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Encyclopedia > Scottish Reformation
John Knox regarded as the leader of the Scottish Reformation
John Knox regarded as the leader of the Scottish Reformation

The Scottish Reformation was Scotland's formal break with the papacy in 1560, and the events surrounding this. It was part of the wider European Protestant Reformation; and in Scotland's case culminated ecclesiastically in the re-establishment of the church along Reformed lines, and politically in the triumph of English influence over that of France. In the public domain by age This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... In the public domain by age This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... For other persons named John Knox, see John Knox (disambiguation). ... Motto (Latin) No one provokes me with impunity Wha daur meddle wi me?(Scots)1 Anthem (Multiple unofficial anthems) Scotlands location in Europe Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official languages English, Gaelic, Scots3 Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Queen Queen Elizabeth II  -  Prime Minister Tony Blair MP  -  First Minister Jack McConnell... The Pope is the Catholic Bishop and patriarch of Rome, and head of the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Catholic Churches. ... Events February 27 - The Treaty of Berwick, which would expel the French from Scotland, is signed by England and the Congregation of Scotland The first tulip bulb was brought from Turkey to the Netherlands. ... This article is 150 kilobytes or more in size. ... The Reformation was a movement in the years of the 16th century to reform the Catholic Church in Western Europe. ... Reformed theology is a branch of Protestant Christian theology based primarily on the theology of Jesus. ... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: God Save the King/Queen Capital London (de facto) Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Unification    - by Athelstan AD 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi  Population    - 2006 est. ...


The Reformation Parliament of 1560, which repudiated the pope's authority, forbade the celebration of the mass and approved a Protestant Confession of Faith, was made possible by a revolution against French hegemony under the regime of the regent Mary of Guise, who had governed Scotland in the name of her absent daughter Mary Queen of Scots (then also Queen of France). The Scottish Reformation Parliament is the name given to the Scottish Parliament commencing in 1560 that passed the major pieces of legislation leading to the Scottish Reformation, most importantly Confession of Faith Ratification Act 1560 and Papal Jurisdiction Act 1560. ... Unsolved problems in physics: What causes anything to have mass? The U.S. National Prototype Kilogram, which currently serves as the primary standard for measuring mass in the U.S. Mass is the property of a physical object that quantifies the amount of matter and energy it is equivalent to. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... A Confession of Faith is a statement of doctrine very similar to a creed, but usually longer and polemical, as well as didactic. ... Regent, from the Latin, a person selected to administer a state because the ruler is a minor or is not present or debilitated. ... Marie de Guise Marie de Guise (in English, Mary of Guise) (November 22, 1515 – June 11, 1560) was the Queen Consort of James V of Scotland and the mother of Mary, Queen of Scots. ... Mary I of Scotland; known as Mary, Queen of Scots Mary I of Scotland (Mary Stuart or Stewart) (December 8, 1542 – February 8, 1587), better known as Mary, Queen of Scots, was the ruler of Scotland from December 14, 1542 – July 24, 1567. ... King George V of the United Kingdom and his consort, Queen Mary A queen consort is the wife and consort of a reigning king. ...


The Scottish Reformation decisively shaped the Church of Scotland[1] and, through it, all other Presbyterian churches worldwide. The Church of Scotland (CofS, known informally as The Kirk, Eaglais na h-Alba in Scottish Gaelic) is the national church of Scotland. ... Presbyterianism is part of the Reformed churches family of denominations of Christian Protestantism based on the teachings of John Calvin which traces its institutional roots to the Scottish Reformation, especially as led by John Knox. ...

Contents

Pressure for reform (1517-59)

From the fifteenth century, Renaissance humanism had already encouraged critical theological reflection and calls for ecclesiastical renewal in Scotland. From 1517, Martin Luther's doctrinal ideas were influencing Scots. As early as 1525 Parliament thought it necessary to forbid the importation of Lutheran books, and to suppress 'his heresies or opinions' throughout the realm.[2] However, this attempt was largely unsuccessful.[3] (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... The Renaissance (French for rebirth, or Rinascimento in Italian), was a cultural movement in Italy (and in Europe in general) that began in the late Middle Ages, and spanned roughly the 14th through the 17th century. ... Year 1517 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... Events January 21 - The Swiss Anabaptist Movement was born when Conrad Grebel, Felix Manz, George Blaurock, and about a dozen others baptized each other in the home of Manzs mother on Neustadt-Gasse, Zürich, breaking a thousand-year tradition of church-state union. ...

The Martyrs' Monument at St Andrews, commemorates those executed before the Reformation, including Hamilton and Wishart.
The Martyrs' Monument at St Andrews, commemorates those executed before the Reformation, including Hamilton and Wishart.

