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Encyclopedia > Scottish Gaelic
Scottish Gaelic
Gàidhlig 
Bilingual roadsign
in Mallaig:
 
Pronunciation: [ˈkɑːlʲɪkʲ]
Spoken in: Scotland, Canada 
Region: Parts of the Scottish Highlands, Western Isles, Cape Breton, Nova Scotia; formerly all of mainland Scotland albeit marginally in the southeast (parts of Lothian and Borders) and possibly eastern Caithness.
Total speakers: 92,400 people aged three and over in Scotland had some Gaelic language ability in 2001[1] with an additional 500 in Nova Scotia. 1,610 speakers in the United States in 2000.[2]. 822 in Australia in 2001[3]. (Estimated over 100,000 speakers in 2006)
Language family: Indo-European
 Celtic
  Insular Celtic
   Goidelic
    Scottish Gaelic 
Official status
Official language of: Scotland
Regulated by: Bòrd na Gàidhlig
Language codes
ISO 639-1: gd
ISO 639-2: gla
ISO 639-3: gla

Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages. This branch also includes the Irish and Manx languages. It is distinct from the Brythonic branch of the Celtic languages, which includes Welsh, Cornish, and Breton. Scottish, Manx and Irish Gaelic are all descended from Old Irish. The language is often described as Scottish Gaelic, Scots Gaelic, or Gàidhlig to avoid confusion with the other two Goidelic languages. Outside Scotland, it is occasionally also called Scottish or Scots, a usage dating back over 1,500 years, for example Old English Scottas. This usage is uncommon in Scotland because since the 16th century the word Scots has by-and-large been used to describe (Lowland) Scots, which developed from the northern form of early Middle English. In Scottish English, Gaelic is pronounced [ˈgaːlɪk]; outside Scotland, it is usually [ˈgeɪlɪk] (for comprehension, see IPA). Roadsign in Mallaig In the Gàidhealtachd (the Gaelic-speaking parts of Scotland) the use of the Gaelic language on road signs instead of, or more often alongside English is now common, but has historically been a controversial issue of symbolic rather than practical significance for people on both sides... This article is about Mallaig in Scotland. ... A road sign in Gaelic and English at Mallaig, western Scotland. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... This article is about the country. ... The Scottish Highlands are the mountainous regions of Scotland north and west of the Highland Boundary Fault. ... The Western Isles are an archipelago in Scotland. ... Nova Scotia peninsula (white), and Cape Breton Island (red) Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia, Canada NASA landsat photo of Cape Breton Island Cape Breton Island (French: île du Cap-Breton, Scottish Gaelic: Eilean Cheap Breatuinn, Míkmaq: Únamakika, simply: Cape Breton) is an island on the Atlantic coast of North... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit(Latin) One defends and the other conquers Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis - Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 11 - Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area... Lothian (Lowden in Scots, Lodainn in Gaelic) forms a traditional region of Scotland, lying between the southern shore of the Firth of Forth and the Lammermuir Hills. ... Scottish Borders (often referred to locally as The Borders or The Borderland) is one of 35 local government unitary council areas of Scotland. ... Caithness (Gallaibh in Gaelic)[1] is a committee area of Highland Council, Scotland; a lieutenancy area; and a registration county, Caithness was formerly a district within the Highland region from 1975 to 1996 and a local government county with its own county council from 1890 to 1975. ... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit(Latin) One defends and the other conquers Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis - Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 11 - Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area... Current distribution of Human Language Families A language family is a group of related languages said to have descended from a common proto-language. ... The Indo-European languages comprise a family of several hundred related languages and dialects [1], including most of the major languages of Europe, as well as many spoken in the Indian subcontinent (South Asia), the Iranian plateau (Southwest Asia), and Central Asia. ... The Celtic languages are the languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or Common Celtic, a branch of the greater Indo-European language family. ... The Insular Celtic hypothesis concerns the origin of the Celtic languages. ... The Goidelic languages (also sometimes called, particularly in colloquial situations, the Gaelic languages or collectively Gaelic) have historically been part of a dialect continuum stretching from the south of Ireland, the Isle of Man, to the north of Scotland. ... This article is about the country. ... Bòrd na Gàidhlig /borst na ga:lIk/ is the Scottish government appointed agency with responsibility for Scottish Gaelic. ... ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family. ... ISO 639-2 is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages. ... ISO 639-3 is an international standard for language codes. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Unicode is an industry standard allowing computers to consistently represent and manipulate text expressed in any of the worlds writing systems. ... The Goidelic languages (also sometimes called, particularly in colloquial situations, the Gaelic languages or collectively Gaelic) have historically been part of a dialect continuum stretching from the south of Ireland, the Isle of Man, to the north of Scotland. ... The Celtic languages are the languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or Common Celtic, a branch of the greater Indo-European language family. ... Brythonic is one of two major divisions of Insular Celtic languages (the other being Goidelic). ... Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Breton (Brezhoneg) is a Celtic language spoken by some of the inhabitants of Brittany (Breizh) in France. ... Old Irish is the name given to the oldest form of the Irish language which can be, more or less, fully reconstructed from extant sources. ... Old English (also called Anglo-Saxon[1], Old English: ) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ... Scots refers to the Anglic varieties spoken in parts of Scotland. ... Middle English is the name given by historical linguistics to the diverse forms of the English language spoken between the Norman invasion of 1066 and the mid-to-late 15th century, when the Chancery Standard, a form of London-based English, began to become widespread, a process aided by the... Scottish English is usually taken to mean the standard form of the English language used in Scotland, often termed Scottish Standard English. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ...

Contents

History

Gaelic, a descendant of the Goidelic branch of Celtic and closely related to Irish, is the traditional language of the Scotti or Gaels, and became the historical language of the majority of Scotland after it replaced Cumbric, Pictish and Norse. It is not clear how long Gaelic has been spoken in what is now Scotland; it has lately been proposed that it was spoken in Argyll before the Roman period, but no consensus has been reached on this question. However, the consolidation of the kingdom of Dál Riata around the 4th century, linking the ancient province of Ulster in the north of Ireland and western Scotland, accelerated the expansion of Gaelic, as did the success of the Gaelic-speaking church establishment. Placename evidence shows that Gaelic was spoken in the Rhinns of Galloway by the 5th or 6th century. The Gaels are an ethno-linguistic group in Ireland, Scotland and the Isle of Man, whose language is of the Gaelic (Goidelic) family, a division of Insular Celtic languages. ... The Gaels are an ethno-linguistic group which spread from Ireland to many parts of Britain, specifically Scotland, the Isle of Man, Wales and Cornwall. ... This article is about the country. ... Cumbric was the Brythonic Celtic language spoken in Cumbria, and the southern Lowland Scotland . ... The Pictish language is the extinct language of the Picts, in what is now Scotland. ... Old Norse is the Germanic language spoken by the inhabitants of Scandinavia and their overseas settlements during the Viking Age, until about 1300. ... Argyll, archaically Argyle (Airthir-Ghaidheal in Gaelic, translated as [the] East Gael, or [the] East Irish), sometimes called Argyllshire, is a traditional county of Scotland. ... Dál Riata (also Dalriada or Dalriata) was a Goidelic kingdom on the western seaboard of Scotland and the northern coasts of Ireland, situated in the traditional Scottish and Northern Irish counties of Argyll, Bute and County Antrim. ... Statistics Area: 24,481 km² Population (2006 estimate) 1,993,918 Ulster (Irish: Cúige Uladh, IPA: ) forms one of the four traditional provinces of Ireland. ... The Rhinns of Galloway is a hammer-head peninsula in Dumfries and Galloway, Scotland. ... (4th century - 5th century - 6th century - other centuries) Events Rome sacked by Visigoths in 410. ... (5th century — 6th century — 7th century — other centuries) Events The first academy of the east the Academy of Gundeshapur founded in Persia by the Persian Shah Khosrau I. Irish colonists and invaders, the Scots, began migrating to Caledonia (later known as Scotland) Glendalough monastery, Wicklow Ireland founded...


