History The Maclaines of Lochbuie, Mull are descended from Gillean-na-Tauighe, (Gillean of the Battle Axe), a fierce warrior who lived in the thirteenth century. ... Clan MacLaran crest: Creag an Turic (the boars rock) Clan MacLaren is a Highland Scottish clan. ... Clan MacLean Crest: Virtue Mine Honour. ... Clan MacLennan crest Clan MacLennan is a Highland Scottish clan. ... Clan MacLeod Crest. ... Clan MacLeod of Lewis crest The Clan MacLeod of Lewis is a Highland Scottish clan which is a branch of the main Clan MacLeod of Skye. ... Clan MacMillan crest: Misesris succerere disco (I learn to succour the unfortunate) Clan MacMillan is a Highland Scottish clan. ... Clan MacNab Crest Clan MacNab is a Highland Scottish clan. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Clan MacNaghten. ... Clan MacNeacail, or Clan MacNicol, is a Scottish clan long associated with the Isle of Skye. ... Clan MacNeil of Barra Crest: Buaidhi no Bas (To Conquer or Die) The Clan MacNeil of Barra is one of the oldest Scottish clans: it can trace ancestry back to King Niall of the Nine Hostages in Ireland in 379 AD and King Lóegaire mac Néill in Ireland... Clan Macpherson is a Scottish clan from Badenoch, on the Spey River, Scotland. ... Clan MacTavish crest: Non Oblitus Clan MacTavish is a Highland Scottish clan. ... Crest of the Clan MacThomas. ... Clan Maitland crest: Consilio et animis (By wisdom and courage) Clan Maitland is a Lowland Scottish clan // The name Maitland is of Norman origin and was originally spelt Mautalent, Matulant or Matalan. ... The title Earl of Lauderdale was created in the Peerage of Scotland in 1624. ... Clan Makgill crest Clan Makgill is a Lowland Scottish clan // The name Makgill is said to derive from ‘Mac a Ghoill’, meaning ‘son of the lowlander’ or ‘son of the stranger’. The name became established in Galloway prior to the thirteenth century. ... The title Viscount of Oxfuird was created in 1651 for Sir James Makgill, Baronet, along with the subsidiary title of Lord Makgill of Cousland,with remainder to heirs male whomsoever, a Scottish concept that permitted inheritance by persons not descended from the original grantee,but descended in the male line... Clan Malcolm crest Clan Malcolm is a Highland Scottish clan. ... Clan MacCallum crest Clan MacCallum is a Lowland Scottish clan. ... Clan Mar crest: Pans Plus (Think More) Clan Mar is a Lowland Scottish clan sometimes called the Tribe of Mar. ... The Earldom of Mar is one of the ancient peerage titles of in the Peerage of Scotland. ... Clan Marjoribanks crest Clan Marjoribanks is a Lowland Scottish clan. ... Clan Matheson crest Clan Matheson is a Highland Scottish clan. ... Clan Menzies Crest: If God wills it, I Shall Clan Menzies is a Highland Scottish clan. ... Clan Moffat crest Clan Moffat is a Lowland Scottish clan. ... Clan Moncreiffe crest: Sur Esperance (Upon hope) Clan Moncrieffe is a Highland Scottish clan. ... Clan Montgomery crest: Garde bien (Watch well) Clan Montgomery is a Lowland Scottish clan. ... The title Earl of Eglinton is a peerage title in the Peerage of Scotland. ... // Identity Highland clan, chiefly originating from the Western Isles. ... Munro Crest: Dread God (Fear God) and a Golden Eagle Clan Munro is a Highland Scottish clan. ... Clan Murray Crest. ... The title Duke of Atholl, named after Atholl in Scotland, was created several times in British history. ... The Clan Napier is a Scottish clan originally from lands around Loch Lomond, but with presence in Stirlingshire and Edinburgh. ... (Francis) Nigel Napier, 14th Lord Napier (5 Dec 1930 –) is a Scottish soldier and courtier. ... Clan Nesbitt (or Nisbet) is a Scottish clan recognised by the Lord Lyon, King of Arms and first mentioned in a Scottish charter of 1139. ... Clan Nicolson - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Baron Carnock, of Carnock in the County of Stirlingshire, is a peerage title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. ... Clan Ogilvy Crest Clan Ogilvy is a Highland Scottish clan. ... The title Earl of Airlie was created in the Peerage of Scotland in 1586 for James Ogilvy. ... Clan Oliphant crest: A tout pouvoir (Provide for all) Clan Oliphant is a Highland Scottish clan. ... Clan Primrose crest: Fide et fiducia (By faith and trust) Clan Primrose is a Lowland Scottish clan. ... Neil Archibald Primrose, 7th Earl of Rosebery (b. ... Clan Ramsay is a Scottish clan that has existed since the 11th century. ... The title Earl of Dalhousie was created in the Peerage of Scotland in 1633. ... Clan Rattray crest: Super sidera votum (A desire beyond the stars) http://lost. ... Clan Riddell crest Clan Riddell is a Lowland Scottish clan // One theory for the origin of the name Riddell suggests that a family from Gascony, France may have come to Scotland via Ryedale in Yorkshire. ... Virtutis gloria merces (Glory is the reward of valour) Clan Robertson is a Scottish clan. ... Clan Rollo crest Clan Rollo is a Lowland Scottish clan. ... Lord Rollo is a title in the Peerage of Scotland. ... Clan rose Crest Clan Rose is a highland Scottish clan. ... Clan Ross Crest: Spem Successus Alit (Success Nourishes Hope) Clan Ross is a Highland Scottish clan. ... Clan Ruthven Crest: Deid schaw Clan Ruthven is a Lowland Scottish clan. ... The title of Earl of Gowrie was created in the Peerage of the United Kingdom in 1945 for Alexander Hore-Ruthven, 1st Baron Gowrie, a former Governor-General of Australia. ... Clan Sandilands crest Clan Sandilands is a Lowland Scottish clan. ... Clan Scott Crest: “Amo” (I Love) Clan Scott is a Scottish clan. ... Sir Walter Francis John Montagu Douglas Scott, 9th Duke of Buccleuch, (b. ... Clan Srymgeour crest Clan Scrymgeour is a Highland Scottish clan. ... The title Earl of Dundee was created in 1660 in the Peerage of Scotland for John Scrymgeour. ... Chiefs Coat of Arms Clan Sempill is a Lowland Scottish clan. ... The Lordship of Sempill is a title of peerage in the Peerage of Scotland. ... Clan Shaw is an ancient Scottish clan, part of the Chattan Confederation and formerly a sept of Clan MacKintosh. ... Clan Sinclair was a Highland Scottish clan with lands in the north of Scotland and the Orkney Islands. ... Malcolm Ian Sinclair, 20th Earl of Caithness (born 3 November 1948) is a British Conservative politician and member of the House of Lords as one of the remaining hereditary peers. ... The title Earl of Caithness has been created several times in the Peerage of Scotland, and has a very complex history. ... Clan Skene crest: Virtutis regia merces (A palace the reward of bravery) Clan Skene is a Lowland Scottish clan // History Origins of the Clan The Clan Skene is thought to have originally been an exeptionaly early sept of the Clan Donnachaidh before it became known as the Clan Robertson. ... Clan Spens crest Clan Spens or Spence is a Lowland Scottish clan. ... Clan Stirling crest Clan Stirling is a Lowland Scottish clan. ... Clan Strange is a Lowland Scottish clan. ... Introduction In Scotland, the Stewarts of Appin are the West Highland branch of the Stewart family and have been considered a distinct clan since the fifteenth century. ... Clan Stuart crest: Virescit vulnere virtus (Courage grows strong at a wound) Clan Stuart is a Highland Scottish clan. ... Johnny Dumfries was a Formula One driver from Britain. ... Clan Sutherland is a Scottish clan whose traditional territory is located in the region of Sutherland in northern Scotland and was for a time one of the most powerful Scottish clans. ... The title of Earl of Sutherland is an ancient one in the Peerage of Scotland, created circa 1230. ... Clan Swinton crest Clan Swinton is a Lowland Scottish clan. ... Clan Trotter crest Clan Trotter is a Lowland Scottish clan. ... Clan Urquhart Crest: Meane weil speak weil and doe weil Urquhart is a Highland Scottish clan. ... Clan Wallace Crest: Pro Libertate (For Freedom) Clan Wallace is a Scottish clan, their most famous member being the great Scottish patriot William Wallace. ... Clan Wedderburn crest Clan Wedderburn is a Lowland Scottish clan // The first person by the name of Wedderburn to appear on record in Scotland is Wautier de Wederburn, who rendered homage to King Edward I of England on the Ragman Rolls in 1296. ... The title Earl of Dundee was created in 1660 in the Peerage of Scotland for John Scrymgeour. ... Clan Wemyss crest: Je pense (I think) Clan Wemyss is a Lowland Scottish clan. ...