In 1528, the nobleman Patrick Hamilton, influenced by Lutheran theology whilst at the universities of Wittenberg and Marburg, became the first Protestant martyr when he was burned at the stake for heresy, outside St Salvator's College at Saint Andrews. [4] (Hamilton had been spreading his message with the use of Patrick's Places, a short catechism founded on the doctrine of justification by faith[5]). However, the celebration, particularly in printed works, of Hamilton's stance, only served to increase interest in the new ideas. Indeed, the Archbishop of St Andrews was warned against any further such public executions as "the reek of Maister Patrik Hammyltoun has infected as many as it blew upon" [6]. Further prosecutions and executions followed in the 1530s and 40s. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 451 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1505 × 2002 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 451 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1505 × 2002 pixel, file size: 1. ... Events June 19 - Battle of Landriano - A French army in Italy under Marshal St. ... There have been several well-known people named Patrick Hamilton, including: Patrick Hamilton (martyr) Patrick Hamilton (dramatist) ... Statue of Martin Luther in the main square Wittenberg, officially [Die] Lutherstadt Wittenberg, is a town in Germany, in the Bundesland Saxony-Anhalt, at 12° 59 E, 51° 51 N, on the Elbe river. ... Marburg is a city in Hesse, Germany, on the Lahn river. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Burning of two sodomites at the stake outside Zürich, 1482 (Spiezer Schilling) Execution by burning has a long history as a method of punishment for crimes such as treason and for other unpopular acts such as heresy and the putative practice of witchcraft (burning, however, was actually less common... St Salvators College, north wing St Salvators College of the University of St Andrews was founded in 1450 by Bishop James Kennedy on North Street, St Andrews. ... See St Andrews, New South Wales for St Andrews, Sydney, Australia. ... Codex Manesse, fol. ... Sola fide (by faith alone), also historically known as the justification of faith, is a doctrine held by some Protestant denominations of Christianity, which asserts that it is on the basis of their faith that believers are forgiven their transgressions of the Law of God, rather than on the basis...


The Parliament of Scotland, in 1541, thought in necessary to pass further legislation protecting the honour of the mass, prayer to the Virgin Mary, images of the saints, and the authority of the pope. Private meetings of 'heretics where there errors are spread' were prohibited, informers rewarded, and Protestant sympathisers barred from royal office. All this was testimony to the growing attraction of Protestant ideas. The parliament of Scotland, officially the Estates of Parliament, was the legislature of the independent Kingdom of Scotland. ... Events The first official translation of the entire Bible in Swedish February 12 - Pedro de Valdivia founds Santiago de Chile. ... The term Virgin Mary has several different meanings: Mary, the mother of Jesus, the historical and multi-denominational concept of Mary Blessed Virgin Mary, the Roman Catholic theological and doctrinal concept of Mary Marian apparitions shrines to the Virgin Mary Virgin Mary in Islam, the Islamic theological and doctrinal concept...


The cause of reform also enjoyed influential support. At this time, the clergy produced a list for the king of over a hundred landowners disaffected to the church, and such was the strength of sympathisers to Reformation that, on the death of James V at Solway Moss in 1542, they were able to form a government {under the vacillating Earl of Arran, who at that point favoured an English alliance and reforming causes). James V (April 10, 1512 – December 14, 1542) was king of Scotland (September 9, 1513 – December 14, 1542). ... Solway Moss is a moss (lowland peat bog), in Cumbria, England, lying next to the River Sark which marks the Scottish border. ... Events War resumes between Francis I of France and Emperor Charles V. This time Henry VIII of England is allied to the Emperor, while James V of Scotland and Sultan Suleiman I are allied to the French. ... James Hamilton, 2nd Earl of Arran (c. ... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: God Save the King/Queen Capital London (de facto) Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Unification    - by Athelstan AD 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi  Population    - 2006 est. ...


The Reforming Councils

The pre-Reformation Church did respond to some of the criticism[7] being made against it. John Hamilton (the last pre-reformation Archbishop of St Andrews) instigated a series of provincial councils (1549-1559) modelled on the contemporaneous Council of Trent. These blamed the advance of the Protestant heresies on "the corruption of morals and the profane lewdness of life in churchmen of all ranks, together with crass ignorance of literature and of the liberal arts"[8]. In 1548, attempts were made to eliminate concubinage, clerical pluralism, clerical trading, and non-residence, and to prohibit unqualified persons from holding church offices. Further, the clergy were enjoined to scriptural reflection and bishops and parsons instructed to preach at least four times a year. Monks were to be sent to university, and theologians appointed for each monastery, college and cathedral. However, in 1552, it was acknowledged that little had been accomplished: attendance at mass was sparse and "the inferior clergy of this realm and the prelates have not, for the most part, attained such proficiency in the knowledge of the Holy Scriptures as to be able by their own efforts rightly to instruct the people in the catholic faith and other things necessary to salvation or to convert the erring"[9]. The internal reform seemed too little, too late. John Hamilton (c. ... St Andrews cathedral ruins. ... The Council of Trent is the Nineteenth Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. ... It has been suggested that Pilegesh be merged into this article or section. ... Originally a benefice was a gift of land for life as a reward (Latin beneficium, means to do well) for services rendered. ...


Scotland, England and France (1543-59)

Cardinal Beaton, defender of the old faith, and leader of the pro-French faction.
Cardinal Beaton, defender of the old faith, and leader of the pro-French faction.