The Gaelic language eventually displaced Pictish north of the Forth, and until the late 15th century it was known in English as Scottis. Gaelic began to decline in mainland Scotland by the beginning of the 13th century, and with this went a decline in its status as a national language. By the beginning of the 15th century, the highland-lowland line was beginning to emerge. The Pictish language is the extinct language of the Picts, in what is now Scotland. ... This bridge across the Danube River links Hungary with Slovakia. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ...

One interpretation of the linguistic divide in 1400, here based on place-name evidence.
One interpretation of the linguistic divide in 1400, here based on place-name evidence.

By the early 16th century, English speakers gave the Gaelic language the name Erse (meaning Irish) and thereafter it was invariably the collection of Middle English dialects spoken within the Kingdom of the Scots that they referred to as Scottis (whence Scots). Nevertheless, Gaelic has never been entirely displaced of national language status, and is still recognised by many Scots, whether or not they speak Gaelic, as being a crucial part of the nation's culture. Of course, others may view it primarily as a regional language of the highlands and islands. Image File history File links RossScotLang1400. ... Image File history File links RossScotLang1400. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... Erse (early Scots/English for Irish) can be used as an adjective, but is more often used as a noun referring to either of the Goidelic languages Irish or Scottish Gaelic, or the people who speak them. ... Middle English is the name given by historical linguistics to the diverse forms of the English language spoken between the Norman invasion of 1066 and the mid-to-late 15th century, when the Chancery Standard, a form of London-based English, began to become widespread, a process aided by the... Motto Latin: Nemo me impune lacessit (English: No one provokes me with impunity) (Scots: Wha daur meddle wi me) Capital Edinburgh¹ Language(s) Gaelic, Scots Government Monarchy King/Queen  - 843-860 Kenneth I  - 1587–1625 James VI  - 1702-1714 Anne Legislature Parliament of Scotland History  - United 843  - Union of the... Scots refers to the Anglic varieties spoken in parts of Scotland. ... The Scottish Highlands are the mountainous regions of Scotland north and west of the Highland Boundary Fault. ...


Gaelic has a rich oral (beul-aithris) and written tradition, having been the language of the bardic culture of the Highland clans for several centuries. The language preserved knowledge of and adherence to pre-feudal laws and customs (as represented, for example, by the expressions tuatha and dùthchas). The language suffered especially as Highlanders and their traditions were persecuted after the Battle of Culloden in 1746, and during the Highland Clearances, but pre-feudal attitudes were still evident in the complaints and claims of the Highland Land League of the late 19th century: this political movement was successful in getting members elected to the Parliament of the United Kingdom. The Land League was dissipated as a parliamentary force by the 1886 Crofters' Act and by the way the Liberal Party was seen to become supportive of Land League objectives. Clan map of Scotland Scottish clans (from Old Gaelic clann, children), give a sense of identity and shared descent to people in Scotland and to their relations throughout the world, with a formal structure of Clan Chiefs officially registered with the court of the Lord Lyon, King of Arms which... Combatants British Army Jacobites Commanders William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland Charles Edward Stuart, the Young Pretender Strength 8,000 ca. ... // Events Catharine de Ricci (born 1522) canonized. ... The Highland Clearances (Scottish Gaelic: Fuadaich nan Gàidheal, the expulsion of the Gael) is a name given to the forced displacement of the population of the Scottish Highlands from their ancient ways of warrior clan subsistence farming, leading to mass emigration. ... The first Highland Land League emerged as a distinct political force in Scotland during the 1880s, with its power base in the countrys Highlands and Islands. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Type Bicameral Houses House of Commons House of Lords Speaker of the House of Commons The Right Honourable Michael Martin MP Lord Speaker Hélène Hayman, Baroness Hayman, PC Members 1377 (646 Commons, 731 Peers) Political groups (as of May 5, 2005 elections) Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats... The Crofters Holdings (Scotland) Act, 1886, created legal definitions of crofting parish and crofter, granted security of tenure to crofters and produced the first Crofters Commisssion, a land court which ruled on disputes between landlords and crofters. ... This article is about the historic Liberal Party. ...


Scottish Gaelic may be more correctly known as Highland Gaelic to distinguish it from the now defunct Lowland Gaelic. Lowland Gaelic was spoken in the southern regions of Scotland prior to the introduction of Lowland Scots. There is, however, no evidence of a linguistic border following the topographical north-south differences. Similarly, there is no evidence from placenames of significant linguistic differences between, for example, Argyll and Galloway. Dialects on both sides of the Straits of Moyle (the North Channel) linking Scottish Gaelic with Irish are now extinct. Scots refers to the Anglic varieties spoken in parts of Scotland. ... Argyll, archaically Argyle (Airthir-Ghaidheal in Gaelic, translated as [the] East Gael, or [the] East Irish), sometimes called Argyllshire, is a traditional county of Scotland. ... Galloway (Scottish Gaelic, Gall-ghaidhealaibh or Gallobha, Lowland Scots Gallowa) today refers to the former counties of Wigtownshire and the Stewartry of Kirkcudbright in southwest Scotland, but has fluctuated greatly in size over history. ... The Straits of Moyle is the name given to the area of sea between northeastern Ireland and southwestern Scotland. ... The North Channel is the stretch of water which separates Ireland from Scotland. ...

Gaelic speakers in Scotland (1755 - 2001)
Year Scottish population Speakers of Gaelic only Speakers of Gaelic and English Speakers of Gaelic and English as % of population
1755 1,265,380 289,798 N/A N/A (22.9 monoglot Gaelic)
1800 1,608,420 297,823 N/A N/A (18.5 monoglot Gaelic)
1881 3,735,573 231,594 N/A N/A (6.1 monoglot Gaelic)
1891 4,025,647 43,738 210,677 5.2
1901 4,472,103 28,106 202,700 4.5
1911 4,760,904 18,400 183,998 3.9
1921 4,573,471 9,829 148,950 3.3
1931 4,588,909 6,716 129,419 2.8
1951 5,096,415 2,178 93,269 1.8
1961 5,179,344 974 80,004 1.5
1971 5,228,965 477 88,415 1.7
1981 5,035,315 N/A 82,620 1.6
1991 5,083,000 N/A 65,978 1.4
2001 5,062,011 N/A 58,650 1.2
Geographic Distribution of Gaelic speakers in Scotland (2001)

This article is about the country. ... 1755 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... 1755 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... // ON MAY 5 1853 MR.FADER HAD SEX WITH A MAN NAME MR WIEN THEN THEY HAD SON NAMEDMRS COTURE AND MR MANOOGIAN WENT INTO MRS HASKELLS OFFICE NAKED AND DANCED AROUND AND MASTERBATED ON HER CHEST AND SHE LICKED IT OFF THEN THEY HAD ORAL SEEX WITH NAPLOEAN OF... Year 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Year 1891 (MDCCCXCI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 395 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (448 × 679 pixel, file size: 15 KB, MIME type: image/gif) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Scottish Gaelic ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 395 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (448 × 679 pixel, file size: 15 KB, MIME type: image/gif) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Scottish Gaelic ...

Current distribution in Scotland

The 2001 UK Census showed a total of 58,652 Gaelic speakers in Scotland (1.2% of population over three years old).[4] Compared to the 1991 Census, there has been a diminution of approximately 7,300 people (an 11% of the total), meaning that Gaelic decline (language shift) in Scotland is continuing. To date, attempts at language revival or reversing language shift have been met with limited success. Census 2001 is the name by which the national census conducted in the United Kingdom on Sunday 29 April 2001 is known. ... This article is about the country. ... Language shift is the process whereby an entire speech community of a language shifts to speaking another language. ... // Language revival is the revival, by governments, political authorities, or enthusiasts, to recover the spoken use of a language that is no longer spoken or is endangered. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Considering the data related to Civil Parishes (which permit a continuous study of Gaelic status since the 19th century), two new circumstances have taken place, which are related to this decline: A civil parish (usually just parish) in England is a subnational entity forming the lowest unit of local government, lower than districts or counties. ...

  • No parish in Scotland has a proportion of Gaelic speakers greater than 75% any more (the highest value corresponds to Barvas, Lewis, with 74.7%).
  • No parish in mainland Scotland has a proportion of Gaelic speakers greater than 25% any more (the highest value corresponds to Lochalsh, Highland, with 20.8%).