See also

Wikipedia:WikiProject Clans of Scotland

The Highland Clearances (Scottish Gaelic: Fuadaich nan Gàidheal, the expulsion of the Gael) is a name given to the forced displacement of the population of the Scottish Highlands from their ancient ways of warrior clan subsistence farming, leading to mass emigration. ... The Border country is the hilly area of Lowland Scotland on the border between Scotland and England. ... Stirling Castle has stood for centuries atop a volcanic crag defending the lowest ford of the River Forth. ... This is a list of topics related to the United Kingdom. ... Mac or MAC may refer to: // Macintosh, a line of computers, and Mac OS, an operating system that runs on Apple Macintosh computers, and its newest version Mac OS X Media Access Control, a data communication protocol sub-layer MAC address, a unique identifier attached to most forms of networking...

Sources

  • Clans and Tartans - Collins Pocket Reference, George Way of Plean and Romilly Squire, Harper Collins, Glasgow 1995 ISBN 0-00-470810-5
  • MacBeth, High King of Scotland 1040 - 1057, Peter Beresford Ellis, Blackstaff Press Ltd. 3 Galway Park, Dundonald, Belfast BT16 0AN. 1990, ISBN 0-85640-448-9
  • Scottish Clan & Family Encyclopedia, George Way of Plean and Romilly Squire, Barnes & Noble Books, New York 1998 ISBN 0-7607-1120-8
  • The Official Website of the Standing Council of Scottish Chiefs (replaced myclan.com in 2006)

External links

Links to alternative lists and maps

  • Burke's Scotland — Scottish Clan Map gives a key map linking to maps of areas of Scotland indicating many clans and their areas around the late 16th century, with links to information on the clans listed and a search field for other clans and families. Burke's Peerage & Gentry claims to be The authentic guide to the UK and Ireland's titled and untitled families.
  • Scottish Clans

  Results from FactBites:
 
Scottish Clans & Societies (2239 words)
Scottish Clan Genealogists and Addresses http://thecapitalscot.com/scotgenealogy/clangenealogist.html is a list of Clan Genealogists and Clan points of contact for genealogy (for the Scottish Clans and Family Associations).
The Armstrong Clan Society strives to seek friendship and unity among Armstrongs and associated families, provide for the preservation of Armstrong artifacts unique to the family and to maintain a library,and serve as a genealogical and historical recorder of the membership.
Clans of Scotland, USA "was formed in Alexandria, Virginia in 1962 as a way of promoting good fellowship among those people residing in the Washington area, and beyond, who are interested in Scottish culture.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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