By 1535, the English king, Henry VIII, had broken with Rome and had been excommunicated. He had also permitted the reading of the Bible in the native tongue. These 'English heresies' were an additional influence on events in Scotland. Ecclesiastical ideas were linked to political manoeuvring. English policy from the 1530s aimed at enticing Scotland away from its traditional ties to France (the 'Auld alliance') and Rome. In the 1540s Henry sought a treaty for the marriage of his infant son Edward to the infant Mary (by then Queen of Scots): the regent, Arran, approved this match in August 1543 (by the Treaties of Greenwich). However, reaction against it in Scotland allowed a coup by Cardinal David Beaton that December. Beaton repudiated the reforming policies, and all consideration of an English marriage for the Queen. The result was Henry's 'Rough Wooing' of 1544-5, which devastated south-east Scotland, and was only halted by the defeat of the invaders at Ancrum Moor in February 1545. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 560 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (571 × 611 pixel, file size: 321 KB, MIME type: image/gif) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): David Beaton Scottish... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 560 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (571 × 611 pixel, file size: 321 KB, MIME type: image/gif) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): David Beaton Scottish... Events January 18 - Lima, Peru founded by Francisco Pizarro April - Jacques Cartier discovers the Iroquois city of Stadacona, Canada (now Quebec) and in May, the even greater Huron city of Hochelaga June 24 - The Anabaptist state of Münster (see Münster Rebellion) is conquered and disbanded. ... Silver groat of Henry VIII, minted c. ... Excommunication is religious censure which is used to deprive or suspend membership in a religious community. ... The Auld Alliance refers to a series of treaties, offensive and defensive in nature, between Scotland and France aimed specifically against an aggressive and expansionist England. ... Nickname: The Eternal City Motto: SPQR: Senatus PopulusQue Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area    - City 1285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban... Edward VI (12 October 1537 – 6 July 1553) became King of England, King of France (in practice only the town and surrounding district of Calais) and Ireland on 28 January 1547, and crowned on 20 February, at just nine years of age. ... Mary, Queen of Scots is the name of: Mary I of Scotland, the former queen of France and Scotland executed by her cousin Elizabeth I of England Mary, Queen of Scots (movie), a 1971 film about that queen starring Vanessa Redgrave Mary, Queen of Scots (1969 book), a 1969 book... Cardinal David Beaton Cardinal David Beaton (c. ... The Anglo-Scottish Wars were a series of wars fought between England and Scotland during the sixteenth century. ... The Battle of Ancrum Moor was fought during an Anglo-Scottish war towards the end of the reign of Henry VIII of England. ...


In 1546, Beaton arrested and executed George Wishart,a preacher who come under the influence of John Calvin in Geneva - and had indeed translated the First Helvetic Confession into Scots. Retribution quickly followed. A group of rebels seized Beaton's castle at Saint Andrews, and murdered him. These 'Castelians' (who, after the murder, were joined by a renegade priest, and student of Wishart's, named John Knox[10]) held out in the castle until 1547, when they were forced to surrender to a French squadron and were imprisoned or taken as galley slaves. English forces arrived too late to save them, but nevertheless, having defeated the Scots at Pinkie, occupied south-east Scotland as far north as Dundee. This occupation (1547-49) encouraged the reforming cause; English Bibles circulated freely, and several earls pledged themselves 'to cause the word of God to be taught and preached'. George Wishart George Wishart (c. ... John Calvin (July 10, 1509 – May 27, 1564) was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and was a central developer of the system of Christian theology called Calvinism or Reformed theology. ... Hunters a cool hobo For other uses, see Geneva (disambiguation). ... Helvetic Confessions, the name of two documents expressing the common belief of the Reformed churches of Switzerland. ... Scots refers to the Anglic varieties spoken in parts of Scotland. ... Ruins of St Andrews castle overlooking the North Sea St Andrews castle is a picturesque ruin located in the coastal town of St Andrews in Fife, Scotland. ... For other persons named John Knox, see John Knox (disambiguation). ... Combatants Scots English Commanders Earl of Arran Duke of Somerset Strength Between 23000 and 36000 17000 30 warships Casualties 5000 killed 1500 prisoners 500 killed The Battle of Pinkie Cleugh, along the banks of the River Esk near Musselburgh on 10 September 1547, was part of the War of the... For other uses, see Dundee (disambiguation). ...

Battle of Pinkie Cleugh 1547
Battle of Pinkie Cleugh 1547

To counter the English, the Scots secured French help, the price of which was the betrothal of the infant Queen to the French dauphin, the future Francis II; she departed to France in 1548. At this point, "the policy of Henry VIII had failed completely".[11] French ascendancy was made absolute over the next decade. Arran, in 1554, was given the title Duke du Châtellerault and removed from the regency in favour of Mary of Guise (the Queen Mother). During her regency (1554-1559), Frenchmen were put in charge of the treasury, the Great Seal, and the French ambassador sometimes attended the Privy Council. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Coat of Arms of the Dauphins of France. ... Francis II (French: François II) (January 19, 1544 – December 5, 1560) was a King of France (1559 – 1560). ... The French noble title of Duc de Châtellerault has been created several times. ... The Great Seal of the Realm is a British institution by which the monarch can authorise official documents without having to sign each document individually. ... A privy council is a body that advises the head of state of a nation, especially in a monarchy. ...


Lords of the Congregation

At first Mary of Guise cultivated the now growing number of Protestant preachers. She needed to win support for her pro-French policies, and they could expect no alternative support from England, which had recently come under the rule of the Roman Catholic Mary Tudor. However, the marriage of Mary Queen of Scots to the dauphin in 1558 heightened fears that Scotland would become a French province. Queen Mary I of England (18 February 1516 – 17 November 1558), also known as Mary Tudor, was Queen of England and Queen of Ireland from 6 July 1553 (de facto) or 19 July 1553 (de jure) until her death. ...