The main stronghold of the language continues to be the Western Isles (Na h-Eileanan Siar), where the overall proportion of speakers remains at 61.1% and all parishes return values over 50%. The Parish of Kilmuir in Northern Skye is also over this threshold of 50%. Barvas (Scottish Gaelic: Barabhas) developed around a road junction. ... Lewis and Harris make up the largest island in the Outer Hebrides In Scotland. ... Kyle of Lochalsh is a small village on the North-West coast of Scotland, which developed in the late 19th century with the arrival of the railway. ... Location Geography Area Ranked 1st  - Total 30,659 km²  - % Water  ? Admin HQ Inverness ISO 3166-2 GB-HLD ONS code 00QT Demographics Population Ranked 7th  - Total (2005) 213,590  - Density 8 / km² Politics The Highland Council http://www. ... The Western Isles are an archipelago in Scotland. ... Looking towards Quiraing, Skye. ...


Proportions over 20% register throughout the isles of Skye, Raasay, Tiree, Islay and Colonsay, and the already mentioned parish of Lochalsh in Highland. Looking towards Quiraing, Skye. ... Raasay is an island between the Isle of Skye and the mainland of Scotland. ... Looking West to Balephuil Bay, across the famous Hebridean Machair. ... Islay (pronounced ; Scottish Gaelic: , or ee-luh), a Scottish island, known as The Queen of the Hebrides, is the southernmost island of the Inner Hebrides. ... Colonsay shown within Argyll Colonsay [Colbhasa] is an island in the Scottish Inner Hebrides, located north of Islay and south of Mull. ... Kyle of Lochalsh is a small village on the North-West coast of Scotland, which developed in the late 19th century with the arrival of the railway. ... Location Geography Area Ranked 1st  - Total 30,659 km²  - % Water  ? Admin HQ Inverness ISO 3166-2 GB-HLD ONS code 00QT Demographics Population Ranked 7th  - Total (2005) 213,590  - Density 8 / km² Politics The Highland Council http://www. ...


Regardless, the weight of Gaelic in Scotland is now much reduced. From a total of almost 900 Civil Parishes in Scotland:

  • Only 9 of them have a proportion of Gaelic speakers greater than 50%.
  • Only 20 of them have a proportion of Gaelic speakers greater than 25%.
  • Only 39 of them have a proportion of Gaelic speakers greater than 10%.

Outside the main Gaelic-speaking areas a relatively high proportion of Gaelic-speaking people are, in effect, socially isolated from other Gaelic-speakers and as a result they obtain few opportunities to use the language.


Orthography

Further information: Scottish Gaelic alphabet
Place names in their original Gaelic are becoming increasingly common on road signs throughout the Scottish Highlands.

Old Irish, the precursor to both Modern Irish and Scottish Gaelic, was written in a carved writing called Ogham. Ogham consisted of marks made above or below a horizontal line. With the advent of Christianity in the 10th century the Latin alphabet was introduced to Ireland. The Goidelic languages have historically been part of a dialect continuum stretching from the south of Ireland, the Isle of Man, to the north of Scotland. The Scottish Gaelic alphabet contains 18 letters, five of which are vowels. ... Photo taken by Ewen Denney (User:Eoghan) in the Scottish Highlands on September 16, 2002. ... Photo taken by Ewen Denney (User:Eoghan) in the Scottish Highlands on September 16, 2002. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ... The Goidelic languages (also sometimes called, particularly in colloquial situations, the Gaelic languages or collectively Gaelic) have historically been part of a dialect continuum stretching from the south of Ireland, the Isle of Man, to the north of Scotland. ... A dialect continuum is a range of dialects spoken across a large geographical area, differing only slightly between areas that are geographically close, and gradually decreasing in mutual intelligibility as the distances become greater. ...


A form of Early Modern Irish, known as "Classical Gaelic", was used as a literary language in Ireland until the 17th century and in Scotland until the 18th century. Later orthographic divergence is the result of more recent orthographic reforms resulting in standardised pluricentric diasystems. Early Modern Irish, (Irish: [1] also called Classical Irish (Irish: or Classical Gaelic, is the form of the Irish language used as a literary language in Ireland from the 13th to the 17th century and in Scotland from the 13th to the 18th century. ... A pluricentric language is a language with several standard versions. ... In linguistics, a diasystem is a term used in structural dialectology, to refer to a single genetic language which has two or more standard forms. ...


The 1767 New Testament historically set the standard for Scottish Gaelic. Around the time of World War II, Irish spelling was reformed and the Official Standard or Caighdeán Oifigiúil introduced. Further reform in 1957 eliminated some of the silent letters which are still used in Scottish Gaelic. The 1981 Scottish Examinations Board recommendations for Scottish Gaelic, the Gaelic Orthographic Conventions, were adopted by most publishers and agencies, although they remain controversial among some academics, most notably Ronald Black.[5]


The modern Scottish Gaelic alphabet has 18 letters: Vintage German letter balance for home use Look up letter in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, L, M, N, O, P, R, S, T, U

The letter h, now mostly used to indicate lenition of a consonant, was in general not used in the oldest orthography, as lenition was instead indicated with a dot over the lenited consonant. The letters of the alphabet were traditionally named after trees (see Scottish Gaelic alphabet), but this custom has fallen out of use. Lenition is a kind of consonant mutation that appears in many languages. ... In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a sound in spoken language that is characterized by a closure or stricture of the vocal tract sufficient to cause audible turbulence. ... The orthography of a language specifies the correct way of writing in that language. ... The Scottish Gaelic alphabet contains 18 letters, five of which are vowels. ...


The quality of consonants is indicated in writing by the vowels surrounding them. So-called "slender" consonants are palatalised while "broad" consonants are velarised. The vowels e and i are classified as slender, and a, o, and u as broad. The spelling rule known as caol ri caol agus leathann ri leathann ("slender to slender and broad to broad") requires that a word-medial consonant or consonant group preceded by a written i or e be also followed by an i or e; and similarly if preceded by a, o or u be also followed by an a, o, or u. Consonant quality (palatalised or non-palatalised) is then indicated by the vowels written adjacent to a consonant, and the spelling rule gives the benefit of removing possibly uncertainty about consonant quality at the expense of adding additional purely graphic vowels that may not be pronounced. For example, compare the t in slàinte [slaːntʃə] with the t in bàta [paːtə]. Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Palatalization means pronouncing a sound nearer to the hard palate, making it more like a palatal consonant; this is towards the front of the mouth for a velar or uvular consonant, but towards the back of the mouth for a front (e. ... Velarization is a secondary articulation of consonants by which the back of the tongue is raised toward the velum during the articulation of the consonant. ...


The rule has no effect on the pronunciation of vowels. For example, plurals in Gaelic are often formed with the suffix -an, for example, bròg [proːk] (shoe) / brògan [proːkən] (shoes). But because of the spelling rule, the suffix is spelled -ean (but pronounced the same) after a slender consonant, as in taigh [tʰɤj] (house) / taighean [tʰɤjən] (houses) where the written e is purely a graphic vowel inserted to conform with the spelling rule because an i precedes the gh.


In changes promoted by the Scottish Examination Board from 1976 onwards, certain modifications were made to this rule. For example, the suffix of the past participle is always spelled -te, even after a broad consonant, as in togte "raised" (rather than the traditional togta). The Scottish Qualifications Authority (SQA) is the authority which issues examination papers and awards examination results to students in Scotland. ... Year 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... It has been suggested that Ending (linguistics) be merged into this article or section. ... In linguistics, a participle is an adjective derived from a verb. ...

Bilingual sign at Queen Street Station with English and Gaelic
Bilingual sign at Queen Street Station with English and Gaelic

Where pairs of vowels occur in writing, it is sometimes unclear which vowel is to be pronounced and which vowel has been introduced to satisfy this spelling rule. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 531 pixelsFull resolution (1760 × 1168 pixel, file size: 626 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Bilingual sign at Glasgow Queen Street railway station. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 531 pixelsFull resolution (1760 × 1168 pixel, file size: 626 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Bilingual sign at Glasgow Queen Street railway station. ...