By 1557, a group of Scottish lords (known as 'the Lords of the Congregation') drew up a covenant to 'maintain, set forth, and establish the most blessed Word of God and his Congregation.' This was followed by outbreaks of iconoclasm in 1558-9. At the same time, plans were being drawn up for a Reformed programme of parish worship and preaching, as local communities sought out Protestant ministers. In 1558, the Regent summoned the Protestant preachers to answer for their teaching, but backed down when lairds from the west country threatened to revolt. The Lords of the Congregation were a group of Protestant, Scottish nobles, who were against the marriage of the young, Catholic Mary Queen of Scots to the Dauphin of France (later to become Francois II of France) who bonded together in December 1557. ... Covenant, in its most general sense, is a solemn and bilateral promise to do or not do something specified. ... Illustration of the Beeldenstorm during the Dutch reformation Iconoclasm is the destruction of religious icons and other symbols or monuments, usually for religious or political motives. ...


The Crisis (1559-60)

Protestant Reformation
The Reformation
History and origins
History of Protestantism
Movements and denominations
Protestantism
Protestant Reformers
Precursors

See also Template:Protestant Image File history File links 95Thesen. ... The Reformation was a movement in the years of the 16th century to reform the Catholic Church in Western Europe. ... The Reformation was a movement in the years of the 16th century to reform the Catholic Church in Western Europe. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The 95 Theses. ... Peasants War map. ... The Radical Reformation was a 16th century response to both the perceived corruption in the Roman Catholic Church and the expanding Protestant movement led by Martin Luther. ... A denomination, in the Christian sense of the word, is an identifiable religious body under a common name, structure, and/or doctrine. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... In the 16th and 17th centuries, the name Huguenot was applied to a member of the Protestant Reformed Church of France, historically known as the French Calvinists. ... The Protestant Reformation was a movement in the 16th century to reform the Catholic Church in Western Europe. ... Lutheranism is a movement within Christianity that began with the theological insights of Martin Luther in the 16th century. ... The Protestant Reformation in Switzerland was promoted initially by Huldrych Zwingli, who gained the support of the magistrate and population of Zürich in the 1520s. ... -1... Calvinism is a theological system and an approach to the Christian life that emphasizes Gods sovereignty in all things. ... Anabaptists (Greek ανα (again) +βαπτιζω (baptize), thus, re-baptizers [1], German: Wiedertäufer) are Christians of the Radical Reformation. ... The Mennonites are a group of Christian Anabaptist denominations named after and influenced by the teachings and tradition of Menno Simons (1496-1561). ... King Henry VIII of England The English Reformation refers to the series of events in sixteenth century England by which the church in England broke away from the authority of the Pope and consequently the entire Catholic church; it formed part of the wider Protestant Reformation, a religious and political... The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... The term Anglican (from Medieval Latin ecclesia anglicana, meaning the English Church) is used to describe how the people, institutions and churches as well as the liturgical traditions and theological concepts developed by the state established Church of England, the Anglican Communion. ... A Puritan of 16th and 17th century England was any person seeking purity of worship and doctrine, especially the parties that rejected the Laudian reform of the Church of England. ... Presbyterianism is a form of church government which is most prevalent within the Reformed branch of Protestant Western Christianity. ... The Protestant Reformation, begun 1517 with the nailing of Martin Luthers 95 theses to a church door in Wittenberg, divided the Roman Catholic Church and created the Protestant branch of churches. ... Jan Hus ( ) (IPA: , alternative spelling John Huss) (c. ... Motto (Czech) Truth prevails Anthem Czech Republic() – on the European continent() – in the European Union() [] Capital (and largest city) Prague Official languages Czech Government Republic  -  President Václav Klaus  -  Prime Minister Mirek Topolánek Independence (formed 9th century)   -  October 28, 1918   -  January 1, 1993  Accession to EU May 1, 2004... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: God Save the King/Queen Capital London (de facto) Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Unification    - by Athelstan AD 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi  Population    - 2006 est. ... Huldrych (or Ulrich) Zwingli (January 1, 1484 – October 11, 1531) was the leader of the Protestant Reformation in Switzerland, and founder of the Swiss Reformed Churches. ... Motto (Latin) (traditional)[1] One for all, all for one Anthem Swiss Psalm Switzerland() on the European continent() Capital Berne (federal capital) Largest city Zürich Official languages Government Direct democracy Federal republic  -  Federal Council M. Leuenberger P. Couchepin (VP 07) S. Schmid M. Calmy-Rey (Pres. ... William Tyndale (sometimes spelled Tindale,Tindall or Tyndall) (ca. ... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: God Save the King/Queen Capital London (de facto) Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Unification    - by Athelstan AD 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi  Population    - 2006 est. ... Menno Simons - wood engraving by Christoffel van Sichem 1610 Menno Simons (1496–January 31, 1561) was an Anabaptist religious leader from Friesland (today a province of The Netherlands). ... Motto: Je Maintiendrai (Dutch: Ik zal handhaven, English: I Shall Uphold) Anthem: Wilhelmus van Nassouwe Capital Amsterdam1 Largest city Amsterdam Official language(s) Dutch2 Government Parliamentary democracy Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Beatrix  - Prime minister Jan Peter Balkenende Independence Eighty Years War   - Declared July 26, 1581   - Recognised January 30, 1648 (by Spain... Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... Anthem (third stanza) also called Germany() – on the European continent() – in the European Union() [] Capital (and largest city) Berlin Official languages German1 Government Parliamentary Federal Republic  -  President Horst Köhler  -  Chancellor Angela Merkel (CDU) Formation  -  Eastern Francia 843   -  Holy Roman Empire 962   -  German Confederation 8 June 1815   -  German Empire 18... John Calvin (July 10, 1509 – May 27, 1564) was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and was a central developer of the system of Christian theology called Calvinism or Reformed theology. ... Motto (Latin) (traditional)[1] One for all, all for one Anthem Swiss Psalm Switzerland() on the European continent() Capital Berne (federal capital) Largest city Zürich Official languages Government Direct democracy Federal republic  -  Federal Council M. Leuenberger P. Couchepin (VP 07) S. Schmid M. Calmy-Rey (Pres. ... Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England and Lord of Ireland (later King of Ireland) from 22 April 1509 until his death. ... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: God Save the King/Queen Capital London (de facto) Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Unification    - by Athelstan AD 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi  Population    - 2006 est. ... Thomas Cranmer (July 2, 1489 – March 21, 1556) was the Archbishop of Canterbury during the reigns of the English kings Henry VIII and Edward VI. He is credited with writing and compiling the first two Books of Common Prayer which established the basic structure of Anglican liturgy for centuries and... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: God Save the King/Queen Capital London (de facto) Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Unification    - by Athelstan AD 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi  Population    - 2006 est. ... John Jewel (sometimes spelled Jewell) (May 24, 1522 - September 23, 1571), bishop of Salisbury, son of John Jewel of Buden, Devon, was educated under his uncle John Bellamy, rector of Hampton, and other private tutors until his matriculation at Merton College, Oxford, in July 1535. ... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: God Save the King/Queen Capital London (de facto) Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Unification    - by Athelstan AD 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi  Population    - 2006 est. ... For other persons named John Knox, see John Knox (disambiguation). ... Motto (Latin) No one provokes me with impunity Wha daur meddle wi me?(Scots)1 Anthem (Multiple unofficial anthems) Scotlands location in Europe Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official languages English, Gaelic, Scots3 Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Queen Queen Elizabeth II  -  Prime Minister Tony Blair MP  -  First Minister Jack McConnell... John Wesley (June 17, 1703 – March 2, 1791) was an 18th-century Anglican clergyman and Christian theologian who was an early leader in the Methodist movement. ... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: God Save the King/Queen Capital London (de facto) Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Unification    - by Athelstan AD 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi  Population    - 2006 est. ... The Papal palace in Avignon In the history of the Roman Catholic Church, the Avignon Papacy was the period from 1309 to 1377 during which seven popes, all French, resided in Avignon: Pope Clement V: 1305–1314 Pope John XXII: 1316–1334 Pope Benedict XII: 1334–1342 Pope Clement VI... Historical map of the Western Schism. ... The Council of Constance was an ecumenical council of the Roman Catholic Church, called by the Emperor Sigismund, a supporter of Antipope John XXIII, the pope recently elected at Pisa. ... Hussite War Wagons and Hand Cannoneers Hussite Crossbowman and Shield Carrier Hussite War Wagons The Hussite Wars, also called the Bohemian Wars involved the military actions against and amongst the followers of Jan Hus in Bohemia in the period 1420 to circa 1434. ... The Northern Renaissance is the term used to describe the Renaissance in northern Europe, or more broadly in Europe outside Italy. ... German Mysticism (Sometimes called Dominican mysticism or Rhineland mysticism) is the name given to a christian mystical movement in the Late Middle Ages, that was especially prominent in Germany, and in the Dominican order. ...

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The accession, in England, of the Protestant Queen Elizabeth in 1558 gave fresh hope to the reformers. January 1559 saw the publication of the anonymous Beggars' Summons, which threatened friars with eviction on the grounds that their property belonged to the genuine poor. This was calculated to appeal to the passions of the populace of towns who appeared to have particular complaints against friars.[12] Fearing disorder, the Regent summoned the reformed preachers to appear before her at Stirling on May 10th: insurrection followed. The men of Angus assembled in Dundee to accompany the preachers to Stirling, on May 4th they were joined by Knox recently arrived from France. Here, stirred by Knox's sermons in Perth and Dundee, the mob sacked religious houses (including the tomb of James I). In response, the Regent marched on Perth, but was forced to withdraw and negotiate when another reformed contingent arrived from the west. Among the Regent's ambassadors was the Earl of Argyll and Lord James Stewart (both professed Protestants), however when the Regent went back on her word, by stationing French mercenaries in Perth, both abandoned her and joined the Lords of the Congregation at St Andrews, where they were joined by Knox. Even Edinburgh soon fell to them, as Mary retreated to Dunbar. Chatelherault, at this point, accepted the leadership of the 'Lords of the Congregation' and established a provisional government. However, Mary of Guise was reinforced by professional French troops, and drove the rebels back to Stirling. All seemed lost for the Protestant side until an English fleet arrived in the Firth of Forth, in January 1560, causing the French to retreat to Leith. Queen Elizabeth may refer to: // Elizabeth II (born 1992), queen regnant of the United Kingdom and numerous other Commonwealth Realms: daughter of George VI of the United Kingdom. ... Events January 7 - French troops led by Francis, Duke of Guise take Calais, the last continental possession of England July 13 - Battle of Gravelines: In France, Spanish forces led by Count Lamoral of Egmont defeat the French forces of Marshal Paul des Thermes at Gravelines. ... January 15 - Elizabeth I of England is crowned in Westminster Abbey. ... Broad Street at the heart of Stirlings Old Town area (called Top of the Town by locals) Stirling Castle (Southwest aspect) The main courtyard inside Stirling Castle. ... James I (December 10, 1394 – February 21, 1437) reigned as King of Scots from April 4, 1406 until February 21, 1437. ... Archibald Campbell, 5th Earl of Argyll (1532/1537 - 1573) was a leading figure in the politics of Scotland during the reign of Mary, Queen of Scots and the early part of that of James VI. Succeeding his father in the earldom in 1558, Argyll immediately became the most powerful magnate... James Stewart, 1st Earl of Moray (c. ... This article is about Dunbar in Scotland. ... A provisional government is an emergency or interim government set up when a political void has been created by the collapse of a previous administration or regime. ... The Firth of Forth from Calton Hill The Forth Bridges cross the Firth Satellite photo of the Firth and the surrounding area Map of the Firth The Firth of Forth (Scottish Gaelic: Linne Foirthe) is the estuary or firth of Scotlands River Forth, where it flows into the North... Formerly a municipal burgh,[1] Leith is a town at the mouth of the Water of Leith and is the port of Edinburgh, Scotland. ...