Unstressed vowels omitted in speech can be omitted in informal writing. For example: In linguistics, stress is the emphasis given to some syllables (often no more than one in each word, but in many languages, long words have a secondary stress a few syllables away from the primary stress, as in the words cóunterfòil or còunterintélligence. ...

Tha mi an dòchas. ("I hope.") > Tha mi 'n dòchas.

Once Gaelic orthographic rules have been learned, the pronunciation of the written language can be seen to be quite predictable. However learners must be careful not to try to apply English sound-to-letter correspondences to written Gaelic, otherwise mispronunciations will result. Gaelic personal names such as Seònaid [ˈʃɔːnɛdʒ] are especially likely to be mispronounced by English speakers.


Pronunciation

Vowels

Gaelic vowels can have a grave accent, with the letters à, è, ì, ò, ù. Traditional spelling also uses the acute accent on the letters á, é and ó, but texts which follow the spelling reform only use the grave. The grave accent ( ` ) is a diacritic mark used in written Greek until 1982 (polytonic orthography), French, Catalan, Welsh, Italian, Vietnamese, Scottish Gaelic, Norwegian, Portuguese and other languages. ... The acute accent (   ) is a diacritic mark used in many modern written languages with alphabets based on the Latin and Greek scripts. ...

A table of vowels with pronunciations in IPA
Spelling Pronunciation English equivalent As in
a, á [a], [a] cat bata, lochán
à [aː] father bàta
e [ɛ], [e] get, late le, teth
è, é [ɛː], [eː] marry, lady sèimh, fhéin
i [i], [iː] tin, sweet sin, ith
ì [iː] evil mìn
o [ɔ], [o] top, boat poca, bog
ò, ó [ɔː], [oː] jaw, door pòcaid, mór
u [u] brood tur
ù [uː] brewed tùr

Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ...

Diphthongs

A table of diphthongs with pronunciations in IPA
Spelling Pronunciation As in
ai [a], [ə], [ɛ], [i] caileag, iuchair, geamair, dùthaich
ài [aː], [ai] àite, bara-làimhe
ao(i) [ɯː], [ᵚi] caol, gaoil, laoidh
ea [ʲa], [e], [ɛ] geal, deas, bean
[ʲaː] ceàrr
èa [ɛː] nèamh
ei [e], [ɛ] eile, ainmeil
èi [ɛː] cèilidh
éi [eː] fhéin
eo [ʲɔ] deoch
eò(i) [ʲɔː] ceòl, feòil
eu [eː], [ia] ceum, feur
ia [iə], [ia] biadh, dian
io [i], [ᴊũ] fios, fionn
ìo [iː], [iə] sgrìobh, mìos
iu [ᴊu] piuthar
iù(i) [ᴊuː] diùlt, diùid
oi [ɔ], [ɤ] boireannach, goirid
òi [ɔː] fòill
ói [oː] cóig
ua(i) [uə], [ua] ruadh, uabhasach, duais
ui [u], [ɯ], [ui] muir, uighean, tuinn
ùi [uː] dùin

Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ...

Consonants

Most letters are pronounced similarly to other European languages. The broad consonants t and d and often n have a dental articulation (as in Irish and the Romance and Slavic languages) in contrast to the alveolar articulation common in English and other Germanic languages). Non-palatal r is an alveolar trill (like Italian r or Spanish rr.) Dentals are consonants such as t, d, n, and l articulated with either the lower or the upper teeth, or both, rather than with the gum ridge as in English. ... The Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family, comprising all the languages that descend from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. ...  Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language  Countries where an East Slavic language is the national language  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup... Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The alveolar trill is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages (such as Russian, Spanish, Armenian, and Polish). ...

Labial Dental/
Alveolar
Post
alveolar
Palatal Velar
Nasal m ɲ ŋ
Plosive p, b , k, g
Affricate ʧ, ʤ
Fricative f, v s ʃ x, ɣ
Approximant j
Lateral l, ɫ ʎ
Trill r
Flap ɾ

Labials are consonants articulated either with both lips (bilabial articulation) or with the lower lip and the upper teeth (labiodental articulation). ... Coronal consonants are articulated with the flexible front part of the tongue. ... Postalveolar (or palato-alveolar) consonants are consonants articulated with the tip of the tongue between the alveolar ridge (the place of articulation for alveolar consonants) and the palate (the place of articulation for palatal consonants). ... Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth). ... Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate (the back part of the roof of the mouth, known also as the velum). ... A nasal consonant is produced when the velum—that fleshy part of the palate near the back—is lowered, allowing air to escape freely through the nose. ... A stop or plosive or occlusive is a consonant sound produced by stopping the airflow in the vocal tract. ... Affricate consonants begin as stops (most often an alveolar, such as or ) but release as a fricative (such as or or, in a couple of languages, into a fricative trill) rather than directly into the following vowel. ... Fricatives (or spirants) are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together. ... Approximants are speech sounds that could be regarded as intermediate between vowels and typical consonants. ... Laterals are L-like consonants pronounced with an occlusion made somewhere along the axis of the tongue, while air from the lungs escapes at one side or both sides of the tongue. ... The velarized alveolar lateral approximant, which may actually be uvularized or pharyngealized, also known as dark l, is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... In phonetics, a trill is a consonantal sound produced by vibrations between the articulator and the place of articulation. ... In phonetics, a flap or tap is a type of consonantal sound, which is produced with a single contraction of the muscles so that one articulator (such as the tongue) is thrown against another. ...

Aspiration vs. Voicing in Gaelic Stops

The "voiced" stops /b, d, g/ are not phonetically voiced [+voice] in Gaelic, but rather voiceless unaspirated. Thus Gaelic /b, d, g/ are really phonetically [p, t, k] [-voice, -aspirated]. In phonetics, phonation is the use of the laryngeal system to generate an audible source of acoustic energy, i. ... A stop, plosive, or occlusive is a consonant sound produced by stopping the airflow in the vocal tract. ... Phoneticians define phonation as use of the laryngeal system to generate an audible source of acoustic energy, i. ... In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of air that accompanies the release of some obstruents. ...


The "voiceless" stops /p, t, k/ are voiceless and strongly aspirated (postaspirated in initial position, preaspirated in medial or final position). That is, in syllable onsets Gaelic /p, t, k/ are phonetically [ph,th,kh], but they are [hp,ht,xk] in syllable-final position. Note that preaspirated stops can also be found in Icelandic. Because of these facts, it can be argued that Gaelic /p, t, k/ are [-voice, +aspirated].


In some Gaelic dialects, stops at the beginning of a stressed syllable become voiced when they follow a nasal consonant, for example: taigh 'a house' is [tʰɤi] but an taigh 'the house' is [ən dʰɤi]; cf. also tombaca 'tobacco' [tʰomˈbaxkə]. A syllable (Ancient Greek: ) is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds. ... A nasal consonant is produced when the velum—that fleshy part of the palate near the back—is lowered, allowing air to escape freely through the nose. ...


Broad vs. Slender

Scottish Gaelic along with Modern Irish, Manx and Old Irish contains what are traditionally referred to as broad and slender (palatalized) consonants. Historically, Primitive Irish consonants preceding the front vowels /e/ and /i/ developed a [j] onglide similar to palatalized consonants found in Russian (Thurneysen 1946, 1980). Celtic linguists traditionally transcribe slender consonants as /C´/. Percentage of Irish speakers by county of the Republic; the six Northern Ireland counties have been considered as one. ... Old Irish is the name given to the oldest form of the Irish language which can be more or less fully reconstructed from extant sources. ... Primitive Irish is the oldest known form of the Irish language, known only from fragments, mostly personal names, inscribed on stone in the ogham alphabet in Ireland and western Britain up to about the 4th century. ... Palatalization generally refers to two phenomena: As a process or the result of a process, the effect that front vowels and the palatal approximant frequently have on consonants; As a phonetic description, the secondary articulation of consonants by which the body of the tongue is raised toward the hard palate...


In the modern languages though, the phonetic difference between "broad" and "slender" consonants is more complex than mere 'palatalization'. For instance, the Gaelic slender s, phonetically transcribed as /s´/, is actually pronounced as the alveolo-palatal fricative [ʃ], not as [sʲ]. See the consonant chart below for details. Sagittal section of alveolo-palatal fricative In phonetics, alveolo-palatal (or alveopalatal) consonants are palatalized postalveolar fricatives, articulated with the blade of the tongue behind the alveolar ridge, and the body of the tongue raised toward the palate. ... Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ...


Lenition and spelling

The lenited consonants have special pronunciations: bh and mh are [v]; ch is [x] or [ç]; dh, gh is [ʝ] or [ɣ]; th is [h], [ʔ], or silent; ph is [f]. Lenition of l n r is not shown in writing. The digraph fh is almost always silent, with only the following three exceptions: fhèin, fhathast, and fhuair, where it is pronounced as [h]. Lenition is a kind of consonant mutation that appears in many languages. ... Lenition is a kind of consonant mutation that appears in many languages. ...

A table of consonants with pronunciations in IPA. Based on Gillies (1993).
Radical Lenited
Orthography Broad Slender Orthography Broad Slender
b (initial) [p] [pj] bh [v] [vj]
b (final) [p] [jp] bh [v] [vj]
c (initial) [kʰ] [kʰʲ] or [cʰ] ch [x] [ç]
c (final) [xk] [kʰʲ] or [çkʲ] ch [x] [ç]
d [t̪] [ʤ] dh [ɣ] [ʝ]
f (initial) [f] [fj] fh silent silent
f (final) [f] [jf] fh silent silent
g [k] [kʲ] or [c] gh [ɣ] [ʝ]
l [ɫ̪] [ʎ] l no change [ʎ] or [l]
m [m] [mj] mh [v] [vj]
n [n̪ˠ] [ɲ] n [n] [ɲ] or [n]
p (initial) [pʰ] [pjʰ] ph [f] [fj]
p (final) [hp] [jhp] ph [f] [fj]
r' [rˠ] same as broad r [ɾ] [ɾ]
s [s̪] [ʃ] sh [h] [hʲ]
t (initial) [t̪ʰ] [tʃʰ] th [h] [hʲ]
t (final) [ht̪] [htʃ] th [h] or silent [hj] or [j]

Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ...

Stress

Stress is usually on the first syllable: for example drochaid 'a bridge' [ˈtroxaʤ]. (Knowledge of this fact alone would help avoid many a mispronunciation of Highland placenames, for example Mallaig is [ˈmaʊɫækʲ].) Note, though, that when a placename consists of more than one word in Gaelic, the Anglicised form is liable to have stress on the last element: Tyndrum [taɪnˈdrʌm] < Taigh an Droma [tʰɤin ˈdromə]. This is because, unlike English, Gaelic word order places the specific element - adjectives, genitives - after the generic. This article is about Mallaig in Scotland. ... Tyndrum (Taigh an Droma in Gaelic) is a small village in Scotland. ...


Epenthesis

A distinctive characteristic of Gaelic pronunciation (which has influenced the Scottish accent – cf. girl [gʌrəl] and film [fɪləm]) is the insertion of epenthetic vowels between certain adjacent consonants, specifically, between sonorants (l or r) and certain following consonants: In poetry and phonetics, epenthesis (, from Greek epi on + en in + thesis putting) is the insertion of a consonant, a vowel, or a whole syllable into a word, usually to facilitate pronunciation. ...

tarbh (bull) — [t̪ʰarav]
Alba (Scotland) — [aɫ̪apa].

Elision

Schwa [ə] at the end of a word is dropped when followed by a word beginning with a vowel. For example: The IPA symbol for the Schwa In linguistics, specifically phonetics and phonology, schwa can mean: An unstressed and toneless neutral vowel sound in any language, often but not necessarily a mid-central vowel. ... In music, see elision (music). ...

duine (a man) — [ˈt̪ɯɲə]
an duine agad (your man) — [ən ˈt̪ɯɲ akət̪]

Grammar

To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

Official recognition

Bilingual signs in English and Gaelic are now part of the architecture in the Scottish Parliament building completed in 2004.

After centuries of persecution, prejudice and neglect,[6] Gaelic has now achieved a degree of official recognition with the passage of the Gaelic Language (Scotland) Act 2005. Download high resolution version (1760x1168, 446 KB)sign in English and Scots Gaelic at the Scottish Parliament, 2004-11. ... Download high resolution version (1760x1168, 446 KB)sign in English and Scots Gaelic at the Scottish Parliament, 2004-11. ... For the national legislative body up to 1707, see Parliament of Scotland. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Gaelic Language (Scotland) Act passed by the Scottish Parliament in 2005 is the first piece of legislation to give formal recognition to the Scottish Gaelic language. ...


As well as being taught in schools, including some in which it is the medium of instruction, it is also used by the local council in the Western Isles, Comhairle nan Eilean Siar. The BBC also operates a Gaelic language radio station Radio nan Gàidheal (which regularly transmits joint broadcasts with its Republic of Ireland counterpart Raidió na Gaeltachta), and there are also television programmes in the language on the BBC and on the independent commercial channels, usually subtitled in English. The ITV franchisee in the north of Scotland, Grampian Television, has a studio in Stornoway. Viewers of Freeview a non-subscription digital TV service can receive channel, TeleG, which broadcasts for an hour every evening. BBC Scotland (BBC Alba in Gaelic) is a constituent part of the British Broadcasting Corporation, the publicly-funded broadcaster of the United Kingdom. ... BBC Radio nan Gàidheal is the BBCs Scottish Gaelic language station. ... RTÉ Raidió na Gaeltachta (RnaG; Irish for Gaeltacht Radio) is the Irish-language radio service of Radio Telefís Éireann (RTÉ) in Ireland, and is available on 92-94FM in Ireland and via the Internet. ... Independent Television (generally known as ITV but also as ITV Network or Channel 3) is a public service network of British commercial television broadcasters, set up under the Independent Television Authority (ITA) to provide competition to the BBC. ITV is the oldest commercial television network in the UK. Since 1990... Independent Television (generally known as ITV but also as ITV Network or Channel 3) is a public service network of British commercial television broadcasters, set up under the Independent Television Authority (ITA) to provide competition to the BBC. ITV is the oldest commercial television network in the UK. Since 1990... Grampian Television is the ITV franchisee for the North of Scotland, based in Aberdeen. ... Lews Castle in Stornoway Boats in Stornoway Stornoway from the ferry Another picture of Lews Castle Bayhead, Stornoway // About the Town Stornoway (Steòrnabhagh in Scottish Gaelic) is a burgh on Lewis, in the Outer Hebrides of Scotland, with a population of approximately 5,600 people in the town itself... Freeview is the operator of free digital terrestrial television in the United Kingdom, using the DVB-T standard. ... Tele-G is a free-to-air Scots Gaelic channel on the Freeview. ...


A full Gaelic language TV service, however, similar to S4C in Wales and TG4 in Ireland, is expected to be launched in autumn 2007. As in Wales, the showing of programmes in the language as opt-outs on the main channels has been regarded as inadequate for the 58,552 who speak it, and as an annoyance to some of the English or Scots speaking 5,003,459 who do not. In fact, this annoyance may be largely assumed: the evidence is that at least one Gaelic television programme produced by the BBC attains viewing figures in excess of the number of Gaelic speakers that could view it in Scotland. No complaints are being received by the BBC about Gaelic-language television programmes on BBC TV channels, perhaps because subtitling them in English makes them equally accessible to non-Gaelic speakers. S4C (Sianel Pedwar Cymru, which is Welsh for Channel Four Wales) is a television channel in Wales. ... This article is about the country. ... TG4 is an Irish television channel aimed at Irish language speakers and established as a wholly owned subsidiary by Radio Telefís Éireann in 31 October 1996; it was known as Teilifís na Gaeilge or TnaG before a rebranding campaign in 1999. ... Scots refers to the Anglic varieties spoken in parts of Scotland. ...


Bilingual road signs (in both Gaelic and English) are gradually being introduced throughout the Gaelic-speaking regions in the Highlands and elsewhere across the nation. In many cases, this has simply meant re-adopting the traditional spelling of a name.


The Ordnance Survey has acted in recent years to correct many of the mistakes that appear on maps. They announced in 2004 that they intended to make amends for a century of Gaelic ignorance and set up a committee to determine the correct forms of Gaelic place names for their maps. Part of an Ordnance Survey map at 1 inch to the mile scale from 1945 Ordnance Survey (OS) is an executive agency of the United Kingdom government. ...