The 'blast' rendered Knox unacceptable to Elizabeth, although it had been aimed at her predecessor Mary
The 'blast' rendered Knox unacceptable to Elizabeth, although it had been aimed at her predecessor Mary

Negotiations then began (from which Knox was excluded, his earlier tract The First Blast of the Trumpet Against the Monstrous Regiment of Women rendering him unacceptable to Elizabeth I). The resulting Treaty of Berwick (February) was an agreement between Chatelherault and the English to act jointly to expel the French. However, in June 1560, Mary of Guise died, allowing the Treaty of Edinburgh: a negotiation between France and England, which secured the withdrawal of both French and English troops from Scotland. Although the French commissioners were unwilling to treat with the insurgent Lords of the Congregation, they offered the Scots certain concessions from King Francis and Queen Mary, including the right to summon a parliament according to use and custom. The effect of the treaty was to leave power in the hands of the Protestants. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 337 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (400 × 711 pixel, file size: 54 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) scan of the front page of an ancient document The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 337 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (400 × 711 pixel, file size: 54 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) scan of the front page of an ancient document The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public... Queen Mary I of England (18 February 1516 – 17 November 1558), also known as Mary Tudor, was Queen of England and Queen of Ireland from 6 July 1553 (de facto) or 19 July 1553 (de jure) until her death. ... Monstrous regiment, or monstrous regiment of women are phrases which have become notorious; they are borrowed from the title of a work by the Scot John Knox, published in 1558, The First Blast of the Trumpet Against the Monstrous Regiment of Women. ... The Treaty of Berwick was an agreement of amity made on July 6, 1586 between Queen Elizabeth I of England and James VI of Scotland. ... The Treaty of Edinburgh was drawn up in 1560 by the Scottish Parliament in an attempt to formally end the Auld Alliance. ...


The Reformation Parliament 1560

The Scots' Parliament met in Edinburgh on July 10 1560. Fourteen earls, six bishops, nineteen lords, twenty one abbots, twenty-two burgh commissioners, and over a hundred lairds claimed right to sit. Parliament then set up a 'committee of the articles' which, after three weeks, recommended a condemnation of transubstantiation, justification by works, indulgences, purgatory, and papal authority. Further it recommended restoring the discipline of the early Church, and redistributing the wealth of the Church to the ministry, schools and the poor. On 17 August, Parliament approved a Reformed Confession of Faith (the Scots Confession), and on 24 August it passed three Acts that destroyed the old faith in Scotland - all Acts not in conformity with the confession were annulled; the sacraments were reduced to two (to be performed by reformed preachers alone), and the celebration of the mass was made punishable by a series of penalties (ultimately death). Papal jurisdiction in Scotland was repudiated. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Transubstantiation (in Latin, transsubstantiatio) is the change of the substance of bread and wine into that of the body and blood of Christ that, according to the belief of the Roman Catholic Church, occurs in the Eucharist and that is called in Greek (see Metousiosis). ... Works righteousness is the belief that ones standing before God is founded and maintained by works of merit. ... In the theology of Roman Catholicism, an indulgence is the remission of the temporal punishment due to God for a Christians sins. ... Illustration for Dantes Purgatorio (18), by Gustave Doré. Dante described purgatory as having seven terraces, each to purge a different sin. ... The Roman Catholic Church bases Papal Authority on two sources: Matthew 16:18 of the Christian Bible and Adversus Haereses by Irenaeus. ... The term Early Christianity here refers to Christianity of the period after the Death of Jesus and the foundation of the churches of Jerusalem and Antioch in the 30s and before the First Council of Nicaea in 325. ... The Scots Confession was written in 1560 by six leaders of the Protestant Reformation in Scotland, coincidentally all named John. The Confession was the first Book of Faith for the Protestant Scottish Kirk. ...


However, aside from approving the confession, parliament showed little interest in plans for the reformation of the church. Significantly, although the traditional functions of the old clergy had been terminated, the clerical estate remained legally intact and, more importantly, in possession of the revenues of the old church. What shape the new church was to take was left open, and indeed was not finally settled until 1689[13]. Moreover, and perhaps unsurprisingly, the Queen declined to endorse even the acts that Parliament had passed, which were not officially ratified until the first parliament of James VI in 1567. Nevertheless, from this point on, Scotland was, in effect, a Protestant state. Events Louis XIV of France passed the Code Noir, allowing the full use of slaves in the French colonies. ... James VI and I King of England, Scotland and Ireland James VI of Scotland and I of England (Charles James) (19 June 1566–27 March 1625) was a King who ruled over England, Scotland and Ireland, and was the first Sovereign to reign in the three realms simultaneously. ... Events The Duke of Alva arrives in the Netherlands with Spanish forces to suppress unrest there. ...