Historically, Gaelic has not received the same degree of official recognition from the UK Government as Welsh. With the advent of devolution, however, Scottish matters have finally begun to receive greater attention, and the Gaelic Language (Scotland) Act was enacted by the Scottish Parliament on 21 April 2005. Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ... For the national legislative body up to 1707, see Parliament of Scotland. ... is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The key provisions of the Act are[7]:

  • Establishing the Gaelic development body, Bòrd na Gàidhlig, (BnG), on a statutory basis with a view to securing the status of the Gaelic language as an official language of Scotland commanding equal respect to the English language and to promote the use and understanding of Gaelic.
  • Requiring BnG to prepare a National Gaelic Language Plan for approval by Scottish Ministers.
  • Requiring BnG to produce guidance on Gaelic Education for education authorities.
  • Requiring public bodies in Scotland, both Scottish public bodies and cross border public bodies insofar as they carry out devolved functions, to develop Gaelic language plans in relation to the services they offer, if requested to do so by BnG.
An electronic noticeboard displaying
Fàilte gu stèisean Dùn Èideann
("Welcome to Edinburgh station")

Following a consultation period, in which the government received many submissions, the majority of which asked that the bill be strengthened, a revised bill was published with the main improvement that the guidance of the Bòrd is now statutory (rather than advisory). Bòrd na Gàidhlig /borst na ga:lIk/ is the Scottish government appointed agency with responsibility for Scottish Gaelic. ... Download high resolution version (1760x1168, 562 KB)Failte gu Steisean Dun Eideann: Scots Gaelic at the Edinburgh railway station, 2004-11-27. ... Download high resolution version (1760x1168, 562 KB)Failte gu Steisean Dun Eideann: Scots Gaelic at the Edinburgh railway station, 2004-11-27. ...


In the committee stages in the Scottish Parliament, there was much debate over whether Gaelic should be given 'equal validity' with English. Due to Executive concerns about resourcing implications if this wording was used, the Education Committee settled on the concept of 'equal respect'. It is still not clear if the ambiguity of this wording will provide sufficient legal force to back up the demands of Gaelic speakers against the whims of public bodies.


The Act was passed by the Scottish Parliament unanimously, with support from all sectors of the Scottish political spectrum on the 21st of April 2005.


The Education (Scotland) Act 1872, which completely ignored Gaelic, and led to generations of Gaels being forbidden to speak their native language in the classroom, is now recognised as having dealt a major blow to the language. People still living can recall being beaten for speaking Gaelic in school.[citation needed]


The first modern solely Gaelic-medium secondary school, Sgoil Ghàidhlig Ghlaschu (‘Glasgow Gaelic School’), was opened at Woodside in Glasgow in 2006 (61 partially Gaelic-medium primary schools and approximately a dozen Gaelic-medium secondary schools also exist). A total of 2,092 primary pupils are enrolled in Gaelic-medium primary education in 2006-7. “Glaswegian” redirects here. ...

The new face of Gaelic music. Seattle based Gaelic punk band, Mill a h-Uile Rud write and sing entirely in Gaelic and use the language on their website

In Nova Scotia, there are somewhere between 500 and 1,000 native speakers, most of them now elderly. In May 2004, the Provincial government announced the funding of an initiative to support the language and its culture within the province. Image File history File linksMetadata MahR_leverkusen_beag. ... Image File history File linksMetadata MahR_leverkusen_beag. ... Ceòl Gàidhlig Mar Sgian Nad Amhaich compilation 7 single with Oi Polloi, Mill a h-Uile Rud, Atomgevitter and Nad Aislingean Gaelic Punk is a subgenre of punk rock consisting of groups and bands singing in Scottish Gaelic as an effort to preserve and spread knowledge of the... Mill a h-Uile Rud are a Seattle-based band who sing in Scots Gaelic. ... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit(Latin) One defends and the other conquers Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis - Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 11 - Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In Prince Edward Island, the Colonel Gray High School is now offering two courses in Gaelic, an introductory and an advanced course, both language and history are taught in these classes. This is the first recorded time that Gaelic has ever been taught as an official course on Prince Edward Island.


The UK government has ratified the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages in respect of Gaelic. Along with Irish and Welsh, Gaelic is designated under Part III of the Charter, which requires the UK Government to take a range of concrete measures in the fields of education, justice, public administration, broadcasting and culture. // The European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages (ECRML) is a European treaty (CETS 148) adopted in 1992 under the auspices of the Council of Europe to protect and promote historical regional and minority languages in Europe. ...


The Columba Initiative, also known as colmcille (formerly Iomairt Cholm Cille), is a body that seeks to promote links between speakers of Scottish Gaelic and Irish. The Columba Initiative or Iomairt Cholm Cille is a program for Gaelic speakers in Scotland and Ireland to meet each other more often, and in so doing to learn more of the language, heritage and lifestyles of one another. ...


However, given there are no longer any unilingual Gaelic speakers,[8] following an appeal in the court case of Taylor v Haughney (1982), involving the staus of Gaelic in judicial proceedings, the High Court ruled against a general right to use Gaelic in court proceedings.[9] Seal of the High Court of Justiciary © Crown Copyright The High Court of Justiciary is Scotlands supreme criminal court. ...


Under the provisions of the 2005 Act, it will ultimately fall to BnG to secure the status of the Gaelic language as an official language of Scotland. An official language is a language that is given a unique legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ...


Church

In the Western Isles, the isles of Lewis, Harris and North Uist have a Presbyterian majority (largely Church of Scotland - Eaglais na h-Alba in Gaelic, Free Church of Scotland and Free Presbyterian Church of Scotland.) The isles of South Uist and Barra have a Catholic majority. All these churches have Gaelic-speaking congregations throughout the Western Isles. Lewis (Scottish Gaelic: ) or The Isle of Lewis (), is the northern part of the largest island of the Western Isles of Scotland or Outer Hebrides (). The southern part of the island is called Harris (). The two names however refer to the two parts of the same island despite the use... An Cliseam from the Abhainn Mharaig, just off the main road to Lewis. ... Location of North Uist Landsat image of North Uist North Uist (Scottish Gaelic: Uibhist a Tuath) is an island of the Outer Hebrides. ... The Church of Scotland (CofS; Scottish Gaelic: ), known informally by its pre-Union Scots name, The Kirk, is the national church of Scotland. ... The contemporary Free Church of Scotland is that part of the original Free Church of Scotland that remained outside of the union with the United Presbyterian Church of Scotland in 1900. ... St. ... Location of South Uist South Uist (Scottish Gaelic: Uibhist a Deas) is an island of the Outer Hebrides in Scotland. ... Castlebay, Barra Traigh Eaig beach This article is about the island of Barra in Scotland. ...


There are Gaelic-speaking congregations in the Church of Scotland, mainly in the Highlands and Islands, but also in Edinburgh and Glasgow. Notable city congregations with regular services in Gaelic are St Columba's Church, Glasgow and Greyfriars Tolbooth & Highland Kirk, Edinburgh. Leabhar Sheirbheisean - a shorter Gaelic version of the English-language Book of Common Order - was published in 1996 by the Church of Scotland, ISBN 0-907624-12-X. A few Church of Scotland congregations, mainly in the Western Isles, have regular Sunday services in Gaelic. ... The Church of Scotland congregation of St Columba’s Church in Glasgow dates back to 1770. ... Greyfriars Kirk, today Greyfriars Tolbooth & Highland Kirk, is a parish kirk (church) of the Church of Scotland in central Edinburgh, Scotland. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ...


The relationship between the Church and Gaelic has not always been an easy one. The widespread use of English in worship has often been suggested as one of the historic reasons for Gaelic's decline. Whilst the Church of Scotland is supportive today, there is, however, an increasing difficulty in being able to find Gaelic-speaking ministers.


Personal names

Gaelic has a number of personal names, such as Ailean, Aonghas, Dòmhnall, Donnchadh, Coinneach, Murchadh, for which there are traditional forms in English (Alan, Angus, Donald, Duncan, Kenneth, Murdo). There are also distinctly Scottish Gaelic forms of names that belong to the common European stock of given names, such as: Iain (John), Alasdair (Alexander), Uilleam (William), Catrìona (Catherine), Cairistìona (Christina), Anna (Ann), Màiri (Mary), Seumas (James) and Pàdraig (Patrick). Some names have come into Gaelic from Old Norse, for example: Somhairle ( < Somarliðr), Tormod (< Þórmóðr), Torcuil (< Þórkell, Þórketill), Ìomhair (Ívarr). These are conventionally rendered in English as Sorley (or, historically, Somerled), Norman, Torquil, and Iver (or Evander). There are other, traditional, Gaelic names which have no direct equivalents in English: Oighrig, which is normally rendered as Euphemia (Effie) or Henrietta (Etta) (formerly also as Henny or even as Harriet), or, Diorbhal, which is "matched" with Dorothy, simply on the basis of a certain similarity in spelling; Gormul, for which there is nothing similar in English, and it is rendered as 'Gormelia' or even 'Dorothy'; Beathag, which is "matched" with Becky (> Rebecca) and even Betsy, or Sophie. Old Norse is the Germanic language spoken by the inhabitants of Scandinavia and their overseas settlements during the Viking Age, until about 1300. ...


Many of these are now regarded as old-fashioned, and are no longer used (which is, of course, a feature common to many cultures: names go out of fashion). As there is only a relatively small pool of traditional Gaelic names from which to choose, some families within the Gaelic-speaking communities have in recent years made a conscious decision when naming their children to seek out names that are used within the wider English-speaking world. These names do not, of course, have an equivalent in Gaelic. What effect that practice (if it becomes popular) might have on the language remains to be seen. At this stage (2005), it is clear that some native Gaelic-speakers are willing to break with tradition. Opinion on this practice is divided; whilst some would argue that they are thereby weakening their link with their linguistic and cultural heritage, others take the opposing view that Gaelic, as with any other language, must retain a degree of flexibility and adaptability if it is to survive in the modern world at all.


The well-known name Hamish, and the recently established Mhairi (pronounced [va:ri]) come from the Gaelic for, respectively, James, and Mary, but derive from the form of the names as they appear in the vocative case: Seumas (James) (nom.) → Sheumais (voc.), and, Màiri (Mary) (nom.) → Mhàiri (voc.). The vocative case (also called the fifth case) is the case used for a noun identifying the person (animal, object, etc. ...


The most common class of Gaelic surnames are, of course, those beginning with mac (Gaelic for son), such as MacGillEathain (MacLean). The female form is nic (Gaelic for daughter), so Catherine MacPhee is properly called in Gaelic, Caitrìona Nic a' Phì.


Several colours give rise to common Scottish surnames: bàn (Bain - white), ruadh (Roy - red), dubh (Dow - black), donn (Dunn - brown), buidhe (Bowie - yellow).


Loanwords

The majority of Scottish Gaelic's vocabulary is native Celtic. There are a large number of borrowings from Latin, (muinntir, Didòmhnaich), ancient Greek, especially in the religious domain (eaglais, Bìoball from Ekklesia and Biblia), Norse (eilean, sgeir), Hebrew (Sàbaid, Aba) and Lowland Scots (briogais, aidh). The Celtic languages are the languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or Common Celtic, a branch of the greater Indo-European language family. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... Old Norse is the Germanic language spoken by the inhabitants of Scandinavia and their overseas settlements during the Viking Age, until about 1300. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... Scots refers to the Anglic varieties spoken in parts of Scotland. ...


In common with other Indo-European languages, the neologisms which are coined for modern concepts are typically based on Greek or Latin, although written in Gaelic orthography; television, for instance, becomes telebhisean (cian-dhealbh could also be used), and computer becomes coimpiùtar (aireamhadair, bocsa-fiosa or bocsa-sgrìobhaidh could also be used). Although native speakers frequently use an English word for which there is a perfectly good Gaelic equivalent, they will, without thinking, simply adopt the English word and use it, applying the rules of Gaelic grammar, as the situation requires. With verbs, for instance, they will simply add the verbal suffix (-eadh, or, in Lewis, -igeadh, as in, "Tha mi a' watcheadh (Lewis, "watchigeadh") an telly" (I am watching the television), instead of "Tha mi a' coimhead air a' chian-dhealbh". This was remarked upon by the minister who compiled the account covering the parish of Stornoway in the New Statistical Account of Scotland, published over 170 years ago. However, as Gaelic medium education grows in popularity, a newer generation of literate Gaels is becoming more familiar with modern Gaelic vocabulary. The Indo-European languages comprise a family of several hundred related languages and dialects [1], including most of the major languages of Europe, as well as many spoken in the Indian subcontinent (South Asia), the Iranian plateau (Southwest Asia), and Central Asia. ... A neologism (Greek νεολογισμός [neologismos], from νέος [neos] new + λόγος [logos] word, speech, discourse + suffix -ισμός [-ismos] -ism) is a word, term, or phrase which has been recently created (coined) — often to apply to new concepts, to synthesize pre-existing concepts, or to make older terminology sound more contemporary. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... Lewis (Scottish Gaelic: ) or The Isle of Lewis (), is the northern part of the largest island of the Western Isles of Scotland or Outer Hebrides (). The southern part of the island is called Harris (). The two names however refer to the two parts of the same island despite the use... Lews Castle in Stornoway Boats in Stornoway Stornoway from the ferry Another picture of Lews Castle Bayhead, Stornoway // About the Town Stornoway (Steòrnabhagh in Scottish Gaelic) is a burgh on Lewis, in the Outer Hebrides of Scotland, with a population of approximately 5,600 people in the town itself...


Going in the other direction, Scottish Gaelic has influenced the Scots language (gob) and English, particularly Scottish Standard English. Loanwords include: whisky, slogan, brogue, jilt, clan, strontium (from Strontian), trousers, as well as familiar elements of Scottish geography like ben (beinn), glen (gleann) and loch. Irish Gaelic has also influenced Lowland Scots and English in Scotland, but it is not always easy to distinguish its influence from that of the Scottish variety. See List of English words of Scottish Gaelic origin Scots refers to the Anglic varieties spoken in parts of Scotland. ... [1]Strontian is a village in Ardgour at the head of Loch Sunart, in the Scottish Highlands. ... View across Loch Lomond, towards Ben Lomond. ... Percentage of Irish speakers by county of the Republic; the six Northern Ireland counties have been considered as one. ... This is a list of English words borrowed from Scottish Gaelic: Bard  From bàrd, poet or reciter. ...


Source: An Etymological Dictionary of the Gaelic Language, Alexander MacBain. An etymological dictionary discusses the etymology of the words listed. ...


Common Scottish Gaelic words and phrases with Irish equivalents

Further information: Differences between Scottish Gaelic and Irish
Scottish Gaelic Phrase Rough English Translation Irish Gaelic Equivalent
Fàilte Welcome Fáilte
Halò Hello Haileo or Dia dhuit (trad., lit.: "God be with you")
Latha math Good day Lá maith
Ciamar a tha thu? How are you? Conas atá tú? (Cad é mar atá tú? in Ulster)
Ciamar a tha sibh? How are you? (plural, singular formal) Conas atá sibh? (Cad é mar atá sibh? in Ulster)
Madainn mhath Good morning Maidin mhaith
Feasgar math Good afternoon Trathnóna maith
Oidhche mhath Good night Oíche mhaith
Ma 's e do thoil e If you please Más é do thoil é
Ma 's e (bh)ur toil e If you please (plural, singular formal) Más é bhur dtoil é
Tapadh leat Thank you Go raibh maith agat
Tapadh leibh Thank you (plural, singular formal) Go raibh maith agaibh
Dè an t-ainm a tha ort? What is your name? Cad é an t-ainm atá ort?
Dè an t-ainm a tha oirbh? What is your name?(plural, singular formal) Cad é an t-ainm atá oraibh?
Is mise... I am... Is mise...
Slàn leat Goodbye Slán leat
Slàn leibh Goodbye (plural, singular formal) Slán libh
Dè a tha seo? What is this? Cad é seo?
Slàinte "health" (used as a toast [cf. English "cheers"] when drinking) Sláinte

Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Ulster Irish is the dialect of the Irish language spoken in the province of Ulster. ... Ulster Irish is the dialect of the Irish language spoken in the province of Ulster. ...