The Reformed Church

The Confession

Unlike the earlier reformers, who were Lutheran, Knox and most of those surrounding him were firm Calvinists. (Knox had travelled to Calvin's Geneva during his exile from Scotland, and described it as "the most perfect school of Christ that ever was on earth since the days of the Apostles."[14]) The Scots Confession reflects that Calvinist influence, although without the systematic and scholastic nature of the more strident Westminster Confession that would replace it in 1644. The Scots Confession expounds the themes of the Catholic creeds, but also includes a rejection of any meritorious virtue: all good works are brought forth by the spirit. It also rejects all religious works that have no Scriptural warrant, including the rites of the Roman church. As for the church, it derived its authority from the word of God and was to be defined by "true preaching of the word of God ... secondly, the right administration of the sacraments of Christ Jesus ... last, ecclesiastical discipline uprightly ministered" [15]. Hunters a cool hobo For other uses, see Geneva (disambiguation). ... The Westminster Confession of Faith is the chief doctrinal product of the Protestant Westminster Assembly. ... // Events February to August - Explorer Abel Tasmans second expedition for the Dutch East India Company maps the north coast of Australia. ...


Liturgy

Parliamentary hostility meant there was no question of any Act of Uniformity as in England. Thus, the shape the Church initially took was dependent on local Protestant patrons. However, even before 1560, reformed congregations had already been organising themselves under the influence of Knox. In a 'Letter of Wholesome Councell' dated 1556, Knox describes in detail what should be done at weekly worship. Protestant preachers fleeing Marian persecutions in England brought with them Edward VI's second Book of Common Prayer (of 1552), which was commended by the Lords of the Congregation. Knox too initially supported it (indeed reportedly, he had influenced aspects of it). However, before leaving Geneva and with the encouragement of Calvin, he has written his own 'Book of Common Order' and it was this that was printed and approved by the General Assembly of 1562. Enlarged, it was reprinted with the Confession and the Psalms in metre in 1564, and it remained the standard until replaced with the Westminster Directory in 1643.[16] Over the course of English parliamentary history there were a number of acts of uniformity. ... Marian Persecutions refers to the persecutions of Protestants and dissenters under the Queen Mary I of England. ... Edward VI (12 October 1537 – 6 July 1553) became King of England, King of France (in practice only the town and surrounding district of Calais) and Ireland on 28 January 1547, and crowned on 20 February, at just nine years of age. ... For the novel by Joan Didion, see A Book of Common Prayer. ... 16th Century The Book of Common Order, sometimes called The Order of Geneva or Knoxs Liturgy, is a directory for public worship in the Reformed Church in Scotland. ... The 2004 Assembly with Dr Alison Elliot as Moderator The General Assembly of the Church of Scotland is the sovereign and highest court of the Church of Scotland, and is thus the Churchs governing body. ... The Directory for Public Worship (known in Scotland as the Westminster Directory having been approved by the Scottish Parliament in 1645) was a manual of directions for worship approved by an ordinance of Parliament early in 1645 to replace the Book of Common Prayer (and which was denounced by a...


Church Polity

How the Church was ideally to be organised was spelled out in the First Book of Discipline (1560), a document which set about organising both the Church and national life in accordance with the Reformed understanding of Scripture. It envisaged the establishment of reformed ministers throughout Scotland, a national system of education, and poor-relief. Ministers were to be examined for their suitability and then elected by the local congregation [17]. In the interim, whilst candidates were scarce, 'readers' were to be appointed. Also, there should be 'superintendents', better paid than ministers, with regional responsibilities corresponding to the old dioceses. (It has often been suggested from this that Knox favoured episcopacy - however, it is to be remembered that Apostolic succession was explicitly denied.[18]) Education was to be established at primary, secondary and university levels; it was to be examined and inspected. This Book of Discipline refers to two works regulative of ecclesiastical order in the Church of Scotland after the Scottish Reformation. ... In Christianity, the doctrine of Apostolic Succession (or the belief that the Church is apostolic) maintains that the Christian Church today is the spiritual successor to the original body of believers in Christ composed of the Apostles. ...


In truth, the lofty aims often went unrealised, or at least only realised very slowly [19]. An Act of 1562 denied the new Church much of the wealth of the old. As late as 1567, there were only 257 ministers and 600 readers for 1,067 churches. [20] The marks of what is now recognisable as Presbyterianism also start to emerge: Kirk Sessions existed from 1560, moderators emerged in 1563, but the presbytery not until 1580. Presbyterianism is a form of church government which is most prevalent within the Reformed branch of Protestant Western Christianity. ... Presbyterian governance of a church is typified by the rule of assemblies of presbyters, or elders. ...


See also

The Reformation was a movement in the years of the 16th century to reform the Catholic Church in Western Europe. ... Stirling Castle has stood for centuries atop a volcanic crag defending the lowest ford of the River Forth. ... The Church of Scotland (CofS, known informally as The Kirk, Eaglais na h-Alba in Scottish Gaelic) is the national church of Scotland. ... Calvinism is a theological system and an approach to the Christian life that emphasizes Gods sovereignty in all things. ... King Henry VIII of England The English Reformation refers to the series of events in sixteenth century England by which the church in England broke away from the authority of the Pope and consequently the entire Catholic church; it formed part of the wider Protestant Reformation, a religious and political...