References

  1. ^ http://www.gro-scotland.gov.uk/press/news2005/scotlands-census-2001-gaelic-report.html
  2. ^ http://www.mla.org/map_data_states&mode=lang_tops&lang_id=636
  3. ^ http://www.omi.wa.gov.au/WAPeople%5CSect1%5CTable%201p04%20Aust.pdf
  4. ^ Kenneth MacKinnon (2003). Census 2001 Scotland: Gaelic Language – first results. Retrieved on 2007-03-24.
  5. ^ The Board of Celtic Studies Scotland (1998) Computer-Assisted Learning for Gaelic: Towards a Common Teaching Core. The orthographic conventions were revised by the Scottish Qualifications Authority (SQA) in 2005: Gaelic Orthographic Conventions 2005 (PDF). SQA publication BB1532. Retrieved on 2007-03-24.
  6. ^ See Kenneth MacKinnon (1991) Gaelic: A Past and Future Prospect. Edinburgh: The Saltire Society.
  7. ^ Gaelic Language (Scotland) Act 2005.
  8. ^ UK Ratification of the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. Working Paper 10 - R.Dunbar, 2003
  9. ^ Official Status for Gaelic: Prospects and Problems

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Scottish Qualifications Authority (SQA) is an Executive Agency of the Scottish Executive responsible for the development, accreditation, assessment and certification of qualifications other than degrees in Scotland. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

Folio 29v contains a portrait of the Evangelist Luke. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Canadian Gaelic (Gaelic: Gàidhlig Canadanach, locally just Gaelic or The Gaelic) is the dialect of Scots Gaelic that has been spoken continuously for more than 200 years on Cape Breton Island and in isolated enclaves on the Nova Scotia mainland. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Gaelicization (NAE or CwE) or Gaelicisation (CwE) is the act or process of making something Gaelic. ... The Gàidhealtachd, sometimes known as A Ghàidhealtachd (the Gàidhealtachd), usually refers to the Scottish Highlands in Scottish Gaelic. ... The issue of Gaelic language broadcasting in Scotland has acquired some considerable symbolic importance. ... The Gaelic Language (Scotland) Act passed by the Scottish Parliament in 2005 is the first piece of legislation to give formal recognition to the Scottish Gaelic language. ... Roadsign in Mallaig In the Gàidhealtachd (the Gaelic-speaking parts of Scotland) the use of the Gaelic language on road signs instead of, or more often alongside English is now common, but has historically been a controversial issue of symbolic rather than practical significance for people on both sides... Galwegian Gaelic is an extinct Goidelic dialect, spoken by the Lords of Galloway in their time, and by the people of Galloway and Carrick until the early modern period. ... Greyfriars Kirk, today Greyfriars Tolbooth & Highland Kirk, is a parish church of the Church of Scotland in central Edinburgh. ... The United Kingdom does not have a constitutionally defined official language. ... This is a list of council areas of Scotland ordered by the amount of Scottish Gaelic Speakers. ... Scots refers to the Anglic varieties spoken in parts of Scotland. ... Middle Irish is the name given by historical philologists to the form of the Irish language from the 10th to 16th centuries; it is therefore a contemporary of Middle English. ... A mod is a festival of Scottish Gaelic song, arts and culture. ... Nancy C. Dorian is an American linguist who has carried out research into the death of the East Sutherland dialect of Scottish Gaelic for over 40 years, particularly in the villages of Brora, Golspie and Embo. ... The Church of Scotland congregation of St Columba’s Church in Glasgow dates back to 1770. ... Professor William J. Watson, 1865-1948, was the first Gaelic speaking scholar to place the study of Scottish place names on a firm linguistic basis. ... In Celtic linguistics, affection (or more precisely i-affection) is the fronting of vowels in the main syllable of a word caused by an original front vowel in a suffix which may or may not still be present in the modern language. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Mary McNivens friend Johnny Bannerman wrote Mairis Wedding (aka Maries Wedding and the Lewis Bridal Song) using a traditional Scots tune, and it was first played for her at the Old Highlanders Institute in Glasgows Elmbank Street. ...

Resources

  • Gillies, H. Cameron (1896) Elements of Gaelic Grammar, Vancouver: Global Language Press (reprint 2006), ISBN 1-897367-02-3 (hardcover), ISBN 1-897367-00-7 (paperback)
  • Gillies, William (1993) "Scottish Gaelic", in: Ball, Martin J. and Fife, James (eds) The Celtic Languages (Routledge Language Family Descriptions), London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-28080-X (paperback), p. 145–227
  • Lamb, William (2001) Scottish Gaelic, Munich: Lincom Europa, ISBN 3-89586-408-0
  • McLeod, Wilson (ed.) (2006) Revitalising Gaelic in Scotland: Policy, Planning and Public Discourse, Edinburgh: Dunedin Academic Press, ISBN 1-903765-59-5

External links

Wikipedia
Scottish Gaelic edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Scottish Gaelic language
  • Aberdeen University Celtic Department Classes from beginner all the way to degree and PhD level
  • Learn Gaelic Classes and Courses across the World
  • Scottish Parliament
  • Scottish Gaelic Broadcasting Committee
  • BBC Scotland - Scottish Gaelic homepage
  • BBC Scotland - Beag air Bheag Scottish Gaelic for beginners
  • Air Splaoid! Discover Gaelic with Dwelly, a free online Gaelic language course.
  • CLI Gàidhlig Gaelic supporters and learners organisation that produces the bilingual magazine Cothrom
  • Comunn na Gàidhlig
  • Iomairt Cholm Cille The Columba Initiative
  • St Columba Gaelic Section Gaelic Resources
  • Sabhal Mòr Ostaig - Gaelic-medium College on Skye.
  • Scottish Gaelic College of Celtic Arts and Crafts - Gaelic college in Cape Breton, Nova Scotia, Canada.
  • Scottish-English Dictionary
  • Goidelic Dictionaries
  • AmBaile.org - Home of Highland Gaelic culture Online games for Scottish Gaelic learners
  • Akerbeltz - A’ Ghobhar Dhubh Gaelic Resources (grammar, pronunciation, rhymes, names ...)
  • Scottish Gaelic at Omniglot
  • Learners' material online
  • Gàidhlig (Scottish Gaelic) Local Studies Census information from 1881 to the present, 27 volumes covering all Gaelic-speaking regions
  • The Scottish Gaelic feature film Seachd: The Inaccessible Pinnacle
  • Gaelic in Scotland Information and links from the Scottish FAQ
  • Save Gaelic News links to most current press stories concerning Gaelic.
  • SaorsaMedia Resources about the history of Gaelic language and culture in Scotland and North America
  • Calum and Catrìona Materials about Gaelic history and culture in Scotland and North America for children
  • Tìr nam Blòg A focus point of the Gàidhlig blogging community (founded 16th December 2005)
  • Oi Polloi Gaelic punk music from Edinburgh
  • Mill a h-Uile Rud Gaelic punk music from Seattle
Celtic languages
Continental Celtic Gaulish †| Lepontic † | Galatian † | Celtiberian † | Noric †
Goidelic Irish | Galwegian † | Manx | Scottish Gaelic (ScotlandCanada)
Brythonic Breton | Cornish | British † | Cumbric † | Ivernic † | Pictish † | Welsh
Mixed languages Shelta | Bungee †
Extinct

  Results from FactBites:
 
Scottish Gaelic language, alphabet and pronunciation (570 words)
Scottish Gaelic is closely related to Manx and Irish and was brought to Scotland around the 4th century AD by the Scots from Ireland.
Scottish Gaelic was spoken throughout Scotland (apart from small areas in the extreme south-east and north-east) between the 9th and 11th centuries, but began to retreat north and westwards from the 11th century onwards.
The earliest identifiably texts in Scottish Gaelic are notes in the Book of Deer written in north eastern Scotland in the 12th century, although the existence of a common written Classical Gaelic concealed the extent of the divergence between Scottish and Irish Gaelic.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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