Notes

  1. ^ Article 1, of the Articles Declaratory of the Constitution of the Church of Scotland 1921 states 'The Church of Scotland adheres to the Scottish Reformation'.
  2. ^ J. Kirk Dictionary of Scottish Church History and Theology Wright D.F. et al (eds) Edinburgh 1993 p694
  3. ^ It had to be repeated in 1535
  4. ^ An account of the martyrdom can be found in chpt. XV of Foxe's Book of Martyrs
  5. ^ full text can be found at truecovenantor.com
  6. ^ as quoted by Mackie, J.D A History of Scotland Penguin 1964 p.151
  7. ^ Criticism can also be evidenced in Sir David Lyndsay's parodying of the clergy in Ane Pleasant Satyre of the Thrie Estaitis (1552)
  8. ^ as quoted in J. Kirk Dictionary of Scottish Church History and Theology Wright D.F. et al (eds) Edinburgh 1993 p696
  9. ^ as quoted in J. Kirk Dictionary of Scottish Church History and Theology Wright D.F. et al (eds) Edinburgh 1993 p696
  10. ^ Lamont, Stewart The Swordbearer p.32-39
  11. ^ Mackie, J.D. A History of Scotland Penguin 1964 p. 144
  12. ^ Burleigh, J. H. S. A Church History of Scotland Edinburgh 1960, p 143
  13. ^ Burleigh, J.H.S. A Church History of Scotland p153
  14. ^ Burleigh, J.H.S. A Church History of Scotland p154
  15. ^ Scots Confession chapter 18
  16. ^ On this section see Burleigh, J.H.S. A Church History of Scotland p160-163
  17. ^ First Book of Discipline chapt. 4
  18. ^ First Book of Discipline chapt. 5
  19. ^ Knox claimed that the book was commissioned by Parliament itself, but that they declined to enact it. Knox, K. History of the Reformation (ed. W.C Dickinson 1949), i, 343
  20. ^ Mackie, J.D. A History of Scotland Penguin, London 1964 p.160

The Articles Declaratory of the Constitution of the Church of Scotland – often known as the Declaratory Articles - were drawn up early in the 20th century to facilitate the union of the Church of Scotland and the United Free Church of Scotland. ... William Tyndale, just before being burnt at the stake, cries out Lord, ope the King of Englands eies in this woodcut from an early edition of Foxes Book of Martyrs. ... Sir David Lyndsay (c. ... Ane Pleasant Satyre of the Thrie Estaitis is a satirical morality play written by Scottish makar David Lyndsay and first performed in 1552 (but not published until 1602. ...

References and further reading

  • Burleigh, J. H. D A Church History of Scotland Hope Trust, Edinburgh, 1988.
  • Cross, F.L. and Livingstone, E.A. (eds), "Scotland" in The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, pp.1471-1473. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1997. ISBN 0-19-211655-X
  • Kirk, J,, Patterns of Reform T&T Clark, Edinburgh, 1989 ISBN 0-567-09505-3
  • Kirk, J.,Reformation, Scottish in Cameron, Nigel M. de S. et al, Dictionary of Scottish Church History and Theology, pp.693-698. T & T Clark, Edinburgh 1993. ISBN 0-567-09650-5
  • Lamont, Stewart The Swordbearer: John Knox and the European Reformation Hodder and Stoughton, London 1991
  • Lynch, Michael, "Reformation" in The Oxford Companion to Scottish History, pp.500-504 . Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2001. ISBN 0-19-211696-7
  • Mackie, J.D. A History of Scotland Penguin, London 1964
  • McGovern, Mary (ed), Chambers Biographical Dictionary Seventh Edition. Chambers, Edinburgh, 2002. ISBN 0-550-10051-2

Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ... T&T Clark is a British publishing firm which was founded in Edinburgh in 1821 and which now exists as an imprint of Continuum. ... Hodder & Stoughton is a British publishing house, now an imprint of Hodder Headline. ...

External links

  • BBC Scottish History

  Results from FactBites:
 
Reformation - MSN Encarta (1393 words)
The early reform movement in Switzerland, contemporaneous with the Reformation in Germany, was led by the Swiss pastor Huldreich Zwingli, who became known in 1518 through his vigorous denunciation of the sale of indulgences.
The Reformation in France was initiated early in the 16th century by a group of mystics and humanists who gathered at Meaux near Paris under the leadership of Lefèvre d'Étaples.
The Parliament subsequently created the Scottish Presbyterian church and provided for the government of the church by local kirk (Scottish word for church) sessions and by a general assembly representing the local churches of the entire country.
§1. The reformation in Scotland. VII. Reformation and Renascence in Scotland. Vol. 3. Renascence and Reformation. ... (897 words)
The literature produced under these conditions was essentially a reformation literature, and its relation to the movement of the reformation is its predominating characteristic.
Scotland now possessed three universities; but to equip these in accordance with the new ideals of the time was beyond her resources, and the same difficulty stood in the way of maintaining great schools such as the renascence had originated in other countries.
From the beginning to the end of the struggle, the Scottish reformers had to contend against the consistent opposition of the crown, and it was only as the result of civil war that the victory of their cause was at length assured.
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